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–> The term “major” refers to their length, not their importance.
Minor Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
–> The term “minor” refers to the books’ lengths, not their importance.
Sir William Smith.The Church Fathers interpret Ezekiel's vision of the human likeness upon the sapphire throne (Ezekiel 1:26) as a prophecy of the Incarnation of the Logos from the Theotokos (Virgin Mary).Christianity Ezekiel is commemorated as a saint in the liturgical calendar of the Eastern Orthodox Church— and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite—on July 21 (for those churches which use the traditional Julian Calendar. a teacher toPythagorus. However." points out that John Selden. among others." Since 1830 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has identified the Book of Mormon as the "record of the stick of Ephraim" (Ezekiel 37:16) while the stick of Judah is identified with the Bible. July 21 falls on August 3 of the modern Gregorian Calendar). Ezekiel is commemorated on August 28 on the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church. who in many ancient church hymns is called the "living Throne of God". the Assyrian. In the book "Pythagoras: Greek philosopher" it states. one of Pythagoras' masters. However. basing his opinion on the writings ofClemens Alexandrinus. consider it a possibility. According to Matthew Henry a Bible commentator who flourished in the 17th century. in his writings of the Ussher chronology. Ezekiel's statement about the "closed gate" (Ezekiel 44:2–3) is understood as another prophesy of the Incarnation: the "gate" signifying the Virgin Mary and the "prince" referring to Jesus. Ezekiel is also believed to have been known as Nazaratus Assyrius. Certain Lutheran churches also celebrate his commemoration on July 21. James Ussher. This is one of the readings at Vespers on Great Feasts of the Theotokos in the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churchescitation needed This imagery is also found in the traditional Catholic Christmas hymn "Gaudete. was supposed to be . in his "Bible Dictionary. republished as "The Annals of the World" claims that this is a mistake. "Nazaratus. This date was chosen because it is the day after the feast day of the Prophet Elias.
EZEKIEL . and Thomas Stanley's Life of Pythagoras says that Ezekiel and Pythagoras flourished together.the prophet Ezekiel.
[ . Isaiah's narrative in Muslim literature can roughly be divided into three sections. notably for his predictions of the coming of Jesus and Muhammad. nonetheless. Muslim sources have accepted him as a prophet. and the third part is primarily focused upon Isaiah warning the people of coming doom. such as Ibn Kathir and Kisa'i. The first part establishes Isaiah as a prophet of Israel during the reign of Hezekiah. the second part focuses on Isaiah's actions during the siege of Jerusalem by Sennacherib. Hezekiah obeyed and gave an ear to what Isaiah advised him but. are referred to as Isra'iliyyah. In a death which resembles that attributed to Isaiah in Lives of the Prophets. Tradition. After the death of the king. which are not confirmed by the Quran or prophetic hadeeth. Muslim exegesis recounts that Isaiah was martyred by Israelites by being sawed in half. transmitted through early Jewish converts to Islam. Isaiah is well known in Muslim exegesis and literature. Muslim exegesis preserves a tradition. Such Old Testament stories. Some Muslim scholars. Isaiah is mentioned as a prophet in Ibn kathir's Stories of the Prophets and the modern writers Muhammad Asad and Abdullah Yusuf Ali accepted Isaiah as a true Hebrew prophet. reproduced Jewish traditions. regarding Isaiah. who preached to the Israelites following the death of King David. which parallels that of the Hebrew Bible. this was a turbulent time for Israel. Muslim tradition maintains that the unrighteous people of Israel were angered and sought to kill Isaiah. Isaiah told the people to not forsake God and he warned Israel that the people must cease from their persistent sin and acts of disobedience.JEREMIAH: Although Isaiah is not mentioned by name in the Qur'an or in the authenticated sayings of Prophet Muhammed. and are not considered strong enough to be used as evidence in Islamic law. maintains that Hezekiah was a righteous man and that the turbulence increased after Hezekiah's death. however. which states that Hezekiah was the king that ruled over Jerusalem during Isaiah's time.
Joel: As to the time and place. Destructive criticism has assigned to Joel a post-exilic date. The entire prophecy bears witness to it. point to a date after Ezra and Nehemiah.C. with some very puerile arguments. but he was a prophet of Judah. when and where he exercised his prophetic office. It is different with the date of Joel. and long before that in the Armana letters a Greek is also mentioned. 9). But the Greeks are also mentioned in an inscription of Sargon (about 710 B. this fact has never been disputed. Critics also object to an early date because the Greeks are mentioned in chapter 3:6. we are not left in doubt.). He prophesied not like Hosea among the ten tribes. Such an argument is not an argument of a scholar but of school-boy. as stated in "Higher Criticism and the Monuments" by Professor Sayce. JOEL . For instance the claim that the mention of the walls of Jerusalem (chapter 2:7.
