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THE RESEARCH PAPER

MLA FORMAT

WHAT IS A RESEARCH PAPER? 1

QUOTING, PARAPHRASING, AND CITING SOURCES 2

What to Quote 3

Titles: Italicizing / Underlining and Quotation Marks 4

Spacing 5

Fonts 5

Punctuation 5

Avoid Floating Quotes 6

Quotes Within Quotes 7

Long Quotes 8

Quoting Poetry 9

Quoting Drama 9

PROPER USE OF QUOTES AND INTERNAL CITATIONS, MLA FORMAT

INTERNAL CITATIONS IN MLA FORMAT 11

Author’s name not in your sentence 11

Author’s name in your sentence 11

No author’s name given in source 11

Citing more than one work by the same author 12

Citing Electronic Sources: Internet, InfoTrac, Lexis-Nexis,
and other electronic sources 12

THE WORKS CITED PAGE, MLA FORMAT

WORKS CITED BASICS 14

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BOOKS
Books—single author 15

Books—more than one author 15

ANTHOLOGIES (collection of essays, stories, poems by different authors)

Anthologies—citing one poem, short story, or essay 15

Anthologies—citing more than one poem, short story, or essay from the same
anthology 15

REFERENCE BOOKS

Reference Book—articles 16

PERIODICALS (magazines, journals, newspapers)

Periodicals—journal article, continuous paging in volume 16

Periodicals—journal article, each issue paged separtately 17

Periodicals—magazine articles 17

Periodicals—magazine article, no author given 17

Periodicals—newspaper article 17

Periodicals—newspaper editorial 17

FILM / VIDEO / DVD RECORDING

Film / Video / DVD recording 17

INTERVIEW

Personal Interview 18

ELECTRONIC AND ONLINE SOURCES

REMOVING HYPERLINKS 17

BREAKING URLs (electronic addresses) 18

INTERNET ARTICLE BASICS 19

Internet articles originally appearing in print 20

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Internet articles from professional or personal Web sites 21

Online database or scholarly project 22

INFOTRAC 23

Magazine article 24

Newspaper article 24

Journal article 24

LEXIS-NEXIS 24

Magazine article 25

Newspaper article 25

Journal article 25

CD-ROM 25

PAGE LAYOUT, MLA FORMAT 26

SAMPLE ESSAY, MLA FORMAT—WITHOUT COVER PAGE (ENGLISH 101)

SAMPLE ESSAY, MLA FORMAT—WITHOUT COVER PAGE (ENGLISH 102)

SAMPLE ESSAY, MLA FORMAT—WITH COVER PAGE (ENGLISH 102)

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THE RESEARCH PAPER
MLA FORMAT

What is a Research Paper?
A research paper is a formal essay that provides authoritative sources to establish or
support the claims you make in your paper. Generally, this is done by quoting your
sources and providing bibliographic information that would allow your reader to find
those sources and examine the exact passages you have incorporated into your essay.

A college research paper is generally formatted in accordance with the Modern
Language Association (MLA) style guide or the American Psychological Association
(APA) style guide. Often a large portion of your grade on a research paper will be
determined by your ability to adhere to the rules of the style guide you are using. For
instance, MLA and APA formats both require a bibliography (a list of the works you have
quoted). In MLA, the bibliography is a Works Cited page. In APA, a bibliography is
referred to as a References page. Although both formats require a bibliography, each
has unique rules as to how the bibliographic information should be presented. In
addition, both styles require citations (references to your sources) in the body of your
paper, but each style guide has different rules governing the information in the citation.

Your instructor may tell you which documentation style is required. If not, you should
choose one and use it consistently throughout paper. MLA is most appropriate for
papers in English and the Humanities. APA is most appropriate for papers in the Social
Sciences.

Most of your research will be conducted in the library because the library contains
books, journals, and periodicals that often cannot be accessed on the Internet. The
greatest resource in the library is the librarian. Librarians are trained to aid you in your
research. If you do not know where to start or if your searches are unsuccessful, talk to
a librarian. Librarians know how information is organized, and they know the best ways
to locate information.

Research has a dual purpose: to discover new ideas and facts about your topic that you
were unaware of and to find facts and statements by authorities that you can use to
support your ideas.

A research paper is not simply a collection of quotes strung together. It is an essay that
you write which includes quotes and information from published writers. It is often best
to write the first draft of your paper without using research. Once you have clarified
your ideas on the topic, search for books and articles that discuss the issue you are
concerned with. You may find support that you can incorporate into your paper, or you
may find your ideas challenged. Research is a process through which your ideas will
grow and change.

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There are two basic paths to the research process. In one case, you may know little or
nothing about the topic you have been assigned. In a history class, for instance, you
might be assigned to reveal the events that led to Angola’s independence from Portugal
in 1975. If you know nothing about this topic, the purpose of your research will be to
discover the significant events—political and economic changes, social and military
movements—that led to Angola’s independence. You would also have to read and
analyze what historians and political commentators believe to be the most significant
factors. Your research paper would then present your analysis of the information your
research uncovered. You must not simply list the events or present the analysis of
others. You must evaluate the significance of the events and evaluate the validity of the
opinions of historians and other commentators.

