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Fuzzy EP algorithm and dynamic data structure for

optimal capacitor allocation in radial distribution


systems
B. Venkatesh and R. Ranjan
Abstract: Optimal reactive-power compensation in a radial distribution system requires the
determination of the best set of locations for siting capacitors of minimum sizes. The total cost of
compensation should be the least and must yield the maximum energy-loss reduction accounting
for various load levels. Other controls such as transformer taps, reconguration options and
existing reactive-power sources must be considered while searching for the optimal solution.
Optimal selection of a few best sites from among a large set is a problem of high combinatorial
order and difcult to solve using conventional optimisation techniques. Optimal sizing is a problem
of a continuous nature. The paper proposes a single dynamic data structure for an evolutionary
programming (EP) algorithm that handles the problems of siting and sizing of new shunt
capacitors simultaneously while considering transformer taps, existing reactive-power sources and
reconguration options, accounting for different load levels and time durations. A fuzzy model of
the objective function is developed for optimisation in the EP framework. The proposed fuzzy EP
method is tested on two cases of a 69-bus radial distribution system.
List of symbols
N
C
number of newly sited reactive power sources;
Q
i
N
vector of reactive powers of sources at the newly
selected capacitor sites considering the ith time
interval;
Y
i
vector of branch numbers, one each for each loop
in the radial distribution system, that are opened to
congure the distribution system in a radial
manner considering the ith time interval;
Q
i
E
vector of reactive powers of existing sources
considering the ith time interval;
T
i
vector of tap settings of transformers considering
the ith time interval;
K
V
reects the variable costs per kVAr for installation
of a new capacitor;
K
F
reects the xed costs for installation of a new
capacitor;
L
Pi
total kW loss in the radial distribution system in
the ith time interval;
TD
I
time duration in the ith time interval;
K
P
reects the cost of electricity (kWh);
N
L
number of time intervals in a year;
V vector of bus-voltage magnitudes.
1 Introduction
Large radial distribution systems distribute power in a
radial manner and suffer from voltage drop and energy
losses. An expansion of the consumer base with increased
loading causes greater voltage sag and energy losses in
distribution systems. They have a combination of loads,
namely industrial, commercial, domestic and lighting. These
loads peak at any time of the day in any part of the system.
While the peak load is being served, the system may suffer
from low voltages, high levels of power loss and overloading
of lines. Provision of transformers, reactive-power sources
and the scope of dynamic reconguration may be gainfully
used to regulate downstream voltages, load balancing and
energy-loss reduction.
Planners resort to allocation of capacitors to improve the
voltage prole and minimise energy losses in a radial
distribution system (RDS). The problem of optimal
allocation of capacitors in a RDS has been investigated
since the 1960s. Analytical approaches were proposed in
[1, 2] for capacitor allocation. A mixed-integer nonlinear-
programming formulation was posed in [3] employing
Benders decomposition technique for the optimal alloca-
tion of capacitors.
More rigorous approaches were suggested in [4, 5]. In [6]
the capacitors were optimally allocated using sensitivity
factors and a characterisation scheme for demand at buses.
Several other methods [710] have been proposed for loss
reduction through allocation of capacitors in distribution
system. These methods use mathematical techniques and
other intelligent optimisation methods. Combinatorial-
optimisation algorithms have been employed gainfully to
allocate capacitors optimally in the recent past. The Tabu
search algorithm [11], genetic algorithm (GA) [12, 13],
fuzzy-GA-reasoning-based methods [14, 15] and functionally
B. Venkatesh is with Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada
R. Ranjan is with Institute of Technology and Management, Gurgaon, India
E-mail: b.venkatesh@iee.org
r IEE, 2006
IEE Proceedings online no. 20050054
doi:10.1049/ip-gtd:20050054
Paper rst received 21st February 2005
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linked ANN approach [16] were employed for the optimal
allocation of capacitors.
Most of these methods break the problem into two parts.
The rst is the higher-level discrete problem of siting
capacitors, while the second is the lower-level continuous-
domain problem of optimal sizing. Solution methodologies
reported in the literature move back and forth between the
two levels. One drawback common to these methods is that
they seldom consider the provision of transformer taps,
existing reactive-power sources and reconguration options.
These would yield a better and cheaper optimal solution for
the capacitor-siting/sizing problem. Further, all these works
use static programming techniques and lack the advantage
of algorithms that use dynamic data structure (DDS). Since
the choice of location is discrete (siting), the cost function
for sizing is continuous and other parameters such as
voltage and power loss are continuous, the problem at hand
has a high degree of combinatorial complexity and a
discontinuous solution domain. Thus the conventional
methods do not yield very good results.
The proposed method uses a new dynamic data structure
to combine the siting and sizing problems, and handles
them in a single step. The dynamic data structure
accommodates information of location and size of new
reactive-power sources, setting of existing reactive-power
sources, transformer taps and system conguration for all
the load intervals. The overall problem has multiple
objectives of minimisation of the total cost of new
capacitors and the minimisation of power loss in the lines
while obtaining a satisfactory voltage prole. To handle the
multiple objectives and constraints, the problem is trans-
lated into a fuzzy formulation. This problem is solved using
the EP algorithm to obtain the global optimum. The EP
technique is suitable for handling solution domains having a
mix of discrete and continuous variables. The proposed
dynamic data structure and associated fuzzy EP algorithm
are presented in Section 2. The results and conclusions are
presented in Sections 3 and 4, respectively.
2 Proposed fuzzy EP algorithm
2.1 Problem statement
Mathematically, the problem may be formulated as follows:
Minimise the total investment costs of new capacitors:

