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(Published in Food History News, vol. 9, no. 1 (Summer 1997), and vol. 17, no. 1 (Summer 2005))
_________________ Excerpted from: "’Give us day by day our daily bread.’: Continental Army Bread, Ovens, and Bakers” John U. Rees http://www.scribd.com/doc/125174710/Give-us-day-by-day-our-daily-breadContinental-Army-Bread-Ovens-and-Bakers _________________ "Of the articles of subsistence bread is the most essential"; so wrote Maj. Gen. Henry Knox in March 1781. In the same letter Knox also admitted that, after six years of war, the Continental Army was still "most deficient" in converting the flour ration into bread "arising from the want of some general, invariable system to govern the whole Army ..." In light of this admission, it is appropriate to look at one man's role in supplying bread to Washington's troops, but for the efforts of whom the soldiers would have fared worse than they did.57 In any era Christopher Ludwick would have been considered remarkable. Born in the town of Giessen, Hesse (Germany), in 1720, he was taught to be a baker by his father. At seventeen, Ludwick enlisted to fight against the Turks, took part in the siege of Prague, and, in 1741, joined the Prussian army. Discharged at war's end, he soon went to London, where he signed on as a baker aboard an East India Company ship. After almost four years in India, Ludwick returned to London, then traveled home to Giessen to find his father had died. Back in London, having spent his inheritance, he returned to sea as a common sailor. From 1745 to 1752, according to one biographer, "he made voyages to the West Indies and European ports. Desiring to quit the sea, he invested [25 pounds] in ready–made English clothing and in 1753 embarked for Philadelphia." Selling the clothing at a considerable profit, Ludwick went back to London, "where he spent nine months learning to bake gingerbread and make confectionery." He returned to Philadelphia in 1754, "taking with him implements for the bakery which he soon started in Laetitia Court ..." He married, prospered, and was well–respected, being known as "The Governor of Laetitia Court." By the time of the Revolution he owned nine houses, a farm in Germantown, and a large fortune in Pennsylvania currency.58 Ludwick functioned in several roles when he first entered United States service in 1776. Initially he volunteered for the Flying Camp, a militia force with Washington's Army in New Jersey and New York. Later that year he further proved his commitment to the cause by becoming involved in a plan to encourage desertion among German soldiers serving with the British. Of this period, he later wrote he acted "as a Volunteer finding himself & Horse without fee or reward."59 Because of this service, and his prewar occupation and reputation for civic activity in Philadelphia, on 3 May 1777, the Continental Congress appointed 57 year old Christopher Ludwick "superintendent of bakers, and director of baking, in the grand army of the United States." Their resolve stipulated "That no person be permitted to exercise the trade of a baker in the said army without" his license, with the mandate "to rectify all abuses in the
article of bread," by reorganizing that commodity's production and distribution. Little did Ludwick know that he would struggle to feed the army and fulfill his mission over the ensuing five years.60 The Continental army's logistical organization underwent many changes during the Superintendent's term of service; unfortunately, the country's lack of proper support for the army remained a constant theme throughout. This was echoed in Ludwick's experience, and the difficulties encountered in 1777 were to recur throughout his tenure, such that by 1781 he was still able to remark, "the Baking Department, tho' far ... more beneficial than the Doctor or Surgeon's Department, hath been too much neglected ..."61 Christopher Ludwick's first year as superintendent was arguably his most demanding. Applying himself to the task at hand he immediately encountered what would prove to be a chronic problem, finding and keeping workers. In July 1777 the Superintendent informed Congress that having tried "to procure a number of journeymen bakers" in Philadelphia, they were not to be had, "by reason that they are most of them engaged in the militia." These men were soon recalled to bake bread, but manpower shortages continued. An undated list of army bakeries, probably made in summer 1777, contained the comment, "Only one Oven at Morris Town and one at Pitts Town [New Jersey, are] at work for want of hands. If hands could be procured they would bake double the ... Quantity."62 As the war continued, the Superintendent's diligence concerning his employees’ well– being proved a boon to the army. In January 1781 he recorded that "Hands are most wanted to bake bread for the Soldiers," but "no proper Encouragement [is] given to the Bakers and Workmen to induce and enable them to continue in the Service." To rectify this Ludwick noted having "sold a part of his Real Estate at a Disadvantage in order to obtain Money to pay the Mens Wages, and ... [during] almost the whole time of Service advanced and paid their Wages out of his own Monies before he could receive any of the public ..." In an army where soldiers' pay was months or years in arrears, he paid his "Bakers every two Months their Wages ... from time to time adding a few Dollars more as the money grew worse ..." Of course, not all his workers were content. In May 1780, Lawrence Powell, baker, was fined and jailed in Philadelphia for "defrauding the States." Powell seemed to be "an open countenanced [truthful] man" who said he had "been very ill used by Christopher Lodowick & that there is much [money] due to him."63 Baking for a mobile army was a difficult proposition. In July 1777, two months after taking office, Ludwick was faced with the task of providing bread to an army on the move, its regiments and brigades dispersed and marching over portions of three states. In this situation he found it "impossible for one Man to review and direct the Business of baking from the Van [the front of the army] to the Rear ..." All the while he continued to organize the baking department, confronted by such problems as a lack of wagons to transport baked bread, and the need for sites to store "the Bread that it comes under a good Roof and not remain in the open fields." All the while the commander in chief entreated him to "continue baking as fast as you can," to supply the army’s needs.64
A number of specialized implements were needed to bake bread, especially on a large scale. Here are some examples of 18th century French bake ovens, tools, mixing troughs and dough boxes. Among these items are: Fig. 6. fire rake Fig. 8. swabber or scuffle Fig. 10. wooden peel Fig. 11. scraper Fig. 12. iron shovel to draw out coals Charles Coulston Gillispie, ed., A Diderot Pictorial Encyclopedia of Trades and Industry: Manufacturing and the Technical Arts in Plates Selected from “L’Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire Raisonné des Sciences, des Arts et des Métiers” of Denis Diderot (in two volumes), vol. 2 (New York: Dover Publications, 1959), “The Bakery,” plate 449.
