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WHAT IS A RESEARCH PAPER? QUOTING, PARAPHRASING, AND CITING SOURCES What to Quote Titles: Italicizing / Underlining and Quotation Marks Spacing Fonts Punctuation Avoid Floating Quotes Quotes Within Quotes Long Quotes Quoting Poetry Quoting Drama 1 2 3 4 5 5 5 6 7 8 9 9
PROPER USE OF QUOTES AND INTERNAL CITATIONS, MLA FORMAT INTERNAL CITATIONS IN MLA FORMAT Author’s name not in your sentence Author’s name in your sentence No author’s name given in source Citing more than one work by the same author Citing Electronic Sources: Internet, InfoTrac, Lexis-Nexis, and other electronic sources THE WORKS CITED PAGE, MLA FORMAT WORKS CITED BASICS 14 11 11 11 11 12
BOOKS Books—single author Books—more than one author ANTHOLOGIES (collection of essays, stories, poems by different authors) Anthologies—citing one poem, short story, or essay
Anthologies—citing more than one poem, short story, or essay from the same anthology 15 REFERENCE BOOKS Reference Book—articles PERIODICALS (magazines, journals, newspapers) Periodicals—journal article, continuous paging in volume Periodicals—journal article, each issue paged separtately Periodicals—magazine articles Periodicals—magazine article, no author given Periodicals—newspaper article Periodicals—newspaper editorial FILM / VIDEO / DVD RECORDING Film / Video / DVD recording INTERVIEW Personal Interview ELECTRONIC AND ONLINE SOURCES REMOVING HYPERLINKS BREAKING URLs (electronic addresses) INTERNET ARTICLE BASICS Internet articles originally appearing in print 17 18 19 20 18 17 16 17 17 17 17 17 16
Internet articles from professional or personal Web sites Online database or scholarly project INFOTRAC Magazine article Newspaper article Journal article LEXIS-NEXIS Magazine article Newspaper article Journal article CD-ROM PAGE LAYOUT, MLA FORMAT
21 22 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 26
SAMPLE ESSAY, MLA FORMAT—WITHOUT COVER PAGE (ENGLISH 101) SAMPLE ESSAY, MLA FORMAT—WITHOUT COVER PAGE (ENGLISH 102) SAMPLE ESSAY, MLA FORMAT—WITH COVER PAGE (ENGLISH 102)
THE RESEARCH PAPER MLA FORMAT
What is a Research Paper?
A research paper is a formal essay that provides authoritative sources to establish or support the claims you make in your paper. Generally, this is done by quoting your sources and providing bibliographic information that would allow your reader to find those sources and examine the exact passages you have incorporated into your essay. A college research paper is generally formatted in accordance with the Modern Language Association (MLA) style guide or the American Psychological Association (APA) style guide. Often a large portion of your grade on a research paper will be determined by your ability to adhere to the rules of the style guide you are using. For instance, MLA and APA formats both require a bibliography (a list of the works you have quoted). In MLA, the bibliography is a Works Cited page. In APA, a bibliography is referred to as a References page. Although both formats require a bibliography, each has unique rules as to how the bibliographic information should be presented. In addition, both styles require citations (references to your sources) in the body of your paper, but each style guide has different rules governing the information in the citation. Your instructor may tell you which documentation style is required. If not, you should choose one and use it consistently throughout paper. MLA is most appropriate for papers in English and the Humanities. APA is most appropriate for papers in the Social Sciences. Most of your research will be conducted in the library because the library contains books, journals, and periodicals that often cannot be accessed on the Internet. The greatest resource in the library is the librarian. Librarians are trained to aid you in your research. If you do not know where to start or if your searches are unsuccessful, talk to a librarian. Librarians know how information is organized, and they know the best ways to locate information. Research has a dual purpose: to discover new ideas and facts about your topic that you were unaware of and to find facts and statements by authorities that you can use to support your ideas. A research paper is not simply a collection of quotes strung together. It is an essay that you write which includes quotes and information from published writers. It is often best to write the first draft of your paper without using research. Once you have clarified your ideas on the topic, search for books and articles that discuss the issue you are concerned with. You may find support that you can incorporate into your paper, or you may find your ideas challenged. Research is a process through which your ideas will grow and change.
There are two basic paths to the research process. In one case, you may know little or nothing about the topic you have been assigned. In a history class, for instance, you might be assigned to reveal the events that led to Angola’s independence from Portugal in 1975. If you know nothing about this topic, the purpose of your research will be to discover the significant events—political and economic changes, social and military movements—that led to Angola’s independence. You would also have to read and analyze what historians and political commentators believe to be the most significant factors. Your research paper would then present your analysis of the information your research uncovered. You must not simply list the events or present the analysis of others. You must evaluate the significance of the events and evaluate the validity of the opinions of historians and other commentators. For other research projects you may know a significant amount about your topic. In a literature class, your instructor may ask you to read the play Hamlet and assign you to explain why Hamlet is unable to swiftly revenge his father’s murder. Your own analysis of the play will lead you to a conclusion as to why Hamlet delays. You may write a draft of your essay in which you analyze the sections of the play supporting your ideas. Once you have established your own argument, you will begin your research, looking for critics whose discussions of the play support your interpretation. You will then write another draft of your essay, in which you incorporate the statements of the authorities you have found. You may discover that others interpret the play differently than you do or that there are multiple interpretations. This may send you back to reanalyze the play or send you looking for essays by other critics to assist you in refuting some interpretations and supporting others.
Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Citing Sources
Note: The following examples are in MLA format. See pages 700-709 in The Little, Brown Handbook. In the body of your essay, you must make direct reference to the authors you have read. There are two ways to do this. One is to directly quote the authors, reproducing their exact words, placing those words in quotation marks, and providing a citation (a reference to the work in which the quote is found). You may also paraphrase what authors say. When you paraphrase, you put the author’s idea into your own words. A paraphrase should not include any phrases from the author’s passage. (Note: at times you may reproduce a keyword an author uses—there may not be an alternative word-but you should try to avoid using the author’s language.) If your paraphrase is too close to the original wording or structure of the author’s passage, it is considered plagiarism, even if you attribute the idea to the author. When you quote, you must always provide a citation. When you paraphrase, you do not necessarily have to provide a citation, especially if you are providing well-known facts. A citation should only follow a paraphrase if you are paraphrasing an author’s original idea or opinion. Below are a quote and two paraphrases in MLA format. Direct Quote: One historian tells us, “Johnson’s forces entered the
battle two hours after it had begun” (Williams 695). Paraphrase (no citation) Williams notes that the conflict had started before Johnson’s troops arrived.
Paraphrase (with citation)
One historian believes that Johnson’s inability to make a decision led to his late arrival at the battle (Hanson 218).
Since the first example reproduces the exact words of the author, those words must be enclosed in quotation marks. Quotation marks tell the reader that these are the exact words the author wrote. Be sure to quote accurately. The example of a paraphrase with no citation presents the essence of the quote from Williams, yet none of Williams’ wording is used. Notice that Williams is referred to in the sentence, acknowledging him as the source of this information. This paraphrase does not present an original idea, merely a fact Because the last example lacks quotation marks, it tells the reader that this is a paraphrase, and not Hanson’s exact words. This paraphrase, however, is followed by a citation because it is Hanson’s personal opinion as to why Johnson’s troops arrived two hours late. Since it is an original idea or opinion, it must be cited. The previous paraphrase only presents a fact (Johnson arrived late).
What to Quote
To determine what to quote you should consider three things: 1) Is the information essential to establish your ideas? If part of the purpose of your essay is to establish that the character Polonius in Shakespeare’s Hamlet meddles in the lives of others, then you should quote all the passages that show he is a meddler because it is essential to your argument. 2) Is it important that your reader see exactly what was said? In order for your reader to see what kind of person Polonius is, you should quote exactly what he says or quote exactly what critics say about him. It is particularly important to quote exactly what an author says if you are writing an argumentative paper disagreeing with the author. You must present the author’s ideas clearly, fairly, and accurately before you attack his or her ideas. 3) Is it information you will comment on or explain in order to make a point? You should quote passages that need explanation. For instance, it never says in the play Hamlet that Polonius is a meddler. To establish that, you would have to quote passages and explain how the passages show he is a meddler. In general, if you quote it, you should comment on the quote or explain it.
You should paraphrase portions of a text that provide background information or context. A quote may be hard to properly understand if you do not provide a context. Consider this example: “You speak like a green girl” Does this mean the girl is a Martian because she is green? Is she green with envy? Is she green because she is seasick? This quote may mean little or nothing to you because you may lack the background information to understand it. It lacks a context. If this quote were essential to your paper, you would need to provide a context for your reader: who is speaking, who is being spoken to, what is the subject, what has led up to this conversation. Those are some of the things your reader would need to know in order to understand the quote. Provide the background information, the context your reader needs, by paraphrasing; then, quote the passage you want your reader to see and explain its meaning or significance. Now let us look at the same quote with a context: When Polonius finds out that his daughter Ophelia has been seeing Hamlet, he is quite worried because he believes that she is too immature when it comes to love. He tells her, “You speak like a green girl” (1. 3. 102), indicating that she is too young and naïve—green like an unripe fruit—to understand what love is. The context that surrounds this quote gives the reader a much better understanding of the passage. Polonius is talking about his daughter’s immaturity.
