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Positive Attitude

The seeds of excellence are in each one of us. Everyone can become a winner with desire, dedication and determination. Regardless of your chosen field, the foundation of success is attitude. To develop a positive attitude: Desist from destructive criticism. Stop balancing yourself or others. Accept responsibilities. Banish worry, resolving to face the worst, but do everything to prevent the worst from happening. Remember opportunity is always under our feet. All what we need is to recognize it. Do not look for excuses. Develop an attitude of gratitude by counting the blessings and not the troubles. Make a conscious effort to have positive thoughts and attitudes. Repeat affirmations; be positive, definitive and assertive by saying, Im responsible; Im decisive with a strong belief and enthusiasm. Every problem has appositive side and can change you. A person who was fired from his job changed his vocation and succeeded. He said, I had to get fired before I got fired up.

When things do not seem to work out, do not despair; tough times never last. They are not terminal, but only transitional. Take charge and take control. Everyone has problems. Nobody is free from them. A problem free life is an illusion a mirage. Accept the fact and move on. We have entered the new millennium not to just match eventlessly but to accomplish something. God never takes time to build a nobody. All we have to do to succeed is get started and never quit.

The art of motivating people starts with learning how to influence individuals behavior. Once you understand this, you are more likely to gain the results that both the organizations and its members want. Managers must: Possess abilities appropriate to their assigned job. Be motivated to achieve. Have a clear understanding of their assigned roles.

The relationship between these factors can be expressed as Performance = Ability x Motivation x Role clarity People must be attracted or motivated - to join an enterprise and remain with it.

Once on the job, employees must be induced or motivated to exert energy and effort at an acceptable rate. An enterprises human resources must be maintained and developed.

To exploit the full potential of employees, organizations are rapidly moving away from command and control and towards advice and consent as ways of motivating. This change in attitude began when employees recognized that good work is more effective than threatening punitive measures for bad work. If you dont know what motivates a person just ask what employees want most? Assess your own motivation, levels as well as those of your staff. Different people can be motivated in different ways.

As a manager, it is important to remember that you should use your motivational techniques to influence not only subordinates but also your colleagues and managers senior to yourself.

Motivate superiors to perceive that what you request suits their own purposes; for instance, improving management information with a new system. Motivate colleagues to feel that by helping and supporting you they are pursuing their own ends; for example, putting together a joint plan for office economics. Motivate subordinates to think that following your wishes will bring them satisfaction; for instance, taking over responsibility for an entire job.

Since the 1940s research into human behavior has suggested that people are motivated by a number of different needs, at work and in their personal lives. Recognizing and satisfying these needs will help you derive the best from your people. Several motivation theories work on the assumption that given the chance and the right stimuli, people work well and positively.

The Maslow Hierarchy

Abraham Maslow believed that satisfying just physiological and safety need is not enough to motivate a person fully. Once these needs have appeased, these are others waiting to take their place. The Maslow hierarchy can be applied to every aspect of life, and the more ambitious and satisfied the personality, the greater the potential, the greater the potential contribution to the organization. The Maslow Hierarchy: Self-Actualization: Realizing individual potential; winning; achieving. Esteem Needs Being well regarded by other people; appreciation.

Social Needs Interaction with other people; having friends. Safety Needs A sense of security; absence of fear Physiological Needs Warmth; shelter; food; sex. Psychologist Frederick Herzberg developed a two- factor theory for motivation based on motivators and hygiene factors. Hygiene factors are basic human needs at work they do not motivate but failure to meet them causes dissatisfaction. These factors can be as seemingly trivial as parking space or as vital as sufficient holiday time, but the most important hygiene factor is finance. The second of Herzbergs two factor is set of motivators that actually drive people to achieve. These are what a manager should aim to provide in order to maintain satisfied workforce. The ability to achieve in turn rests on having an enjoyable job and responsibility. The greater that responsibility, the more the individual can derive the satisfaction of advancement. Motivators are built around obtaining growth and self-actualization from tasks.

Hygiene Factors
What they mean? Salary and Benefits : these include basic income, fringe benefits, bonus holidays, company car and similar items. these conditions include working hours, workplace layout, facilities and equipment provided for the job. the company policy is the rules and regulations formal and informal that govern employees and employers. a persons status is determined by his rank, authority and relationship to others, reflecting a level of acceptance. this is the degree of confidence that the employees has regarding continued employment in an organization.

Working Conditions :

Company Policy


Job security

Supervision and Autonomy

this factor concerns the extent of control that an individual has over the content and execution of a job. this is the level and type of inter-personal relations within the individuals working environment. an individuals personal life is the time spent on family, friends and interests it is restricted by time spent at work.

Office life

Personal Life

Achievement :

why they work

reaching or exceeding task objectives is particularly important because the onwards-and- upwards urge to achieve is a basic human drive. It is one of the most powerful motivators and a great source of satisfaction. the acknowledgement of achievements by senor staff members is a great motivator because it helps to enhance self-esteem; for many staff members, recognition may be viewed as a reward in itself. a job that provides positive, pleasure to individuals and groups will be a greater motivational force than a job that does not sustain interest. As far as possible, responsibilities should be matched to individuals interests.


