Deleuze on J.M.W. Turner: Catastrophism in Philosophy?
... Turner's last watercolours do not only conquer already all the forces of impressionism, but also the power of an explosive line without contours. Making painting itself a catastrophe without equal (instead of romantically illustrating catastrophe).i
But does not difference as catastrophe precisely bear witness to an irreducible ground which continues to act under the apparent equilibrium of organic representation?ii
It is argued here that Gilles Deleuze puts forward a world-view where catastrophe plays a positive role. This advocacy for catastrophe is most explicit in Deleuze's studies of art, in particular, in his work on J.M.W. Turner. There, the greatness of Turner's late paintings is seen to lie in their expression of catastrophe, that is, they allow catastrophe to become actual in so far as the works of art are catastrophes in themselves. In this case, artistic expression is in direct opposition to the representation of catastrophes. However, Deleuze goes beyond catastrophe and, more importantly, he avoids the accusation of destructive nihilism. For him, catastrophe is only a stage that allows us to express the differential changes that underlie identity in a world committed to identity and representation. Once these changes are expressed and understood our commitment to identity disappears and with it the need to relate to change purely in terms of the extreme violence of catastrophe. In its place, Deleuze puts forward the doctrine of counteractualisation, that is, the practice of expressing the catastrophic changes that come to constitute and destroy any actuality.
II. Catastrophism in Philosophy
For Gilles Deleuze, disaster and destruction must be present in all things and must be put into motion in all great creations. Not only, are all things overshadowed by catastrophe, but also, it is the task of great art to participate in this disaster. In his remarks on Turner, his `oracle', Deleuze singles out the painter's absolute dedication to catastrophe. The English painter is not put forward as great simply for his early representations of Alpine avalanches and other aweinspiring disastrous eventsiii. He is great because, in the later works, the paintings become catastrophes in themselves and for those who view them.
This is no mistaken usage, the Littré and OED definitions are unequivocal. A catastrophe is a great reversal, a disaster and a deplorable end. Deleuze risks outdoing Voltaire's PanglossLeibniz by inviting rather than merely accepting the Lisbon earthquake: `trente mille habitants de tout age et de tout sexe sont écrasés sous les ruines ... -- Quelle peut être la raison suffisante
Dr. James Williams, University of Dundee.
this geological catastrophism is expressed through the ever-present processes of de-territorialisation and re-territorialisation. the series is a multiplicity that cannot be totalised.'ix In this sense.
Here. they are the result of a series of dramatic changes and they are destined to be engulfed by further ones: identity must be understood in terms of a potentiality that can come to destroy it. There also is no possible overview. catastrophe is ubiquitous and without fixed scale. according to Deleuze.can make these movements on different scales felt on others. or hierarchy. no well-defined territory is safe or static. static walls take on a dynamic quality that furthers the architect's project of making buildings into an active aesthetic experience. then. as much from the point of view of the determination of their species as from the differentiation of their parts.somewhat like time-lapse photography -. His reasons are not simply millenarian or tragic in the sense of the final disaster or undoing.
Deleuze's catastrophism. the very concept of identity as ground is challenged: underlying any identity we find a set of destructive and creative processes. for Deleuze. Furthermore. There is no rule for the organisation of these processes. For example. artist and scientist is to lift the illusion of settled identities and pure essences by expressing the processes that come to produce
. urban planning and settlement. He is the analogue of the great explorer -. The disappearance of familiar landscapes and the creation of an unfamiliar terrain in a volcanic eruption.de ce phénomène? disait Pangloss.not of another world. Though individuals and species become settled and attached to a particular form.] Kant is the one who discovers the prodigious dominance of the transcendental. and communication in the folds of the structural designs for the Rebstockpark site in Frankfurt: `The idea of the Rebstock Fold is to become this surface on which urban events would be inscribed with an intensive actuality'vii Thus. Similarly. rather.'iv Indeed. tidal wave or earthquake is repeated in all things great or small. a potentiality. in accord with the more abstract definition of the OED. Deleuze owes this move from the empirical to the transcendental to Kant: `[. it is constantly undone and remade.
