Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3 MB00 50 – Research Methodology - 4 Credits (Book ID: B1206) Assignment Set - 1 (60 Marks

Note: Assignment Set -1 must be written within 6-8 pages. Answer all questions. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q1. a. Explain the types of research. b. What is the significance of research in social and business sciences? 5 +5 = 10 marks (200 - 250 words each) Ans. Types of research : According to the intent the research may be classified as : i. Pure Research : It is undertaken for the search of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practise, e.g., Einstein's theory of relativity. ii. Applied Research : It is carried on to find the solution to the real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem oriented and action directed. iii. Exploratory Research : It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. iv. Descriptive Research : It is the fact finding investigation with adequate investigation. It is the simplest types of research and is more specific than exploratory research. v. Diagnostic Research : It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. vi. Evaluation Research : It is the type of applied research made for accessing the effectiveness of the social or economical programmes implemented or for accessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. vii. Action Research: It is the type of concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving an existing situation. According to the method of study research may be classified as : Experimental Research : It aims at determining whether and in what manner variables are related to each other. Analytical Research : It is a system of procedures and techniques of analysis applied to quantitative data. Historical Research : It is the study of the past records and other information sources with the view to reconstructing the origin or development of an institution or a movement if the system and discovering the trends in the past. Survey : It is the fact finding study. This involves the collection of data directly from a population or sample thereof at particular time.

i. ii. iii.


Significance of research in social and business life : According to the famous Hudson Maxim, "All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence , for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention". It brings out the significance of research, increased amount of which make progress possible. Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking, besides promoting the development of the logical habits of thinking and organisation.

Susanto Paul

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What is meant by validity? How does it differ from reliability and what are its types? 10 marks (300 . Page 2 i. i. the prediction of the future developments. Diagnoses of events that are taking place and the analysis of the forces underlying them. ii. There are two dimensions of reliability. It provides the basis for almost all the government policies of an economic system. Research is also necessary for collecting information on the social and the economical structure of an economy to understand the process of change occurring in the country.. Sampling validity : Sampling validity refers to how representative the content of the measuring instrument is. Validity may be classified into different types as shown below : i. ii. as in the weighing machine example. Reliability can be improved in three ways : By reducing the external sources of variation.a weighing machine can be said to be reliable if the same reading is given every time the same object is weighed. ii. Q2. Validity : A measurement scale may be considered to be valid if it effectively measures a specific property or characteristics that it intends to measure.research as a tool of government economic policy formulation involves three distinct stages of operation which are as follows . Various kinds of relationship may be perceived by the researcher between a variable under study and other variables.e. Face validity : Face validity is determined through a subjective evaluation of the measuring scale. To give a simple example .350 words) Ans. for both the government and the business. although in itself it is not the part of the research. Non variability : Non variability refers to the consistency at the given point in time among different investigators and the samples of items. iii. Research also assumes the significant role in solving various operational and planning problems associated with business and industry.The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or business is greatly increased in modern times. based on the association of the results yielded by the measuring instrument and the eventual income. i. Research assumes significant role in the formulation of the economic policy. Predictive validity : This types of validity refers to the extent to which one behaviour can be predicated based on another. Thus . The limitation of this types of validation is that it is determined by opinions . Investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts. Content validity : This types of validity may be of two types a. rather than through a statistical method. i. Construct validity : A construct is the conceptual equation that is developed by the researcher based on theoretical reasoning. iii. Research also facilitates the decision making of the policy makers. Reliability : This refers to the ability of the measuring scale to provide consistent and accurate result. Susanto Paul . In this process research also helps in proper allocation of the country's scare resources. Stability and equivalence : Stability refers to the consistency of result with repeated measurements of the same objects . b. The prognosis .