Titles: Italicizing/Underlining and Quotation Marks
Underline or Italicize titles of published books, plays, long poems (Beowulf), periodicals (Time, Newsweek), newspapers. Use quotation marks around the titles of published essays, articles in periodicals (“Computer Take Over”), short poems (“Mending Wall”), short stories (“A Rose for Emily”). Do not underline, italicize, or place quotation marks around your own titles. If your title contains the title of a published work, use underlining, italics, or quotation marks to indicate that you are using the title of a published work. Examples of your own titles: The Loss of Meaning (No underlining, italics, quotation marks) (Title of novel underlined) (Title of novel in italics)
The Loss of Meaning in The Sun Also Rises The Loss of Meaning in The Sun Also Rises
Portrait of a Murderess in “A Rose for Emily” (Short story in quotation marks)
LINE SPACING: In accordance with the MLA and APA style guides, everything in your essay should be double-spaced. Nothing in MLA format is singlespaced. Do not put extra spaces between paragraphs. See the sample pages in the section “Page Layout for MLA.” SPACING IN SENTENCES: Place one space after commas, semicolons, and colons. Place two spaces after periods or any final punctuation. Place one space between end quotation marks and the citation: “ . . . strand of iron-gray hair” (35).
Use Arial, Times New Roman, or Courier in 11 or 12 point font. Everything in your essay should be the same font size—do not use a larger font for your title. Bold is never used in MLA format.
Periods and commas should come after the citation (a reference to your source). Question marks and exclamation marks may go inside or outside quotation marks depending on whether they belong to your sentence or to the quote. (Original text from Jonathan Culler's Ferdinand de Saussure) Ferdinand de Saussure is the founder of modern linguistics, the man who reorganized the systematic study of language and languages so as to make possible the achievements of twentieth-century linguistics. Example: Saussure, "the founder of modern linguistics" (Cullers 15), called for a reassessment of the field. (Comma outside citation).
There is a comma before the quote above because the structure of the student's sentence requires one. Example: Jonathan Cullers calls Saussure "the founder of modern linguistics" (15). (Period after citation)
In the original quote there is a comma after the word linguistics, but that comma is not required by the structure of the student's sentence. A period is required, which goes outside the citation.
Does Cullers believe that Saussure was "the founder of modern linguistics" (15)?
To indicate that the question mark belongs to the student's sentence and not to the quote, it is placed after the citation. Example: Stewart finally asks, “Where is our society heading?” (41).
To indicate that a question mark or exclamation mark belong to the sentence you are quoting, place the question mark or exclamation mark inside the quotation marks and place a period outside the citation.
Anderson suggests we need “a fundamental change in the way we view science,” scientists, and empirical research (54).
If your sentence continues after the quote, the citation should appear after the quote and not at the end of the sentence. The only exception to this is when the citation would disrupt the flow of the sentence. Then the citation should be placed at the end of the sentence. In the example above, the citation is placed at the end of the sentence because it would disrupt the list: science, scientist, and empirical research.
Avoid Floating Quotes
Quotes must be attached to your writing. A quote that is not attached to your writing is commonly called a Floating Quote (F.Q.). Quotes must flow with your writing. You must supply whatever punctuation is appropriate for the structure of your sentence. (Original text from Henry James's The Turn of the Screw) I don't know what there was in this brevity of Mrs. Grose's that struck me as ambiguous. (Floating quote) The governess found Mrs. Grose's statement odd. "I don't know what there was in this brevity of Mrs. Grose's that struck me as mbiguous" (James 24).
Note that the writer's sentence ends with a period. As a result, the quote is not attached to the writer's sentence and is considered a floating quote. The following sentence has the same structure as the sentence above, but the quote doesn't float because it is attached to the writer's sentence with a colon.
(Correct) The governess found Mrs. Grose's statement odd: "I don't know what there was in this brevity of Mrs. Grose's that struck me as ambiguous" (James 24).
If you use a colon to attach a quote to your sentence, make sure that both your sentence and the quotation are complete sentences. The following sentence is more graceful because the quote flows with the writer's language. (Correct) The governess was alerted by the "brevity of Mrs. Grose's that struck [the governess] as ambiguous" (James 24).
Notice here that the writer has only reproduced that portion of the quote that he/she wanted you to see. There is no punctuation before the quote because no punctuation is required by the structure of the writer's sentence. The quote might not have read properly if the word me was left in the quote. Would the word me refer to the governess or to the writer? To show that you have made a change in the text for clarification, use square brackets (not parenthesis).
Quotes within Quotes
If you are quoting a passage that has a quote within it, use single quotation marks to indicate a quote within a quote. This should only be done when part of the passage is in quotation marks and part of the passage is not in quotation marks. This is the only use for single quotation marks in MLA format. When using long quotes, broken from your text and indented (see Long Quotes) do not use single quotation marks for quotes within quotes. (Original from Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness) One day he remarked without lifting his head, "In the interior you will no doubt meet Mr. Kurtz." (Correct) We first learn of the man Marlow will meet when "One day [the accountant] remarked without lifting his head, 'In the interior you will no doubt meet Mr. Kurtz'" (Conrad 22).
