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Note: Assignment Set -1 must be written within 6-8 pages. Answer all questions. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q1. a. Explain the types of research. b. What is the significance of research in social and business sciences? 5 +5 = 10 marks (200 - 250 words each) Ans. Types of research : According to the intent the research may be classified as : i. Pure Research : It is undertaken for the search of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practise, e.g., Einstein's theory of relativity. ii. Applied Research : It is carried on to find the solution to the real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem oriented and action directed. iii. Exploratory Research : It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. iv. Descriptive Research : It is the fact finding investigation with adequate investigation. It is the simplest types of research and is more specific than exploratory research. v. Diagnostic Research : It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. vi. Evaluation Research : It is the type of applied research made for accessing the effectiveness of the social or economical programmes implemented or for accessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. vii. Action Research: It is the type of concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving an existing situation. According to the method of study research may be classified as : Experimental Research : It aims at determining whether and in what manner variables are related to each other. Analytical Research : It is a system of procedures and techniques of analysis applied to quantitative data. Historical Research : It is the study of the past records and other information sources with the view to reconstructing the origin or development of an institution or a movement if the system and discovering the trends in the past. Survey : It is the fact finding study. This involves the collection of data directly from a population or sample thereof at particular time.
i. ii. iii.
Significance of research in social and business life : According to the famous Hudson Maxim, "All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence , for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention". It brings out the significance of research, increased amount of which make progress possible. Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking, besides promoting the development of the logical habits of thinking and organisation.
iii. Page 2 i. Non variability : Non variability refers to the consistency at the given point in time among different investigators and the samples of items. Predictive validity : This types of validity refers to the extent to which one behaviour can be predicated based on another. Thus . Research also assumes the significant role in solving various operational and planning problems associated with business and industry. Investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts.350 words) Ans. ii. Content validity : This types of validity may be of two types a. Face validity : Face validity is determined through a subjective evaluation of the measuring scale.The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or business is greatly increased in modern times. i. What is meant by validity? How does it differ from reliability and what are its types? 10 marks (300 . ii. Reliability can be improved in three ways : By reducing the external sources of variation. Research is also necessary for collecting information on the social and the economical structure of an economy to understand the process of change occurring in the country. There are two dimensions of reliability. b. Validity may be classified into different types as shown below : i. Susanto Paul . rather than through a statistical method. Reliability : This refers to the ability of the measuring scale to provide consistent and accurate result.research as a tool of government economic policy formulation involves three distinct stages of operation which are as follows . It provides the basis for almost all the government policies of an economic system. although in itself it is not the part of the research.. Research assumes significant role in the formulation of the economic policy. Validity : A measurement scale may be considered to be valid if it effectively measures a specific property or characteristics that it intends to measure. ii. Research also facilitates the decision making of the policy makers. based on the association of the results yielded by the measuring instrument and the eventual income. i. Various kinds of relationship may be perceived by the researcher between a variable under study and other variables. for both the government and the business. The prognosis . Stability and equivalence : Stability refers to the consistency of result with repeated measurements of the same objects . Construct validity : A construct is the conceptual equation that is developed by the researcher based on theoretical reasoning. The limitation of this types of validation is that it is determined by opinions . Sampling validity : Sampling validity refers to how representative the content of the measuring instrument is.e. i. In this process research also helps in proper allocation of the country's scare resources. iii. as in the weighing machine example. the prediction of the future developments. To give a simple example . Q2.a weighing machine can be said to be reliable if the same reading is given every time the same object is weighed. Diagnoses of events that are taking place and the analysis of the forces underlying them.