N
C
j 1
K
V
Q
MAX
Nj
K
F
_ _
1
Minimise the total annual energy loss in transmission lines:

N
L
i 1
D
i
L
Pi
2
Subject to the conditions
V
MIN
V V
MAX
3
where Q
MAX
Nj
in (1) is the highest value of the jth
new capacitor switched in the various time intervals.
V
MAX
(V
MIN
) in (3) is a vector of maximum (minimum)
limits on bus-voltage magnitudes.
The problem mathematically stated above succinctly
expresses the fact that different time intervals will have
different solutions for new/existing capacitors switched in,
transformer-tap settings and optimal network congura-
tions with a common set of sites of new capacitors for all
the time intervals. Further, while computing the cost of new
capacitors proposed by a solution, one has to consider the
largest size (kVAr) of capacitor switched in at all time
intervals in each site.
Considering the ith time interval, the vector Q
i
N
Y
i
Q
i
S
T
i
_
denes the solution where the new capacitors are sited in the
locations given by the vector N
Q
. The control vector X of
the entire problem is dened as
X N
Q
_
Q
1
N
Y
1
Q
1
S
T
1

Q
2
N
Y
2
Q
2
S
T
2

:
:
Q
NL
N
Y
NL
Q
NL
S
T
NL

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
:
By altering the value of the number of newly sited
capacitors N
C
, one may alter dynamically the form of X.
It would alter the dimension of vectors N
Q
, Q
1
N
, Q
2
N
, y,
Q
NL
N
. It allows the solution to transcend from one
discontinuous solution subdomain to another.
2.2 Fuzzy evolutionary-programming
algorithm with dynamic data structure
The problem stated in (1)(3) is transformed to a fuzzy
optimisation problem. This transformation is presented in
Section 2.3. This fuzzy-optimisation formulation is solved
using the evolutionary-programming technique. This solu-
tion scheme is given in Section 2.4. The data structure used
by the EP algorithm is presented in Section 2.5.
Fuzzy-set theory is a mathematical technique that allows
modelling of imprecise or conicting engineering problems.
The imprecise nature may arise from several aspects. In
certain cases impreciseness arises owing to semantic
uncertainty. In such problems, one commonly encounters
use to fuzzication, fuzzy rules/inference and defuzzica-
tion. The fuzzy-optimisation procedure is another aspect of
fuzzy-set theory. It provides a framework for handling
optimisation problems. It transforms objectives and con-
straints into satisfaction functions of fuzzy sets. An
optimum is achieved by maximising the intersection of
the satisfaction functions of the problem subject to other
crisp constraints of the problem. This problem formulation
is then solved using any optimisation technique that is
suitable. In this case, the evolutionary-programming
technique is employed.
The fuzzy-optimisation problem is mathematically
dened as follows [17]. Consider a problem comprising
L objectives and M constraints. Let each objective be
associated with a fuzzy set
~
Z
m
fu
m
; m
~
Zm
u
m
ju
m
2U
m
g;
m
Zm
m
~
Zm
u
m
where the subscript m refers to the mth
objective function. u
m
is the value the mth objective
function assumes, U
m
is a set of all such values, m
~
Zm
u
m

is the membership function and m


Zm
is a satisfaction
parameter that denes the degree of closeness of the mth
objective to the optimum when it assumes the value u
m
.
Similarly, let each constraint be associated with a fuzzy set
~
C
t
fu
t
; m
~
Ct
u
t
ju
t
2 U
t
g; m
~
Ct
m
~
Ct
u
t
where the
subscript t refers to the tth constraint. U
t
is the value the
tth constraint assumes, U
t
is a set of all such values, m
~
Ct
u
t