For other research projects you may know a significant amount about your topic. In a
literature class, your instructor may ask you to read the play Hamlet and assign you to
explain why Hamlet is unable to swiftly revenge his father’s murder. Your own analysis
of the play will lead you to a conclusion as to why Hamlet delays. You may write a draft
of your essay in which you analyze the sections of the play supporting your ideas.
Once you have established your own argument, you will begin your research, looking
for critics whose discussions of the play support your interpretation. You will then write
another draft of your essay, in which you incorporate the statements of the authorities
you have found. You may discover that others interpret the play differently than you do
or that there are multiple interpretations. This may send you back to reanalyze the play
or send you looking for essays by other critics to assist you in refuting some
interpretations and supporting others.

Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Citing Sources
Note: The following examples are in MLA format. See pages 700-709 in The Little,
Brown Handbook.

In the body of your essay, you must make direct reference to the authors you have
read. There are two ways to do this. One is to directly quote the authors, reproducing
their exact words, placing those words in quotation marks, and providing a citation (a
reference to the work in which the quote is found). You may also paraphrase what
authors say. When you paraphrase, you put the author’s idea into your own words. A
paraphrase should not include any phrases from the author’s passage. (Note: at times
you may reproduce a keyword an author uses—there may not be an alternative word--
but you should try to avoid using the author’s language.) If your paraphrase is too close
to the original wording or structure of the author’s passage, it is considered plagiarism,
even if you attribute the idea to the author.

When you quote, you must always provide a citation. When you paraphrase, you do not
necessarily have to provide a citation, especially if you are providing well-known facts.
A citation should only follow a paraphrase if you are paraphrasing an author’s original
idea or opinion. Below are a quote and two paraphrases in MLA format.

Direct Quote: One historian tells us, “Johnson’s forces entered the

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battle two hours after it had begun” (Williams 695).

Paraphrase Williams notes that the conflict had started before Johnson’s
(no citation) troops arrived.

Paraphrase One historian believes that Johnson’s inability to make a
(with citation) decision led to his late arrival at the battle (Hanson 218).

Since the first example reproduces the exact words of the author, those words must be
enclosed in quotation marks. Quotation marks tell the reader that these are the exact
words the author wrote. Be sure to quote accurately.

The example of a paraphrase with no citation presents the essence of the quote from
Williams, yet none of Williams’ wording is used. Notice that Williams is referred to in the
sentence, acknowledging him as the source of this information. This paraphrase does
not present an original idea, merely a fact

Because the last example lacks quotation marks, it tells the reader that this is a
paraphrase, and not Hanson’s exact words. This paraphrase, however, is followed by a
citation because it is Hanson’s personal opinion as to why Johnson’s troops arrived two
hours late. Since it is an original idea or opinion, it must be cited. The previous
paraphrase only presents a fact (Johnson arrived late).

What to Quote
To determine what to quote you should consider three things:
1) Is the information essential to establish your ideas? If part of the purpose of your
essay is to establish that the character Polonius in Shakespeare’s Hamlet meddles
in the lives of others, then you should quote all the passages that show he is a
meddler because it is essential to your argument.
2) Is it important that your reader see exactly what was said? In order for your reader to
see what kind of person Polonius is, you should quote exactly what he says or quote
exactly what critics say about him. It is particularly important to quote exactly what
an author says if you are writing an argumentative paper disagreeing with the
author. You must present the author’s ideas clearly, fairly, and accurately before
you attack his or her ideas.
3) Is it information you will comment on or explain in order to make a point? You should
quote passages that need explanation. For instance, it never says in the play
Hamlet that Polonius is a meddler. To establish that, you would have to quote
passages and explain how the passages show he is a meddler. In general, if you
quote it, you should comment on the quote or explain it.

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You should paraphrase portions of a text that provide background information or
context. A quote may be hard to properly understand if you do not provide a context.
Consider this example:

“You speak like a green girl”

Does this mean the girl is a Martian because she is green? Is she green with envy? Is
she green because she is seasick?

This quote may mean little or nothing to you because you may lack the background
information to understand it. It lacks a context. If this quote were essential to your
paper, you would need to provide a context for your reader: who is speaking, who is
being spoken to, what is the subject, what has led up to this conversation. Those are
some of the things your reader would need to know in order to understand the quote.
Provide the background information, the context your reader needs, by paraphrasing;
then, quote the passage you want your reader to see and explain its meaning or
significance.

Now let us look at the same quote with a context:

When Polonius finds out that his daughter Ophelia has been seeing Hamlet, he is
quite worried because he believes that she is too immature when it comes to love.
He tells her, “You speak like a green girl” (1. 3. 102), indicating that she is too
young and naïve—green like an unripe fruit—to understand what love is.

The context that surrounds this quote gives the reader a much better understanding of
the passage. Polonius is talking about his daughter’s immaturity.

Titles: Italicizing/Underlining and Quotation Marks
Underline or Italicize titles of published books, plays, long poems (Beowulf),
periodicals (Time, Newsweek), newspapers. Use quotation marks around the titles
of published essays, articles in periodicals (“Computer Take Over”), short poems
(“Mending Wall”), short stories (“A Rose for Emily”).

Do not underline, italicize, or place quotation marks around your own titles. If your title
contains the title of a published work, use underlining, italics, or quotation marks to indicate
that you are using the title of a published work.

