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systems

B. Venkatesh and R. Ranjan

Abstract: Optimal reactive-power compensation in a radial distribution system requires the

determination of the best set of locations for siting capacitors of minimum sizes. The total cost of

compensation should be the least and must yield the maximum energy-loss reduction accounting

for various load levels. Other controls such as transformer taps, reconguration options and

existing reactive-power sources must be considered while searching for the optimal solution.

Optimal selection of a few best sites from among a large set is a problem of high combinatorial

order and difcult to solve using conventional optimisation techniques. Optimal sizing is a problem

of a continuous nature. The paper proposes a single dynamic data structure for an evolutionary

programming (EP) algorithm that handles the problems of siting and sizing of new shunt

capacitors simultaneously while considering transformer taps, existing reactive-power sources and

reconguration options, accounting for different load levels and time durations. A fuzzy model of

the objective function is developed for optimisation in the EP framework. The proposed fuzzy EP

method is tested on two cases of a 69-bus radial distribution system.

List of symbols

N

C

number of newly sited reactive power sources;

Q

i

N

vector of reactive powers of sources at the newly

selected capacitor sites considering the ith time

interval;

Y

i

vector of branch numbers, one each for each loop

in the radial distribution system, that are opened to

congure the distribution system in a radial

manner considering the ith time interval;

Q

i

E

vector of reactive powers of existing sources

considering the ith time interval;

T

i

vector of tap settings of transformers considering

the ith time interval;

K

V

reects the variable costs per kVAr for installation

of a new capacitor;

K

F

reects the xed costs for installation of a new

capacitor;

L

Pi

total kW loss in the radial distribution system in

the ith time interval;

TD

I

time duration in the ith time interval;

K

P

reects the cost of electricity (kWh);

N

L

number of time intervals in a year;

V vector of bus-voltage magnitudes.

1 Introduction

Large radial distribution systems distribute power in a

radial manner and suffer from voltage drop and energy

losses. An expansion of the consumer base with increased

loading causes greater voltage sag and energy losses in

distribution systems. They have a combination of loads,

namely industrial, commercial, domestic and lighting. These

loads peak at any time of the day in any part of the system.

While the peak load is being served, the system may suffer

from low voltages, high levels of power loss and overloading

of lines. Provision of transformers, reactive-power sources

and the scope of dynamic reconguration may be gainfully

used to regulate downstream voltages, load balancing and

energy-loss reduction.

Planners resort to allocation of capacitors to improve the

voltage prole and minimise energy losses in a radial

distribution system (RDS). The problem of optimal

allocation of capacitors in a RDS has been investigated

since the 1960s. Analytical approaches were proposed in

[1, 2] for capacitor allocation. A mixed-integer nonlinear-

programming formulation was posed in [3] employing

Benders decomposition technique for the optimal alloca-

tion of capacitors.

More rigorous approaches were suggested in [4, 5]. In [6]

the capacitors were optimally allocated using sensitivity

factors and a characterisation scheme for demand at buses.

Several other methods [710] have been proposed for loss

reduction through allocation of capacitors in distribution

system. These methods use mathematical techniques and

other intelligent optimisation methods. Combinatorial-

optimisation algorithms have been employed gainfully to

allocate capacitors optimally in the recent past. The Tabu

search algorithm [11], genetic algorithm (GA) [12, 13],

fuzzy-GA-reasoning-based methods [14, 15] and functionally

B. Venkatesh is with Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,

University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada

R. Ranjan is with Institute of Technology and Management, Gurgaon, India

E-mail: b.venkatesh@iee.org

r IEE, 2006

IEE Proceedings online no. 20050054

doi:10.1049/ip-gtd:20050054

Paper rst received 21st February 2005

80 IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 153, No. 1, January 2006

Authorized licensed use limited to: JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY. Downloaded on June 14,2010 at 07:58:30 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

linked ANN approach [16] were employed for the optimal

allocation of capacitors.

Most of these methods break the problem into two parts.

The rst is the higher-level discrete problem of siting

capacitors, while the second is the lower-level continuous-

domain problem of optimal sizing. Solution methodologies

reported in the literature move back and forth between the

two levels. One drawback common to these methods is that

they seldom consider the provision of transformer taps,

existing reactive-power sources and reconguration options.

These would yield a better and cheaper optimal solution for

the capacitor-siting/sizing problem. Further, all these works

use static programming techniques and lack the advantage

of algorithms that use dynamic data structure (DDS). Since

the choice of location is discrete (siting), the cost function

for sizing is continuous and other parameters such as

voltage and power loss are continuous, the problem at hand

has a high degree of combinatorial complexity and a

discontinuous solution domain. Thus the conventional

methods do not yield very good results.