a. Since human memory is fallible .Professional organisations . or collecting data in the systematic and organized ways so that the conclusion drawn are reliable .The formulation of an hypothesis is Page 3 iii. 10 marks (300 . how to interpret in and avoid inaccurate data collection. through an analysis of different items. The researcher has to take stock of these various hypothesis with the view to evaluate their usefulness for further research and to consider whether they suggest any new hypothesis. It means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things exactly as they are and avoiding jumping to unwanted conclusions either by exaggeration or fantasizing. ii. Precision : That is making as exact as necessary. Training investigators : This is imparting necessary knowledge to investigators to make them understand what to look for . What are the criteria of good research problem? 5 +5 = 10 marks (200 .250 words each) Ans. This avoid colorful literature and vague meaning. the bulletin of abstracts of current social sciences research . Q3. viii. some governmental agencies and voluntary organisations publish listing of summaries of research in their special filed of services . Objectivity : This is free being all biases and vested interest. directory of doctoral dissertation accepted by the universities etc afford a rich store of valuable clues. Frequently . In some areas of the subject matter. Explain the procedure for Testing Hypothesis. iii.research groups and voluntary organisations are a constant sources of information about unpublished works in their special filed The criteria of good research problem are discussed below: Horton and Hunt have given following characteristics of scientific research: i. Systematization : This is attempting to find all the relevant data. Q4. Ans. Accuracy : That is describing what really exists. By adding more number of items to the measuring instruments . In addition to these general sources . Why literature survey is important in research? b.ii. in order to increase the probability of ore accurate measurement. The researcher's task is to review the available materials with an eyes on the possibilities of developing an hypothesis from it. Controlling conditions : This is controlling all variable s except one and then attempting to examine what happened when that variable is varied. or giving exact number of measurement. By making the measurement instrument more consistent internally. Susanto Paul . an exploratory study is concerned with an area of subject matter in which explicit hypothesis have not yet been formulated. vi.economic reviews. Recording : this is jotting down complete details as quickly as possible. iv. Verifiable Evidence : This is the factual observations which other observers can see and check. all data collected are recorded. Research really begins when the researcher experiences some difficulty. hypothesis may have been stated by previous research workers .350 words) The procedure of testing hypothesis are given below: Making a formal statement : The step consist of making a formal statement of the null hypothesis(Ho) and also of the alternative hypothesis(Ha). v. vii. Sociological journal . i.

If the calculated probability is less than the α value as in case of one tailed test(α /2 as in case of two tailed test) then reject the null hypothesis . the next step of hypothesis is to determine the appropriate sampling distribution. but if the probability is greater than accept the null hypothesis. Susanto Paul Page 4 . The rules for selecting the correct distribution are similar to those which we have stated either in the context of the estimation. either 5% level or 1% level is adopted for the purpose.if the null hypothesis were in fact true. iii. In case we reject H0 we run a risk of committing an error of type I. but if we accept H0 than we run some risk of committing error type II. an important steps which must be accomplished with due care in accordance with object and nature of the problem under consideration. Selecting a significant level : The hypothesis is tested on a pre-determined level of significance and such the same should be specified. v. vi.ii. Selecting a random sample & computing an appropriate value : Another step is to select the random sample(S) and compute an appropriate value from the sample data concerning the test statistic utilizing the relevant distribution. The choice generally remains between distribution and the t distribution. Generally in practise. iv. Comparing the probability : Yet another step consist of calculating the probability with the specified value of α. the significant level. Deciding the distribution to use : After deciding the level of significance . Calculation of the probability : One has than to calculate the the sample result would diverse as widely as is has from expectation .