Examples of your own titles:

The Loss of Meaning (No underlining, italics, quotation marks)

The Loss of Meaning in The Sun Also Rises (Title of novel underlined)

The Loss of Meaning in The Sun Also Rises (Title of novel in italics)

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Portrait of a Murderess in “A Rose for Emily” (Short story in quotation marks)

Spacing
LINE SPACING: In accordance with the MLA and APA style guides, everything
in your essay should be double-spaced. Nothing in MLA format is single-
spaced. Do not put extra spaces between paragraphs. See the sample pages in
the section “Page Layout for MLA.”

SPACING IN SENTENCES: Place one space after commas, semicolons, and
colons. Place two spaces after periods or any final punctuation. Place one space
between end quotation marks and the citation: “ . . . strand of iron-gray hair” (35).

Fonts
Use Arial, Times New Roman, or Courier in 11 or 12 point font. Everything in your
essay should be the same font size—do not use a larger font for your title. Bold is
never used in MLA format.

Punctuation
Periods and commas should come after the citation (a reference to your source).
Question marks and exclamation marks may go inside or outside quotation marks
depending on whether they belong to your sentence or to the quote.

(Original text from Jonathan Culler's Ferdinand de Saussure)

Ferdinand de Saussure is the founder of modern linguistics, the man who
reorganized the systematic study of language and languages so as to make
possible the achievements of twentieth-century linguistics.

Example: Saussure, "the founder of modern linguistics" (Cullers 15), called for a

reassessment of the field. (Comma outside citation).

There is a comma before the quote above because the structure of the student's
sentence requires one.

Example: Jonathan Cullers calls Saussure "the founder of modern linguistics"

(15). (Period after citation)

In the original quote there is a comma after the word linguistics, but that comma is
not required by the structure of the student's sentence. A period is required, which
goes outside the citation.

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Example: Does Cullers believe that Saussure was "the founder of modern

linguistics" (15)?

To indicate that the question mark belongs to the student's sentence and not to the
quote, it is placed after the citation.

Example: Stewart finally asks, “Where is our society heading?” (41).
To indicate that a question mark or exclamation mark belong to the sentence
you are quoting, place the question mark or exclamation mark inside the quotation
marks and place a period outside the citation.

Example: Anderson suggests we need “a fundamental change in the way we

view science,” scientists, and empirical research (54).

If your sentence continues after the quote, the citation should appear after the
quote and not at the end of the sentence. The only exception to this is when the
citation would disrupt the flow of the sentence. Then the citation should be placed
at the end of the sentence.

In the example above, the citation is placed at the end of the sentence because it
would disrupt the list: science, scientist, and empirical research.

Avoid Floating Quotes
Quotes must be attached to your writing. A quote that is not attached to your
writing is commonly called a Floating Quote (F.Q.). Quotes must flow with your
writing. You must supply whatever punctuation is appropriate for the structure of
your sentence.

(Original text from Henry James's The Turn of the Screw)

I don't know what there was in this brevity of Mrs. Grose's that struck me as
ambiguous.

(Floating quote)
The governess found Mrs. Grose's statement odd. "I don't know what there

was in this brevity of Mrs. Grose's that struck me as mbiguous" (James 24).

Note that the writer's sentence ends with a period. As a result, the quote is not
attached to the writer's sentence and is considered a floating quote. The following
sentence has the same structure as the sentence above, but the quote doesn't float
because it is attached to the writer's sentence with a colon.

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(Correct)
The governess found Mrs. Grose's statement odd: "I don't know what there

was in this brevity of Mrs. Grose's that struck me as ambiguous" (James 24).

If you use a colon to attach a quote to your sentence, make sure that both your
sentence and the quotation are complete sentences. The following sentence is
more graceful because the quote flows with the writer's language.

(Correct)

The governess was alerted by the "brevity of Mrs. Grose's that struck [the

governess] as ambiguous" (James 24).

Notice here that the writer has only reproduced that portion of the quote that he/she
wanted you to see. There is no punctuation before the quote because no
punctuation is required by the structure of the writer's sentence. The quote might
not have read properly if the word me was left in the quote. Would the word me
refer to the governess or to the writer? To show that you have made a change in
the text for clarification, use square brackets (not parenthesis).

Quotes within Quotes
If you are quoting a passage that has a quote within it, use single quotation marks
to indicate a quote within a quote. This should only be done when part of the
passage is in quotation marks and part of the passage is not in quotation marks.
This is the only use for single quotation marks in MLA format. When using long
quotes, broken from your text and indented (see Long Quotes) do not use single
quotation marks for quotes within quotes.

(Original from Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness)
One day he remarked without lifting his head, "In the interior you will no
doubt meet Mr. Kurtz."

(Correct)
We first learn of the man Marlow will meet when "One day [the accountant]

remarked without lifting his head, 'In the interior you will no doubt meet Mr.

Kurtz'" (Conrad 22).

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Long Quotes (Block Quotes)
Quotes that run five lines and more should be broken from your text and indented
ten spaces or two tabs. No quotation marks are needed because breaking and
indenting indicates that you are quoting. Introduce long quotes with whatever
punctuation is required by the structure of your sentence (or no punctuation if the
structure of your sentence does not require it). When presenting block quotes, the
period is placed after the sentence and not after the citation.

