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Conflict management at state level
Mahran Ali Khan Wazir & Sharafat Ali Chaudhry
Studies focusing on violence in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) conclude that the Russian aggression in 1979 towards Afghanistan, anarchy in post-soviet era, and US invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 are the key reasons of spreading of violence in FATA. However, there is a controversy in views about the nature of violence in the bordering areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. This paper analyzes three dimensions of wide spread violence in the area with empirical observations. Firstly, it maps the current research and views on the nature of violence in FATA. Secondly, it examines meta-theories of peacemaking and their relevance to the cultural, social and historical context of the tribal belt. Finally, this paper proposes the policy option for conflict management at state level.
The conflict in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) has been explored to greater extent where majority of studies conclude that the current violence in FATA has its roots with the USSR invasion of Afghanistan which caused the civil war inside Afghanistan. Soviet invasion dragged United States of America into this region. The US won the proxy war in Afghanistan against USSR with the involvement of Pakistan and consequently the USSR was disintegrated. The Soviet disintegration created power vacuum in Afghanistan. The resultant chaos and anarchy caused civil war in Afghanistan. The neighboring countries particularly Iran, India and Pakistan participated in this civil war through influencing the conflicting groups to serve their own national interests. There were many factors which made Pakistan different to the other countries that had shown their interests in the war of Afghanistan. The intelligence sharing between Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the US and Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan during soviet aggression against Afghanistan was raison d'être of the importance of Pakistan‘s role. Among other factors, welcoming Afghan refugees to Pakistan, the strategic location of Pakistan and the cultural links among the people residing both sides of Durand Line are reasons which differentiate the role played by Pakistan from other states. Pakistan has actively participated into the war through Mujahedeen who were supported morally and materially (Zaeef, 2010). These Mujahedeen after the installation of the Taliban government in Afghanistan served in many key posts. Pakistan supported the religious groups organized in the name of the Taliban under the leadership of Mullah Muhammad Umar (Coll, 2004). The intelligence agency of Pakistan trained Afghan Taliban inside Pakistan (Zaeef, 2010, pp. 33-34). This might be one of the reasons of Taliban‘s friendly relation with Pakistan. The intelligence
37 million families as Internally Displaced Persons (FDMA. This conflict confronted security forces. Under the US led war on terror. the support of Pakistan once provided to Taliban was because the US wanted Pakistan to be supportive to Taliban and its later non-supportive policies were also under the pressure of the US. The persisting situation in FATA calls for understanding the nature of conflict and thinking alternatively for peacemaking in this troubled region. After the disintegration of USSR. W. The event of 9/11 relocated the US interest in the region. 190-191). They had not been supported by the Pakistani government or parts of government this time but the local population of FATA to whom they had ties from the ―Afghan Jihad‖ times. Keeping in view the old relations. . The newly installed Taliban government had been uprooted after the US invasion of Afghanistan. 2004. Therefore Taliban remained loyal to the Pakistani governments at later stages. 2010. Pakistan adopted a counter terrorism strategy which attracted military operations at different scales and involved people at different levels. The multiple counter terrorism approaches applied by the state remained failed while the conflict resulted in enormous of causalities and left 0. 2011). Thus the US launched global campaign of ―war against terrorism‖ (history2u. p. 2001) due to harboring the Al-Qaeda’s leaderships who were allegedly involved in the 9/11 attacks. Therefore Pakistan joined America which apparently means withdrawal of its support from Taliban. pp. This time Afghan Taliban fall into the category of ―against‖ the US (CNN. This militancy brought a complex conflict to the people of FATA that does not allow them to take breath freely in their region. Bush declared both terrorists and their supporters. The increased activities of Taliban and other foreign militants brought conflict into FATA. gave them shelter to carry out their activities. Taliban entered into Pakistan‘s tribal regions considering it a safe heaven. Pakistan had to support one of the two because American president G. 2012). The US considered Pakistan inevitable in its ―War on Terror‖. from across the border and inside the tribal agencies. The international pressure forced Pakistan to take U-turn towards the Taliban. This issue of global impact not only gave receipt of despotic rule in Pakistan but cooperation between the both states also escalated to new heights. 2010).agencies of Pakistan and the US worked together in Afghanistan till the Soviet disintegration (Rooney. In fact. 2001) and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan became its first target. Nature of the conflict The people of FATA are stuck in militancy from both sides. 40). The US considered Pakistan for the second time as a front line alley.com. Since the war was fought between the US and the Taliban. But Pakistan remained there till the installation of the Taliban government in Afghanistan that remained from 1996 to 2001 (Coll. as the enemy of American and called for all other nations to join them in this war against terrorism (CNN. (Bajoria. 2001). the US did not look back to rebuild the war affected country and left the people of Afghanistan in internal conflict (Rooney.