is the membership function and m


Ct
is a satisfaction
parameter that denes the degree of enforcement of the
tth constraint when it assumes the value u
t
.
Mathematically, the fuzzy-optimisation procedure as
given in [17] is stated as
maximise l
where
l min m
Z1
; m
Z2
; . . . . . . : m
ZL
; m
C1
; m
C2
; . . . . . . :; m
CM
f g
The min function determines the minimum of the satisfac-
tion values. It is a type of fuzzy-intersection operator. One
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may also use other intersection operators such as product,
as is used in this work at a later stage.
All the membership functions are dened in the range
[01]. By maximising the minimum of these membership
functions, the objectives and the enforcement of constraints
are optimised. Based on this concept, the optimisation
problem stated in (1)(3) is translated into a fuzzy-
optimisation problem in Section 2.3.
2.3 Fuzzy modelling of the objectives
The two objectives in (1) and (2) are combined mathema-
tically into a single objective in this Section and represented
as the rst fuzzy objective. The constraint in (3) is translated
into the second fuzzy objective. The details are presented in
Sections 2.3.1 and 2.3.2, one for each fuzzy objective. The
two fuzzy objectives are then used to form the complete
fuzzy-optimisation problem posed in Section 2.3.3.
2.3.1 Fuzzy model of prot objective: As the
rst two objectives are in terms of investment cost and
losses, they are combined. These two objectives are
addressed as single function f (X) and discussed as follows.
Let P
o
Li
represent the transmission loss in the radial
distribution system in the starting state. The reduction of
transmission loss P
o
Li
P
Li
_
in each time interval represents
energy saving and its monetary equivalent may be
computed as K
P
fD
i
P
o
Li
PL
i
_ _
g. Considering N
L
time
intervals, sum of such monetary equivalents of energy
saving equals
K
P

N
L
i 1
D
i
P
o
Li
PL
i
_ _ _ _
4
Considering a radial distribution system, the total prot/loss
due to the monetary equivalent of energy saving minus the
investment required for newly sited capacitors may be
computed
fX K
P

N
L
i 1
D
i
P
o
Li
PL
i
_ _ _ _

N
C
j 1
K
V
Q
Max
Nj
K
F
_ _
5
Consider a fuzzy set that is dened as
~
F f; m
f
f
_ _
; f 2 fset of all permissible valuesg
_ _
6
As shall be seen in an EP algorithm, a set of solutions [X
1
,
X
2
, X
3
, y, X
NEP
] is generated at rst. NEP is the number of
solutions in the set. Then another set of an equal number of
solutions is evolved in the algorithm. Then, the EP
algorithm chooses NEP best solutions from amongst the
two sets. This process is continued iteratively. Thus, the
evaluation of the objective function for each of the 2*NEP
solutions and their ranking is done in each EP iteration. The
fuzzy objective function is developed keeping in mind these
2*NEP solutions [X
1
, X
2
, X
3
y, X
2NEP
], as below.
Upon evaluating all the solutions [X
1
, X
2
, X
3
y, X
2NEP
]
using (5), one obtains the corresponding prot values
as [f (X
1
), f (X
2
), f (X
3
), y, f (X
2NEP
)], which forms the set of
permissible values of (6).
The membership function m
f
( f) in (6) is then dened as
m
f
f
fX f
MIN
f
MAX
f
MIN
7
where f
MAX
and f
MIN
are the maximum and minimum
values among the set of permissible values of f. The function
is presented graphically in Fig. 1.
2.3.2 Fuzzy model of voltage-violation-mini-
misation objective: The second fuzzy objective, as
explained in the beginning of Section 2.3, relates to
obtaining the best voltage prole. An index that quanties
the extent of voltage violation in a radial distribution system
is dened by
I
VD

B
NV
n 1
V
n
V
LIM
n

2
N

_
8
where B
NV
is the number of buses that violate the prescribed
voltage limits and V
LIM
n
is the upper limit of the nth bus
voltage if there is an upper-limit violation or lower-limit if
there is a lower limit violation. N is the number of buses in
the system.
Further, any solution X would yield the I
VD
values
corresponding to each time interval considered. Let the I
VD
associated with any solutions ith time interval be referred as
I
i
VD
X. In order to compute a voltage-deviation-index
value attributable to the entire solution X, the following is
dened:
vX

NL
i 1
I
i
VD
X
_ _
9
Once again, considering all the solutions [X
1
, X
2
, X
3
, y,
X
2NEP
] and evaluating them using (9), one obtains the
corresponding voltage-deviation indices as [v(X
1
), v(X
2
),
v(X
3
), y, v(X
2NEP
)]. Using these values to form the set of
permissible values for v(X), a fuzzy set is dened with a
membership function m
v
(V) as follows:
~
V v; m
v
v ; v2 fset of all permissible valuesg f g 10
where the membership function is dened as
m
v
v
v
MAX
vX
v
MAX
v
MIN
11
v
MAX
and v
MIN
in (11) are the maximum and minimum
values among the set of permissible values of v. The
function is graphically presented in Fig. 2.
2.3.3 Overall fuzzy model of the objective
function: The overall fuzzy-objective function consider-
ing the two objectives is developed in this Section. It
f
MIN
f
MAX
0
1.0
f(X)

f

(
f
)
Fig. 1 Membership function of prot objective
v
MIN
v
MAX
0
1.0
v(X)