The proposed method uses a new dynamic data structure

to combine the siting and sizing problems, and handles

them in a single step. The dynamic data structure

accommodates information of location and size of new

reactive-power sources, setting of existing reactive-power

sources, transformer taps and system conguration for all

the load intervals. The overall problem has multiple

objectives of minimisation of the total cost of new

capacitors and the minimisation of power loss in the lines

while obtaining a satisfactory voltage prole. To handle the

multiple objectives and constraints, the problem is trans-

lated into a fuzzy formulation. This problem is solved using

the EP algorithm to obtain the global optimum. The EP

technique is suitable for handling solution domains having a

mix of discrete and continuous variables. The proposed

dynamic data structure and associated fuzzy EP algorithm

are presented in Section 2. The results and conclusions are

presented in Sections 3 and 4, respectively.

2 Proposed fuzzy EP algorithm

2.1 Problem statement

Mathematically, the problem may be formulated as follows:

Minimise the total investment costs of new capacitors:

N

C

j 1

K

V

Q

MAX

Nj

K

F

_ _

1

Minimise the total annual energy loss in transmission lines:

N

L

i 1

D

i

L

Pi

2

Subject to the conditions

V

MIN

V V

MAX

3

where Q

MAX

Nj

in (1) is the highest value of the jth

new capacitor switched in the various time intervals.

V

MAX

(V

MIN

) in (3) is a vector of maximum (minimum)

limits on bus-voltage magnitudes.

The problem mathematically stated above succinctly

expresses the fact that different time intervals will have

different solutions for new/existing capacitors switched in,

transformer-tap settings and optimal network congura-

tions with a common set of sites of new capacitors for all

the time intervals. Further, while computing the cost of new

capacitors proposed by a solution, one has to consider the

largest size (kVAr) of capacitor switched in at all time

intervals in each site.

Considering the ith time interval, the vector Q

i

N

Y

i

Q

i

S

T

i

_

denes the solution where the new capacitors are sited in the

locations given by the vector N

Q

. The control vector X of

the entire problem is dened as

X N

Q

_

Q

1

N

Y

1

Q

1

S

T

1

Q

2

N

Y

2

Q

2

S

T

2

:

:

Q

NL

N

Y

NL

Q

NL

S

T

NL

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

:

By altering the value of the number of newly sited

capacitors N

C

, one may alter dynamically the form of X.

It would alter the dimension of vectors N

Q

, Q

1

N

, Q

2

N

, y,

Q

NL

N

. It allows the solution to transcend from one

discontinuous solution subdomain to another.

2.2 Fuzzy evolutionary-programming

algorithm with dynamic data structure

The problem stated in (1)(3) is transformed to a fuzzy

optimisation problem. This transformation is presented in

Section 2.3. This fuzzy-optimisation formulation is solved

using the evolutionary-programming technique. This solu-

tion scheme is given in Section 2.4. The data structure used

by the EP algorithm is presented in Section 2.5.

Fuzzy-set theory is a mathematical technique that allows

modelling of imprecise or conicting engineering problems.

The imprecise nature may arise from several aspects. In

certain cases impreciseness arises owing to semantic

uncertainty. In such problems, one commonly encounters

use to fuzzication, fuzzy rules/inference and defuzzica-

tion. The fuzzy-optimisation procedure is another aspect of

fuzzy-set theory. It provides a framework for handling

optimisation problems. It transforms objectives and con-

straints into satisfaction functions of fuzzy sets. An

optimum is achieved by maximising the intersection of

the satisfaction functions of the problem subject to other

crisp constraints of the problem. This problem formulation

is then solved using any optimisation technique that is

suitable. In this case, the evolutionary-programming

technique is employed.

The fuzzy-optimisation problem is mathematically

dened as follows [17]. Consider a problem comprising

L objectives and M constraints. Let each objective be

associated with a fuzzy set

~

Z

m

fu

m

; m

~

Zm

u

m

ju

m

2U

m

g;

m

Zm

m

~

Zm

u

m

where the subscript m refers to the mth

objective function. u

m

is the value the mth objective

function assumes, U

m

is a set of all such values, m

~

Zm

u

m

Zm

is a satisfaction

parameter that denes the degree of closeness of the mth

objective to the optimum when it assumes the value u

m

.

Similarly, let each constraint be associated with a fuzzy set

~

C

t

fu

t

; m

~

Ct

u

t

ju

t

2 U

t

g; m

~

Ct

m

~

Ct

u

t

where the

subscript t refers to the tth constraint. U

t

is the value the

tth constraint assumes, U

t

is a set of all such values, m

~

Ct

u

t

Ct

is a satisfaction

parameter that denes the degree of enforcement of the

tth constraint when it assumes the value u

t

.

Mathematically, the fuzzy-optimisation procedure as

given in [17] is stated as

maximise l

where

l min m

Z1

; m

Z2

; . . . . . . : m

ZL

; m

C1

; m

C2

; . . . . . . :; m

CM

f g

The min function determines the minimum of the satisfac-

tion values. It is a type of fuzzy-intersection operator. One

IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 153, No. 1, January 2006 81

Authorized licensed use limited to: JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY. Downloaded on June 14,2010 at 07:58:30 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

may also use other intersection operators such as product,

as is used in this work at a later stage.

All the membership functions are dened in the range

[01]. By maximising the minimum of these membership

functions, the objectives and the enforcement of constraints

are optimised. Based on this concept, the optimisation

problem stated in (1)(3) is translated into a fuzzy-

optimisation problem in Section 2.3.