Art -. Peter Eisenman followed Gilles Deleuze in expressing movements in geology. From the smallest to the greatest state different catastrophic processes are at workv. and this structure is incarnated in actual organisms.. instead. according to comparative speeds or slowness which measure the movement of actualization. in geology. but of the upper or lower reaches of this one.. catastrophe is to be affirmed and sought out in art and in life. life presupposes catastrophe and destruction as potentialities and the role of the philosopher. These processes are the transcendental condition for any actual identity. The subversion of systematicity and identity is the attraction of catastrophe rather than the harsh lessons of its violence. in his philosophy. his catastrophe is any event `subverting a system of things'. Deleuze's favoured source in this respect is the work of the biologist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire: `[the set of genes] constitutes a virtuality. the term indicates a theory that explains changes on the earth's surface in terms of sudden catastrophic events. from Thousand Plateaus to What is Philosophy?. appears to be radical and thoroughgoing. In Deleuze and Guattari's books. Motion and change take over from stasisvi. this multiplicity is radically destructive insofar as the identity of things is not preserved in the transformation. Where. according to rhythms that are precisely called `differential'. Le Corbusier uses vibration between colours or light and shade to animate a solid building.'viii There can be no limited and clearly defined actual thing whose existence does not presuppose a set of past and future catastrophic changes. once coloured. every actual thing is subject to an infinite set of ongoing and openended transformations and re-creations that can be expressed in art.
. In its most straightforward version this means that any Deleuzian actuality is the meeting point of all potentialities. Neither philosopher will exchange this commitment for the re-assurance of a final cause and for the explanation of catastrophe through divine will. Deleuze and Turner
Deleuze's most important remarks on Turner appear in two passages of Deleuze and Guattari's Anti-Oedipus. This density is a key factor of the style of the book: it is written to reflect the view.. Turner is there. since they break with the belief in the omnipresence of destruction and re-creation. It can be a sign of order and justice. firstly. The paintings of the second period are somewhat like the
. secondly. or selective events designed.. to bring about the Goodx. There can be no transcendent realm from whence to explain and rationalise catastrophe. without knowing any longer whether they are carrying us elsewhere or flowing back over us already.]'xii
III.. That's where Turner begins. The paintings range over three periods. although they are in fact the most reasonable. Looking at his paintings. and yet to remain behind.
In line with this property of Deleuze and Guattari's writing. even distressing. It is for this reason that expression is an important function within his philosophy. With this refusal of transcendence there is also the refusal of a transcendent ethical order: disaster cannot be redeemed by reference to a will outside this world. rather. They despise those who do fall into this illusion: `[. Though the sections are relatively short they are dense and a careful reading allows a complex position to emerge. The key passage is: The visit to London is our Pythia. In less radical versions. and the like. These possibilities are actively opposed in Deleuze's work. These they maintain happen because the gods are angry on account of wrongs done to them by men [. that the potentialities of any given actuality is the cosmos as a whole.and undermine them. The question `Why does Deleuze come to develop a catastrophism in art and philosophy?' is the leading thread connecting these points. the first passage on Turner from Anti-Oedipus will be unpacked into a series of points that cover wider Deleuzian arguments and ideas. the identification of part and whole never takes place. Passages from Anti-Oedipus therefore condense the book as a whole and wide series of arguments and theories are found in concentrated form in extremely short passages. In the Deleuzian version. purifications. they are differentiated by the relation of actual to potential. The first are of end-of-the-world catastrophes. where great disasters are in fact only lessons. it relates the potential to the actual. one understands what it is to scale the wall. catastrophe in philosophy still leaves a place for redemption and reconciliation. to cause flows to pass through. avalanches and storms. that all the possibilities that can occur and have occurred to an actual thing subsist in it as potentialities and. earthquakes and diseases. Deleuze's commitment to immanence and to an univocal philosophy is a strong as Spinoza'sxi. If the psychiatrist were allowed to speak here.