iii. or giving exact number of measurement.350 words) The procedure of testing hypothesis are given below: Making a formal statement : The step consist of making a formal statement of the null hypothesis(Ho) and also of the alternative hypothesis(Ha). Training investigators : This is imparting necessary knowledge to investigators to make them understand what to look for . Precision : That is making as exact as necessary. Accuracy : That is describing what really exists. the bulletin of abstracts of current social sciences research . It means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things exactly as they are and avoiding jumping to unwanted conclusions either by exaggeration or fantasizing. This avoid colorful literature and vague meaning. Q3. through an analysis of different items. The researcher's task is to review the available materials with an eyes on the possibilities of developing an hypothesis from it. 10 marks (300 . some governmental agencies and voluntary organisations publish listing of summaries of research in their special filed of services . directory of doctoral dissertation accepted by the universities etc afford a rich store of valuable clues. vii. What are the criteria of good research problem? 5 +5 = 10 marks (200 . Recording : this is jotting down complete details as quickly as possible. Explain the procedure for Testing Hypothesis. in order to increase the probability of ore accurate measurement.research groups and voluntary organisations are a constant sources of information about unpublished works in their special filed The criteria of good research problem are discussed below: Horton and Hunt have given following characteristics of scientific research: i. all data collected are recorded. By adding more number of items to the measuring instruments .250 words each) Ans. an exploratory study is concerned with an area of subject matter in which explicit hypothesis have not yet been formulated. Since human memory is fallible . Sociological journal . Verifiable Evidence : This is the factual observations which other observers can see and check. The researcher has to take stock of these various hypothesis with the view to evaluate their usefulness for further research and to consider whether they suggest any new hypothesis. Susanto Paul . Q4. Controlling conditions : This is controlling all variable s except one and then attempting to examine what happened when that variable is varied. how to interpret in and avoid inaccurate data collection. hypothesis may have been stated by previous research workers .ii.Professional organisations . a. v. i.The formulation of an hypothesis is Page 3 iii.economic reviews. viii. or collecting data in the systematic and organized ways so that the conclusion drawn are reliable . Ans. iv. By making the measurement instrument more consistent internally. In addition to these general sources . In some areas of the subject matter. Systematization : This is attempting to find all the relevant data. Objectivity : This is free being all biases and vested interest. ii. Research really begins when the researcher experiences some difficulty. Why literature survey is important in research? b. Frequently . vi.
vi. but if the probability is greater than accept the null hypothesis. iv.if the null hypothesis were in fact true. the significant level. If the calculated probability is less than the α value as in case of one tailed test(α /2 as in case of two tailed test) then reject the null hypothesis . either 5% level or 1% level is adopted for the purpose. iii. The rules for selecting the correct distribution are similar to those which we have stated either in the context of the estimation. the next step of hypothesis is to determine the appropriate sampling distribution. Deciding the distribution to use : After deciding the level of significance . The choice generally remains between distribution and the t distribution.ii. In case we reject H0 we run a risk of committing an error of type I. v. Generally in practise. Selecting a significant level : The hypothesis is tested on a pre-determined level of significance and such the same should be specified. Susanto Paul Page 4 . but if we accept H0 than we run some risk of committing error type II. an important steps which must be accomplished with due care in accordance with object and nature of the problem under consideration. Comparing the probability : Yet another step consist of calculating the probability with the specified value of α. Selecting a random sample & computing an appropriate value : Another step is to select the random sample(S) and compute an appropriate value from the sample data concerning the test statistic utilizing the relevant distribution. Calculation of the probability : One has than to calculate the the sample result would diverse as widely as is has from expectation .