2.3 Fuzzy modelling of the objectives

The two objectives in (1) and (2) are combined mathema-

tically into a single objective in this Section and represented

as the rst fuzzy objective. The constraint in (3) is translated

into the second fuzzy objective. The details are presented in

Sections 2.3.1 and 2.3.2, one for each fuzzy objective. The

two fuzzy objectives are then used to form the complete

fuzzy-optimisation problem posed in Section 2.3.3.

2.3.1 Fuzzy model of prot objective: As the

rst two objectives are in terms of investment cost and

losses, they are combined. These two objectives are

addressed as single function f (X) and discussed as follows.

Let P

o

Li

represent the transmission loss in the radial

distribution system in the starting state. The reduction of

transmission loss P

o

Li

P

Li

_

in each time interval represents

energy saving and its monetary equivalent may be

computed as K

P

fD

i

P

o

Li

PL

i

_ _

g. Considering N

L

time

intervals, sum of such monetary equivalents of energy

saving equals

K

P

N

L

i 1

D

i

P

o

Li

PL

i

_ _ _ _

4

Considering a radial distribution system, the total prot/loss

due to the monetary equivalent of energy saving minus the

investment required for newly sited capacitors may be

computed

fX K

P

N

L

i 1

D

i

P

o

Li

PL

i

_ _ _ _

N

C

j 1

K

V

Q

Max

Nj

K

F

_ _

5

Consider a fuzzy set that is dened as

~

F f; m

f

f

_ _

; f 2 fset of all permissible valuesg

_ _

6

As shall be seen in an EP algorithm, a set of solutions [X

1

,

X

2

, X

3

, y, X

NEP

] is generated at rst. NEP is the number of

solutions in the set. Then another set of an equal number of

solutions is evolved in the algorithm. Then, the EP

algorithm chooses NEP best solutions from amongst the

two sets. This process is continued iteratively. Thus, the

evaluation of the objective function for each of the 2*NEP

solutions and their ranking is done in each EP iteration. The

fuzzy objective function is developed keeping in mind these

2*NEP solutions [X

1

, X

2

, X

3

y, X

2NEP

], as below.

Upon evaluating all the solutions [X

1

, X

2

, X

3

y, X

2NEP

]

using (5), one obtains the corresponding prot values

as [f (X

1

), f (X

2

), f (X

3

), y, f (X

2NEP

)], which forms the set of

permissible values of (6).

The membership function m

f

( f) in (6) is then dened as

m

f

f

fX f

MIN

f

MAX

f

MIN

7

where f

MAX

and f

MIN

are the maximum and minimum

values among the set of permissible values of f. The function

is presented graphically in Fig. 1.

2.3.2 Fuzzy model of voltage-violation-mini-

misation objective: The second fuzzy objective, as

explained in the beginning of Section 2.3, relates to

obtaining the best voltage prole. An index that quanties

the extent of voltage violation in a radial distribution system

is dened by

I

VD

B

NV

n 1

V

n

V

LIM

n

2

N

_

8

where B

NV

is the number of buses that violate the prescribed

voltage limits and V

LIM

n

is the upper limit of the nth bus

voltage if there is an upper-limit violation or lower-limit if

there is a lower limit violation. N is the number of buses in

the system.

Further, any solution X would yield the I

VD

values

corresponding to each time interval considered. Let the I

VD

associated with any solutions ith time interval be referred as

I

i

VD

X. In order to compute a voltage-deviation-index

value attributable to the entire solution X, the following is

dened:

vX

NL

i 1

I

i

VD

X

_ _

9

Once again, considering all the solutions [X

1

, X

2

, X

3

, y,

X

2NEP

] and evaluating them using (9), one obtains the

corresponding voltage-deviation indices as [v(X

1

), v(X

2

),

v(X

3

), y, v(X

2NEP

)]. Using these values to form the set of

permissible values for v(X), a fuzzy set is dened with a

membership function m

v

(V) as follows:

~

V v; m

v

v ; v2 fset of all permissible valuesg f g 10

where the membership function is dened as

m

v

v

v

MAX

vX

v

MAX

v

MIN

11

v

MAX

and v

MIN

in (11) are the maximum and minimum

values among the set of permissible values of v. The

function is graphically presented in Fig. 2.

2.3.3 Overall fuzzy model of the objective

function: The overall fuzzy-objective function consider-

ing the two objectives is developed in this Section. It

f

MIN

f

MAX

0

1.0

f(X)

f

(

f

)

Fig. 1 Membership function of prot objective

v

MIN

v

MAX

0

1.0

v(X)

v

(

V

)

Fig. 2 Membership function of voltage-violation function

82 IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 153, No. 1, January 2006

Authorized licensed use limited to: JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY. Downloaded on June 14,2010 at 07:58:30 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

requires a method to combine the two objectives using

a fuzzy-intersection operator. In this paper, the simple

product is chosen as the intersection operator. Thus the

overall objective function is dened as

m

x

X m

f

f X m

v

v X 12

The above-dened objective function quanties the satisfac-

tion with the solution string X and is used to evaluate a

solution X

p

from amongst 2*NEP solutions X

1

to X

2NEP

in

the evolutionary programming algorithm presented in

Section 2.4.

