16/ 10/ 2012

Academ i Wr i i g G ui e c tn d

APA, WRITING, EDITING, and PROOFREADING GUIDE Lee Bowman ELearningProf.net lbowmanprof@yahoo.com © 2006 updated August 2007 Please note that everything included in this guide will be graded in your paper. Take the time to proofread and edit your paper according to all the APA formatting and graduate level writing information included in this resource. PAPER FORMAT: All written papers must be formatted as follows: DO NOT: **type page headers or page numbers. Use the MS Word page header feature **hit enter to double space. Use the MS Word formatting feature for double spacing. **use space bar to indent. Use the MS Word formatting feature Title page : Always use only Times New Roman 12 point font; no bold print. Do not put title in all capital letters; use title case. Headers: First two-three words of paper title followed by page number, aligned right margin Use ONLY 12 font Times New Roman for title page, paper, reference list (no other font is acceptable in my class) Word Processed Double-spaced . One-inch margins Only one space after the ending punctuation of sentences. If you usually put two spaces, use Find and Replace to fix them all after you've completed the paper Margins should be aligned left (do not justify margins) Indent first line of each paragraph 5 spaces to show paragraph and do not skip extra lines between paragraphs. DO NOT use abstract or running head but do use level one headings to organize your paper HOW TO WRITE A THESIS STATEMENT, INTRODUCTION, & CONCLUSION The thesis statement is part of the introduction and not a separate part of the paper. LEO Thesis Statements OWL: The "SO WHAT" Test UNC Handout Thesis Statements DO NOT ANNOUNCE the thesis of your paper with phrases such as “I will discuss……” or “This paper will…...” A thesis sentence should both identify the topic of the paper and indicate the author's attitude toward the topic or position on the topic. Thus, it should do more than announce a topic. Announcements take the form of This paper will do such-and-such or In this paper I will . . . .. Alice L. Trupe, 2001, Bridgewater College From University of Madison-Wisconsin Writing Center:

el ar ni g. hom est ead. com / AC EM I C e n AD _WR TI N _G U D ht m I G I E.

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really. I believe that. all these. . Do not use first person point of view: I. etc. our. the fact that. A thesis statement is focused and specific enough to be proven within the boundaries of the paper. the reason is. usually. as a result of. It summarizes the conclusions that the writer has reached about the topic. as noted. pivotal. play a role. It does not simply announce a topic: it says something about the topic. as to why. Do not use phrases such as I think that.. is that. necessary. often. on the part of. including words like: unfortunately. one of. a little. for example) Don't use words like important. Do not use slang or other informal diction. I feel that. and indicative of the range of research. . once again. ThIS APA RESOURCE will help you use source properly in your writing. essential.. inevitable. valuable. etc. and direction of the paper. AVOID Wordiness: the fact that. well worth. com / AC EM I C e n AD _WR TI N _G U D ht m I G I E. BY. me. X: In this paper. can be established. some. to name a few. evident. I will discuss how ABC……. paramount. priority.16/ 10/ 2012 Academ i Wr i i g G ui e c tn d A thesis statement is a sentence that makes an assertion about a topic and predicts how the topic will be developed. significant. A thesis statement makes a promise to the reader about the scope. most. we. whereas. your work will be in violation of the University Academic Honesty Policies and will be considered to be plagiarized. means that. fundamental. sometimes. Don't give readers commands such as: Be sure to . just as. us. NEVER use second person point of view: you. but also. or any similar sentences. by means of. after all. oftentimes. your. hom est ead. vital. the most common. OF. very. or other synonyms for these words Do not editorialize your writing. imperative. in general. thrust of the argument or analysis. which is. not only. ONE. BEING. etc. greater. many.. in order to. when it comes to. virtually impossible. a lot. best. this means that. serve to. USING SOURCES IN YOUR WRITING This information explains how to use sources and citations in your work Strategies for Writing Introductions MIT Online Writing Lab UNC Handouts Strategies for Writing Conclusions Leo UNC Handouts IMPORTANT WRITING TIPS STYLE and ACADEMIC WRITING Academic writing is FORMAL. unique. for many reasons. accurate. great. not casual or informal. such as. 2/ 8 . BE PRECISE AND CLEAR. el ar ni g. purpose. Avoid negatives (use failed rather than did not. due to. OK: ABC has made a significant impact on the teenage population due to its .. at that point in time. Key words (nouns and verbs) should be specific. in my opinion. thus. of this. extremely. in other words.. Do not use these words: IT. core. etc. therefore. If you do not follow these guidelines. again. and the organization of supporting information. key. a few.