south of Jerusalem. Amos' prior professions and his claim "I am not a prophet nor a son of a prophet" (7:14) indicate that Amos was not from the school of prophets. Amos made his way back to his homeland and was buried there. in Judah. The apocryphal work The Lives of the Prophets records that Amos was killed by the son of Amaziah. It further states that before he died. particularly the cities of Samaria and Bethel. Despite being from the southern kingdom of Judah Amos' prophetic message was aimed at the Northern Kingdom of Israel. Amos was a sheep herder and a sycamore fig farmer. priest of Bethel. His prophetic career began in 750 BC out of the town of Tekoa.AMOS: Before becoming a prophet. AMOS . which Amos claims makes him a true prophet (7:15).
Date of activity Zephaniah is the only one of the few prophets whose chronology is fixed by a precise date in the introductory verse of the book. Josiah. The prophet spoke boldly against the religious and moral corruption. On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar. idolatry had been introduced in the most shameful forms (especially the cult of Baal and Astarte) into the Holy City. a dedicated reformer. He is commemorated with the other Minor prophets in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 31. and with this foreign cult came a foreign culture and a great corruption of morals. . because the lands of Anterior Asia were overrun by foreigners due to the migration of the Scythians in the last decades of the seventh century. a message of impending judgment is the primary burden of this figure's preaching (1:7). he threatened to "destroy out of this place the remnant of Baal. when. and pleaded for a return to the simplicity of their fathers instead of the luxurious foreign clothing which was worn especially in aristocratic circles (1:8). and the names of the .. In light of these events. and because Jerusalem was only a few decades before its downfall in 586. One of the most zealous champions and advisers of this reform was Zephaniah. wished to put an end to the horrible devastation in the holy places. and his writing remains one of the most important documents for the understanding of the era of Josiah. his feast day is December 3.. The age of Zephaniah was also a key historical period. in view of the idolatry which had penetrated even into the sanctuary. Amon and Manasseh. priests" (Zeph 1:4). Under the two preceding kings.
he seemed the most suitable person to prophesy against Esau (Edom). so that if those in one case should be discovered those in the other might yet escape (1 Kings 18:3-4). and it is said that he was chosen to prophesy against Edom because he was himself an Edomite. finally he had to borrow money at interest from Ahab's son Jehoram.Obadiah is supposed to have received the gift of prophecy for having hidden the "hundred prophets"[ from the persecution of Jezebel. Isaac and Rebekah. He is identified with the Obadiah who was the servant of Ahab. and if the house of Ahab had been capable of being blessed. having lived with two such godless persons as Ahab and Jezebel without learning to act as they did. OBADIAH . who. it would have been blessed for Obadiah's sake. having been brought up by two pious persons. a descendant of Eliphaz. in order to be able to continue to support them. the friend of Job.Obadiah was very rich. but all his wealth was expended in feeding the poor prophets.OBADIAH: According to the Talmud. Moreover. had not learned to imitate their good deeds. Obadiah is said to have been a convert to Judaism from Edom. He hid the prophets in two caves. until. Obadiah's fear of God was one degree higher than that of Abraham.
HOSEA . nor by battle. and will not save them by bow. 1888. December 16TH.‖-Hosea 1:7 in his sermon NO. Christians see in this book a comparable call to the church not to forsake the Lord Jesus Christ.HOSEA: One of the early writing prophets. like Charles Spurgeon. and will save them by the Lord their God. nor by sword. Other preachers. nor by horsemen. Israel the wife. Hosea used his own experience as a symbolic representation of God and Israel: God the husband. Christians also take the buying back of Gomer as the redemptive qualities of Jesus Christ's sacrifice on the cross. 2057. The book of Hosea was a severe warning to the northern kingdom against the growing idolatry being practiced there. ―But I will have mercy upon the house of Judah. Christians extend the analogy of Hosea to Christ and the church: Christ the husband. Hosea searched for his wife. found her and brought her back. God would not abandon Israel and brought them back even though they had forsaken him. by horses. Israel left the Lord to go with other gods. Hosea's wife left him to go with other men. the book was a dramatic call to repentance. his church the bride. saw Hosea as a striking presentation of the mercy of God in his sermon on Hosea 1:7 titled The LORD's Own Salvation.