v

(
V
)
Fig. 2 Membership function of voltage-violation function
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requires a method to combine the two objectives using
a fuzzy-intersection operator. In this paper, the simple
product is chosen as the intersection operator. Thus the
overall objective function is dened as
m
x
X m
f
f X m
v
v X 12
The above-dened objective function quanties the satisfac-
tion with the solution string X and is used to evaluate a
solution X
p
from amongst 2*NEP solutions X
1
to X
2NEP
in
the evolutionary programming algorithm presented in
Section 2.4.
2.4 Proposed algorithm
The fuzzy-optimisation problem stated in (12) is solved
using the EP technique. Thus the proposed algorithm is
termed the fuzzy EP method. It is outlined hereunder and
an illustrative owchart is presented in Fig. 3.
(i) Randomly generate NEP combination of solution
vectors X
1
, X
2
, y, X
NEP
.
(ii) Set iteration count K1.
(iii) Evaluate the objective-function value for each of the
combinations X
p
for p1 to NEP. To evaluate the
objective function, power-ow equations with setting from
X
p
are solved using a recursive technique Appendix 1 of
[18]. It may be noted that the capacitors, both existing and
new, are taken as variable-impedance elements and not
as variable reactive-power injections. The transformers
are modelled through conventional p-model (Appendix 1,
[18]).
(iv) Generate NEP more solution strings X
NEP+1
, X
NEP+2
,
y, X
2NEP
through a random process:
X
NEPp
b
2r r
M
r
M
X
MAX
X
MIN

m
MAX
X
m
X
X
p

X
p
13
where
b is a factor appropriately chosen (in the entire study, it has
been chosen to be 0.10); r is a random number between 0 to
r
M
; X
MIN
and X
MAX
are the minimum and maximum
values of X as dened earlier; and X
MAX
refers to that
solution vector X
p
amongst all the available NEP solution
strings X
1
to X
NEP
that yields the maximum satisfaction
parameter value m
MAX
X
.
(v) Evaluate the newly generated solution vectors X
NEP+1
,
X
NEP+2
, y, X
2NEP
as in step (iii).
(vi) Choose the best NEP solution vectors among the set of
2NEP solution vectors X
1
, X
2
, y, X
2NEP
and designate the
chosen set as of NEP solution vectors as X
1
, X
2
, y, X
NEP
.
(vii) Increment the iteration count, KK+1.
(viii) If KoMaximum go to step 4 (maximum is taken as
1000 in this paper).
(ix) Choose the best solution amongst the NEP solutions
X
1
, X
2
, y, X
NEP
.
The owchart indicates a maximum number of iterations.
Note that this is evolved only from experience for a given
system. In a similar fashion, the values of b and NEP are
also arrived at after several trial runs. In this study, NEP
was taken as 5 and b was taken as 0.1. Other options
may also be attempted. Further, (13) is designed such that
m
X
X
p
appears in the denominator. With m
MAX
X
appearing
in the numerator, the ratio m
MAX
X
=m
X
X
p
will be bigger if
the solution has a lesser value of satisfaction parameter.
This is intentionally done so as to move the solutions that
are far away from the optimum a little more than those that
seem to be closer to the optimum.
2.5 Data structure for EP
The fuzzy evolutionary algorithm, crucially, requires
identication of the best method to handle a possible
solution string. The scheme for solution strings developed
and adopted in this paper is shown in Fig. 4. The data
structure of the solution string is proposed in such a way
that the structure and data can be dynamically altered in
each computational cycle based on the requirements of the
algorithm. The proposed data structure has one layer for
every time interval and each layer will have separate
dedicated strings assigned to store the settings of new
capacitors, branch numbers switched out from each loop to
determine the conguration, settings of existing capacitors
and tap settings of transformers. The locations of new
select the best NEP- solution vectors using
(12) from the set X
1
to X
2NEP

no
yes
the selected NEP- solution vectors are referred to as X
1
to X
NEP
end
iterations > 1000?
select the best of the NEP solution vectors X