This extreme nature of Deleuze's advocacy of catastrophe is unsettling. he could talk about the first two. any existent presupposes the subsistent world as a whole. in the end. It is important to note how this view departs from a statement such as `God is fully present even in the smallest thing and all things are in God'.] among so many conveniences in Nature they had to find many inconveniences: storms. or.
their meaning has changed. For example. It is also why the passage closes on the opposition between a breakthrough or a breakdown. and more importantly. This division into periods is not especially controversial.delirious reconstruction.
Deleuze and Guattari deal with the response in terms of standard divisions in the critical understanding of Turner's work and a non-standard interpretation of those divisions. the break with identity and with the repression of desire as change (Deleuze defines desire as a movement rather than as a longing for a specific goal or object) risks descending into a chaotic. the political risk of anarchy and the moral risk of nihilistic destructiveness must be addressed. It cannot even be said that he is far ahead of his time: there is something ageless. The problem has a political and moral side. an explosion. or flees towards it. Lorrain. For example. 1838). They also capture the psychological. Everything becomes mixed and confused. it is pierced by a hole. a tornado. intensive. psychology and. This is why we find the passage opening on the opposition between passing over the wall and remaining behind or allowing flows to pass through. more abstract and now more famous paintings (for instance. inspired among others by Poussin and Claude. through an historical and mythical period. John Wilton writes: `As human beings we cannot avoid being responsive to the sublime in nature and in the works of man. The Fighting `Téméraire'. that comes from an eternal future. Turner's paintings are a creative response to this problem. But something incomparable happens at the level of the paintings of the third period. but keeps secret. limitation and sense without which chaos would reign. This instinctive human response is what prompts much of our admiration of Turner. From the point of view of this revolutionary book written in the aftermath of May 68. where recognisable forms are disturbed or torn asunder in explosions of light and colour. to his late. a lake.'xiv
. Secondly. and the need for an order. in the series Turner does not exhibit. the home or the state. it also has a logical aspect. since it follows clear formal and substantive differences. intense. The analogies capture the tension between the escape from repression. or the dutch tradition: the world is reconstructed through archaisms having a modern function. The canvas turns in on itself. are rather when it is on a par with the lofty technique inherited from Poussin. in conclusion to the notes on his major exhibition on the Turnerian sublime. the passage on Turner is situated exactly where Deleuze and Guattari consider the possibility of a terminally chaotic catastrophe in politics.not the breakdown -. traversed in depth by what has just sundered its breath: the schiz. The canvas is truly broken. Turner's work has been united under the theme of the romantic sublime according to which each of the periods of his work is related to the sublime relation of nature to man. where the delirium hides. All that remains is a background of gold and fog. given the integrity of Turner's work these distinctions are most often conflated according to overall interpretations. whether psychological or machinic. Thus. sundered by what penetrates it. However. but also to return. the question arises of whether there can be a radical break with rules without a collapse into nonsense. The themes of the preceding paintings are to be found again here. Firstly. and it is here that the breakthrough -. more generally. escaping over the wall of the prison. His work evolves from early picturesque paintings.xiii
The first point to draw is that the passage is a response to a key problem in Deleuze and Guattari's work. structure-less state. in terms of logic and the philosophy of language. in any machinic set-up. the mechanical tension between a breakthrough and a breakdown: the breakout from repression or from technical limits is energising and lifeaffirming but it is also the point of greatest danger in terms of complete breakdown or failure.occurs. We must still be responsive to it in works of art.