Long Quotes (Block Quotes)
Quotes that run five lines and more should be broken from your text and indented ten spaces or two tabs. No quotation marks are needed because breaking and indenting indicates that you are quoting. Introduce long quotes with whatever punctuation is required by the structure of your sentence (or no punctuation if the structure of your sentence does not require it). When presenting block quotes, the period is placed after the sentence and not after the citation. (Correct) Emily is associated with the Old South and is contrasted with the post Civil War generations. We are told about one incident over an arrangement Emily had with the town’s previous administration: When the next generation, with its more modern ideas, became mayors and aldermen, this arrangement created some little dissatisfaction. On the first of the year they mailed her tax notice. February came and there was no reply. They wrote a formal letter, asking her to call at the sheriff’s’ office at her convenience. A week later the mayor wrote her himself, offering to call or to send his car for her, and received in reply a note on paper of an archaic shape, in a thin, flowing calligraphy in fading ink, to the effect that she no longer went out at all. The tax notice was also enclosed, without comment. (Faulkner 27) This is one of several incidents where the new generation fails to get Emily to conform to their ways. She doesn’t bother to explain why she refuses to pay her taxes. The tax notice is returned without a comment, suggesting that she owes no one an explanation. She makes no written comment, but her message is silently and strongly conveyed: she will not change regardless of the changes around her.
Introduce the quote with whatever punctuation is appropriate for the structure of your sentence. Also note that the quote is followed by an explanation. Always comment on or explain quotes, and relate them to the point you are making.
When quoting three lines of a poem or fewer, you may incorporate them into the body of your text. Use quotation marks when the quote is embedded in your writing. To indicate the end of a line, use a slash (/) with one space on each side of it. When quoting more than three lines, break and indent ten spaces. No quotation marks are needed when you break and indent. The lines should appear exactly as they do in the original poem.
The speaker in Myakovsky’s poem condemns his fellow man's capacity for love when he states, "Tender souls! / You play your love on a fiddle, / and the crude club their love on a drum" (lines 5-7). Later the speaker shows his contrasting moods: If you wish, I shall rage on raw meat; or, as the sky changes hue, I shall grow irreproachably tender: not a man, but a cloud in trousers! (10-14)
If you are only quoting from one poem in your essay, then place the word line or lines in the first citation. Thereafter you only insert the line numbers.
When quoting verse plays (plays with line numbers), provide act, scene, and line numbers. Separate each with a period. Use Arabic numbers (1,2,3), unless your instructor requires you to use Roman numerals (I, II, III). When plays have line numbers, use slashes to indicate the end of lines, just as you would when quoting poetry.
In response to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern’s attempts to discover Hamlet’s motives, Hamlet states, “Why, look you now, how unworthy a thing you make of me! You would / play upon me, you would seem to know my stops, you would pluck out the / heart of my mystery . . .” (3.2.314-316). When quoting five lines or more from a play with line numbers, reproduce the lines as they appear in the play.
After Hamlet sees the king’s reaction to The Mousetrap, he is convinced of the King’s responsibility for Hamlet’s father’s murder, his thoughts are set on seeking bloody revenge: ‘Tis now the very witching time of night, When churchyards yawn and hell itself breathes out Contagion to this world. Now could I drink hot blood And do such bitter business as the day Would quake to look on. (3. 3. 333-337) It seems at this point that Hamlet is once again ready to take action; however, a short time later, he again fails to revenge his father’s death.
When quoting prose plays (plays without line numbers) provide both the page number and the act number. Place a semicolon between the page number(s) and act number. When Happy tells his brother Biff that many people in the business world think he’s crazy, Biff flies into a rage: “I don’t care what they think! They’ve laughed at Dad for years, and you know why? Because we don’t belong in this nut-house city! We should be mixing cement on some open
plain, or—or carpenters. A carpenter is allowed to whistle!” (1664; act 1).
PROPER USE OF QUOTES, MLA FORMAT
See pages 700-709 in The Little, Brown Handbook.
INTERNAL CITATIONS IN MLA FORMAT
A citation is a reference to the source of the material you are quoting. • If you are only citing one text, identify the author and the title of text in the opening paragraph; thereafter, use only page numbers in your citation. • If you are quoting from more than one text, you must identify the author and the page number each time you cite each author (exception: the Internet and some databases have no page numbers). • If you use the author's name in your sentence, you do not put it in the citation. • If you are using more than one text by the same author, put the title of the work in the citation. • The citation should directly follow the quote, even if the quote ends in the middle of your sentence (the only exception is when the citation would disrupt the flow of your sentence).
Author’s name not in your sentence
The citation should contain the name of the author and the page number(s) if the author’s name doesn’t appear in your sentence. Some scientists feel “our understanding of technology is greater than our understanding of the morality of using that technology” (Halman 213).
Author’s name in your sentence
If you place the author’s name in your sentence, only use the page number in the citation.
Halman recently stated, “our understanding of technology is greater than our understanding of the morality of using that technology” (213).
No author’s name given in source
Editorials and sources found on the Internet often lack an author’s name. To identify your source, use the title of the article or an abbreviation of the title.
The decrease in crime in the 1990s “is the result of a stronger economy and reductions in unemployment” (“Why Crime is Down” 45). or The article “Why Crime is Down in Major Metropolitan Areas” states that the decrease in crime in the 1990s “is the result of a stronger economy and reductions in unemployment” (45).