2.4 Proposed algorithm

The fuzzy-optimisation problem stated in (12) is solved

using the EP technique. Thus the proposed algorithm is

termed the fuzzy EP method. It is outlined hereunder and

an illustrative owchart is presented in Fig. 3.

(i) Randomly generate NEP combination of solution

vectors X

1

, X

2

, y, X

NEP

.

(ii) Set iteration count K1.

(iii) Evaluate the objective-function value for each of the

combinations X

p

for p1 to NEP. To evaluate the

objective function, power-ow equations with setting from

X

p

are solved using a recursive technique Appendix 1 of

[18]. It may be noted that the capacitors, both existing and

new, are taken as variable-impedance elements and not

as variable reactive-power injections. The transformers

are modelled through conventional p-model (Appendix 1,

[18]).

(iv) Generate NEP more solution strings X

NEP+1

, X

NEP+2

,

y, X

2NEP

through a random process:

X

NEPp

b

2r r

M

r

M

X

MAX

X

MIN

m

MAX

X

m

X

X

p

X

p

13

where

b is a factor appropriately chosen (in the entire study, it has

been chosen to be 0.10); r is a random number between 0 to

r

M

; X

MIN

and X

MAX

are the minimum and maximum

values of X as dened earlier; and X

MAX

refers to that

solution vector X

p

amongst all the available NEP solution

strings X

1

to X

NEP

that yields the maximum satisfaction

parameter value m

MAX

X

.

(v) Evaluate the newly generated solution vectors X

NEP+1

,

X

NEP+2

, y, X

2NEP

as in step (iii).

(vi) Choose the best NEP solution vectors among the set of

2NEP solution vectors X

1

, X

2

, y, X

2NEP

and designate the

chosen set as of NEP solution vectors as X

1

, X

2

, y, X

NEP

.

(vii) Increment the iteration count, KK+1.

(viii) If KoMaximum go to step 4 (maximum is taken as

1000 in this paper).

(ix) Choose the best solution amongst the NEP solutions

X

1

, X

2

, y, X

NEP

.

The owchart indicates a maximum number of iterations.

Note that this is evolved only from experience for a given

system. In a similar fashion, the values of b and NEP are

also arrived at after several trial runs. In this study, NEP

was taken as 5 and b was taken as 0.1. Other options

may also be attempted. Further, (13) is designed such that

m

X

X

p

appears in the denominator. With m

MAX

X

appearing

in the numerator, the ratio m

MAX

X

=m

X

X

p

will be bigger if

the solution has a lesser value of satisfaction parameter.

This is intentionally done so as to move the solutions that

are far away from the optimum a little more than those that

seem to be closer to the optimum.

2.5 Data structure for EP

The fuzzy evolutionary algorithm, crucially, requires

identication of the best method to handle a possible

solution string. The scheme for solution strings developed

and adopted in this paper is shown in Fig. 4. The data

structure of the solution string is proposed in such a way

that the structure and data can be dynamically altered in

each computational cycle based on the requirements of the

algorithm. The proposed data structure has one layer for

every time interval and each layer will have separate

dedicated strings assigned to store the settings of new

capacitors, branch numbers switched out from each loop to

determine the conguration, settings of existing capacitors

and tap settings of transformers. The locations of new

select the best NEP- solution vectors using

(12) from the set X

1

to X

2NEP

no

yes

the selected NEP- solution vectors are referred to as X

1

to X

NEP

end

iterations > 1000?

select the best of the NEP solution vectors X

having

the highest satisfaction parameters value

X

(X

p

) .

start

consider NEP schedules X

1

to X

NEP

evaluate

X

to

X

NEP

generate a set of NC solution vectors X

NEP+1

to X

2NEP

(13)

evaluate satisfaction parameters

NEP+1

to

2NEP

X X

1

Fig. 3 Flowchart of the Fuzzy EP Algorithm

configuration

data

size of new

capacitors

size of existing

capacitors

tap settings

one

row for

each

time

interval

location of new

capacitors

Fig. 4 Data structure for an EP solution

IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 153, No. 1, January 2006 83

Authorized licensed use limited to: JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY. Downloaded on June 14,2010 at 07:58:30 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

capacitors common to all the intervals in a solution are

stored separately on the left-hand side of the proposed

DDS. Thus the DDS forms an integral part of the EP

algorithm. When the solution possibly alters the value of

NC, the DDS is dynamically altered. It would thus

accommodate more/fewer capacitors seamlessly. This

allows the solution procedure to a single-stage strategy.

This is the major advantage of using a DDS while solving

this problem using EP over other methods that have a two-

stage strategy (one for site selection and other for their

sizing).