having
the highest satisfaction parameters value
X
(X
p
) .
start
consider NEP schedules X
1
to X
NEP
evaluate
X
to
X
NEP
generate a set of NC solution vectors X
NEP+1
to X
2NEP
(13)
evaluate satisfaction parameters
NEP+1
to
2NEP
X X
1
Fig. 3 Flowchart of the Fuzzy EP Algorithm
configuration
data
size of new
capacitors
size of existing
capacitors
tap settings
one
row for
each
time
interval
location of new
capacitors
Fig. 4 Data structure for an EP solution
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capacitors common to all the intervals in a solution are
stored separately on the left-hand side of the proposed
DDS. Thus the DDS forms an integral part of the EP
algorithm. When the solution possibly alters the value of
NC, the DDS is dynamically altered. It would thus
accommodate more/fewer capacitors seamlessly. This
allows the solution procedure to a single-stage strategy.
This is the major advantage of using a DDS while solving
this problem using EP over other methods that have a two-
stage strategy (one for site selection and other for their
sizing).
3 Results
The proposed method was tested on two cases of a 69-bus
system. The rst case is taken from [13]. The second case is
a modied version of the rst case and the complete data is
given in Fig. 5 and Tables 24. The coefcients used for
pricing newly sited capacitors and energy are given in
Table 1. The 69-bus system was assumed to operate at three
load levels in three time intervals in the entire year. Table 5
presents the details of time intervals and load levels.
Case 1: The rst case has been investigated several times
and reported in the literature. The results are compared
with already published results [13]. Base case results in terms
of total load on the system, worst voltage in each loading
case, associated power loss and corresponding accumulated
energy loss are tabulated in Table 6. The proposed method
was tested on the same system. The details of system results
with actual values of newly sited capacitor switched in are
reported in Table 7. The algorithm took 162.96s to execute
1000 iterations.
From Tables 6 and 7, one may observe the following.
The total accumulated energy loss for the year before and
after compensation is $145172.4 and $89909.95, respec-
tively. The prot through energy-loss reduction is $55262.
The total xed costs for three capacitors is $3000. The
variable cost of capacitor values of 1034.28, 1300.00 and
678.76, computed at the rate of $3.00 per kVAr, totals to
$9039.12. The cost of newly installed capacitor equals the
sum of xed and variable costs and totals $12039.12.
Subtracting the total cost of optimal capacitor compensa-
tion from the prots due to reduction in the accumulated
energy loss results in a net saving of $43223.86. This saving
is higher than the results published in [13] that equals
$40198, and is the highest reported so far in the referenced
literature. Apart from higher monetary savings, the
proposed algorithm is found to be faster than the other
reported methods. The comparison of CPU time required
by various reported algorithms is presented in Fig. 6. Noted
that, in this study, the objective was modied as m
x
X
m
f
f X in order to compare with the already reported
methods. Further, the maximum possible reactive-power
allocation was capped at 1300kVAr at a bus. All buses
except the substation were considered as possible sites for
the location of capacitors.
Case 2: To demonstrate the versatility of the proposed
method, the 69-bus system is modied by incorporating
four transformers, three loops and two existing variable
shunt capacitors while considering three time intervals in a
year. The data for the modied system are given in Fig. 5.
The base case and optimal solutions are presented in
Tables 8 and 9. The results demonstrate the applicability
and strength of the method.
The total costs of newly sited and sized capacitors equal
$3003.8. The saving derived through reduction in the
accumulated energy costs of the entire year equals $58372.6
( $141269.9$82897.3). Deducting the costs of newly
sited capacitors from the saving equals $55368.7
( $58372.6$3003.8).
From the above, one clearly sees the following benets:
(a) The proposed dynamic data structure makes it possible
to have a single step solution;
(b) This allows reduction of execution time;
(c) This obtains better results in terms of lower total
investment costs or higher savings;
(d) IC permits inclusion of all the control elements of a
radial distribution system such as transformers, existing
reactive-power sources and options of recongurations;
(e) It allows handling of several load levels.
The inclusion of distribution-system elements such as
transformers and shunt reactive-power sources yields
better results. The above, along with the results presented
justify the aptness and ability of the proposed solution
method. The method is versatile, as it is able to
01 03 04 02 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
32 33 34 35
12 13 14 15
27 26 25 24 23 22 21
16
68 69
28
29
56 55 54 53
57
58
59 60 61 62
17
18
19
20
30
31
63 64 65
67
66
52
51
47 48 49 50
38 40 41 39 42 43 44 45 46
37
36
buses
lines
tie lines
transformers
Fig. 5 Modied 69-bus radial distribution system
Table 1: Fixed and variable cost of capacitor installation and
cost of energy (kWh)