Citing more than one work by the same author
If you cite more than one work by the same author, you must include the title or an abbreviation of the title in your citation to differentiate between the two sources. Place a comma after the author’s name if you place the author’s name in the citation rather than in your sentence. Mayan astronomers were so precise in their measurements and calculations that “It wasn’t until the twentieth century that the orbit of the earth around the sun was more accurately recorded” (Tailor, “The Maya and Math” 23-24). The central pyramid at Chichen Itza “is actually a giant calendar and calculator” (Tailor, The Maya 154). The pyramid has 364 steps which all meet at the top platform, leading Tailor to conclude, “The Maya knew the year was 364 and ¼ days long. The top platform represents the ¼ day” (The Maya 179).
Citing Electronic Sources: Internet, InfoTrac, Lexis-Nexis and other electronic sources
When quoting electronic sources, do not cite page numbers. The only exception to this is when the sources are clearly broken into numbered pages or when paragraphs are numbered. If pages are clearly numbered in the electronic source, use them. If paragraphs are numbered, use the paragraph numbers with the abbreviation par. or pars. (example: Smith par.4). If you print out an electronic
source, your printer may number the pages; however, those page numbers should not be used. The following example is from an Internet article; thus, no page numbers are used. Sylvia Stewart notes, “The dome topped observatory at Chichen Itza is the model for most observatories built in the twentieth century.” or The Mayan devotion to astronomy led them to build a modern looking structure for observing the sky: “The dome topped observatory at Chichen Itza is the model for most observatories built in the twentieth century” (Stewart). If an author’s name is not given, use the title of the article or an abbreviation. Although the Mayan language still exists in Latin America, “The Maya civilization disappeared several hundred years ago” (“The Ancient Maya”).
THE WORKS CITED PAGE, MLA FORMAT
The Modern Language Association (MLA) style, widely used for identifying research sources, does not use footnotes to identify sources. Brief references are used within the text (parenthetical citations) with a complete reference in the paper’s Works Cited page. (See pages 710-735 in The Little, Brown Handbook)
WORKS CITED BASICS
Provide complete bibliographic information in the correct MLA form for all sources you use in your paper. If you consulted a source, but did not incorporate it into your paper, do not cite it.
Start your Works Cited list on a new page, and number it as though it were a page in your paper. Entries in the Works Cited page should be arranged alphabetically by the authors’ last names. If no author is provided for any source, use the title to alphabetize, ignoring first words like the, a, an.
• • •
Double-space within and between entries. Follow standard spacing after all punctuation (i.e. leave only one space after a comma or colon, leave two after a period). The first line of each entry should start even with the left hand margin. If the entry runs more than one line, indent remaining lines one tab or five spaces. The author’s name (or first author listed) is presented last name, first name, middle initial. All other names in the citation are presented first name, middle initial, last name.
If more than one city of publication is listed, use the first one If several dates of publication are given, use the most recent
(see Little, Brown Handbook pages 712-718) Author. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.
Giannone, Richard. Flannery O'Connor and The Mystery of Love. New York: Fordham U. P.,1999.
• More than one author
Flanders, Stephen A., and Carl N. Flanders. AIDS. New York: Galahad Books, 1994. The first authors name appears last name, first name, and initial. All other author’s or editor’s names appear in regular order.
ANTHOLOGIES (a collection of essays or stories or poems by different
ANTHOLOGY: CITING ONE POEM, SHORT STORY, or ESSAY
(see Little, Brown Handbook pages 716-717) Author of Story. "Title of story or essay or poem." Title of Book. Ed. and Name of editor(s). Edition (if applicable). City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page spread. Baldwin, James. “Sonny’s Blues.” The Story and Its Writer. Ed. Ann Charters. 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1999. 82-106.
ANTHOLOGY: CITING MORE THAN ONE ESSAY, STORY, or POEM FROM THE SAME ANTHOLOGY
(see Little, Brown Handbook page 717) When you have cited more than one poem, short story, or essay from the same anthology, the works must be presented in the following form: • The editors are placed in one citation.
Each author you quote appears in his or her own citation. These should appear in alphabetical order in your Works Cited, even if they are separated by other citations. In the following example, the two works quoted are by Krauthammer and by Tribe. Barnet and Bedau are the editors of the anthology. Anderson, Cheryl. The Future is Upon Us and It Doesn’t Look Good. New York: Longman, 1998. Barnet, Sylvan, and Hugo Bedau, eds. Current Issues & Enduring Questions. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 1999. Krauthammer, Charles. “Of Headless Mice . . . and Men.” Barnet and Bedau 469-470. Lawrence, Paul T. Breaking the Genetic Code. London: Cooper Publishing, 1997. Tribe, Laurence H. “Second Thoughts on Cloning.” Barnet and Bedau 459-461.
Author of Article (if given). "Article Title." Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. O’Brien, David M. “Abortion.” The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book, Inc., 1997.
(see Little, Brown Handbook pages 718-721) Periodicals are magazines, journals, or newspapers. Citations for each are handled differently.