3 Results

The proposed method was tested on two cases of a 69-bus

system. The rst case is taken from [13]. The second case is

a modied version of the rst case and the complete data is

given in Fig. 5 and Tables 24. The coefcients used for

pricing newly sited capacitors and energy are given in

Table 1. The 69-bus system was assumed to operate at three

load levels in three time intervals in the entire year. Table 5

presents the details of time intervals and load levels.

Case 1: The rst case has been investigated several times

and reported in the literature. The results are compared

with already published results [13]. Base case results in terms

of total load on the system, worst voltage in each loading

case, associated power loss and corresponding accumulated

energy loss are tabulated in Table 6. The proposed method

was tested on the same system. The details of system results

with actual values of newly sited capacitor switched in are

reported in Table 7. The algorithm took 162.96s to execute

1000 iterations.

From Tables 6 and 7, one may observe the following.

The total accumulated energy loss for the year before and

after compensation is $145172.4 and $89909.95, respec-

tively. The prot through energy-loss reduction is $55262.

The total xed costs for three capacitors is $3000. The

variable cost of capacitor values of 1034.28, 1300.00 and

678.76, computed at the rate of $3.00 per kVAr, totals to

$9039.12. The cost of newly installed capacitor equals the

sum of xed and variable costs and totals $12039.12.

Subtracting the total cost of optimal capacitor compensa-

tion from the prots due to reduction in the accumulated

energy loss results in a net saving of $43223.86. This saving

is higher than the results published in [13] that equals

$40198, and is the highest reported so far in the referenced

literature. Apart from higher monetary savings, the

proposed algorithm is found to be faster than the other

reported methods. The comparison of CPU time required

by various reported algorithms is presented in Fig. 6. Noted

that, in this study, the objective was modied as m

x

X

m

f

f X in order to compare with the already reported

methods. Further, the maximum possible reactive-power

allocation was capped at 1300kVAr at a bus. All buses

except the substation were considered as possible sites for

the location of capacitors.

Case 2: To demonstrate the versatility of the proposed

method, the 69-bus system is modied by incorporating

four transformers, three loops and two existing variable

shunt capacitors while considering three time intervals in a

year. The data for the modied system are given in Fig. 5.

The base case and optimal solutions are presented in

Tables 8 and 9. The results demonstrate the applicability

and strength of the method.

The total costs of newly sited and sized capacitors equal

$3003.8. The saving derived through reduction in the

accumulated energy costs of the entire year equals $58372.6

( $141269.9$82897.3). Deducting the costs of newly

sited capacitors from the saving equals $55368.7

( $58372.6$3003.8).

From the above, one clearly sees the following benets:

(a) The proposed dynamic data structure makes it possible

to have a single step solution;

(b) This allows reduction of execution time;

(c) This obtains better results in terms of lower total

investment costs or higher savings;

(d) IC permits inclusion of all the control elements of a

radial distribution system such as transformers, existing

reactive-power sources and options of recongurations;

(e) It allows handling of several load levels.

The inclusion of distribution-system elements such as

transformers and shunt reactive-power sources yields

better results. The above, along with the results presented

justify the aptness and ability of the proposed solution

method. The method is versatile, as it is able to

01 03 04 02 05 06 07 08 09 10 11

32 33 34 35

12 13 14 15

27 26 25 24 23 22 21

16

68 69

28

29

56 55 54 53

57

58

59 60 61 62

17

18

19

20

30

31

63 64 65

67

66

52

51

47 48 49 50

38 40 41 39 42 43 44 45 46

37

36

buses

lines

tie lines

transformers

Fig. 5 Modied 69-bus radial distribution system

Table 1: Fixed and variable cost of capacitor installation and

cost of energy (kWh)

K

V

Variable per kVAr costs for installation

of ith new capacitor.

$3

K

F

Fixed costs for installation of ith new

capacitor.

$1000

K

P

Cost of energy $0.06/kWh

84 IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 153, No. 1, January 2006

Authorized licensed use limited to: JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY. Downloaded on June 14,2010 at 07:58:30 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

Table 2: Modied 69-bus load, transformer and line data

S. From To R(O) X(O) Receiving-end power

No. Bus PD (kW) QD (kVAr)