In the report it suggests that moderate exercise is better than no exercise at all. invaluable. we) are used in academic writing." and "the") Punctuation: Commas. The pronoun WHO refers to people.. semi-colons. hom est ead. Vague Pronouns: Make sure that pronouns such as "it" and "this" refer to something specific. but this didn't happen until May. X The group wanted to meet in January. MUST. undoubtedly. Use active voice. it." etc. This is a research paper. not a creative writing assignment. etc. THEIR. "to be" verbs should be used sparingly: is. literally. he. and they) should not be used unless writing a reflective paper.use apostrophes properly for singular and plural possessive noun forms. are. 3/ 8 . elicit. may. Do not use passive voice in your writing. you. Do not begin sentences (or phrases/clauses within sentences) with ANY of the following words: AS. Example: utilize should be use. THAT. more than twice per paragraph. IF. Third person points-of-view (e. fortunately. precise. assuredly. WITH Do not use THAT when referring to people. in the essay. Do not use scenarios or anecdotes or other examples to illustrate points. she. were. In a series of three or more nouns or noun phrases. If you use words your reader might not know. for instance.g. Avoid el ar ni g. IN. etc. in the article.." she.16/ 10/ 2012 Academ i Wr i i g G ui e c tn d obviously. was. THERE. THROUGH. SHOULD -. Other examples: plethora. IT. BY. insert a comma before the word "and" or "or" Do not make announcements such as this paper will. probably. illustrative. Under no circumstances should you use these words at all: NEED. I. Be concise and clear. etc. Do not use pretentious words intended to impress readers. Write out all contractions: can't should be cannot. maybe." "an. ensue. and concise sentences Point of view No first and second person points-of-view (e. THIS. Never use words that seem uncertain: could. Use precise language. Passive voice makes the sentence too wordy." "they. Verb/Subject Agreement: main verbs agree with the subject in person and number Verb Tense: writing does not shift inappropriately back and forth from present to past Noun Plurals: regular plurals ending in "s" and irregular plurals Articles: articles should be properly place ("a. com / AC EM I C e n AD _WR TI N _G U D ht m I G I E. but the conference didn't take place until May. empowerment. WHEN. explain them. WHILE. colons.. THEY. OK PRONOUNS SHOULD BE REPLACED WITH PRECISE NOUNS to improve clarity. etc. BECAUSE. OK The group wanted to meet in January. ending punctuation INSIDE quotation marks Pronoun Reference: every pronoun has a clear referent. WITH. Use THAT and WHICH correctly Possessive nouns -.g. in this paper I will.these words imply that you are giving instructions to your reader. hopefully. might. X The report suggests that moderate exercise is better than no exercise at all. Use commas and semi-colons properly. do not use "he. clear. Always write from third person point-of-view.

Make sure the modifier clearly refers to the element you want it to modify. Modifiers: A word or phrase describing something. swimming. X In the restaurant they gave me someone else's linguini. X The council advises physicians to administer the drug at regular intervals. By manipulating the lower back. swimming. or how to make ropes. canoeing. word is the antecedent. OK At regular intervals. (X--implies the pain was doing the manipulating) By manipulating the lower back. and are up again with the sunrise. get limited sleep. com / AC EM I C e n AD _WR TI N _G U D ht m I G I E. "One" is generally a formal and acceptable pronoun. OK In the restaurant. Who (or its forms whom and whose) refers only to people. OK: Chapter four of my autobiography states that I was born out of wedlock. my hobbies range from athletics to automobiles. OK When not going to school. the pain was greatly eased. In the first sentence on this page the pronoun which is taking the place of word.” "You" and other personal pronouns are never used in an academic report. The council advises physicians at regular intervals to administer the drug. the council advises physicians to administer the drug. X: Non-traditional students often study long hours. Antecedent Agreement The antecedent of a pronoun is the word which the pronoun stands for. X: I enjoy biking and to walk down by the pier. hom est ead. get limited sleep. my hobbies range from athletics to automobiles. or rope-making. canoeing. and up again with the sunrise. OK: I enjoy biking and walking down by the pier. Therefore. OK In the fourteenth century. He is the man who will be teaching the class. 4/ 8 . OK: Non-traditional students often study long hours. Examples: These are the books that I need for the class. the therapist greatly eased the pain. Using That and Who In academic writing that refers only to things. "This" and "these" need a noun referent for clarity. Use "it" "they" and "you" carefully X In Chapter four of my autobiography it says that I was born out of wedlock. OK : Boy Scouts at the camp can learn cooking. you had to struggle to survive. OK Parallelism (Examples) X: Boy Scouts at the camp can learn cooking. English peasant farmers had to struggle to survive. el ar ni g.16/ 10/ 2012 Academ i Wr i i g G ui e c tn d “it. OK Make sure that a modifying phrase or clause has something to modify. X Every student must have their pencils. the server gave me someone else's linguini. (X-implies the hobbies go to school) When I am not going to school. X In the fourteenth century.