• Journal Article – continuous paging in volume
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume number (Year): Page
numbers. Farmer, Joy A. “Mary Hood and the Speed of Grace: Catching Up with Flannery O’Connor.” Studies in Short Fiction 33 (1996): 91100.
• Journal Article– each issue paged separately
Duisinberre, Juliet. “The Taming of the Shrew: Women, Acting and Power.” Studies in the Literary Imagination 26.1 (1993): 67-84.
• Magazine articles
Schindler, Martha. " Pick the Perfect Pooch." Runner's World April 2000: 29-30.
• Magazine article, no author given
“Clinton Unveils Plan to Track Illegal Guns.” Jet 29 July 1996: 30 –31.
• Newspaper article (with discontinuous pagination)
Jefferson, Elsa. “Computer Wars.” Washington Post 11 Aug. 2000: A1+ The A1+ on the end of the citation indicates the article started on section A, page 1 and continues on other pages. •
Newspaper editorial (with no given author)
“Star Wars and the Future of Defense.” Editorial. Los Angeles Times 10 Feb. 2000: A2+
FILM, VIDEO or DVD RECORDING
Title. Director or Producer. Medium. Distributor, Year. Alzheimer's Disease. Writ., dir., and prod. by Michael Miller. Videocassette.
Bruner Life Medical, 1996.
Person Interviewed. Type of interview (personal or telephone). Date. Streisand, Barbra. Personal Interview. 22 July 1999.
ELECTRONIC AND ONLINE SOURCES
(See pages 721-732 of the Little, Brown Handbook for more information on electronic sources)
NOTE: When you type the URL (electronic address), your computer may identify it as a Hyperlink and it will appear in blue on your screen. It should not be printed in blue in your Works Cited page. When using Microsoft Word, you can correct the problem as follows: • • • Or • • Highlight the URL. Click Insert on the tool bar. Go to the bottom of the dropdown menu and click Hyperlink. A dialogue box will appear. Remove Hyperlink should appear in the bottom lefthand corner of the box. You may be asked to save your file if you have not already done so. Click Remove Hyperlink and the blue address will turn to black. You may need to resize the font. Right click on the URL. A box will appear. Select Hyperlink. A new box will appear. Select and click Remove Hyperlink.
BREAKING URLS (electronic addresses)
Since URLs are often long, your word processor will read them as a single word. As a result, a citation may be produced that does not match MLA format for a Works Cited page. If the URL is too long to fit on one line, break the URL where a backslash appears.
Thompson, Dale, R. “Vygotsky and Velekovsky.” Homepage. 2 December 2002. 24 May 2003. <http://www.russiangenius/vygotskyvelekovsky/article.com>.
In the above example, the URL is too long to fit on one line. The word processor has moved it to it’s own line, leaving a large gap after the access date. In the following example, the URL has been broken at a backslash into two lines. Correct: Thompson, Dale, R. “Vygotsky and Velekovsky.” Homepage. 2 December 2002. 24 May 2003. <http://www.russiangenius/ vygotskyvelekovsky/article.com>.
INTERNET ARTICLE BASICS
(see Little, Brown Handbook pages 721-722 and 724 -732) For articles from the Internet, provide the following information. There is a great range of variation in the information provided by various Web sites. If the posting you are using lacks a piece of information in the list below, simple go to the next piece of information. Examine the title page of Web sites carefully. You will need the name of the site, and you will the date of its posting or updating. This information will be found on the Homepage of the Web site • • • Author(s) names (Hopkins, Steven R.) Title of the article in quotation marks (“Failing Schools.”) Title of original source underlined or in italics: magazine, newspaper, journal. Also provide publication information: date, volume number, page spread. Magazine: Newsweek 4 July 2002 21-22. Journal: Buisness Sense 3:4 (2001): 61-73. Newspaper: Ashville Courier 21 March 2002: A2+. • • • • Title of the site underlined (found on Homepage): History Facts. Date of posting (25 January 2000) Name of hosting organization or institution (West College.) Date of access (14 July 2003)
Electronic address enclosed in < > and followed by a period (<http://www.westcollege/business/articles.org>.)
Author's Name (if given). "Title of Page." Name of Database or Website. Date of posting or update. Name of Organization. Date of access <Electronic address or URL>. Thompson, Karen. “Keller, Helen (Adams).” Biography Online Database. 1997. Biography.com. 4 Dec 1999. <http://www.biography./ com/cgibin/biomain.cgi> In the citation above, the URL was too long to fit on one line. In such cases, break the address at a backslash.