(Correct)

Emily is associated with the Old South and is contrasted with the

post Civil War generations. We are told about one incident over an arrangement

Emily had with the town’s previous administration:

When the next generation, with its more modern ideas, became

mayors and aldermen, this arrangement created some little

dissatisfaction. On the first of the year they mailed her tax notice.

February came and there was no reply. They wrote a formal letter,

asking her to call at the sheriff’s’ office at her convenience. A week

later the mayor wrote her himself, offering to call or to send his car for

her, and received in reply a note on paper of an archaic shape, in a

thin, flowing calligraphy in fading ink, to the effect that she no longer

went out at all. The tax notice was also enclosed, without comment.

(Faulkner 27)

This is one of several incidents where the new generation fails to get Emily to

conform to their ways. She doesn’t bother to explain why she refuses to pay her

taxes. The tax notice is returned without a comment, suggesting that she owes no

one an explanation. She makes no written comment, but her message is silently

and strongly conveyed: she will not change regardless of the changes around her.

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Introduce the quote with whatever punctuation is appropriate for the structure of
your sentence. Also note that the quote is followed by an explanation. Always
comment on or explain quotes, and relate them to the point you are making.

Quoting Poetry
When quoting three lines of a poem or fewer, you may incorporate them into the
body of your text. Use quotation marks when the quote is embedded in your
writing. To indicate the end of a line, use a slash (/) with one space on each side of
it.

When quoting more than three lines, break and indent ten spaces. No quotation
marks are needed when you break and indent. The lines should appear exactly as
they do in the original poem.

The speaker in Myakovsky’s poem condemns his fellow man's

capacity for love when he states, "Tender souls! / You play your love on a

fiddle, / and the crude club their love on a drum" (lines 5-7). Later the

speaker shows his contrasting moods:

If you wish,

I shall rage on raw meat;

or, as the sky changes hue,

I shall grow irreproachably tender:

not a man, but a cloud in trousers! (10-14)

If you are only quoting from one poem in your essay, then place the word line or
lines in the first citation. Thereafter you only insert the line numbers.

Quoting Drama
When quoting verse plays (plays with line numbers), provide act, scene, and line
numbers. Separate each with a period. Use Arabic numbers (1,2,3), unless your
instructor requires you to use Roman numerals (I, II, III). When plays have line
numbers, use slashes to indicate the end of lines, just as you would when
quoting poetry.

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In response to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern’s attempts to

discover Hamlet’s motives, Hamlet states, “Why, look you now, how

unworthy a thing you make of me! You would / play upon me, you

would seem to know my stops, you would pluck out the / heart of

my mystery . . .” (3.2.314-316).

When quoting five lines or more from a play with line numbers, reproduce the lines as
they appear in the play.

After Hamlet sees the king’s reaction to The Mousetrap, he is

convinced of the King’s responsibility for Hamlet’s father’s murder, his

thoughts are set on seeking bloody revenge:

‘Tis now the very witching time of night,

When churchyards yawn and hell itself breathes out

Contagion to this world. Now could I drink hot blood

And do such bitter business as the day

Would quake to look on. (3. 3. 333-337)

It seems at this point that Hamlet is once again ready to take action;

however, a short time later, he again fails to revenge his father’s

death.

When quoting prose plays (plays without line numbers) provide both the page number
and the act number. Place a semicolon between the page number(s) and act number.

When Happy tells his brother Biff that many people in the business

world think he’s crazy, Biff flies into a rage: “I don’t care what they think!

They’ve laughed at Dad for years, and you know why? Because we don’t

belong in this nut-house city! We should be mixing cement on some open

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plain, or—or carpenters. A carpenter is allowed to whistle!” (1664; act 1).

PROPER USE OF QUOTES, MLA FORMAT
See pages 700-709 in The Little, Brown Handbook.

INTERNAL CITATIONS IN MLA FORMAT
A citation is a reference to the source of the material you are quoting.
• If you are only citing one text, identify the author and the title of text in the opening
paragraph; thereafter, use only page numbers in your citation.
• If you are quoting from more than one text, you must identify the author and the
page number each time you cite each author (exception: the Internet and some
databases have no page numbers).
• If you use the author's name in your sentence, you do not put it in the citation.
• If you are using more than one text by the same author, put the title of the work in
the citation.
• The citation should directly follow the quote, even if the quote ends in the middle of
your sentence (the only exception is when the citation would disrupt the flow of your
sentence).

Author’s name not in your sentence

The citation should contain the name of the author and the page number(s) if the
author’s name doesn’t appear in your sentence.

Some scientists feel “our understanding of technology is greater than our

understanding of the morality of using that technology” (Halman 213).

Author’s name in your sentence

If you place the author’s name in your sentence, only use the page number in the
citation.

Halman recently stated, “our understanding of technology is greater than our

understanding of the morality of using that technology” (213).

No author’s name given in source

Editorials and sources found on the Internet often lack an author’s name. To
identify your source, use the title of the article or an abbreviation of the title.

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The decrease in crime in the 1990s “is the result of a stronger economy and

reductions in unemployment” (“Why Crime is Down” 45).

or

The article “Why Crime is Down in Major Metropolitan Areas” states that the

decrease in crime in the 1990s “is the result of a stronger economy and

reductions in unemployment” (45).