K
V
Variable per kVAr costs for installation
of ith new capacitor.
$3
K
F
Fixed costs for installation of ith new
capacitor.
$1000
K
P
Cost of energy $0.06/kWh
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Table 2: Modied 69-bus load, transformer and line data
S. From To R(O) X(O) Receiving-end power
No. Bus PD (kW) QD (kVAr)
1 1 2 0.0005 0.0012 0.0 0.0
2 2 3 0.0005 0.0012 0.0 0.0
3 3 4 0.0015 0.0036 0.0 0.0
4 4 5 0.0251 0.0294 0.0 0.0
5 5 6 0.3660 0.1864 2.6 2.2
6 6 7 0.3811 0.1941 40.4 30.0
7 7 8 0.0922 0.0470 75.0 54.0
8 8 9 0.0493 0.0251 30.0 22.0
9 9 10 0.8190 0.2707 28.0 19.0
10 10 11 0.1872 0.0619 145.0 104.0
11 11 12 0.7114 0.2351 145.0 104.0
12 12 13 0.5 2.0 8.0 5.0
13 13 14 1.0440 0.3450 8.0 5.50
14 14 15 1.0580 0.3496 0.0 0.0
15 15 16 0.1966 0.0650 45.5 30.0
16 16 17 0.3744 0.1238 60.0 35.0
17 17 18 0.0047 0.0016 60.0 35.0
18 18 19 0.3276 0.1083 0.0 0.0
19 19 20 0.2106 0.0690 1.0 0.6
20 20 21 0.3416 0.1129 114.0 81.0
21 21 22 0.0140 0.0046 5.0 3.5
22 22 23 0.1591 0.0526 0.0 0.0
23 23 24 0.3463 0.1145 28.0 20.0
24 24 25 0.7488 0.2475 0.0 0.0
25 25 26 0.3089 0.1021 14.0 10.0
26 26 27 0.1732 0.0572 14.0 10.0
27 3 28 0.0044 0.0108 26.0 18.6
28 28 29 0.0640 0.1565 26.0 18.6
29 29 30 0.3978 0.1315 0.0 0.0
30 30 31 0.0702 0.0232 0.0 0.0
31 31 32 0.3510 0.1160 0.0 0.0
32 32 33 0.8390 0.2816 14.0 10.0
33 33 34 1.7080 0.5646 9.5 14.0
34 34 35 1.4740 0.4873 6.0 4.0
35 3 36 0.0044 0.0108 26.0 18.55
36 36 37 0.0640 0.1565 26.0 18.55
37 37 38 0.1053 0.1230 0.00.0
38 38 39 0.0304 0.0355 24.0 17.0
39 39 40 0.0018 0.0021 24.0 17.0
40 40 41 0.7283 0.8509 1.20 1.0
41 41 42 0.3100 0.3623 0.0 0.0
42 42 43 0.0410 0.0478 6.0 4.30
43 43 44 0.0092 0.0116 0.0 0.0
44 44 45 0.1089 0.1373 39.22 26.3
45 45 46 0.0009 0.0012 39.22 26.3
46 4 47 0.0034 0.0084 0.0 0.0
47 47 48 0.0851 0.2083 79.0 56.40
48 48 49 0.2898 0.7091 384.7 274.5
49 49 50 0.0822 0.2011 384.7 274.5
50 08 51 0.5 2.0 40.5 28.3
51 51 52 0.3319 0.1114 3.60 2.7
52 9 53 0.1740 0.0886 4.35 3.5
53 53 54 0.2030 0.1034 26.4 19.0
(continued)
S. From To R(O) X(O) Receiving-end power
No. Bus PD (kW) QD (kVAr)
54 54 55 0.2842 0.1447 24.0 17.2
55 55 56 0.2813 0.1433 0.0 0.0
56 56 57 1.5900 0.5337 0.0 0.0
57 57 58 0.7837 0.2630 0.0 0.0
58 58 59 0.3042 0.1006 100.0 72.0
59 59 60 0.3861 0.1172 0.0 0.0
60 60 61 0.5075 0.2585 1244.0 888.0
61 61 62 0.0974 0.0496 32.0 23.0
62 62 63 0.1450 0.0738 0.0 0.0
63 63 64 0.7105 0.3619 227.0 162.0
64 64 65 1.0410 0.5302 59.0 42.0
65 11 66 0.5 2.0 18.0 13.0
66 66 67 0.0047 0.0014 18.0 13.0
67 12 68 0.5 2.0 28.0 20.0
68 68 69 0.0047 0.0016 28.0 20.0
69 52 67 2.0000 2.0000
70 15 69 2.0000 2.0000
71 10 65 2.0000 2.0000
1. Elements 12, 50, 65 and 68 are transformers with taps set 1.0 p.u.
in the base case and restricted to 1.10.9 during optimization
2. Elements 69, 70 and 71 are tielines
Table 3: Existing variable-reactive power-source data
S. No. Bus No. Max (kVAr) Switched in (kVAr)
0 15 10.0 0.0
1 30 10.0 0.0
Table 4: Load Levels considered during optimisation
Level Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Load level (p.u.) 0.5 1.0 1.8
Hours 1000 6760 1000
Substation
voltage (p.u.)
1.0 1.0 1.0
Table 5: Load-duration data
Time interval Load level (p.u.) Time (h)
1 0.5 1000
2 1.0 (nominal load) 6760
3 1.8 1000
IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 153, No. 1, January 2006 85
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accommodate the various control facets of the RDS. It has
inherent capability to manipulate the solution string in
every iteration through changes in the DDS. Most
importantly, it handles the siting and sizing subproblem in
a single step that provides a great deal of programming
exibility.
4 Conclusion
A novel dynamic data structure for EP method with fuzzy
modeling of objective function is proposed in this paper.
The novelty of the proposed method is that the dynamic
data structure is prepared in such a way that it allows both
siting and sizing of reactive-power sources in one computa-
tional cycle as a single-tier problem rather than two tiers, as
reported in previous work. It also considers the other
elements of radial distribution system such as existing
capacitors, transformer taps and optimal reconguration
aspects while searching for optimal capacitor-compensation
scheme. The method is highly efcient and gives an
improvement of 7.5% in terms of cost saving over the best
previously published result. Simulation results explicitly
Table 6: Base-case load level, power loss, accumulated energy loss and worst voltage details
Time interval Total load (kW) Power loss (kW) Cost of accumulated
energy loss ($)
VDI value Worst voltage (p.u.)
1 1901.09497 46.28409 2777.05 0
2 3802.18994 222.86652 90394.66 0.01194 0.9092
3 6843.94189 866.67877 52000.73 0.04284 0.8204
Total accumulated cost of energy for the entire year $145172.4
Table 7: Optimal solution with details of capacitor sited and sized with losses
Time
interval
Values of capacitors switched in at newly
sited buses (kVAr)
System
losses (kW)
Cost of accumulated
energy loss ($)
VDI
values
Worst
voltage (p.u.)
Bus 62 Bus 61 Bus 14
1 0.00 360.65 5.90 37.00 2220 0 0
2 780.78 614.53 648.89 135.42 54926.35 0.00487 0.9313
3 1034.28 1300.00 678.76 546.06 32763.6 0.02892 0.8580
Total accumulated cost of energy for the entire year $89909.95
sending
end:
I
ij