2009. There is a clear bifurcation between the pro and anti government militants in South Waziristan. 2012). 37-40). agreed in 2007 . (The Pakistan Today. while the security forces have been operative (by launching an Operation Rah-eNijat)3 against the TTP in South Waziristan since June 19. like military operations. 2012). There are many factors which make the conflict different in South and North Waziristan than the other tribal agencies. (Dawn News. The ongoing military operation in South Waziristan is outfitted against the TTP. 2 Aman is a process through which militants group (s) governs the affairs of Wana Bazaar. 2010. Mullah Nazir is based in the southwest of South Waziristan while Hakeemullah is based on the North of the Agency. where he runs the affairs of Wana Bazaar in the name of ‗Aman’2 . the pro government militants are led by Mullah Nazir while the other section. is led by Hakeemullah (Rooney. Time and again the inhabitants in Kurram. Kurram Agency has its own kind of militancy where the people have been stuck in sectarian violence. a militant commander. civil militia operations and through the involvement of local people under the rule of collective responsibility (The News. Gul Bahadar. South Waziristan under the central command of Mullah Nazir.(reference needed) This may be considered a new front for Pakistan army if it fights with Haqqani group as the military is already engaged with the TTP in South Waziristan and other regions in FATA. the agency headquarter of South Waziristan. pp. within the boundaries of Pakistan can be observed through the statements of its spokesman Ehsanullah Ehasn. 2012). both Shia and Sunni population. whereby accepting the responsibility for the most of the militant activities (The News. (The Express Tribune. 2012) . The grass root analysis portrays that the nature of conflict varies from agency to agency within FATA. 2012). This activism of the TTP. strived to 1 Cold Peace: It is a state of relative peace between two parties which is marked by the enforcement of a peace deal ending the state of war while the members of at least one of the parties to the treaty continues to internally treat the deal with vocal disgust. Gul and Haqqani both seem to have an unwritten ‘cold peace’ agreement with Pakistani military in North Waziristan4. The government of Pakistan many times has been externally pressurized to have military operation against this militant group in NWA but the group is still operating there unabatedly. He is somehow similar to Nazir in his operational activities. Militancy breeds counter-militancy in a State. Therefore. 2012). The most contentious militant group based in North Waziristan Agency is Haqqani network. 3 Operation Rah-e-Nijat: The meaning of the Rah-e-Nijat is a ‗Path to Salvation‘ where the military forces intend to eliminate the militant groups from the area 4 Peace Deal between Security Forces and Grand Waziristan Peace Jarga (includes heads of militant groups. The militancy in FATA has been countered at State level through various means. tribal Maliks. called Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP). (Geo TV.militants and the civil militia. is heading another militant group stationed in North Waziristan. religions leader). Mullah Nazir‘s group is in ‗cold peace‘1 with Pakistani military in Wana. The strategic analysts are of the view that Mullah Nazir‘s militant activities are comparatively more Afghan-centric than those of Hakeemullah‘s.