The term control is used in the experimental research to reflect the restrain in the experimental conditions. a. Research design in case of exploratory research studies :Exploratory research design are also termed as formulative research studies. Research hypothesis : When the prediction or the hypothesized relationship is tested by adopting scientific methods. When the group is exposed to certain new or special condition than it is known as experimental group. the following three methods in the context of research design for such studies are talked about. When changes in one variable depends on the change in one or more other variables . it is known as research hypothesis. Analyses of insight stimulating : examples are also fruitful method for suggesting hypothesis for result. b. it is known as dependent or endogenous variables. It is again subcategorised as a. b. Explain the components of a research design. Dependent and independent variables : A magnitude that varies is known as variables. Different types of research design : The various research design are discussed below: i.Q5. when the dependent variable is not free from its effect. Control : One of the most important features of a good research design is to minimize the effect of extraneous variable. c. Confounded relationship : The relationship between dependent and independent variable are known as confounded variables by an extraneous variable. Experiments : An experiment refers to the process of verifying the truth of the statistical hypothesis relating to the given research problem. Experiment unit : Experimental units refers to as the pre-determined plots. Components of research diagram : The various components of research diagram are explained below: i. Extraneous variable : The independent variable which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but effect the dependent variable is known as extraneous variable iii.250 words each) Ans. The survey of concerning literature : happens to be the most simple and the fruitful method of formulating precisely the research problem or the developing hypothesis. Generally . d. c. Briefly explain the different types of research designs. ii. characteristics or the block to which different treatments are applied. Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies : Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concern with describing the characteristic of a particular individual or of a group where as diagnostic research Susanto Paul Page 5 . Experimental and control group : When a group is exposed to the usual condition in an experimental hypothesis testing then it is called the control group. b. Treatments : Treatments are referred to the different conditions to which the experimental and the control group are subject to. Experience survey : means the survey of people who have had practical experience with the problem to be studied. ii. 5 +5 = 10 marks (200 . a. The variable that causes the changes in the dependent variables are known as independent variables or explanatory variable or exogenous variables. e. iv.
Probability sample only allows such computation. statistical and historical data since these data provides standards for accessing the reliability and consistency of the case materials.But if area and size of the population are very small. multistage cluster sampling would be appropriate . Information about population : How much information is available about the population to be studied? v. Degree of precision : Should the result of the survey be very precise . It is advisable to supplement the case data by observational. 5 +5 = 10 marks (200 . Explain the Sampling process. Q6.or even though result could serve the purpose? iv. The various criteria governing the choice of sampling process are discussed below: i. Hence. i. iv. vi. ii. v. Susanto Paul Page 6 . where the research objective requires statistical inference . Such studies requires procedures that will not only reduce bias and increase reliability . A judicious combination of techniques of data collection is the prerequisite for securing data that are culturally meaningful and scientifically significant. Geographical area of the study and size of the population : If area covered by the survey is very large and the size of the population is quite large. Life histories should have been written for knowledgeable person. Purpose of the survey : What does the researcher aims at? ii. iii.iii. is the nature homogenous or heterogeneous? vi.250 words each) The assumptions of Case Study Method : are discussed below: Case study would depend upon wit .commonsense and imagination of the person doing the case study. I f the life history has been written in the first person. single stage probability sampling methods could be used. a. iii. the sampling should be drawn by applying simple random sampling method or stratified random sampling methods depending on whether the population is homogenous or heterogeneous. Sampling Process : The decision process of sampling is the complicated one The researcher has to first identify the limiting factor and factors and must judiciously balance the conflicting factors. The investigator makes up his procedure as he goes along. but will permit drawing inference about causality. studies determines the frequencies with which something occurs or its association with something else. Efforts should be made to ascertain the reliability of the life history data through examining the internal consistency of the materials . The nature of the population :In terms of the variables to be studied. What are the assumptions of Case Study Method? b. Measurability : The application of statistical inference theory requires computation of the sampling error from the sample itself. Ans. it must be as complete and coherent as possible. Research design in case of hypothesis-testing research studies : Hypothesis-testing research studies are those where the researcher test the hypothesis of casual relationship between variables.
Time limitation : The time limit within which the research project should be completed restricts the choice of a sampling methods. Susanto Paul Page 7 . It means achieving the desired level of precision at minimum cost. viii.vii. ix.it may become necessary to choose a less costly sampling plan like multistage sampling or even quota sampling as a compromise. Financial resources : If the available finance is limited . Economy : It should be the another criterion for choosing the sampling method.
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