since God is merciful. it was inevitable that God would turn from the threatened calamities. Jonah refers to his earlier flight to Tarshish while asserting that. "In forty days Nineveh shall be overthrown. Even the king comes off his throne to repent. Jonah admits this and states that if he is thrown overboard the storm will cease. prayer. He then leaves the city and makes himself a shelter. A huge storm arises and the sailors. This time he goes and enters the city crying. God sees their works and spares the city at that time. waiting to see whether or not the city will be destroyed. Jonah seeks instead to flee from "the presence of the Lord" by going to Jaffa and sailing to Tarshish. The inspired sailors then offer sacrifices to God.JONAH: Jonah is also the central character in the Book of Jonah. God again orders Jonah to visit Nineveh and to prophesy to its inhabitants. In chapter two. making a proclamation to decree fasting. Jonah is miraculously saved by being swallowed by a large fish specially prepared by God where he spends three days and three nights. which. warmth and even fish are all seen under the sovereign hand of God. The king of Nineveh puts on sackcloth and sits in ashes. plants. but feel forced to throw him overboard. JONAH . realizing this is no ordinary storm. The entire city is humbled and broken with the people (and even the animals) in sackcloth and ashes. Displeased by this. The sailors try to dump as much cargo as possible before giving up. Jonah prays to God in his affliction and commits to thanksgiving and to paying what he has vowed. Animals. at which point the sea calms. geographically. is in the opposite direction. and repentance." After Jonah has walked for a day across Nineveh. cast lots and learn that Jonah is to blame. while in the great fish. God commands the fish to spew Jonah out. Ordered by God to go to the city of Nineveh to prophesy against it "for their great wickedness is come up before me. sackcloth. the people of Nineveh begin to believe his word and proclaim a fast.
they use Daniel's religious devotion to defeat him. Unable to uncover any corruption. When Daniel continues to pray . the other officials plot his downfall. Daniel is depicted as one of three senior administrators of the empire in the reign of Darius the Mede. When the king decides to set Daniel over the whole kingdom. The officials trick the king into issuing an irrevocable decree that no god is to be worshiped for a thirty day period.DANIEL: After the Persian conquest of Babylon.
Daniel is delivered and the corrupt officials and their wives and children thrown into the den where they are eaten instantly. much to the distress of Darius. he is thrown into a lion’s den. DANIEL .three times a day towards Jerusalem. After an angel shuts the lions' mouths.
Ahaz. He was a contemporary of the prophets Isaiah.MICAH: Meaning ―who is like Jah". in southwest Judah. MICAH . and Hezekiah of Judah. Micah’s messages were directed chiefly toward Jerusalem. the destruction and then future restoration of the Judean state. He prophesied during the reigns of kings Jotham. He prophesied the future destruction of Jerusalem and Samaria. and he rebuked the people of Judah for dishonesty and idolatry. Micah was from Moresheth a small town in southwest Judah. was a prophet who prophesied from approximately 737-690 BC in Judah and is the author of the Book of Micah. Amos and Hosea and is considered one of the twelve minor prophets of the Tanakh (Old Testament). His prophecy that the Messiah would be born in the town of Bethlehem is recalled in the Book of Matthew. Micah was from Moresheth-Gath.
and "it is from that most memorable vision.NAHUM: Nahum's writings could be taken as prophecy or as history. are expressed in most vivid colors. just before the downfall of Assyria. taking words from Moses himself. Nahum Nahum. and possess admirable perspicuity and fullness. the preparation for the destruction of Nineveh. The Reformation theologian Calvin argued. and the description of its ruin. translator. —Rev. the vehemence and the boldness of Nahum: besides. and indeed majestic. when God appeared to Moses after the breaking of the tables." NAHUM . Calvin's Commentary on Jonah. One account suggests that his writings are a prophecy written in about 615 BC. have shown in a general way what sort of "Being God is". and its greatness. John Owen. Micah. his exordium is magnificent. while another account suggests that he wrote this passage as liturgy just after its downfall in 612 Scathe book was introduced in Calvin's Commentary as a complete and finished poem: No one of the minor Prophets seems to equal the sublimity. Nahum painted God by which his nature must be seen. his Prophecy is a complete and finished poem.
or information concerning his parentage or tribe. Although his home is not identified. For almost every other prophet. with no biographical details provided other than his title "the prophet. aside from what few facts are stated within the book of the Bible bearing his name. Further analysis has provided an approximate date for his prophecy and possibilities concerning his activities and background. Beyond the Bible. HABAKKUK . or those inferences that may be drawn from that book. his occupation.HABAKKUK: Almost nothing is known about Habakkuk. scholars conclude that Habakkuk lived in Jerusalem at the time he wrote his prophecy. His name appears in the Bible only in Habakkuk 1:1 and 3:1. such as the name of the prophet's hometown. more information is given. For Habakkuk. considerable conjecture has been put forward over the centuries in the form of Christian and Rabbinic tradition. however." Even the origin of his name is uncertain. there is no reliable account of any of these. but such accounts are dismissed by modern scholars as speculative and apocryphal.
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