Many studies indicate favourable results in function. hom est ead. X: I never go to that place because they have stale bread. He lived there for twenty years. and absolute power corrupts absolutely. however. Much of the literature advocates stretching preparatory to exercise. but. Use a semicolon when you join independent clauses without a coordinating conjunction. yet . X: He ought to speak French well. but now the suitcase is gone. X: The suitcase was on the plane. or.) OK Every student must have his or her pencil. nor. decreased pain and range of motion. OK c. OK: He ought to speak French well. X Much of the literature advocates stretching preparatory to exercise.) Punctuation: Use a semicolon as well as a conjunctive adverb to join two independent clauses. Colon a. the mechanisms are not well understood. Their is plural and cannot refer to a singular noun. OK These are the most common conjunctive adverbs: however therefore then therefore nevertheless accordingly as a result moreover even so rather indeed for example Comma.16/ 10/ 2012 Academ i Wr i i g G ui e c tn d (Both every and student are singular. and range of motion. el ar ni g. but now the plane is gone. X Power corrupts. therefore. so. for). OK b. OR The suitcase was on the plane.. however. decreased pain. He lived in France for twenty years.) OK: I never go to that place because it has stale bread. or his or her must be used. (What is gone? The suitcase or the plane?) OK The suitcase was on the plane. com / AC EM I C e n AD _WR TI N _G U D ht m I G I E. his. 5/ 8 . but now it's gone. Use a comma after each item in a series of three or more. Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. (What does they refer to? Both I and place are singular. her. the mechanisms are not well understood.. Semi-Colon. Use a comma when you join independent clauses with one of the seven coordinating conjunctions (and. (Depends on which you mean. X Many studies indicate favourable results in function.

X The environmental council could see several solutions. entertainment. OK The committee. and classified ads. The daily newspaper contains four sections: news. This has lessened the ozone layer's depletion. OK Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned from aerosols. His enthusiasm for the subject and his desire to be of help." "were. meeting monthly. X Rain forests are being destroyed by uncontrolled logging. led him to volunteer." "are. hom est ead. absolute power corrupts absolutely. Omit "this" from the beginning of a sentence by joining it to the preceding sentence with a comma." "there is. OK The stage needs a new fire curtain. Replace "is. OK Uncontrolled logging is destroying rain forests. com / AC EM I C e n AD _WR TI N _G U D ht m I G I E. the subject of the sentence is being acted upon. the company that was negligent had to shut down." or "could" with strong verbs. was dumped into the river. absolute power corrupts absolutely. Replace "should. X Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned from aerosols. OK Because the brown. OK Power corrupts. lessening the ozone layer's depletion. X A new fire curtain is necessary for the stage. the negligent company had to shut down. OK The environmental council saw several solutions. OK e. X The committee. a list." "was.16/ 10/ 2012 Academ i Wr i i g G ui e c tn d Power corrupts. Omit "which" or "that" altogether when possible. which was brown and poisonous. Use a colon after a complete statement in order to introduce one or more directly related ideas. OK Upgrading computer systems is expensive." or "have + an -ing word" to a simple present or past tense verb. WORDINESS Omit the filler phrases "it is. oversees accounting procedures and audits. el ar ni g." and "there are" at the beginning of sentences. 6/ 8 . sports. X It is expensive to upgrade computer systems. In passive constructions. oversees accounting procedures and audits. which meets monthly. the subject is the actor. these often delay the sentence's true subject and verb. such as a series of directions. Change "which" or "that" constructions to an "-ing" word. OK The South African government underwent significant changes. X The South African government was undergoing significant changes. Change "is" or "was" when they occur alone to a strong verb. X Because the fluid. Replace passive verbs with active verbs. X His enthusiasm for the subject and his desire to be of help led him to volunteer." "would. in active constructions. poisonous fluid was dumped into the river. or a quotation or other comment illustrating or explaining the statement. Do not use a comma to separate subject and verb. BETTER d.

The microscope revealed a group of organisms that were round in shape and peculiar in nature. X During that time period. X I submitted an application for the job. Redundant Pairs: Many pairs of words imply each other. OK I applied for the job. The microscope revealed a group of peculiar. el ar ni g.16/ 10/ 2012 Academ i Wr i i g G ui e c tn d Substitute strong verbs for "-tion" and "-sion" words whenever possible. many car buyers preferred cars that were pink in color and shiny in appearance. hom est ead. so the phrase completely finish is redundant in most cases. Finish implies complete. many car buyers preferred pink. 7/ 8 . com / AC EM I C e n AD _WR TI N _G U D ht m I G I E. shiny cars. OK During that period. the customer changed her plans. So are many other pairs of words: past memories various differences each individual _______ basic fundamentals true facts important essentials future plans terrible tragedy end result final outcome free gift past history unexpected surprise sudden crisis very unique large in size often times of a bright color heavy in weight period in time round in shape at an early time economics field of cheap quality honest in character of an uncertain condition in a confused state unusual in nature extreme in degree of a strange type X Before the travel agent was completely able to finish explaining the various differences among all of the many very unique vacation packages his travel agency was offering. the customer changed her future plans. OK Before the travel agent finished explaining the differences among the unique vacation packages his travel agency was offering. round organisms.

com / AC EM I C e n AD _WR TI N _G U D ht m I G I E.edu/handouts/general/gl_concise.html el ar ni g. hom est ead.purdue.16/ 10/ 2012 Academ i Wr i i g G ui e c tn d From: http://owl.english.edu/grammar/grammarcondensed.html http://leo.stcloudstate. 8/ 8 .

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