for Gage and for Ruskin. For him. launched an attack on the very painting that Ruskin and Gage view as central: This is a picture in which truth. but rather the conflict of light and dark.. Turner's art represents the power and beauty of nature as it exceeds mere human scales and values. of the science of colour and of the romantic relation of man to nature: In the study of Turner's career as a colourist. over and above red and blue. the deeper truth that underlies Turner's sublime pictures lies in the possibility of making sense of the apparent immeasurable force of nature through mythical interpretations blended into the landscape with the aid of his supreme command of colour: `[. Turner was seen as ruining the real beauty of nature through personal obsession. catastrophe can be averted through the intellectual function of symbolic representation. rather than that of the physical facts. sundered by what penetrates it.'xv
Deleuze rejoins Gage on the theme of light and colour but breaks with his symbolism and romanticism. with all the vehement contrast of a kaleidoscope or a Persian carpet. All that remains is a background of gold and fog. for him the primaries were emblematic not of harmony but of disharmony.xx Thus. he has reached the perfection of unnatural tawdriness. John Gage has developed a subtle interpretation that claims. caused revulsion and ridicule among some critics. represented by Turner's obsession with storms and turbulent sea-scapexvi. Ruskin was working against severe popular attack on the inventive and surreal use of colour in Turner's late paintings. His use of an apparently unreal. For him. three colour basis for painting and his reliance on yellow. backgroundxviii or veilxix of light and colour in the late paintings as viewed by Deleuze.' In these different interpretations the theme of catastrophe is never far away. traversed in depth by what has just sundered its breath: the schiz. but only in negative terms as a sensual scandal. Turner's art breaks with representation through colour and only the late paintings achieve this break: `The canvas is truly broken.According to this view. and to look forward to a mythology of colour infusing some of the later landscapes. and because it invites us both to look for a conception of natural forces underlying some of the earlier subject pictures which have often been considered as merely conventional. or in the catastrophic explosionxvii. Indeed. for example. yellow and purple contend for mastery on the canvas. the sensual catastrophe picked up upon by Deleuze was felt very early on.positive vermilion -... In fact it may be taken as a specimen of colouring run mad -. intensive. whether it be in the immeasurable power of a sublime nature.] the aim of the great inventive landscape painter must be to give the far higher and deeper truth of mental vision. after Ruskin. However. The Morning Herald.. More significantly. This union is achieved through a complex poetic symbolism where colour and forms represent themes in the relation of colour to sublime romantic themes: `Turner in his art was less and less concerned to express chromatic harmony.positive indigo. intense. Turner brings together an understanding of the forces of nature.'xxi
The importance of this intellectual capture of the forces of nature in the mythology of colour cannot be under-estimated.xxiii
. and all the most glaring tints of green. for Gage. though in fact scientificxxii. Ulysses deriding Polyphemes is a central picture because it is as much about light and colour as it is about the Homeric story. nature and feeling are sacrificed to melodramatic effect . that Turner's art brings together a painterly concern with the role of colour and a concern with the romantic relation of man and nature.