Any party that violates the deal. 2012). it witnessed some end through applying certain methodological approach. 6). The South and North division is based on the people‘s involvement in the counter militancy campaign. including military personnel. p. Both the sects agreed on a verbal peace deal 5 . A large number of casualties among the peace committee members is an incident of concern.get rid of this militancy but according to them. a ‘third force’ hindered the peace process. Involvement decreases from the North to the South of FATA. militants. sometimes state sponsored civil militia (peace committee members) are left vulnerable to suffer in the many regions in FATA. were witnessed as result of persisting conflict in FATA. The third force usually has been identified as Taliban and other militant groups funded by external factors. and Bajaur agencies respectively. in Bajaur Agency located in the extreme North while no casualty was reported from North Waziristan and South Waziristan agencies. 2012. military and peace committee. it seems pertinent to draw sagacity from the history for possibility of peacemaking in FATA. The term of ‗third force‘ was again used in seminar discussion in which speakers belonging to Shia sect participated (FRC. The majority of casualties of peace committee members took place in the northern parts of FATA which includes Khyber. Mohmand. played havoc with civilians. civilians. and members of peace committee/civil militia (Aman Lashkar or Quami Lashkar). Cross border clashes especially in Bajaur. along with the causalities among militants.e. The nature of militancy seems different in the rest of four tribal agencies (Orakzai. the leadership of militant groups in Kurram Agency is also not stable in their affiliations that often caused violent incidents and hindered the peace process. also affected the civilian population directly and indirectly (FRC. In Khyber agency most of the violent incidents occurred between Peace Committee (Aman Lashkar) and militants. Militancy ends up with a huge number of human losses. no matter the deal is either verbal or written. jointly held a Jarga with a political agent in Parachinar. History taught that to what level of the conflict might have been suffered by human beings. Khyber. Mohmand and Bajaur) where the involvement of the general population in the counter militancy campaign resulted in a clash between Peace Committee and militants. in the third quarter of 2012. Drone attacks. Shia and Sunni. 2012). (FRC. 22) of peace committee members was reported. The highest number of casualties (i. located in the Southern part of FATA. 5 A verbal peace deal matters a lot in the tribal codes of conduct. though the US claimed targeting militant hideouts. At this point the discourse analysis of peace theories for conflict management seems inevitable. Kidnapping for ransom and other demands by Taliban is also a menace in FATA. This involvement can be seen more in the northern parts in FATA. People are the part of the state‘s counter militancy strategy through forming Lashkars. Furthermore. faces social boycott by tribal society. Keeping in consideration the complexity of aforementioned conflict. . The term ‘third force’ has been expressed for the first time in 2011 when the elders of both sects.
2012).Possibility of Peace The demise of passion to dominate may engender peace and harmony while difference in perspectives may create antagonism. though its scale can be questioned. promise a framework of liberal peace (Chandler. it is the particular lens that may observe the peaceful phenomena. nonetheless the approaches to reach at a peaceful solution have been divergent since peace approaches draw influence from different theoretical discourses. prioritizing individual rights to protection. The development initiatives based on participation and inclusiveness may cultivate harmony and peace in a society. succeeded in resource distribution. and an armed struggle for identity. However there is consensus among the masses that ongoing war in the tribal regions of Pakistan to be avoided as it provides ―pretext for crime. a terrorist is not born a terrorist. the analysis of applicability of peace theories is relatable. 2007). at different levels. ―Nonviolence is also about not judging people as we perceive them to be — that is. It is the presence of ‗justice‘ and the nonexistence of ‗terror‘ in a society. 1967). peacebuilding in FATA is also possible but before offering policy options. conflict exists in real world‘s scene at different scales due to different motives and causes and to answering the root causes may bring peace. Thus. Meta Peace Theories Undeniably. People become murderers. among Taliban. enjoyed its fruit in the shape of a welfare state at least. These states observe promising human development index that support to establish an ideal. Soft conflict. robbers and terrorists because of circumstances and experiences in life‖ (Gandhi. perpetual long term peace not just a victors‘ short term forced peace although the properties of peace are usually vague. NATO forces and Pak Army where armed conflict triggers from marginalization that spurs radicalization. Thus the process of marginalization fosters conflict while social inclusion engenders peace and harmony. Peace is possible in the real lives of both states and societies. Peace in the real world‘s scene exits. to the violent and armed conflict. brutality and self interest‖ (Eramus. The occurrences of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are the bleak stories of history of humanity. 