Christopher Ludwick’s activity in the years following are not well recorded, but he seems to have been everywhere trying to provide sustenance for the soldiery. The Superintendent was noted to be in York, Pennsylvania, in late March 1778, probably concerning an administrative matter as that city was then temporary capitol of the United States. In July 1779 Rev. William Rogers noted Ludwick’s role in building a “bake– house” for troops at Wyoming, on the Susquehanna. Twice in 1780 (June and October) General Washington mentioned Ludwick's involvement in constructing new ovens, finally noting that the "Baker Genl. ... is instructed ... to repair to West Point and erect as many ovens at that Post as are equal to a daily supply of Six or eight thousand pounds of Bread ... he is also ordered to erect one oven at Stoney Point for the supply of the Troops there and at Verplanks." Ludwick himself wrote early in 1781 that "at West Point ... [I have] erected two excellent new Ovens and a Bakehouse ..."65 In a January 1781 "Memorial" to Congress, Ludwick wrote that having "served his Country honestly from the Commencement of the War ... [he had] built the greatest part of the Bakehouses for the Use of the Army; [and] ventur'd his Life on several Occasions for the Cause ... [he] is now willing and desirous to retire from the Service in the 61st. Year of his Age, with the loss of his right Eye and a ruined Constitution." Despite this wish to retire, Superintendent Ludwick continued producing bread at least until the end of 1781. At Williamsburg, Virginia, on 15 September, while the armies were gathering to besiege the British in Yorktown, Washington wrote that the troops for a period "experienced a Want of Provisions, especially of the Bread kind ..." Two weeks later he informed the army, "It is expected that bread of a good quality will be furnished by Mr. Ludwick, superintendent of the Bakers, nearly sufficient for the Army ..."66 Ludwick probably left the army before the end of hostilities. In 1782 a system of supply by contractors was put in place and it seems that the Superintendent of Baker's role became obsolete; in any event there is no record of services rendered by him during that time.67 Christopher Ludwick's devotion to his adopted country's fight for independence is easily understood in light of the success he enjoyed in America and his community ties. But what was at the heart of Ludwick's willingness to undertake the formidable responsibility of providing bread for the army and to persevere in that task? The answer may be found in a temperament determined to see a job through in the face of repeated hardship and frustration (stereotypically attributed to "hard–headed" Germans), combined with empathy for workers and soldiers, and supported by his business acumen and long experience in the craft of baking. Historian Edward Channing noted, "An anecdote of a man is worth a volume of biography." Three may shed further light on Ludwick's character. A Pennsylvania officer related the story that the "Bakermaster–General of the army ... made a vow never to shave his beard until ... we regained possession of Philadelphia," after the British occupation of that city in September 1777. This at a time when purposefully grown and cultivated beards were not common and thought to be uncivilized. (If true then Mr. Ludwick probably wore his beard until June 1778.) Dr. Benjamin Rush wrote of his reply when informed by Congress of their expectation that he produce one pound of bread for every pound of flour received: "Not so: I must not be so enriched by the war. I shall return 135 lbs. of bread for every 100 lbs. of flour." (One pound of flour will in fact produce a larger amount of bread.) Another account, probably originating with Dr. Rush, noted the respect he engendered