and effected breaks at the limits of desire: a breakthrough. his `wonderful range of mind'. Turner has degenerated into such a detestable manner. turner turn back to Nature and worship her as the goddess of his idolatry.. Rather. We have seen this in the case of the painter Turner.art as a process without goal. nothing but yellow.not the breakdown -. there where he could gratify his desire to be
. no period. the explosiveness of Turner's use of light and colour expresses the potential violent changes that bring about and destroy any actual natural state. This is why Deleuze is attracted to Turner's use of colour against figure. Shapes lose their determinacy. So. undid the signifiers.. they cannot be re-inscribed into a mythology of colour.but as sensual facts. but that attains completion as such. Deleuze and Guattari seek to inflate the role of catastrophe to the point where intellectual functions are stilled by pure sensual intensity. Deleuze is not only drawn to the late paintings but also to some of the characteristics of their creator..... The explosive. In this sense. but keeps secret. it is this sacrifice of represented nature that Deleuze and Guattari pick out as the most important aspect of the late paintings: `Everything becomes mixed and confused. there is something that belongs to no school. instead of his `yellow bonze' which haunts him . unlike Gage. This catastrophe is to be Turner's greatest and most truthful achievement: But at least something arose whose force fractured the codes.The British Press went further in attacking Turner for the catastrophe he unleashed on the canvas and in the senses of the viewer: [. violently contrasted with blue . and it is here that the breakthrough -. set the flows in motion. In order to disappear.. and his most accomplished paintings that are sometimes termed "incomplete": from the moment there is genius.`the series Turner does not exhibit. Turner's becoming imperceptible: the artist disappears just as his art reaches its greatest intensity.xxiv
Yet. The artist's character and psychology are often seen as mirrors for the works and vice versa. [we] would wish Mr. that we cannot view his works without pain .' This is because.] all is yellow. turner's pictures we are in a region that exists in no quarter of the universe.. Turner took the name of his companion Mrs Booth and withdrew with her to a small house in Chelsea hidden from his fame and reputation as an artist (`. they value the power of catastrophe in painting exactly because it disturbs the mental function of ascribing sense to nature even where nature his hidden or strange.a storm or an avalanche -. something that achieves a breakthrough -. He is therefore drawn to the secrecy and duplicity of Turner's later life .occurs. undermining and sundering effects of colour in the paintings disrupt figure. to use Deleuze's term. One of the effects of the opposition to identity in Deleuze's philosophy is the critique of the role of the self as a reference point for the understanding of art.' Not only did Turner keep these paintings to himself (in poor conditions in his studio). in Mr. not in terms of an imagined event -. This is...
However. passed under the structures. colour and light in Turner are primordial.xxv Where Gage and Ruskin attempt to tame catastrophe through an appeal to Turner's conceptualisations.. he also took on a second identity in order to preserve himself from his artistic fame. Mr.. they represent one-another in different ways and in different areas and thereby offer an alternative to Deleuze's view of art as the expression of intensities that escape identification. for them.
The intensity of Turner's colour as it flows through a painting such as Norham Castle.' This then allows the pure intensity of the works to take effect and escape capture within a psychological interpretation. consultant to George III during his attacks of madness. Turner's earliest picturesque work was sponsored by Dr. does this mean that painting and other expressive creation must always tend to the most pure expression of intensity? Is the logical extension of Turner's actual catastrophes to turn away from any figure and sense and into Twentieth Century abstract expressionism? Finally. colour for colour's sake..
For Deleuze. where the early works fit into a theory whereby the harmony of the landscape must return a disturbed mind to calm. rather.
IV The Deleuzian Diagram
If Turner's greatest achievement is to have broken through figure and broken out of sense. Turner frees himself from black and looks for the most beautiful colorations. for example -. he could talk about the first two. Turner has unleashed the power of changes in the intensity of light and colour within the framework of nature and the human form. It is in this sense that there is a literal catastrophe in Turner's late paintings. Turner reached a kind of creative madness (pre-figuring abstract expressionism): `From 1834. It also achieves a breakthrough in the expression of the role of an intense and uncontrolled light in sensation. For Van Gogh. the series of shades. colours. the cognitive command over the senses is overwhelmed in favour of pure sensual intensity. You would say he was mad [. the later works express the violent potential of light and colour at work behind any scape: `art. Although the artist may have made a series of mental and draught preparations for a painting -sketches and ideas about figures. its own genius. scratches and layers of material set down prior to the delineation of figure. as soon as it attains its own grandeur. does this catastrophism in painting find a parallel in a nihilistic philosophy that rebels against meaning and structure in favour of the destruction of any representations and identities? Deleuze considers these questions directly in his important book on Francis Bacon.'