Job interest


the opportunity to exercise authority and power may demand leadership skills, risk taking, decision making and self direction, all of which raise self esteem and are strong motivators. promotion, progress and rising rewards for achievement are important here. The main motivator, however, is the feeling that advancement is possible. Be honest about promotion prospects and the likely time scale involved.


Over the years, several studies have been conducted to determine what people want from their work. In one such study conducted by Kenneth A. Kovach, why motivational theories do not work? a list of 10 related items was given to 200 employees and their immediate superiors. The employees were asked to rank the items in order of importance to them. The superiors were asked to rank the items as they thought employees would. The items were ranked in descending order of importance to the employees. The superiors thought their employees would answer: 1) Good wages. 2) Job security. 3) Promotions and growth in the company. 4) Good working conditions. 5) Interesting work. 6) Tactful discipline. 7) Personal loyalty to employees. 8) Full appreciation of work done. 9) Sympathetic help with personal problems. 10) Feeling of being in on things. This is how employees actually answered:

1) Interesting work. 2) Full appreciation of work done. 3) Feeling of being in on things. 4) Job security. 5) Good wages. 6) Promotions and growth in the company. 7) Good working conditions. 8) Personal loyalty to employees. 9) Sympathetic help with personal problems. 10) Tactful discipline. Surprised? Usually we rank good wages either first or second or realize intuitively that to many employees money is not the primary concern, important though it may be. Have you fallen into a trap of assuming that employees respond favorably to material rewards, or do you correctly predict their distinct preference for intangibles? In the era of increasing competitive business, are you seeking to achieve good results? For your success, you need a highly motivated workforce. Use these tips to motivate your team. Achievement, recognition, job interest, responsibility, advancement are high motivators. Different people are motivated in different ways. Look for positive responses to any criticism; they are good signs of motivation in staff. Always react well to requests and new assignments. Work to achieve not to rule. Periodically, measure employees morale by opinion polls or interviews. Never make promises that you are either unable or do not intend to keep. Never ask others to do anything that you would not do yourself. Show respect to staff and they will show it to you. Encourage staff to participate in decisions. Keep staff informed whenever possible; uncertainties are very demotivating. Praise a work well done, even if some targets are missed. Stretch people with goals that push them to perform better. Do not put a ceiling on incentive. Cure any bad system as a first step to conquering poor morale. Bad news always travels fast; so deliver it as quickly as possible. Poor workmen are capable of remarkable achievement if they are provided with the right environment and given the right motivational leadership.

Clarence Francis, Chairman of General Foods, said, You can buy a mans time. You can buy a mans physical presence at a given place; you can even buy a measured number of skilled muscular motions per hour a day. You cant buy enthusiasm, you cant buy initiative,

you cant buy loyalty, you cant buy devotion of hearts, minds and souls; you have to earn these things. People cant be pulled from in front, or pushed from the back; they must be driven from within. People are the prime movers. With the right motivation, they can move mountains and make even a tough job look like a walk in the park.

Leader and Manager

Leadership is the art of influencing individual or group activities towards the achievement of enterprise objectives. Leadership is more than power or authority. it implies some degree of voluntary compliance by followers. Leadership represents the ability to influence subordinates to willingly perform specific tasks associated with goal achievement. Leadership is both the adhesive that binds a work group together and the catalyst that triggers employee motivation. Knowing what constitutes effective leadership is a perquisite for selecting managers to serve in leadership positions. Knowledge of when and how leadership works is basic to the success of leadership training. Effective leadership is basic to the performance of other enterprise activities. The managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing and human resource management and controlling are directionless without leadership.

The manager administers, the leader innovates; the manager maintains, the leader develops; the manager relies on systems, the leader relies on people. The manager counts on controls, the leader counts on trust. The manager does things right, the leader does the right things. Earlier achievements or lack of them are not indicative of future successes. The poor performer in class in early days may become a successful businessman, and a topper might be a well known surgeon. once you are a manager obliviously you have to manage one or more people. But to emerge as a leader you have to be charged with skills. But to emerge as a leader you have to be charged with skills. To emerge as a leader a manager should: Believe in people and teamwork Have a lot of enthusiasm Be willing to try new avenues and innovative Be ready to tackle new tasks. Have an orientation to long term growth rather than short term goals. Have the vision to see beyond the immediate horizon. Be willing to take calculated risks. Know their business. All of us have our own personality and style of management, but here are a few thumb rules for success. Do not tell your people what they did wrong; instruct them on how to do it right.

Errors are opportunities for improvement and growth. Encourage people to report mistakes so every can leave from them. Compare, the performance of your staff with their previous performance and not with another person. Learn to listen as well as give advice.

For optimum results have goals, clear communication, accountability and follow-up. Think your way out of tough situations dont fight your way out. Working smarter not harder will produce greater results, and you will have plenty of energy left over to fight another battle. Success is not a goal. Success is a result.