1 1 2 0.0005 0.0012 0.0 0.0

2 2 3 0.0005 0.0012 0.0 0.0

3 3 4 0.0015 0.0036 0.0 0.0

4 4 5 0.0251 0.0294 0.0 0.0

5 5 6 0.3660 0.1864 2.6 2.2

6 6 7 0.3811 0.1941 40.4 30.0

7 7 8 0.0922 0.0470 75.0 54.0

8 8 9 0.0493 0.0251 30.0 22.0

9 9 10 0.8190 0.2707 28.0 19.0

10 10 11 0.1872 0.0619 145.0 104.0

11 11 12 0.7114 0.2351 145.0 104.0

12 12 13 0.5 2.0 8.0 5.0

13 13 14 1.0440 0.3450 8.0 5.50

14 14 15 1.0580 0.3496 0.0 0.0

15 15 16 0.1966 0.0650 45.5 30.0

16 16 17 0.3744 0.1238 60.0 35.0

17 17 18 0.0047 0.0016 60.0 35.0

18 18 19 0.3276 0.1083 0.0 0.0

19 19 20 0.2106 0.0690 1.0 0.6

20 20 21 0.3416 0.1129 114.0 81.0

21 21 22 0.0140 0.0046 5.0 3.5

22 22 23 0.1591 0.0526 0.0 0.0

23 23 24 0.3463 0.1145 28.0 20.0

24 24 25 0.7488 0.2475 0.0 0.0

25 25 26 0.3089 0.1021 14.0 10.0

26 26 27 0.1732 0.0572 14.0 10.0

27 3 28 0.0044 0.0108 26.0 18.6

28 28 29 0.0640 0.1565 26.0 18.6

29 29 30 0.3978 0.1315 0.0 0.0

30 30 31 0.0702 0.0232 0.0 0.0

31 31 32 0.3510 0.1160 0.0 0.0

32 32 33 0.8390 0.2816 14.0 10.0

33 33 34 1.7080 0.5646 9.5 14.0

34 34 35 1.4740 0.4873 6.0 4.0

35 3 36 0.0044 0.0108 26.0 18.55

36 36 37 0.0640 0.1565 26.0 18.55

37 37 38 0.1053 0.1230 0.00.0

38 38 39 0.0304 0.0355 24.0 17.0

39 39 40 0.0018 0.0021 24.0 17.0

40 40 41 0.7283 0.8509 1.20 1.0

41 41 42 0.3100 0.3623 0.0 0.0

42 42 43 0.0410 0.0478 6.0 4.30

43 43 44 0.0092 0.0116 0.0 0.0

44 44 45 0.1089 0.1373 39.22 26.3

45 45 46 0.0009 0.0012 39.22 26.3

46 4 47 0.0034 0.0084 0.0 0.0

47 47 48 0.0851 0.2083 79.0 56.40

48 48 49 0.2898 0.7091 384.7 274.5

49 49 50 0.0822 0.2011 384.7 274.5

50 08 51 0.5 2.0 40.5 28.3

51 51 52 0.3319 0.1114 3.60 2.7

52 9 53 0.1740 0.0886 4.35 3.5

53 53 54 0.2030 0.1034 26.4 19.0

(continued)

S. From To R(O) X(O) Receiving-end power

No. Bus PD (kW) QD (kVAr)

54 54 55 0.2842 0.1447 24.0 17.2

55 55 56 0.2813 0.1433 0.0 0.0

56 56 57 1.5900 0.5337 0.0 0.0

57 57 58 0.7837 0.2630 0.0 0.0

58 58 59 0.3042 0.1006 100.0 72.0

59 59 60 0.3861 0.1172 0.0 0.0

60 60 61 0.5075 0.2585 1244.0 888.0

61 61 62 0.0974 0.0496 32.0 23.0

62 62 63 0.1450 0.0738 0.0 0.0

63 63 64 0.7105 0.3619 227.0 162.0

64 64 65 1.0410 0.5302 59.0 42.0

65 11 66 0.5 2.0 18.0 13.0

66 66 67 0.0047 0.0014 18.0 13.0

67 12 68 0.5 2.0 28.0 20.0

68 68 69 0.0047 0.0016 28.0 20.0

69 52 67 2.0000 2.0000

70 15 69 2.0000 2.0000

71 10 65 2.0000 2.0000

1. Elements 12, 50, 65 and 68 are transformers with taps set 1.0 p.u.

in the base case and restricted to 1.10.9 during optimization

2. Elements 69, 70 and 71 are tielines

Table 3: Existing variable-reactive power-source data

S. No. Bus No. Max (kVAr) Switched in (kVAr)

0 15 10.0 0.0

1 30 10.0 0.0

Table 4: Load Levels considered during optimisation

Level Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

Load level (p.u.) 0.5 1.0 1.8

Hours 1000 6760 1000

Substation

voltage (p.u.)

1.0 1.0 1.0

Table 5: Load-duration data

Time interval Load level (p.u.) Time (h)

1 0.5 1000

2 1.0 (nominal load) 6760

3 1.8 1000

IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 153, No. 1, January 2006 85

Authorized licensed use limited to: JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY. Downloaded on June 14,2010 at 07:58:30 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

accommodate the various control facets of the RDS. It has

inherent capability to manipulate the solution string in

every iteration through changes in the DDS. Most

importantly, it handles the siting and sizing subproblem in

a single step that provides a great deal of programming

exibility.

4 Conclusion

A novel dynamic data structure for EP method with fuzzy

modeling of objective function is proposed in this paper.

The novelty of the proposed method is that the dynamic

data structure is prepared in such a way that it allows both

siting and sizing of reactive-power sources in one computa-

tional cycle as a single-tier problem rather than two tiers, as

reported in previous work. It also considers the other

elements of radial distribution system such as existing

capacitors, transformer taps and optimal reconguration

aspects while searching for optimal capacitor-compensation

scheme. The method is highly efcient and gives an

improvement of 7.5% in terms of cost saving over the best

previously published result. Simulation results explicitly

Table 6: Base-case load level, power loss, accumulated energy loss and worst voltage details

Time interval Total load (kW) Power loss (kW) Cost of accumulated

energy loss ($)

VDI value Worst voltage (p.u.)