The key to Tuner's work does not lie in curing the disharmony of man and nature. Paradoxically. and make them function. According to Paul Signac. the diagram is the pre-figural preparation of the canvas.] The works of Turner prove to me that we must be free of all ideas of imitation and copying.after this preparatory work a non-figurative diagram must also prepare the way for figuration. However. trees and
. Munro. although they are in fact the most reasonable. In Bacon's case this consists of a series of haphazard lines. that is.'xxvi) The importance of this imperceptible quality of the artist is to render psychological analysis redundant: `If the psychiatrist were allowed to speak here. it lies in liberating light and colour as elements of desire in themselves. creates chains of decoding and deterritorialisation that serve as the foundation for desiring-machines.completely incognito. coloured spots and pitched paint. as opposed to a represented catastrophe in his early picturesque or mythical work. and that hues must be created. The effects do not take place through the mediation of a reflection upon the paintings. Sunrise achieves a breakout away from sense and the restriction of familiar identifiable forms. in particular where he applies his concept of the diagram to painting. this preparatory work is the set of straight and bent strokes of paint that deform earth.'xxvii For Deleuze and Guattari.. to give a familiar example. Munro believed that drawing picturesque landscapes offered an escape from melancholy madness.
he scrubbed at it in a kind of frenzy and the whole thing was chaos -. This physical rather than visual act of painting puts down a ground that is in contradiction with the pre-planned figure. This preparation astounded his contemporaries.. This means that instead of placing objects within a geometric grid. then. This point comes out more clearly in the second. he scratched..xxx
The concept of the diagram allows Deleuze to explain how Turner's paintings undermine conceptual and visual organisation through the intensity of colour and. the sense of a manual space given through coloured planes and the warmth and coldness of colours. chaotic act of painting: `[. non-illustrative.. They are lines of sensation. because these marks. What he means by this is that Turner's paintings are grounded on washes of colour with no clear boundaries. like chaos before the creation.but gradually and as if by magic the lovely ship. free. In the diagram. indeed. is the physical catastrophe that underlies figuration in painting: It is like the sudden appearance of another world. these lines are irrational. How could the sublime beauty of the finished work be the result of a random. involuntary. but of confused sensation [. that is. as the picture when sent in was a mere dab of several colours. They are non-representational. After visual preparation in the mind's eye or in sketches.'xxxii
The Deleuzian answer to this critical astonishment is that the beauty of the paintings depends exactly on the chaotic intensity of the preparatory diagram that seems so at odds with the final figural sublimity. Deleuze describes Turner's diagram in terms of a coloured `line without contours'. with all its exquisite minutiae.xxix The diagram allows Deleuze to define what he calls the `haptic' aspect of painting.. tracing marks that do not depend on our will or on our vision [. Turner prepared his oil paintings with the rapid and instinctive ground that Deleuze describes. Patches of intense colour and light traverse the well-defined figures of the paintingsxxxiii... First. this diagram. driven by chance.]xxxi Turner's virtuoso performances on varnishing days at the Royal Academy confirm this description of his method. He would allow an hopelessly unfinished or dim painting to be hung with only days left before the opening of the exhibition. as in a catastrophe or chaos. non-narrative.] The artist's hand has stepped in to exercise its independence and to smash a sovereign optical organisation: nothing more is seen.. would be rapidly transformed by the addition of small details or colorations: `Indeed it was quite necessary for him to make best use of his time. These washes or lines without contours were indeed
. he tore. Turner's method fits this account very well on at least two counts. came into being [. and most important `diagrammatic' aspect of Turner's work. But they are also not significant or signifying: they are asignifying lines. rather than through perspective and light and shadow. an optical space organised according to the rigid geometrical coordinates above-below-far-near is replaced by a manual space organised according to the more fluid grasp of warm-cold-hard-soft.] The hand becomes independent and passes into the service of other forces. But this unsatisfactory state. and `without form or void'.skyxxviii. The diagram. there is an automatic and random production of non-figurative shapes and colours that threatens to engulf the figuration it is meant to prepare for. the painter gives a world that is sensed in terms of greater and lesser tactile intensities.. accidental.] he began by pouring wet paint till it was saturated.