Components of research diagram : The various components of research diagram are explained below: i. iv. a. Explain the components of a research design. Experiment unit : Experimental units refers to as the pre-determined plots.Q5. it is known as dependent or endogenous variables. The variable that causes the changes in the dependent variables are known as independent variables or explanatory variable or exogenous variables.250 words each) Ans. It is again subcategorised as a. the following three methods in the context of research design for such studies are talked about. Control : One of the most important features of a good research design is to minimize the effect of extraneous variable. a. When the group is exposed to certain new or special condition than it is known as experimental group. Analyses of insight stimulating : examples are also fruitful method for suggesting hypothesis for result. b. Extraneous variable : The independent variable which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but effect the dependent variable is known as extraneous variable iii. ii. The term control is used in the experimental research to reflect the restrain in the experimental conditions. Different types of research design : The various research design are discussed below: i. When changes in one variable depends on the change in one or more other variables . when the dependent variable is not free from its effect. Research hypothesis : When the prediction or the hypothesized relationship is tested by adopting scientific methods. b. Generally . Dependent and independent variables : A magnitude that varies is known as variables. characteristics or the block to which different treatments are applied. c. Experience survey : means the survey of people who have had practical experience with the problem to be studied. Research design in case of exploratory research studies :Exploratory research design are also termed as formulative research studies. Briefly explain the different types of research designs. it is known as research hypothesis. c. b. Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies : Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concern with describing the characteristic of a particular individual or of a group where as diagnostic research Susanto Paul Page 5 . d. ii. Experimental and control group : When a group is exposed to the usual condition in an experimental hypothesis testing then it is called the control group. The survey of concerning literature : happens to be the most simple and the fruitful method of formulating precisely the research problem or the developing hypothesis. 5 +5 = 10 marks (200 . e. Treatments : Treatments are referred to the different conditions to which the experimental and the control group are subject to. Confounded relationship : The relationship between dependent and independent variable are known as confounded variables by an extraneous variable. Experiments : An experiment refers to the process of verifying the truth of the statistical hypothesis relating to the given research problem.

where the research objective requires statistical inference .iii. Q6. Ans. Explain the Sampling process. iv. Geographical area of the study and size of the population : If area covered by the survey is very large and the size of the population is quite large. The investigator makes up his procedure as he goes along. iii. Hence. v. Sampling Process : The decision process of sampling is the complicated one The researcher has to first identify the limiting factor and factors and must judiciously balance the conflicting factors. ii. Efforts should be made to ascertain the reliability of the life history data through examining the internal consistency of the materials . i. The nature of the population :In terms of the variables to be studied. What are the assumptions of Case Study Method? b. It is advisable to supplement the case data by observational. statistical and historical data since these data provides standards for accessing the reliability and consistency of the case materials. is the nature homogenous or heterogeneous? vi.But if area and size of the population are very small.250 words each) The assumptions of Case Study Method : are discussed below: Case study would depend upon wit . Purpose of the survey : What does the researcher aims at? ii. iii. single stage probability sampling methods could be used. 5 +5 = 10 marks (200 .commonsense and imagination of the person doing the case study.or even though result could serve the purpose? iv. Measurability : The application of statistical inference theory requires computation of the sampling error from the sample itself. Susanto Paul Page 6 . Research design in case of hypothesis-testing research studies : Hypothesis-testing research studies are those where the researcher test the hypothesis of casual relationship between variables. The various criteria governing the choice of sampling process are discussed below: i. Such studies requires procedures that will not only reduce bias and increase reliability . vi. Degree of precision : Should the result of the survey be very precise . Probability sample only allows such computation. it must be as complete and coherent as possible. I f the life history has been written in the first person. a. studies determines the frequencies with which something occurs or its association with something else. the sampling should be drawn by applying simple random sampling method or stratified random sampling methods depending on whether the population is homogenous or heterogeneous. Information about population : How much information is available about the population to be studied? v. multistage cluster sampling would be appropriate . Life histories should have been written for knowledgeable person. but will permit drawing inference about causality. A judicious combination of techniques of data collection is the prerequisite for securing data that are culturally meaningful and scientifically significant.

Time limitation : The time limit within which the research project should be completed restricts the choice of a sampling methods. Susanto Paul Page 7 .it may become necessary to choose a less costly sampling plan like multistage sampling or even quota sampling as a compromise. It means achieving the desired level of precision at minimum cost. ix. Financial resources : If the available finance is limited . viii. Economy : It should be the another criterion for choosing the sampling method.vii.

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