1 1901.09497 46.28409 2777.05 0

2 3802.18994 222.86652 90394.66 0.01194 0.9092

3 6843.94189 866.67877 52000.73 0.04284 0.8204

Total accumulated cost of energy for the entire year $145172.4

Table 7: Optimal solution with details of capacitor sited and sized with losses

Time

interval

Values of capacitors switched in at newly

sited buses (kVAr)

System

losses (kW)

Cost of accumulated

energy loss ($)

VDI

values

Worst

voltage (p.u.)

Bus 62 Bus 61 Bus 14

1 0.00 360.65 5.90 37.00 2220 0 0

2 780.78 614.53 648.89 135.42 54926.35 0.00487 0.9313

3 1034.28 1300.00 678.76 546.06 32763.6 0.02892 0.8580

Total accumulated cost of energy for the entire year $89909.95

sending

end:

I

ij

ij receiving

end:

V

j

j

V

i

i

load

cogenerator

parallel

capacitor

line, switch or

transformer

Fig. 6 CPU-time-comparison chart

Table 8: Base-case load level, power loss, accumulated energy loss and worst-voltage details

Time

interval

Load level

(p.u.)

Time duration

(h)

Total load

(kW)

Power loss

(kW)

Cost of accumulated

energy loss ($)

VDI value Worst voltage

(p.u.)

1 0.5 1000 1895.9 53.32 3199.3 0.0

2 1.0 6760 3791.9 213.6 86654.2 0.01192 0.9093

3 1.8 1000 6825.4 856.9 51416.4 0.04388 0.8203

Total accumulated cost of energy for the entire year $141269.9

Table 9: Optimal solution with details of capacitor sited and sized with losses

Time

interval

Values of capacitors switched in at newly

sited buses (kVAr)

System losses

(kW)

Cost of accumulated

energy loss ($)

VDI values Worst voltage

(p.u.)

Bus 21 Bus 61 Bus 63

1 0.23 0.12 0.02 39.37 2362.2 0.00

2 0.14 0.37 0.18 121.40 49239.7 0.00402 0.8681

3 0.45 0.37 0.47 521.59 31295.4 0.02649 0.9330

Total accumulated cost of energy for the entire year $82897.3

86 IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 153, No. 1, January 2006

Authorized licensed use limited to: JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY. Downloaded on June 14,2010 at 07:58:30 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

highlight the computational efciency of the proposed

method over other reported methods.

5 References

1 ScMill, J.V.: Optimal size and location of shunt capacitors on

distribution feeders, IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst., 1968, 84,

pp. 825832

2 Bae, Y.G.: Analytical method of capacitor allocation on distribution

primary feeders, IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst., 1978, 97, (4),

pp. 12321238

3 Baran, M.E., and Wu, F.F.: Optimal sizing of capacitor placed on

radial distribution systems, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 1989, 2,

pp. 735743

4 Chiang, H.D., and Wang, J.C.: Optimal capacitor placement in

distribution systems. Part I: A new formulation and overall problem,

IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 1990, 5, (2), pp. 634642

5 Chiang, H.D., and Wang, J.C.: Optimal capacitor placement in

distribution systems. Part 2: Solution algorithms and numerical

results, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 1990, 5, (2), pp. 643649

6 Bala, J.L., Kuntz, P.A., and Pebbles, M.J.: Optimal placement,

capacitors allocation using distribution analyzerrecorder, IEEE

Trans. Power Deliv., 1997, 12, (1), pp. 464469

7 Liu, Y., Zhang, P., and Qiu, X.: Optimal volt/VAr control in

distribution systems, Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., 2002, 24,

pp. 271276

8 Ng, H.N., Salama, M.M.A., and Chikhani, A.Y.: Classication of

capacitor allocation techniques, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 2000, 15,

(1), pp. 387392

9 Haque, M.H.: Capacitor placement in radial distribution systems for

loss reduction, IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib., 1999, 146, (5),

pp. 501505

10 Ramon, A., Gallego Monticelli, A.J., and Romero, R.: Optimal

capacitor placement in radial distribution networks, IEEE Trans.

Power Syst., 2001, 16, (4), pp. 630637

11 Huang, Y.C., Yang, H.T., and Huang, C.L.: Solving the capacitor

placement problem in a radial distribution systems using Tabu search

approach, IEEE Trans. Power syst., 1996, 11, (4), pp. 18681873

12 Sundarajan, S., and Pahwa, A.: Optimal selection of capacitors for

radial distribution systems using a genetic algorithm, IEEE Trans.