To emerge from catastrophe. It is necessary for there to be the risk of destruction by the diagram. it is exactly when Deleuze discusses these last watercolours that he comes to question the extreme catastrophe that Turner brings to painting: `[In the diagram] the painter confronts the greatest dangers for himself and for his work. it is not Fact itself. All figurative facts must not disappear. Turner's `line without contours' Bacon aims to save the contour from catastrophe: To save the contour. what it seeks to avoid is the loss of intensity. above all. In Turner's late work. although catastrophe and Turner `bear witness to an irreducible ground' (to use the expression from Difference and Repetition). For Deleuze. the third.xxxv
Thus. It is also why he is seen as the greatest fore-runner of abstract expressionism: the colour beginnings and late watercolours resemble nothing more than Rothko's abstract shadings and contrasts.' Having argued that the diagram is a crucial part of any painting. Deleuze's attraction to catastrophe is not a nihilistic rush towards collapse and chaos. Draughtsmanship takes second place to the search for the perfect background colour wash for a given scene. but catastrophe has to be controlled. Pollock. The importance of this division lies in the set of remarks that accompany it. a new figuration must .
However. emerge from the diagram and carry clarity and precision with it. a diagrammatic painting that saves line and figure by `controlling' catastrophe. Each of the three ways is a handling of catastrophe: the first minimalises the role of the diagram in favour of a pure spiritual vision. This is why Signac can claim Turner as the `mad' painter of colour for colour's sake. as in the work of Francis Bacon. for example. this is a pure manual painting. ascetic diagram as in the work of Mondrian. they were also the most striking side to his watercolours.] The Diagram must not devour the whole painting. involves an explicit criticism of the first two. and. nothing is more important for Bacon [. It must remain operational and controlled. The diagram is the possibility of fact. In fact.one of the most important preparatory aspects of Turner's late paintings... finally. Against. he then considers three modern ways of acting out this fact: pure abstraction or a minimal.. caused by a fear of chaos. for example.. in the last watercolours of Switzerland. but also the complete foundering of painting in manual confusion. a maximal diagram. that is the most chaotic. in the last watercolours and some of the oils the background effaces the figure completely. rather. the point is never to merely merge with that chaotic condition for identity.. The violent means must not be unleashed and catastrophe must not submerge everything. Francis Bacon's third way avoids the catastrophic dangers of the first two. the sketching of figures is overtaken by astounding colour preparations or `Colour Beginnings'xxxiv where fluid patches of colour are put down in series in sketch books.. This measured response to catastrophe is made most clear where Deleuze considers the Stoic response to catastrophic events in conjunction with closeness to
. as in Turner's last work and American abstract expressionism. it must be limited in space and time. in the pure vision of formal abstraction. and. The role of philosophy and art is to divulge the presence of the intensities that come to constitute actuality without plunging into pure intensity. however. the second flirts with complete destruction in the chaos of catastrophe without sense or figure. `the diagram must remain operational and controlled'.
The controlling response to catastrophic events is counteractualisation.xxxvi Where Turner expresses the intensity of light and colour at work behind actual figures he achieves the counter-actualisation of the role of colour in actuality and helps us to live up to and live with the power of light and colour. moves and transfigures it [. like the true actor and dancer. that is. the potentialities that are expressed in any actuality as destruction and creation.disaster encountered in Anglo-American literature (a topic that he covers immediately after Turner's painting in Anti-Oedipus). In counter-actualisation. then that achievement will be lost. if this expression takes over altogether from figures. But each time we must double this painful actualisation by a counter-actualisation which limits. to double the actualisation with a counter-actualisation. But. a doubling of the event where an artistic expression doubles the expression of differential changes in actuality..