ij receiving
end:
V
j

j
V
i

i
load
cogenerator
parallel
capacitor
line, switch or
transformer
Fig. 6 CPU-time-comparison chart
Table 8: Base-case load level, power loss, accumulated energy loss and worst-voltage details
Time
interval
Load level
(p.u.)
Time duration
(h)
Total load
(kW)
Power loss
(kW)
Cost of accumulated
energy loss ($)
VDI value Worst voltage
(p.u.)
1 0.5 1000 1895.9 53.32 3199.3 0.0
2 1.0 6760 3791.9 213.6 86654.2 0.01192 0.9093
3 1.8 1000 6825.4 856.9 51416.4 0.04388 0.8203
Total accumulated cost of energy for the entire year $141269.9
Table 9: Optimal solution with details of capacitor sited and sized with losses
Time
interval
Values of capacitors switched in at newly
sited buses (kVAr)
System losses
(kW)
Cost of accumulated
energy loss ($)
VDI values Worst voltage
(p.u.)
Bus 21 Bus 61 Bus 63
1 0.23 0.12 0.02 39.37 2362.2 0.00
2 0.14 0.37 0.18 121.40 49239.7 0.00402 0.8681
3 0.45 0.37 0.47 521.59 31295.4 0.02649 0.9330
Total accumulated cost of energy for the entire year $82897.3
86 IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 153, No. 1, January 2006
Authorized licensed use limited to: JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY. Downloaded on June 14,2010 at 07:58:30 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
highlight the computational efciency of the proposed
method over other reported methods.
5 References
1 ScMill, J.V.: Optimal size and location of shunt capacitors on
distribution feeders, IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst., 1968, 84,
pp. 825832
2 Bae, Y.G.: Analytical method of capacitor allocation on distribution
primary feeders, IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst., 1978, 97, (4),
pp. 12321238
3 Baran, M.E., and Wu, F.F.: Optimal sizing of capacitor placed on
radial distribution systems, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 1989, 2,
pp. 735743
4 Chiang, H.D., and Wang, J.C.: Optimal capacitor placement in
distribution systems. Part I: A new formulation and overall problem,
IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 1990, 5, (2), pp. 634642
5 Chiang, H.D., and Wang, J.C.: Optimal capacitor placement in
distribution systems. Part 2: Solution algorithms and numerical
results, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 1990, 5, (2), pp. 643649
6 Bala, J.L., Kuntz, P.A., and Pebbles, M.J.: Optimal placement,
capacitors allocation using distribution analyzerrecorder, IEEE
Trans. Power Deliv., 1997, 12, (1), pp. 464469
7 Liu, Y., Zhang, P., and Qiu, X.: Optimal volt/VAr control in
distribution systems, Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., 2002, 24,
pp. 271276
8 Ng, H.N., Salama, M.M.A., and Chikhani, A.Y.: Classication of
capacitor allocation techniques, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 2000, 15,
(1), pp. 387392
9 Haque, M.H.: Capacitor placement in radial distribution systems for
loss reduction, IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib., 1999, 146, (5),
pp. 501505
10 Ramon, A., Gallego Monticelli, A.J., and Romero, R.: Optimal
capacitor placement in radial distribution networks, IEEE Trans.
Power Syst., 2001, 16, (4), pp. 630637
11 Huang, Y.C., Yang, H.T., and Huang, C.L.: Solving the capacitor
placement problem in a radial distribution systems using Tabu search
approach, IEEE Trans. Power syst., 1996, 11, (4), pp. 18681873
12 Sundarajan, S., and Pahwa, A.: Optimal selection of capacitors for
radial distribution systems using a genetic algorithm, IEEE Trans.
Power Syst., 1994, 9, (3), pp. 14991507
13 Das, D.: Reactive power compensation for radial distribution
networks using genetic algorithm, Electr. Power Energy syst., 2002,
24, pp. 573581
14 Ching-Tzong, Lii, G.-R., and Tsai, C.-C.: Optimal Capacitor
allocation using fuzzy reasoning and genetic algorithms for distribu-
tion systems, J. Math. Comput. Modelling, 2001, 33, pp. 745757
15 Ng, H.N., Salama, M.M.A., and Chikhani, A.Y.: Capacitor
allocation by approximate reasoning: fuzzy capacitor placement,
IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 2000, 15, (1), pp. 393398
16 Das, B., and Vellupula, S.P.: Optimal capacitor switching in a
distribution systems using functional link networks, Electr. Power
Compon. Syst., 2002, 30, pp. 833847
17 Zimmermann, H.-J.: Fuzzy set theory and its application (Kluwer
Academic press, 1994)
18 Venkatesh, B., and Ranjan, R.: Novel data structure for radial
distribution system load ow analysis, IEE Proc. Gener. Transm.
Distrib., 2003, 150, (1), pp. 101106
6 Appendix
Section provides a simple method for solving power-balance
equations of radial distribution systems characterised with
high r/x ratios in its lines [18]. The mathematical modelling
of the essential components is discussed below. Note that
the models presented are suitable for load-ow analysis of
radial distribution systems. Models of lines, transformers
and shunt capacitors are presented. In general, the lengths
of lines in a distribution system are short. Hence short-line
models are most commonly used, ignoring line charging
admittance. Z
ij
represents series impedance of line (see
Fig. 7). Consider a transformer connected between buses i
and j. Its p-model is shown in Fig. 8 where Z
L
is the series
impedance of the transformer and a is the off-nominal tap
ratio on the sending-end side. Shunt capacitors can be
considered as jQ
C
reactive load with current a injected to
the feeder equaling I
C
jQ
C
=V