2004). The nations. They are being sandwiched. so to speak cyber conflict or conflict of ideas and thoughts on the other hand is being preferred in the contemporary world as an indicator of freedom. but co-existence with the conflicting ideas is possible with the enhanced-mutual understanding of the origin and nature of conflict. The plight of the people of Federally Administrated Tribal Area (FATA) in Pakistan is evident from the previous discussion. if not welfare society. Western States have tended to uphold liberal internationalist claims that new international norms. . 1917) Peace is not simply the absence of war as defined by realists. in an effort to bring just peace. a murderer is not born a murder. The ethnic conflict erupted in Rwanda took hundreds of thousands of Tutsi and Hoto lives. ―The general lack of understanding or knowledge of the logic of just peace is an issue with normative implications. denial of human rights and persistence of absolute poverty and issue of identity often become the trigger cause of violence. confused and contradictory (Gultung. which both from an idealist and realist perspective calls for reflection concerning contemporary use of military force‖ (Frank. The absence of political representation. murder.
complex versions from Thucydides. reflecting the Augustinian notion of ‗fallen man‘ and. this is really only a name – in truth. this may be referred to as a preliminary point of journey toward theory of peace and justice. The problem of anarchy perpetuates. rational and unitary states which engage in war for survival or at best short-term balancing alliances (Hobbes). 57). It refers to human history of brutally from where it began its expedition toward humane. Structural versions see all states as similar in goals. 57). Peace in International Relations. 1994). noted in 1651in the Leviathan that lives of the people were ―nasty. and structuralist versions from Hobbes (Doyle. Peace in International Relations. 44-48) 9. 49-160). (Doyle. 1997. Realists‘ peace is a ‗victor‘s peace‘ where states gather and exercise power for their ‗survival‘. all states by their very nature are always engaged in an informal war against all other States‖ (Hobbes. constitutional versions from Rousseau. p. p. sovereignty. social. Complex realism7 sees relations among different actors in a state of perpetual conflict. Thus the followers of the realists‘ school of thought see peace only through persistent need for preparation of war at domestic level and victor‘s peace at international level. because of the lack of a central authority. The rest8 of the realism versions see the relations based on quest of power. national interest. the probability of imperial expansion (Machiavelli). of course. 1997. and the undying laws of self-interest that govern human and state behavior. Peace in International Relations. This is a tunnel view to foster peace and 6 It draws it influences from thoughts of Thucydides. is a debate rather than a concrete argument but it suggests continuing violence to induce stability by coercive power unlike the liberals‘ progressive views. Thus to Realists6 bringing peace in a society or state is only possible by installing a central authority having legitimate coercive force.Realists’ agenda for peace Thomas Hobbes. Machiavelli. defence and democracy. For what most men call ‘peace’. brutish and short‖ (Hobbs. one of the classical realists. there can be no general welfare or security (Wight. ―power. 2008. Hobbes. Thus with minor differences of opinion. 2008. capacities and other variations including cultural. ―The resultant version of peace and its sustainability are dependent upon a victor‘s hegemony‖. ―Realism has offered an important set of tools to understand security frameworks for states: these insights are an important part of any discussion of peace – but only a part‖ (Richmond. as realists assume. who are considered the founders and key contributors of realist school of thought. Morgenthau and Carr. pp. social. 2008. Rousseau. . 1997). As realists believe that ‗war can only be overcome by Leviathan‘. pp. . economic (Doyle. 1651). Thus. isolation. The conflict management from realist point of view invites military preparedness only. 7 Doyle has outlined four main aspects of realism: fundamentalist versions stem from Machiavelli. (Richmond. This is the tragic vision of realists‘ representation for interaction among states and installing peace at domestic as well as at international scenario. . p. economic and politic variations 9 These variations within Realism offer a narrow concern with moral issues (Thucydides). 1998). Constitutional versions add a concern with cultural. 8 Fundamentalism versions see all humans and states as driven by the quest for power. which may mitigate the general state of war (Rousseau). and a combination of just social contracts. the whole range of normative assumptions upon which this was based‖ (Richmond. This conceptualization rejects the notion of universal ethics of peace. but not in capacities. 40). national interest and human nature are taken to be perennial and tragic. Hobbes argued that … “for every state war is incessant and lifelong against every other state .