.] to be the mime of what effectively occurs. is to give the truth of the event the only chance of not being confused with its inevitable actualisation.. are themselves expressed: The eternal truth of the event is grasped only if the event is also inscribed in the flesh. the identification with a distance.
iv. xi. brown. pp. 35. p. Snowstorm: Hannibal and his Army crossing the Alps. I. Gilles Deleuze. See J. Colour in Turner: Poetry and Truth (London: Studio Vista. 115-23. Curtis. 117. Anti-Oedipus (London: Athlone. sensation
ii. John Gage. Turner. xii. pp. Gilles Deleuze. 119. 135. Andrew Wilton.W. 1994). The Fall of an Avalanche in the Grisons. 105. xiv. x. Appendix. Curley (Princeton University Press. 1810. 1994) p. 68 [my translation]. Difference and Repetition. vi. Voltaire. Le Corbusier: Ideas and Forms (London: Phaidon Press. 40-41. viii. ou l'optimisme. 1960).M. R. 1995) pp. Ed. 1992). and it is possible that Le Corbusier was influenced by Neo-plasticist ideas for generating contrast and vibration between pure colour planes. grey and blue. in Romans (Paris: Garnier. Francis Bacon: logique de la (Paris: la Différence. p. 1993) pp. v. 1981) p. 147. 1812.A. xv. E. 185. 1981) p. vii. Ethics. p. Difference and Repetition (London: Athlone. 1984) p. 42. esp.
. and these activate the interiors still further. ix.Notes: i. Spinoza. xiii. 111. p. 1969) p. Difference and Repetition. iii. p 72. `Perplications' in Peter Eisenman et al Re:working Eisenman (London: Academy. William J. John Rajchman. Difference and Repetition. `Genealogy as History Catastrophized' in The Genealogy of Ethics (London: Routledge. Le Corbusier developed the use of colour architecture from his work on and in modern art: planes in et contes
Walls are painted white. Turner and the Sublime (London: British Museum. In 1923 there was an exhibition of de Stijl architecture at the Galerie Rosenberg in Paris. Difference and Repetition. For a limit case of this view of catastrophe as an ethical burden see John Llewelyn. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. 20913. 132. Candide.
p. xxix. xxxiii. See Gerard Wilkinson. See Keelmen Hauling in Coals by Night. p. xxviii. xxv. 1835. Slavers throwing overboard the Dead and Dying -. p. Norham Castle. xxii. R. c. 132.A. 1845. Anti-Oedipus. 39. 279.The Great Western Railway. the oils and watercolours of Venice. 370. 202.A. 1807. Turner in his Time (London: Thames and Hudson. xx. Bacon: logique de la sensation. xxxi. xxxv. Turner in his Time. R. p. 1835. 1975). c. Sun setting over a Lake. xxx. Snowstorm -. 1842. from Modern Painters. 122. Ibid. 1840. See The Wreak of a Transport Ship. Turner in his Time. R. R. 1952. p. xxiii. 160. Ibid. 66 [my translation]. 1987) p. xxi. Rain. 1835. Francis Bacon: logique de la sensation. see Colour in Turner: Poetry and Truth. p. Francis translation]. Ibid.A. 1840-5. A Fire at Sea. 66. Colour in Turner: Poetry and Truth (London: Studio Vista. R. 1834. 1844. c. October 16. Sun setting over a Lake. xvii. See The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons. 87. quoted in Andrew Wilton. See.A.Steamboat off a Harbour's Mouth.A. xxxii. c. p. John Gage. 1845. John Ruskin. Turner in his Time. xxxiv. xviii. `Extraits du Journal de Paul Signac'. 1840-45. 146.A. Rewald. 177-85. J. part V. Sunrise. p. 1969) p. pp. R.xvi. See Light and Colour (Goethe's Theory). p. Ibid.Typhon coming on (`The Slave Ship'). xxvi. xix. Gazette des Beaux Arts. 1843. p. Steam and Speed -. 114. xxvii. xxiv. 71 [my
. c. p. 222. Turner was enthusiastic about the three colour theory put forward by Brewster against Newton. Turner's Colour Sketches (Barrie and Jenkins.
.xxxvi. Gilles deleuze. The Logic of Sense (London: Athlone. 1990) p. 161.