Citing more than one work by the same author

If you cite more than one work by the same author, you must include the title or an
abbreviation of the title in your citation to differentiate between the two sources.
Place a comma after the author’s name if you place the author’s name in the
citation rather than in your sentence.

Mayan astronomers were so precise in their measurements and

calculations that “It wasn’t until the twentieth century that the orbit of the

earth around the sun was more accurately recorded” (Tailor, “The Maya and

Math” 23-24). The central pyramid at Chichen Itza “is actually a giant

calendar and calculator” (Tailor, The Maya 154). The pyramid has 364

steps which all meet at the top platform, leading Tailor to conclude, “The

Maya knew the year was 364 and ¼ days long. The top platform represents

the ¼ day” (The Maya 179).

Citing Electronic Sources: Internet, InfoTrac, Lexis-Nexis and other
electronic sources

When quoting electronic sources, do not cite page numbers. The only exception to
this is when the sources are clearly broken into numbered pages or when
paragraphs are numbered. If pages are clearly numbered in the electronic source,
use them. If paragraphs are numbered, use the paragraph numbers with the
abbreviation par. or pars. (example: Smith par.4). If you print out an electronic

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source, your printer may number the pages; however, those page numbers should
not be used.

The following example is from an Internet article; thus, no page numbers are used.

Sylvia Stewart notes, “The dome topped observatory at Chichen Itza is the

model for most observatories built in the twentieth century.”

or

The Mayan devotion to astronomy led them to build a modern looking

structure for observing the sky: “The dome topped observatory at Chichen

Itza is the model for most observatories built in the twentieth century”

(Stewart).

If an author’s name is not given, use the title of the article or an abbreviation.

Although the Mayan language still exists in Latin America, “The Maya

civilization disappeared several hundred years ago” (“The Ancient Maya”).

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THE WORKS CITED PAGE, MLA FORMAT
The Modern Language Association (MLA) style, widely used for identifying research
sources, does not use footnotes to identify sources. Brief references are used within
the text (parenthetical citations) with a complete reference in the paper’s Works Cited
page.
(See pages 710-735 in The Little, Brown Handbook)
WORKS CITED BASICS
• Provide complete bibliographic information in the correct MLA form for all
sources you use in your paper. If you consulted a source, but did not incorporate
it into your paper, do not cite it.
• Start your Works Cited list on a new page, and number it as though it were a
page in your paper.
• Entries in the Works Cited page should be arranged alphabetically by the
authors’ last names. If no author is provided for any source, use the title to
alphabetize, ignoring first words like the, a, an.
• Double-space within and between entries.
• Follow standard spacing after all punctuation (i.e. leave only one space after a
comma or colon, leave two after a period).
• The first line of each entry should start even with the left hand margin. If the
entry runs more than one line, indent remaining lines one tab or five spaces.
• The author’s name (or first author listed) is presented last name, first name,
middle initial. All other names in the citation are presented first name, middle
initial, last name.
• If more than one city of publication is listed, use the first one
• If several dates of publication are given, use the most recent

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BOOKS
(see Little, Brown Handbook pages 712-718)

Author. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

• Single author

Giannone, Richard. Flannery O'Connor and The Mystery of Love. New

York: Fordham U. P.,1999.

• More than one author

Flanders, Stephen A., and Carl N. Flanders. AIDS. New York:

Galahad Books, 1994.

The first authors name appears last name, first name, and initial. All other
author’s or editor’s names appear in regular order.

ANTHOLOGIES (a collection of essays or stories or poems by different
authors)

ANTHOLOGY: CITING ONE POEM, SHORT STORY, or ESSAY
(see Little, Brown Handbook pages 716-717)

Author of Story. "Title of story or essay or poem." Title of Book. Ed. and

Name of editor(s). Edition (if applicable). City of Publication:

Publisher, Year. Page spread.

Baldwin, James. “Sonny’s Blues.” The Story and Its Writer. Ed. Ann

Charters. 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1999. 82-106.

ANTHOLOGY: CITING MORE THAN ONE ESSAY, STORY, or
POEM FROM THE SAME ANTHOLOGY
(see Little, Brown Handbook page 717)

When you have cited more than one poem, short story, or essay from the same
anthology, the works must be presented in the following form:
• The editors are placed in one citation.

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• Each author you quote appears in his or her own citation. These should appear
in alphabetical order in your Works Cited, even if they are separated by other
citations.
In the following example, the two works quoted are by Krauthammer and by Tribe.
Barnet and Bedau are the editors of the anthology.

Anderson, Cheryl. The Future is Upon Us and It Doesn’t Look Good.

New York: Longman, 1998.

Barnet, Sylvan, and Hugo Bedau, eds. Current Issues & Enduring

Questions. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 1999.

Krauthammer, Charles. “Of Headless Mice . . . and Men.” Barnet and

Bedau 469-470.

Lawrence, Paul T. Breaking the Genetic Code. London: Cooper

Publishing, 1997.

Tribe, Laurence H. “Second Thoughts on Cloning.” Barnet and Bedau

459-461.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Author of Article (if given). "Article Title." Title of Book. City of Publication:

Publisher, Year.

O’Brien, David M. “Abortion.” The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago:

World Book, Inc., 1997.