of course. discussion of ethics. requires preparation‖ (Russell. For liberalists economic and social transformation would bring peace and harmony. Liberalism offered the possibility of cooperation through international organizations (UN. Realists‘ definition of anarchic situation is based on self-interest that leads toward the principle of survival of the fittest. the realist approach has been applied by the state that evidently remained unsuccessful for peacebuilding. idealists assume that human nature is pre-eminently good and just and where ever it finds opportunity. For liberalists.stability skipping conflict management process. on the basis of reciprocity and identity. means anarchy. Contrary to the traditional Pashtun laws. but may lead to war if it is not. How peace and cooperation is possible. Although it is still point for theory of justice today. one of the core assumptions of realists. it prefers harmony to conflict. 2009). Locke focused on individualism and Bentham on utilitarianism. Kant argued that absence of rule of law at international level and democracy at home triggered wars and trade promotes peaceful relations at all levels. Liberals’ agenda for peace Liberalists 11 are often termed as ‗idealists and utopians‘. This approach may only be useful in peacekeeping. They support trade liberalization that ultimately ends up with ‗self interest‘. Liberalism and idealism contrary to realism offer an ambitious and ethical explanation of peace through liberal internationalism and governance. Unlike Darwinian realists. In the countries still outside the liberal fold. This approach was also adopted even by the British legislators10. To establish peace in FATA. consequently. On the other hand tribal codes (Pashtunwali) provide room for distribution of societal authorities among various traditional institutions such as Jarga. interdependence and transnationalism are important factors to foster peace. since lives of so many people across the world have exactly those dire features. p. Here we find a close link between liberal and realist paradigms. Hujra. Adam Smith provided the foundations for the arguments for free trade and pacifism. defined by Immanuel Kant some 200 years ago (Joshua S. 1997. though their past was marred with barbarian history. .) that would lead to the realization of peace. one the authors Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR) once said "We cannot rein wild horses with silken braids" 11 Liberal approaches draw influence from thinkers such as Kant. 2009). Juma’at. Goldstein. However democratic norms and trade liberalization will promote peace only if the majority is exposed to offshoot advantages. and Kant developed a republican internationalism (Doyle. Since realists believe in preparation for war. 206). 1969). All the coercive means used by state in FATA indicate that the society of FATA always took as lacking central/institutional authority which. we observed Scandinavian states as the most peaceful places. Locke. cultural resistance to liberal society might reach a point where it is no longer seen as the primary model 10 John William Kaye. for liberalists ―peace as well as war. WTO etc. despite the substantial material progress of others (Sen. at least to violent conflict. Paine. The application of the realist approach in FATA is evident from military operations conducted in this troubled area. Godar etc. Liberalism presented positive view of human nature and international capacity to collaborate for outlawing of war and disregarding armament. and Bentham. was followed by his war-raged German nation and other Eastern European countries much later.