INTERNET ARTICLES ORIGINALLY APPEARING IN PRINT
(see Little, Brown Handbook page 728)
The electronic address should not be printed in blue (a hyperlink). To remove hyperlinks. See REMOVING HYPERLINKS. If the electronic address is too long to fit on one line, break it after a backslash. See BREAKING HYPERLINKS. The following order should be used when citing sources off the Internet. If an item in the list isn’t presented, such as an author’s name or the name of the original print source, go to the next item. • • • • Author’s name (last, first—Smith, John L.) Title of article in quotation marks (“Jefferson’s Image of Democracy.”) Title of original print source underlined or in italics ( American Politics ) Publication information such as date, volume number, page spread. Magazine: American Politics 11May 2002: 32-34. Journal: American Politics 3:13 (2002): 67-71. Newspaper: Ashville Courier 21 March 2002: A2+ • • • • Title of Web site, underlined or in italics Date of posting or update Date of access (day month year--24 February 2003) Electronic address (<http://www.apfilelog.com>.)
Smith, John L. “Jefferson’s Image of Democrarcy.” American Politics 11 May 2002: 34-35. 24 February 2003. Democracy NOW, 2001. 17 January 2003. <http://www.amerpolitics/filelog.com>.
Linderman, Alicia, R. “Information or Entertainment: Morning ‘News.’” Forum 4:3 (2003): 91-97. The News Group. 15 September 2002. 10 October 2003 <http:www.newsgroupsources/articles.com>.
INTERNET ARTICLES FROM PROFESSIONAL OR PERSONAL WEB SITES
(see Little, Brown Handbook pages 721-722 and 724 -732) When using a personal or professional Web site, it is important that you look carefully at the home page. On that page you will find the title of the Web site and the date of posting (or update), which you will need for your Works Cited entry. The electronic address should not be printed in blue (a hyperlink). To remove hyperlinks, see INTERNET/ONLINE SOURCES, REMOVING HYPERLINKS. If the electronic address is too long to fit on one line, find a logical place to break it (see first example below): see BREAKING HYPERLINKS. The following order should be used when citing sources off the Internet. If an item in the list isn’t presented, such as an author’s name or the name of the original print source, go to the next item. • • • • • • • Author’s name (if given, last name first—Smith, John L.) Title of the article (if given) in quotation marks (“Ben Franklin’s Foreign Policy.”) Title of Web site, name of homepage, or database underlined or in italics (American Idealism.) Editor of Web site (if given) first name then last name (Ed. Barbara Dewey.) Date of posting or latest update (12 March 2002 ) Date you accessed the Web site (day month year--5 February 2003) Electronic address (<http://www.americanidealism.com>.)
Smith, John L. “Ben Franklin’s Foreign Policy.” American Idealism. Ed. Barbara Dewey. 12 March 2002. 5 February 2003 <http://www. americanidealism.com>. Following is an example of a personal Web site that lacks much of the information given in the previous example such as an author’s name “What Government Conspiracy?” The Group. 2003. 17 July 2003 <http://www.tg/polictics.com>.
AN ONLINE DATABASE OR SCHOLARLY PROJECT
(see Little, Brown Handbook pages 723-724) Online databases or scholarly projects are frequently hosted by an organization (electronic address ending in .org) or academic institution (electronic address ending in .edu). Use the following order to cite these sources. If an item in the list is missing from the source, go to the next piece of information. The electronic address should not be printed in blue (a hyperlink). To remove hyperlinks. See REMOVING HYPERLINKS. If the electronic address is too long to fit on one line. break the address at a backslash. See BREAKING URLs. • • • • • • • • Author’s name, last then first (Rutger, Helen R.) Title of article in quotation marks (“Stress and Diagnosis.”) Name of editor (Ed. Candice Williams) Name of Database underlined or in italics (Medicine and Pharmacology.) Date of posting or latest update (12 December 2002.) Name of organization or host (Hudson College or History Network (organization)) Date of access (day month year--28 March 2003) Electronic address (<http://hudsoncollege/medicalschool.edu>.) Rutger, Helen R. “Stress and Diagnosis.” Ed. Candice Williams. Medicine and Pharmacology. 12 December 2002. Hudson College. 28 March 2003 <http://www.hudsoncollege/medicalschool/articles.edu>.
Turner, Keith. “The Federalist Package.” American Presidents. 1997. History Network. 4 Dec 1999 < http://www.historynetwork/ americanpresidents.com>.
The electronic address should not be printed in blue (a hyperlink). To remove hyperlinks. See REMOVING HYPERLINKS. If the electronic address is too long to fit on one line, break the address at a backslash. See BREAKING URLs.
Use the following order for your citations. This is essentially the same order for print sources:
Author—last name, first name, initial. Single author--Jones, Thomas M. More than one author—Connely, Mary C., David Thomas, and Susan J. Klee.
• • •
Title of article in quotation marks -- “The New Economy.” Title of publication underlined or in italics -- Newsweek Publication information—such as volume number, date of pub., page spread. Journal--Education 3 (2002): 99-103. Magazine—Newsweek 7 July 2002: 71-73. Newspaper: Ashville Courier 21 March 2002: A2+.