PERIODICALS
(see Little, Brown Handbook pages 718-721)

Periodicals are magazines, journals, or newspapers. Citations for each are
handled differently.

• Journal Article – continuous paging in volume

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume number (Year): Page

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numbers.

Farmer, Joy A. “Mary Hood and the Speed of Grace: Catching Up

with Flannery O’Connor.” Studies in Short Fiction 33 (1996): 91-

100.

• Journal Article– each issue paged separately

Duisinberre, Juliet. “The Taming of the Shrew: Women, Acting and

Power.” Studies in the Literary Imagination 26.1 (1993): 67-84.

• Magazine articles

Schindler, Martha. " Pick the Perfect Pooch." Runner's World April

2000: 29-30.

• Magazine article, no author given

“Clinton Unveils Plan to Track Illegal Guns.” Jet 29 July 1996: 30 –31.

• Newspaper article (with discontinuous pagination)

Jefferson, Elsa. “Computer Wars.” Washington Post 11 Aug. 2000:

A1+

The A1+ on the end of the citation indicates the article started on section A, page
1 and continues on other pages.

• Newspaper editorial (with no given author)

“Star Wars and the Future of Defense.” Editorial. Los Angeles Times

10 Feb. 2000: A2+

FILM, VIDEO or DVD RECORDING
Title. Director or Producer. Medium. Distributor, Year.

Alzheimer's Disease. Writ., dir., and prod. by Michael Miller. Videocassette.

20
Bruner Life Medical, 1996.

INTERVIEW
Person Interviewed. Type of interview (personal or telephone). Date.

Streisand, Barbra. Personal Interview. 22 July 1999.

ELECTRONIC AND ONLINE SOURCES
(See pages 721-732 of the Little, Brown Handbook for more information on electronic
sources)

REMOVING HYPERLINKS
NOTE: When you type the URL (electronic address), your computer may identify it as a
Hyperlink and it will appear in blue on your screen. It should not be printed in blue in
your Works Cited page. When using Microsoft Word, you can correct the problem as
follows:

• Right click on the URL.
• A box will appear. Select Hyperlink.
• A new box will appear. Select and click Remove Hyperlink.

Or

• Highlight the URL. Click Insert on the tool bar. Go to the bottom of the
dropdown menu and click Hyperlink.
• A dialogue box will appear. Remove Hyperlink should appear in the bottom left-
hand corner of the box. You may be asked to save your file if you have not
already done so. Click Remove Hyperlink and the blue address will turn to black.
You may need to resize the font.

BREAKING URLS (electronic addresses)
Since URLs are often long, your word processor will read them as a single word. As a
result, a citation may be produced that does not match MLA format for a Works Cited
page. If the URL is too long to fit on one line, break the URL where a backslash
appears.

21
Incorrect Thompson, Dale, R. “Vygotsky and Velekovsky.” Homepage. 2

December 2002. 24 May 2003.

<http://www.russiangenius/vygotskyvelekovsky/article.com>.

In the above example, the URL is too long to fit on one line. The word processor has
moved it to it’s own line, leaving a large gap after the access date. In the following
example, the URL has been broken at a backslash into two lines.

Correct: Thompson, Dale, R. “Vygotsky and Velekovsky.” Homepage. 2

December 2002. 24 May 2003. <http://www.russiangenius/

vygotskyvelekovsky/article.com>.

INTERNET ARTICLE BASICS
(see Little, Brown Handbook pages 721-722 and 724 -732)

For articles from the Internet, provide the following information. There is a
great range of variation in the information provided by various Web sites. If the
posting you are using lacks a piece of information in the list below, simple go to
the next piece of information.

Examine the title page of Web sites carefully. You will need the name of the site,
and you will the date of its posting or updating. This information will be found on
the Homepage of the Web site

• Author(s) names (Hopkins, Steven R.)
• Title of the article in quotation marks (“Failing Schools.”)
• Title of original source underlined or in italics: magazine, newspaper,
journal. Also provide publication information: date, volume number, page
spread.
Magazine: Newsweek 4 July 2002 21-22.
Journal: Buisness Sense 3:4 (2001): 61-73.
Newspaper: Ashville Courier 21 March 2002: A2+.
• Title of the site underlined (found on Homepage): History Facts.
• Date of posting (25 January 2000)
• Name of hosting organization or institution (West College.)
• Date of access (14 July 2003)

22
• Electronic address enclosed in < > and followed by a period
(<http://www.westcollege/business/articles.org>.)

Author's Name (if given). "Title of Page." Name of Database or Website.

Date of posting or update. Name of Organization. Date of access

<Electronic address or URL>.

Thompson, Karen. “Keller, Helen (Adams).” Biography Online Database.

1997. Biography.com. 4 Dec 1999. <http://www.biography./

com/cgibin/biomain.cgi>

In the citation above, the URL was too long to fit on one line. In such cases, break the
address at a backslash.

INTERNET ARTICLES ORIGINALLY APPEARING IN PRINT
(see Little, Brown Handbook page 728)

The electronic address should not be printed in blue (a hyperlink). To remove
hyperlinks. See REMOVING HYPERLINKS.

If the electronic address is too long to fit on one line, break it after a backslash. See
BREAKING HYPERLINKS.