pp. The same thought was reflected in Morgenthau‘s contention that imperialism was the ultimate outcome of realism (Morganthau. The structures are exploited by the rich and powerful to justify the unequal distribution of material resources. 1968(1948)).. class-conflict. Undoubtedly. and. It is the material / resource distribution either through free trade and open competition or through control of the modes of production by the state that contributes to perpetuating peace. The Marxist structural analysis helps understanding sources of violence and as well as of peace on the basis of class-conflict. Marxist Agenda for Peace Marxism conceptualizes peace through establishing social justice and emancipation. 1993) . to perpetuate socialist peace on the basis of equality. indeed. J. The violent conflict among the classes does not helpful in restoring peace because violence breeds violence not peace (Khan. The revolution would be considered as conflict resolution instead of conflict management.for development. 70-2). 1978). Peace in these terms cannot exist while such structures exist (Richmond. 2000). Realism. whereby it provokes the proletariats for violent resistance (revolution) again unequal resource distribution. i. Realism. i. Peace. Liberalists also believe in the non-intervention of state into the affairs of society. such as big democracies. 13 Peacekeeping is a dissociative approach in which a third party intervenes simply to keep the warring parties apart and maintain the absence of direct violence. while conflict resolution invites military solutions only ignoring alternatives political. Lenin made the argument that ‗imperialism was the highest stage of capitalism (Lenin.e. But the paradox 12 of Leninism and Marxism is often located. The main difference between realist and liberalist schools is that realists consider peace as the duration between two wars in which parties prepare themselves for the next war while liberalists ignore the conflict in the society. Liberalism and Marxism believe in ‗Materialism‘ and share strands being all materialistic. It advocates negative peace where pre-requisite for peace is violence (red revolution). Furthermore the tribal society in FATA has no such class-conflict which could hurdle peace process. and it provides only military solution that is useful for peacekeeping13 and to a limited extent for peacemaking14 12 Al the three schools of thoughts. capitalism and imperialism. . It explains the structures of classes. Peace in International Relations. conflict exists in FATA therefore the tribal society really needs state intervention to settle down the issue of law and order. engendered through these views is nothing more than a fantasy. This assumption of non-intervention or liberal governance can be best suited for the societies where violent conflict does not exist. 1997 (1917)). might collapse where it seemed enduring (Fisher M. (Fisher R. which is in itself a controversial thing. 2008. The non-intervention doctrine of liberalists leads to non-visibility of state machinery at grass root level. The elite‘s status and resources depends upon the disempowerment of the many. because the tribal codes of conduct do not allow flourishing class differences in FATA.e. the liberal peace would expand no longer. Thus we are least inclined toward accepting a solution for peacebuilding and conflict management advocated by the grand peace theories. Then. It argues to reform or remove such hegemonic structures created through realist and liberalist institutions by realization of the actual agency of individuals to create justice (Marx. economic and likewise. hence create marginalization and social unrest. Liberalism and Marxism. 1969). We denounce realism on the grounds that it cannot see beyond the curtain of ‗Power‘.
The liberalist‘s formula of over-generalization as ―one size fits for all‖ does not fit into the context where people are exposed to internal as well as external sources of conflict. The advocates of collective action theory believe that ‗collective response’ is based on the size. However. and helps the parties work effectively together to draft a workable peace accord. dialogue and other non-military process (FRC. Needless to mention. Furthermore. The persisting militancy in FATA is a big challenge ahead of conducting transparent elections (FRC. assemble along with other human rights (Pakistan Today. 14-15). politicoeconomic and social means may be the preferable alternatives to coercive means of peacebuilding. Transparent elections would bring hope among the people of FATA where they would choose representatives of their own choice. Conducting fair elections to flourish democracy is pre-conditioned with truce to create a favourable environment public participation the political process. 2012). dialogue. beyond the political development After the extension of political parties act to FATA. Political process. history. Samuel P. It is a ―practical implication of peaceful social change through socio-economic reconstruction and/or development‖ (Fisher R. We also deny accepting peace solution advocated by Marxism as the very basics of Marxist peace engenders through violent conflict (revolution). the next step should be free and transparent elections in the region. none of these meta-theories encompass the holistic move toward peacebuilding and development in FATA. Since the state bears scope for ‗controlling peace‘. truce (Tigah) etc. 1996). 