within the army: "Washington was very fond of him, addressed him as 'old gentleman,' and called him 'my honest friend.'"68 By his own testimony, Christopher Ludwick's sacrifices for his country included having "had his Property ruined by the Enemy," and the loss of the "private fortune earned by his Industry before the War." According to Benjamin Rush, at war's end "he had scarcely any ready cash; but he would neither borrow money nor buy on credit." A biographical compilation recounted his life after the Revolution. His first wife died in 1795 and he remarried in 1798. "During the yellow–fever epidemic in Philadelphia, in 1797, he volunteered his services to bake bread for the stricken." Having rebuilt his fortune, he donated large amounts to various causes during his lifetime, bequeathing his estate to churches and charities, the residue "to be used in providing free education for poor children." He died on 17 June 1801 and was "buried in the grave–yard of St. Michael's [Trinity] (Lutheran) Church, at the upper end of Germantown," now part of the city of Philadelphia.69 A 1785 Memorial by the former Superintendent of Bakers was endorsed by such notables as Generals Arthur St. Clair, William Irvine, Anthony Wayne, former Q.M. Gen. Timothy Pickering, and Thomas Mifflin, a prominent Philadelphian. In his endorsement Pickering noted Ludwick's "disinterested zeal, his indefatigable industry in the duties of his department, his unsullied integrity, [and] the essential service he rendered to the army ..." No one could ask for a finer epitaph.70 * * * * * * The Superintendent Bakes for the General, 1778 and 1780. Christopher Ludwick’s military legacy included some small contribution to the American commander–in–chief’s sustenance. The first known instance occurred in April 1778 (the bill was not paid till the following year):
His Excellency General Washington to Cristopher Ludwick. 1778. To 2 bbs. beer @ L 4 10 April 1st. To butter for rusk To 1 Cullender Head Quarters Raritan [New Jersey] £9 3 1 10 9th. Feby 1779
[On reverse] Feby. 9th 1779 Chrisr. Ludwick Acct. for Sundries when at V[alley]. Forge71
The Oxford English Dictionary describes rusk as “Bread in the form of small pieces which have been re–fired so as to render them hard and crisp.” Sometimes sweetened, rusk was used to dip in coffee or tea, similar to biscotti. As for the beer, although it is unknown whether Ludwick brewed it himself or purchased it elsewhere, the reference is interesting because of the age–old tie between bakers and brewers.72 In 1780 Ludwick tendered another invoice to the General. Reimbursement this time seems to have been prompt.
His Excellcy Geo Washington Esqr C. Chief To Christr Ludwick To making two barrels of rusk [*] two barrels of buttered bisquit and Ginger Bread with the following Engredience Viz Dollars 78 42 8 4 8 4
9 lb. Butter Milk Allspice 1 lb. Careway seed Ginger Potash
HeadQuarters Morristown 28th. March 1780 Recd. ye above in full from of Major Gibbs Christoffar Ludwick 73
Notably, the “Major Gibbs” referred to above, was Caleb Gibbs, commander of Washington’s Life Guard, who also handled the household accounts after the commander–in–chief’s housekeeper Mrs. Mary Smith left his service in spring 1776. Superintendent Ludwick’s recipes for “buttered bisquit and Ginger Bread” are unknown, but given his 27 years in the baking business, they were probably stored in his head. Here are sample recipes from Eliza Smith’s The Compleat Housewife (1758):74
To make Biskits. Take a pound of loaf–sugar beaten and sifted, and half a pound of almonds blanch’d and beat in a mortar, with the whites of five or six eggs, when they are both mingled, strew in your almonds; then put in a quarter of a pound of flour, and fill your pans fast; butter them and put them into the oven; strew sugar over them, bake them quick, and then turn them on a paper, and put them again into the oven to harden. To make the thin Dutch Bisket. Take five pounds of flour, two ounces of carraway–seeds, half a pound of sugar, and something more than a pint of milk; warm the milk, and put into it three quarters of a pound of butter; then make a hole in the middle of your flour, and put in a full pint of good ale yeast; then pour in the butter and milk, and make these into a paste, letting it stand a quarter of an hour by the fire to rise; then mould it, and roll it into cakes pretty thin; prick them all over pretty much, or they will blister; bake them a quarter of an hour.