The following order should be used when citing sources off the Internet. If an item in
the list isn’t presented, such as an author’s name or the name of the original print
source, go to the next item.

• Author’s name (last, first—Smith, John L.)
• Title of article in quotation marks (“Jefferson’s Image of Democracy.”)
• Title of original print source underlined or in italics ( American Politics )
• Publication information such as date, volume number, page spread.
Magazine: American Politics 11May 2002: 32-34.
Journal: American Politics 3:13 (2002): 67-71.
Newspaper: Ashville Courier 21 March 2002: A2+
• Title of Web site, underlined or in italics
• Date of posting or update
• Date of access (day month year--24 February 2003)
• Electronic address (<http://www.apfilelog.com>.)

23
Magazine article

Smith, John L. “Jefferson’s Image of Democrarcy.” American Politics

11 May 2002: 34-35. 24 February 2003. Democracy NOW, 2001.

17 January 2003. <http://www.amerpolitics/filelog.com>.

Journal article

Linderman, Alicia, R. “Information or Entertainment: Morning ‘News.’”

Forum 4:3 (2003): 91-97. The News Group. 15 September 2002. 10

October 2003 <http:www.newsgroupsources/articles.com>.

INTERNET ARTICLES FROM PROFESSIONAL OR
PERSONAL WEB SITES
(see Little, Brown Handbook pages 721-722 and 724 -732)

When using a personal or professional Web site, it is important that you look carefully at
the home page. On that page you will find the title of the Web site and the date of
posting (or update), which you will need for your Works Cited entry.

The electronic address should not be printed in blue (a hyperlink). To remove
hyperlinks, see INTERNET/ONLINE SOURCES, REMOVING HYPERLINKS.

If the electronic address is too long to fit on one line, find a logical place to break it (see
first example below): see BREAKING HYPERLINKS.

The following order should be used when citing sources off the Internet. If an item in
the list isn’t presented, such as an author’s name or the name of the original print
source, go to the next item.

• Author’s name (if given, last name first—Smith, John L.)
• Title of the article (if given) in quotation marks (“Ben Franklin’s Foreign Policy.”)
• Title of Web site, name of homepage, or database underlined or in italics
(American Idealism.)
• Editor of Web site (if given) first name then last name (Ed. Barbara Dewey.)
• Date of posting or latest update (12 March 2002 )
• Date you accessed the Web site (day month year--5 February 2003)
• Electronic address (<http://www.americanidealism.com>.)

24
Smith, John L. “Ben Franklin’s Foreign Policy.” American Idealism. Ed.

Barbara Dewey. 12 March 2002. 5 February 2003 <http://www.

americanidealism.com>.

Following is an example of a personal Web site that lacks much of the information given
in the previous example such as an author’s name

“What Government Conspiracy?” The Group. 2003. 17 July 2003

<http://www.tg/polictics.com>.

AN ONLINE DATABASE OR SCHOLARLY PROJECT
(see Little, Brown Handbook pages 723-724)

Online databases or scholarly projects are frequently hosted by an organization
(electronic address ending in .org) or academic institution (electronic address ending in
.edu). Use the following order to cite these sources. If an item in the list is missing from
the source, go to the next piece of information.

The electronic address should not be printed in blue (a hyperlink). To remove
hyperlinks. See REMOVING HYPERLINKS.

If the electronic address is too long to fit on one line. break the address at a backslash.
See BREAKING URLs.

• Author’s name, last then first (Rutger, Helen R.)
• Title of article in quotation marks (“Stress and Diagnosis.”)
• Name of editor (Ed. Candice Williams)
• Name of Database underlined or in italics (Medicine and Pharmacology.)
• Date of posting or latest update (12 December 2002.)
• Name of organization or host (Hudson College or History Network (organization))
• Date of access (day month year--28 March 2003)
• Electronic address (<http://hudsoncollege/medicalschool.edu>.)

Rutger, Helen R. “Stress and Diagnosis.” Ed. Candice Williams. Medicine and

Pharmacology. 12 December 2002. Hudson College. 28 March 2003

<http://www.hudsoncollege/medicalschool/articles.edu>.

25
Turner, Keith. “The Federalist Package.” American Presidents. 1997.

History Network. 4 Dec 1999 < http://www.historynetwork/

americanpresidents.com>.

InfoTrac

The electronic address should not be printed in blue (a hyperlink). To remove
hyperlinks. See REMOVING HYPERLINKS.

If the electronic address is too long to fit on one line, break the address at a backslash.
See BREAKING URLs.

Use the following order for your citations. This is essentially the same order for print sources:

• Author—last name, first name, initial.
Single author--Jones, Thomas M.
More than one author—Connely, Mary C., David Thomas, and Susan J. Klee.
• Title of article in quotation marks -- “The New Economy.”
• Title of publication underlined or in italics -- Newsweek
• Publication information—such as volume number, date of pub., page spread.
Journal--Education 3 (2002): 99-103.
Magazine—Newsweek 7 July 2002: 71-73.
Newspaper: Ashville Courier 21 March 2002: A2+.
• Database name underlined. Within each on-line service such as InfoTrac are a
variety of databases. Underline or italicize database names -- Expanded Academic
ASAP, General Reference ASAP
• Service name (not underlined) -- Gale Group Databases.
• Name of the library where the service was accessed
• City and abbreviation of state where the service was accessed
• Date of Access (day, month, year—7 January 2001)
• URL: <http://www.infortrac.galegroup.com>. (see note below)

NOTE: If you access InfoTrac from your home computer, do not use the URL that will
appear. Others will not be able to use that URL to access InfoTrac. Always use the

26
following URL: <http://www.infortrac.galegroup.com>. For Lexis Nexis use
<http://www.lexis-nexis.com>.