1993. While this can be done in direct negotiations with just the two disputants. Thus. pp. p. in order to deescalate the conflict and render it amenable to peacemaking. The environment can be achieved by the state sponsored negotiations. J. collective response of the people to the social issues is an ideal way of solution towards the issues.but not for peacebuilding15. ethnicity and religion (with minor variations). The conflict can be managed through different ways such as negotiation. who assists with process and communication problems. homogeneity and/or heterogeneity of group (Oberschall. 2004). those who could represent their interests in the main stream government. 15 Peacebuilding is the activities designed to improve the relationship and meet the basic needs of the parties. Transparent elections ensures the process of democracy while democracy means the presence of freedom of expression. FATA is comprised of a homogeneous society as it has same culture. Huntington said ―Democracy means two consecutive transparent elections‖ (Lewis. . 2012. So achieving collective response to the social 14 Peacemaking is the process of forging a settlement between the disputing parties.. Sociologically. nature. it is often also done with a third-party mediator. especially after 9/11. is due to the militants‘ activities that invited military operations in the area. 250). The military operations conducted in FATA are the part of state‘s counter terrorism strategy therefore military operations are a controlled form of peace while the activities of the militants are not something really in control of the State. the fractional derivative from these meta-theories along with indigenous insight may be handy for designing policy-framework for conflict management and/or peacebuilding in FATA. peacemaking is not the final step in the peace process as this approach ―does not address structural violence‖. Conflict management Literature and other field observations tell us that the conflict in FATA. 2012).
Further. It would actually be a Jarga of Jargas. 2005). Before conducting the grand Jarga there should be local Jargas at Agency level which would help choosing true representatives for the Grand Jarga. non-availability of industries and absence of economic institutions to provide employment and business opportunities. Hence. Therefore. Institutionalization of the economy increases economic growth by encouraging the key actors in society but a big section of economy in FATA is neither legal nor institutionalized (Wittman. being a representative of the people. According to the aforementioned theory. p. 677). by the government and/or by the people. Installation of Local small level industries would open the window for investment in tribal agencies. This state of affairs requires state intervention to improve the economic conditions that would contribute to demarginalization of people in FATA. pp. Such industries may be on both parts. Economic institutionalization The majority of studies understanding the violence in FATA end up with the notion that poverty and other causes of marginalization fostering violence in the tribal belt. 2006). Economic institutions create power centers in society which would help in removing the monopoly over economic means and also in overturning the authoritarian into democratic setup (Wittman. in absence of economic development. In the tribal society of FATA their cause to bring peace is more desirable than the cost they pay to get rid of the on gonging tense security situation (FRC. This response can also be backed by state. Therefore a Grand Jarga 16 (Council of elders selected by the people from all tribal agencies) free from any influence should be conducted to get an insight into the whole scenario. 16 Grand Jarga would be temporary body of elders. But government intervention is inevitable where the local people should be supported by the government to proceed the economic initiatives (FRC. 2006. 675). p. and the political struggle to curb the increasing militancy. elected from the Jargas selected by the people from each Agency. Poor economic conditions are also held responsible for growing militant cadres. any kind of economic initiatives towards the institutionalization of the economy would be non-problematic in FATA. the cost (of life and material investment) may make the society hesitant to respond collectively but the cause may bring it together. 2006. . In fact. economic) in FATA is comparatively easy. 2010) . Economic institutions may cause conflict of interests among various groups and individuals over the choice of economic institutions (Wittman. The solutions for peacebuilding provided by the Grand Jarga can contribute to policy design at state level. However. (Governments of KPK & FATA. 18-19). improving the economic situations is inevitable.issues (including political. homogeneous societies show more harmony of interest than heterogeneous societies and in case of FATA society is homogeneous in every aspect. will have a little impact (Zaman. population of this region is trapped in illegal occupations like smuggling and drug trafficking. 2012). 2012.