.
The receiving-end-voltage equation is derived considering
receiving end powers as follows [18]:
V
2
j
r
ij
:P
ij
x
ij
:Q
ij

V
2
i
2
_ _
r
ij
:P
ij
x
ij
:Q
ij

V
2
i
2
_ _
2
r
2
ij
x
2
ij
_ _
P
2
ij
Q
2
ij
_ _
_ _
14
where P
ij
and Q
ij
refer to the power owing in the line at the
receiving end. The phase angle of the voltage phasor at the
jth bus is computed by the expression
d
j
d
i
cos
1
1:0
P
ij
:x
ij
Q
ij
:r
ij
V
i
V
j
_ _
2
_ _ _ _
15
Further power loss in the lines connecting buses i and j may
be computed by equations
PL
ij
r
ij
_
P
2
ij
Q
2
ij
_ __
V
2
j
_ _
QL
ij
x
ij
_
P
2
ij
Q
2
ij
_ __
V
2
j
_ _ 16
The load-ow algorithm uses a recursive function to
compute bus voltages. It starts by computing the voltage at
the farthermost end of the rst branch. If there are branches
emanating from this farthermost bus, this function
recursively calls itself to compute the state of buses in these
branches and the power they draw from the farthermost
bus. This recursive call is continued until it reaches branches
from where other branches do not emanate. Then, the
function computes the voltage at farthermost bus using (14)
and (15) with the knowledge of its load. Then using (16), it
computes the power loss in the transmission line connecting
this bus and next bus in the direction leading to the rst bus
of the branch. With load at bus j and transmission-power
loss in the line between buses i and j known, the function
computes the load at bus i. This process continues until the
voltage is computed at the rst bus.
The overall algorithm uses the recursive algorithm
presented above. The overall algorithm is presented in
Fig. 9. Essentially, the algorithm reads in the data and then
creates one data structure to represent all the branches of
a.Z
L
1
Z
L
a
a1


1
1a
Z
L a
2


sending
end: receiving
end:
V
j

j
V
i

i
Fig. 7 Simple line diagram
start
read in distribution-
system details.
create data structure for all the branches
end
compute the all buses if
inequalities (14) are satisfied
compute the voltage solution using the recursive
function
Fig. 8 p-model of a transformer
IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 153, No. 1, January 2006 87
Authorized licensed use limited to: JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY. Downloaded on June 14,2010 at 07:58:30 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
the RDS [18]. Subsequently, the algorithm calls the
recursive function to compute the voltage solution at all
the buses in the system. The algorithm checks for
convergence by checking whether the inequality (17) is
satised. The recursive function is called repeatedly until the
inequality (17) is satised. The following convergence
criterion is suggested to check the algorithm:
PG
i
PD
i


j
V
i
:V
j
:Y
ij
:cos d
i
d
j
y
ij
_ _ _ _
_ _
e
QG
i
QD
i


j
V
i
:V
j
:Y
ij
:sin d
i
d
j
y
ij
_ _ _ _
_ _
e
_

_
17
where e is an acceptable tolerance value.
163
199
644
711
0
200
400
600
800
proposed [13]
[12]
[4, 5]
c
o
m
p
u
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

t
i
m
e
,

s
Fig. 9 Overall algorithm for solving power-balance equations
88 IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 153, No. 1, January 2006
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