• Magazine article from InfoTrac

Fedarko, Kevin. “Please Don’t Shoot the Prairie Dogs.” Time 7 July

1997: 73-74. General Reference Center ASAP. Gale Group

Databases. Midlands Technical College Lib., Columbia, SC. 10

April 1999. <http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com>.

• Newspaper article from InfoTrac
Jefferson, Elsa. “Computer Wars.” Washington Post 11 Jan. 2000:

A1+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group Databases.

Midlands Technical College Lib., Columbia, SC. 12 June 2000.

<http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com>.

• Journal Article from InfoTrac

Farmer, Joy A. “Mary Hood and the Speed of Grace: Catching Up with

Flannery O’Connor.” Studies in Short Fiction 33 (1996): 91-100.

Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group Databases. Midlands

Technical College Lib., Columbia, SC. 30 July 2000. http://www.

infotrac.galegroup.com>.

Lexis-Nexis
Use the following order in your citations for Lexis-Nexis:

• Author’s name, last name first
• Title of article in quotation marks (“The New Economy”)
• Title of publication (Newsweek) underlined or in italics.

27
• Publication information—volume number, date of publication. A colon should
follow the volume number, when citing journals
Journals: Education 3: 2 July 2002.
Magazines: Newsweek 27 April 2001.
Newspaper: Ashville Courier 21 March 2002: A2+.
• Page spread of article
• The title of the service: LexisNexis Academic Universe
• Date of access

Magazine article from Lexis-Nexis

Fedarko, Kevin. “Please Don’t Shoot the Prairie Dogs.” Time July 7,

1997. LexisNexis Academic Universe. 10 April 1999 <http://

www.lexis-nexis.com>.

Newspaper article from Lexis-Nexis

Jefferson, Elsa. “Computer Wars.” Washington Post 11 January

2000. 1A+. LexisNexis Academic Universe. 12 June 2000

<http://www.lexis-nexis.com>.

Journal article from LexisNexis

Farmer, Joy A. “Mary Hood and the Speed of Grace: Catching Up with

Flannery O’Connor.” Studies in Short Fiction 33, (1996): 91-100.

LexisNexis Academic Universe. 30 July 2000 <http://

www.lexis-nexis.com>.

CD-ROM (see Little, Brown Handbook page 723)
The information on CD-ROMs varies. Some CD-ROMs may contain articles that
originally appeared in print form; however, others may not. Use the following order for

28
articles or information from CD-ROMs. If a piece of information is missing, go to the
next item in the list

• Author’s name(s) (Newhouse, Jenny M.)
• Title of article in quotation marks (“Safe Drinking Water.”)
• Title of original print source(underlined or in italics), including volume
numbers, publication dates, and page spread.
Journal: Envirnoment 10:3 (2003): 71-74.
Magazines: Environmental Studies 18 February 2003: 21-25.
Newspaper: Ashville Courier 21 March 2002: A2+.
• Title of CR-ROM underlined or in italics (Educational Sources.)
• Edition (Educational Sources 3rd ed.)
• The word CD-ROM.
• City of publication or vendor followed by a colon (New York:)
• Name of publisher (Eastover House,)
• Date of publication (2001.)

CD-ROM with articles originally appearing in print

Newhouse, Jenny M. “Safe Drinking Water.” Environmental Studies 18

February 2003:21-25. Educational Sources. 3rd ed. CD-ROM.

New York: Eastover House, 2001.

CD-ROM with no print equivalent

“Pablo Picasso.” Art Library. CD-ROM. Chicago: Wayne Publishers,

1999.

29
Page Layout, MLA Format

Cover page: Provide a cover page if you are using an outline or if your instructor
requests it. See example Sample Essay MLA Format—With a Cover Page (English
102).

No Cover Page: Do not include a cover page unless you are providing an outline or if
your instructor specifically asks you not to include one. See Sample Essay, MLA
Format (English 101) and Sample Essay, MLA Format—Without a Cover Page
(English 102).

Spacing:
• one space between words and after commas, semicolons, colons, etc.
• two spaces after periods or final punctuation.
• one space between quotation marks and citations. Example:
. . .in our society” (Wise 4).
• Do not put a space between a word and the quotation marks that preceded or
follow it (“City of Hope”). Place one space between

Line Spacing: Everything in MLA format is double-spaced. DO NOT put extra spaces
above or below your title. DO NOT put extra spaces between paragraphs.

Fonts: Use Arial in 11 point font, or Times New Roman in 11 or 12 point font, or
Courier in 11 or 12 point font. Use the same size font throughout your essay. DO NOT
use a larger font for your title.

Margins: Use half-inch margins on the top of the page (where your last name and page
number appear). The MLA Handbook suggests one-inch margins on each side and the
bottom of the page.

No Bold: Bold is never used in MLA format.

30