but here it means ‗rewards‘ and ‗punishment‘. i. Individual accepts to be ruled under the condition of all kind of protection. by violating the essence of the contract. 2009). population security and counterinsurgency strategy prefers political over military solution (Lalwani. thieve. Most of the times. Therefore. provides enough space for the non-state actors to get people‘s support. The active existence of militants in FATA indicates flaws in the Pakistani counter-militancy strategy (Siddiqa. which has a tunnel approach. Rewards and punishment bring certainty in society which further leads to peace and stability. Same was the situation in case of FATA where people remained ignored by the State since 1947. The visibility of government in itself is a huge issue to be discussed but here the term means. but she is not in the position to declare the land free of militancy. The visibility of the state at grass root level may contribute to de-marginalization of the people. . Rewards & Punishment Peace & Stability Visibility of Goverment Certainty Counter-militancy Pakistan is operating against the militants since the militants entered into Pakistan border.e. the policy is driven by military. occasionally. the trust disappears between State and society. responsibility to protect its citizens. smugglers etc). 2011). miscreants in FATA to earn goodwill in the society. one. 2011). it has been observed that Taliban or other militants groups punished. Military approach puts limitations on the scope of policy while there are other approaches which may be more effective than the military approach. In this case Taliban and other militant groups allured the local people to provide protections from miscreants (robbers. The theory expressed in the above section of writing also suggests that if Marginalization or Social exclusion fosters militancy in one way or another then Demarginalization can also counter it. social contractualists say. There are two basic reasons for the flaws in Pakistani counter militancy strategy. two. This contract grants rights and bears responsibilities to be fulfilled. Pakistan lack clarity about how to define the threat (Siddiqa. Being a citizen of a state means there is a contract between state and an individual.De-marginalization Marginalization increases the distrust between State and society while De-marginalization restores the trust. The continued ignorance from government side. If any of the two parties violates the terms of the contract. the phenomenon of ignorance and marginalization leads to the emergence of non-state actors.
2009.000 military and paramilitary forces are deployed in the FATA for security reasons (Chris Harnisch. The targeted tribesmen in target killing were Elders of their tribes. 2010). the phenomenon of civil militia is not very effective in peace building (Wazir. but on the other hand up to 160. such civil militia. it is recommended that multiple solutions can foster peace and development in FATA. the importance of Grand Jargas is also undeniable that can contribute to enhance political culture and support designing policy at state level. Government of Pakistan . i) encouraged. Youth bulge often refers to the reasons to internal conflict and violence. but in practice their impact on public safety is often ambivalent (Mers. On the other hand youth are more volatile to violence than the aged population. instead of peace and harmony.18 million populations (FATA. 17 Civil Militia is state pampered Lashkar (civil militia) in FATA that can be categorize it into five groups. Local tribal elders were symbol of harmony in tribal society. the policy making body should relocate the role of these youth in building peace in the area otherwise the situation would grow complex. The policy of the state of involving people through civil militia for countering militancy needs revision as it ends up with breading counter militancy. 2009). In the light of above arguments. The majority of leadership of the civil militia in FATA is the young tribesmen. p. According to the local people of FATA target killing was the first step in controlling the local population in FATA. De-marginalization and social inclusion through state interventions at grass root level is equally imperative for contributing peacebuilding. ii) supported. operate in a context lacking a government monopoly of force (Mers. but in the case of civil militia population suffers in one way or another. the ground realities persuade that no single theory is applicable to the peacebuilding in the current scenario in FATA. 8). Furthermore. In majority cases the non-state actors. Improving the economic conditions of the people is also inevitable and in absence of economic development. The effective counterinsurgency strategy prefers population security over targeting enemy (Lalwani. 2007). Such a big number of forces can easily keep peace in the area of 3. p. Coda Summing up the article. 2010. 4).Pakistan adopted counter insurgency by involving local population through Civil Militia17. iii) sponsored iv) employed and v) compelled by the security forces against the militants in the region. political activities will have a little impact on peacebuilding efforts. . Here one can easily conclude that young leadership of Amn Committees would further become the cause of violence in the area. Peacebuilding in FATA requires fostering political process through transparent elections. 1998). 2012). (Chollet. Militias can be an alternative to state security forces. Keeping in view the youth behavior.
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