Database name underlined. Within each on-line service such as InfoTrac are a variety of databases. Underline or italicize database names -- Expanded Academic ASAP, General Reference ASAP
• • • • •
Service name (not underlined) -- Gale Group Databases. Name of the library where the service was accessed City and abbreviation of state where the service was accessed Date of Access (day, month, year—7 January 2001) URL: <http://www.infortrac.galegroup.com>. (see note below)
NOTE: If you access InfoTrac from your home computer, do not use the URL that will appear. Others will not be able to use that URL to access InfoTrac. Always use the
following URL: <http://www.infortrac.galegroup.com>. For Lexis Nexis use <http://www.lexis-nexis.com>.
• Magazine article from InfoTrac
Fedarko, Kevin. “Please Don’t Shoot the Prairie Dogs.” Time 7 July 1997: 73-74. General Reference Center ASAP. Gale Group Databases. Midlands Technical College Lib., Columbia, SC. 10 April 1999. <http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com>.
• Newspaper article from InfoTrac
Jefferson, Elsa. “Computer Wars.” Washington Post 11 Jan. 2000: A1+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group Databases. Midlands Technical College Lib., Columbia, SC. 12 June 2000. <http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com>.
Journal Article from InfoTrac
Farmer, Joy A. “Mary Hood and the Speed of Grace: Catching Up with Flannery O’Connor.” Studies in Short Fiction 33 (1996): 91-100. Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group Databases. Midlands Technical College Lib., Columbia, SC. 30 July 2000. http://www. infotrac.galegroup.com>.
Use the following order in your citations for Lexis-Nexis: • • • Author’s name, last name first Title of article in quotation marks (“The New Economy”) Title of publication (Newsweek) underlined or in italics.
Publication information—volume number, date of publication. A colon should follow the volume number, when citing journals Journals: Education 3: 2 July 2002. Magazines: Newsweek 27 April 2001. Newspaper: Ashville Courier 21 March 2002: A2+.
• • •
Page spread of article The title of the service: LexisNexis Academic Universe Date of access
Magazine article from Lexis-Nexis
Fedarko, Kevin. “Please Don’t Shoot the Prairie Dogs.” Time July 7, 1997. LexisNexis Academic Universe. 10 April 1999 <http:// www.lexis-nexis.com>.
Newspaper article from Lexis-Nexis
Jefferson, Elsa. “Computer Wars.” Washington Post 11 January 2000. 1A+. LexisNexis Academic Universe. 12 June 2000 <http://www.lexis-nexis.com>.
Journal article from LexisNexis
Farmer, Joy A. “Mary Hood and the Speed of Grace: Catching Up with Flannery O’Connor.” Studies in Short Fiction 33, (1996): 91-100. LexisNexis Academic Universe. 30 July 2000 <http:// www.lexis-nexis.com>.
CD-ROM (see Little, Brown Handbook page 723)
The information on CD-ROMs varies. Some CD-ROMs may contain articles that originally appeared in print form; however, others may not. Use the following order for
articles or information from CD-ROMs. If a piece of information is missing, go to the next item in the list • • • Author’s name(s) (Newhouse, Jenny M.) Title of article in quotation marks (“Safe Drinking Water.”) Title of original print source(underlined or in italics), including volume numbers, publication dates, and page spread. Journal: Envirnoment 10:3 (2003): 71-74. Magazines: Environmental Studies 18 February 2003: 21-25. Newspaper: Ashville Courier 21 March 2002: A2+. • • • • • • Title of CR-ROM underlined or in italics (Educational Sources.) Edition (Educational Sources 3rd ed.) The word CD-ROM. City of publication or vendor followed by a colon (New York:) Name of publisher (Eastover House,) Date of publication (2001.)
CD-ROM with articles originally appearing in print
Newhouse, Jenny M. “Safe Drinking Water.” Environmental Studies 18 February 2003:21-25. Educational Sources. 3rd ed. CD-ROM. New York: Eastover House, 2001.
CD-ROM with no print equivalent
“Pablo Picasso.” Art Library. CD-ROM. Chicago: Wayne Publishers, 1999.
Page Layout, MLA Format
Cover page: Provide a cover page if you are using an outline or if your instructor requests it. See example Sample Essay MLA Format—With a Cover Page (English 102). No Cover Page: Do not include a cover page unless you are providing an outline or if your instructor specifically asks you not to include one. See Sample Essay, MLA Format (English 101) and Sample Essay, MLA Format—Without a Cover Page (English 102). Spacing: • one space between words and after commas, semicolons, colons, etc. • two spaces after periods or final punctuation. • one space between quotation marks and citations. Example: . . .in our society” (Wise 4). • Do not put a space between a word and the quotation marks that preceded or follow it (“City of Hope”). Place one space between Line Spacing: Everything in MLA format is double-spaced. DO NOT put extra spaces above or below your title. DO NOT put extra spaces between paragraphs. Fonts: Use Arial in 11 point font, or Times New Roman in 11 or 12 point font, or Courier in 11 or 12 point font. Use the same size font throughout your essay. DO NOT use a larger font for your title. Margins: Use half-inch margins on the top of the page (where your last name and page number appear). The MLA Handbook suggests one-inch margins on each side and the bottom of the page. No Bold: Bold is never used in MLA format.