TIPS Leadership, ownership and results are the key terms since the 1990s. Inspiring people to go from vision to action to results has become the article of faith for organizations. There is no successful leadership type. in fact, many managers discover to their chargin that being a manager and a leader can actually be two completely different things. Successful corporate leaders in todays demanding environment tend to share at least eight personal characteristics: Ability to focus attention. Staying in touch with people. Emphasis on simple values. Avoiding pseudo professionalism. Managing change. Selecting people. Avoiding do-it-all yourself. Facing up failure.

The basic ingredients of result oriented leadership are to let people know what is expected, maintain high performance standards, let people know where they stand, employ broad based communication, create a supportive climate and learn to delegate. The four top abilities identified by fast track managers are: Identify the real problem: think about the symptoms and causes of the problem and gather preliminary information, to help you identify the real problem. Then discuss the problem situation with those persons who are closer to it. Also talk with outside persons for an objective perspective. Manage time effectively and shift priorities as necessary: Assign priorities to these activities which will return the greatest benefit to you. Spend at least 15 minutes a day in planning your day, eliminate unnecessary interruptions and distractions.

Explain work: explain specifically and in detail what you expect of your subordinates. Point out what criteria you will use for measurement of their performance. As employees become ready to assume more responsibilities allow them to move on their own. Listen actively: develop genuine interest in your subordinates words what you think you understand. pay attention to verbal and non verbal cues. Avoid giving advice and allow the person to develop his own solutions.

Is good management leadership? Manager is one who conducts or supervises something whereas the leader is one that exercises paramount but responsible authority. Leadership is merely a tool that managers may, or may not, elect to use. Have you ever heard of a world manager? World leader?... yes. Political leader, business leader, Religious leader. Labour leader ., they lead, they do not manage. The carrot wins over stick. Ask your horse you can lead your horse to water, but you cant manage him to drink. It is easy to get logged down in semantics and to lose sight of the real issue, which is simply to ensure that those in charge will inspire a maximum productive effort from everyone involved. Thus fostering growth in others is what those in charge should be doing . and that phenomenon, when it happens , most often the result of a correct assessment of (1) the difficulty of the task and (2) the experience of the group only after making such an assessment can those in charge apply the proper mix of managerial leadership. We can say, MANAGE YOURSELF.LEAD OTHERS. When you are in charge on which side are you more comfortable? Management Leadership Controlling Freeing Restricting Enabling Playing safe Risking Moulding Releasing Forcing Enhancing Regimenting Challenging Stifling Participating Rigid Flexible Autocratic Democratic Consistent Predictable

Managers do things right. Leaders do right things.

A manager brings the thoughts of the mind to bear the problems, however, the leader brings the feeling of the soul to hear on those same problems. The mind represents the analytical, calculating, structuring and ordering side of tasks and organizations. The soul, on the other hand , represent the visionary , passionate , creative and flexible side

Can I lead in a better way?

Business is unique, people are all pretty much the same . basic needs , drives, motives and responses vary little. Human relations will work wherever there are humans! Leaders view all their workers as contributing capable and sensitive human beings rather than as production machines. One who recognizes the genuine worth of his employees can create an atmosphere where phenomenal performance is possible and probable. Adopt a head and heart approach. Remember your praise is worth a million pounds . Empathize what you want is what they want. Tell them when they are doing fine. Its business to take care of people and they will take care of your business. Listening be your first choice. Be present to applaud achievements. Spread the praise epidemic with your superiors. Make your people see and feel the human side of you. Give credit to your but-not visible support staff. See the best in them and get out that best from them. Time and times is important if praise comes too frequently it loses its impact. Commensurate recognition with performance and effort.

The greatest good we can do for others is not to share our riches with them, but to reveal theirs to them

Decision Making
The days when a few decision makers can get together in the hall are over. Today all of us are making decisions. Decision- making is the act of choosing one alternatives from among a set of alternatives. Decision- making process includes recognizing and defining the nature of a decision situation, identifying alternatives, choosing the best alternative and putting it into practice. The best implies effectiveness. Decision may be made under states of certainty, risk or uncertainty. For rational decision making 1) Recognizing and defining the situation

2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Identifying alternatives Evaluating alternatives Selecting the best alternative Implementing the chosen alternative Following up and evaluating the effectiveness of the alternatives after implementation.

Decision Making Model

t When faced with a decisive situation managers actually

Uses incomplete and imperfect information. Is constrained by bounded rationality.

and ends up with a decision that may or may not serve the interests of the organization

To develop a better understanding of the inherent biases and limitations remember : Political forces in decision making like coalition. Intuition, escalation, of commitment, Risk propensity, Ethics.

Decisions are essential part of life in and out of work environment. Decision makers are those who are responsible for making a judgment, sometimes a crucial judgment, between two or more alternatives.

Examine every alternative closely before making a decision. If you find that previous decisions are still workable make use of them. Change decisions that are no longer appropriate. Remember, the implications of each decision can be huge. Ask what can go wrong when you make a decision. Consider the possible outcomes when making a decision. Consider all objectives seriously when making a decision. It is better to think systematically than jump to conclusions. Weigh the impact of decisions on all your colleagues. Do not postpone a vital decision, make them quickly. Take fast actions when decisions have misfired. When planning future objectives be optimistic but realistic. Encourage people to participate in decisions to get better results. Analyze decisions from as many different angles as possible.