Power Syst., 1994, 9, (3), pp. 14991507

13 Das, D.: Reactive power compensation for radial distribution

networks using genetic algorithm, Electr. Power Energy syst., 2002,

24, pp. 573581

14 Ching-Tzong, Lii, G.-R., and Tsai, C.-C.: Optimal Capacitor

allocation using fuzzy reasoning and genetic algorithms for distribu-

tion systems, J. Math. Comput. Modelling, 2001, 33, pp. 745757

15 Ng, H.N., Salama, M.M.A., and Chikhani, A.Y.: Capacitor

allocation by approximate reasoning: fuzzy capacitor placement,

IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 2000, 15, (1), pp. 393398

16 Das, B., and Vellupula, S.P.: Optimal capacitor switching in a

distribution systems using functional link networks, Electr. Power

Compon. Syst., 2002, 30, pp. 833847

17 Zimmermann, H.-J.: Fuzzy set theory and its application (Kluwer

Academic press, 1994)

18 Venkatesh, B., and Ranjan, R.: Novel data structure for radial

distribution system load ow analysis, IEE Proc. Gener. Transm.

Distrib., 2003, 150, (1), pp. 101106

6 Appendix

Section provides a simple method for solving power-balance

equations of radial distribution systems characterised with

high r/x ratios in its lines [18]. The mathematical modelling

of the essential components is discussed below. Note that

the models presented are suitable for load-ow analysis of

radial distribution systems. Models of lines, transformers

and shunt capacitors are presented. In general, the lengths

of lines in a distribution system are short. Hence short-line

models are most commonly used, ignoring line charging

admittance. Z

ij

represents series impedance of line (see

Fig. 7). Consider a transformer connected between buses i

and j. Its p-model is shown in Fig. 8 where Z

L

is the series

impedance of the transformer and a is the off-nominal tap

ratio on the sending-end side. Shunt capacitors can be

considered as jQ

C

reactive load with current a injected to

the feeder equaling I

C

jQ

C

=V

.

The receiving-end-voltage equation is derived considering

receiving end powers as follows [18]:

V

2

j

r

ij

:P

ij

x

ij

:Q

ij

V

2

i

2

_ _

r

ij

:P

ij

x

ij

:Q

ij

V

2

i

2

_ _

2

r

2

ij

x

2

ij

_ _

P

2

ij

Q

2

ij

_ _

_ _

14

where P

ij

and Q

ij

refer to the power owing in the line at the

receiving end. The phase angle of the voltage phasor at the

jth bus is computed by the expression

d

j

d

i

cos

1

1:0

P

ij

:x

ij

Q

ij

:r

ij

V

i

V

j

_ _

2

_ _ _ _

15

Further power loss in the lines connecting buses i and j may

be computed by equations

PL

ij

r

ij

_

P

2

ij

Q

2

ij

_ __

V

2

j

_ _

QL

ij

x

ij

_

P

2

ij

Q

2

ij

_ __

V

2

j

_ _ 16

The load-ow algorithm uses a recursive function to

compute bus voltages. It starts by computing the voltage at

the farthermost end of the rst branch. If there are branches

emanating from this farthermost bus, this function

recursively calls itself to compute the state of buses in these

branches and the power they draw from the farthermost

bus. This recursive call is continued until it reaches branches

from where other branches do not emanate. Then, the

function computes the voltage at farthermost bus using (14)

and (15) with the knowledge of its load. Then using (16), it

computes the power loss in the transmission line connecting

this bus and next bus in the direction leading to the rst bus

of the branch. With load at bus j and transmission-power

loss in the line between buses i and j known, the function

computes the load at bus i. This process continues until the

voltage is computed at the rst bus.

The overall algorithm uses the recursive algorithm

presented above. The overall algorithm is presented in

Fig. 9. Essentially, the algorithm reads in the data and then

creates one data structure to represent all the branches of

a.Z

L

1

Z

L

a

a1

1

1a

Z

L a

2

sending

end: receiving

end:

V

j

j

V

i

i

Fig. 7 Simple line diagram

start

read in distribution-

system details.

create data structure for all the branches

end

compute the all buses if

inequalities (14) are satisfied

compute the voltage solution using the recursive

function

Fig. 8 p-model of a transformer

IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 153, No. 1, January 2006 87

Authorized licensed use limited to: JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY. Downloaded on June 14,2010 at 07:58:30 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

the RDS [18]. Subsequently, the algorithm calls the

recursive function to compute the voltage solution at all

the buses in the system. The algorithm checks for

convergence by checking whether the inequality (17) is

satised. The recursive function is called repeatedly until the

inequality (17) is satised. The following convergence

criterion is suggested to check the algorithm:

PG

i

PD

i

j

V

i

:V

j

:Y

ij

:cos d

i

d

j

y

ij

_ _ _ _

_ _

e

QG

i

QD

i

j

V

i

:V

j

:Y

ij

:sin d

i

d

j

y

ij

_ _ _ _

_ _

e

_

_

17

where e is an acceptable tolerance value.

163

199

644

711

0

200

400

600

800

proposed [13]

[12]

[4, 5]

c

o

m

p

u

t

a

t

i

o

n

a

l

t

i

m

e

,

s

Fig. 9 Overall algorithm for solving power-balance equations

88 IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 153, No. 1, January 2006

Authorized licensed use limited to: JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY. Downloaded on June 14,2010 at 07:58:30 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

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