Several of Smith’s gingerbread recipes call for candied orange peel, “orange–peel dried,” “orange–flower water,” “candied citron,” cinnamon, mace, and nutmeg. The simplest is as follows:
Take a pound and a half of treacle, two eggs beaten, a pound of butter melted, half a pound of brown sugar, and ounce of beaten ginger, and of cloves, mace, coriander–seeds and caraway–seeds, of each a half an ounce; mix all these together with as much flour as will knead it into a paste; roll it out, and cut it into what form you please; bake it in a quick oven on tin plates; a little time will bake it.75
Afterword. On April 15 1953 the popular TV show Cavalcade of America aired an episode called “The Gingerbread Man,” described as a “true story about Christopher Ludwick, the baker, who came to America in 1776 from Germany … A comedy–drama about an elderly German baker who persuades 123 Hessian soldiers to desert the British Army during the American Revolution.”76 Ludwick was a strong believer in community service and, two centuries after his death, his legacy lives on in the guise of The Christopher Ludwick Foundation Grants, funded to support and advance "the schooling and education gratis, of poor children of all denominations, in the city and liberties of Philadelphia, without exception to the country, extraction, or religious principles of their parents and friends...." The original bequest of $13,000 “has grown to over $5,000,000, and grants amounting to approximately $250,000 are awarded each year.”77 (For more information see, The Christopher Ludwick Foundation Grants, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia, http://www.philaathenaeum.org/grants.html) Endnotes
57. Henry Knox to Washington, 24 March 1781, George Washington Papers, series 4, reel 76. 58. Dumas Malone, ed., Dictionary of American Biography, vol. VI (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1961), 497–498. One source cited in this work is, Benjamin Rush, M.D. An Account of the Life and Character of Christopher Ludwick, late citizen of Philadelphia, and baker–general of the Army of the United States during the Revolutionary War, first published in the year 1801; revised and republished by direction of the Philadelphia Society for the Establishment and Support of Charity Schools (Philadelphia: Garden and Thompson, c. 1831; New York: Garrett Press, Inc., 1969). 59. Malone, Dictionary of American Biography, vol. VI, 497–498. "The Memorial of Christopher Ludwick Baker Master for the Army of the United States" to the Continental Congress, 27 January 1781, Papers of Continental Congress, Natl. Archives, reel 50: 230–231. 60. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, vol. VII (1907), 323–324, 574–575. 61. E. Wayne Carp, To Starve the Army at Pleasure: Continental Army Administration and American Political Culture, 1775–1783 (Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1984), 19–25, 35–51, 77, 175–181. "The Memorial of Christopher Ludwick Baker Master for the Army of the United States" to the Continental Congress, 27 January 1781, Papers of Continental Congress, Natl. Archives, reel 50: 230–231. 62. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, vol. VIII (1907), 575. Return of ovens on Bakermaster's Department, undated, Papers of Continental Congress, Natl. Archives, reel 199: 449. Christopher Ludwick to the Continental Congress, 4 August 1777, ibid., reel 50: 193–194. 63. "The Memorial of Christopher Ludwick Baker Master for the Army of the United States" to the Continental Congress, 27 January 1781, "The Memorial of Christopher Ludwick late Superintendant of the Baking Department in the Army of the United States" to Congress, March 1785, Papers of Continental Congress, Natl. Archives, reel 50: 230–231, 411–412. "Journal of Samuel Rowland Fisher, of Philadelphia, 1779–1781," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 41 (1917), 292. 64. Christopher Ludwick to the Continental Congress, 4 August 1777, Papers of Continental Congress, Natl. Archives, reel 50: 193–194. Washington to Christopher Ludwick, 25 July 1777, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, vol. 8 (1933), 475. 65. "Items of History of York, Penna., During the Revolution," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 44 (1920), 313. Journal of Reverend William Rogers, 24 June 1779, Journals of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan, 248. Washington to Udny
Hay, 30 June 1780, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, vol. 19 (1937), 103–104. Washington to Nathanael Greene, 12 October 1780, ibid., vol. 20 (1937), 169. "The Memorial of Christopher Ludwick Baker Master for the Army of the United States" to the Continental Congress, 27 January 1781, Papers of Continental Congress, Natl. Archives, reel 50: 230–231. 66. "The Memorial of Christopher Ludwick Baker Master for the Army of the United States" to the Continental Congress, 27 January 1781, ibid., reel 50: 230–231. Washington to James Hendricks, 15 September 1781, General orders, 1 and 8 October 1781, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, vol. 23 (1937), 120–121, 165–166, 198–199. In his 1781 "Memorial," dated Philadelphia, 27 January 1781, Ludwick wrote:. "To the Honorable the Congress The Memorial of Christopher Ludwick Baker Master for the Army of the United States" ... the Bakers heretofore inlisted by him have most all left him (their Term of Inlistment being expired) except three whom he inlisted from the first of September last for two shillings specie, or the Exchange [in paper money], and a Gill of Rum per day and a Suit of Cloaths, and twenty two who are drafted from the different Regiments (tho' with great reluctance of the Officers) and are to have three Dollars Continl: money per day ... Your Memorialist hath hitherto with great Trouble and Expence to himself procured and kept a number of hands in the service of his Department but finds it impossible to retain them any longer unless intitled to receive Pay, Cloathing & other Necessaries, equal, if not more than, the Artificers or any other Corps in the Army – ... at West Point ... your Memorialist hath erected two excellent new Ovens and a Bakehouse, Hands are most wanted to bake bread for the Soldiers – That the Baking Department, tho' far preferable to and more beneficial than the Doctor or Surgeon's Department, hath been too much neglected, and no proper Encouragement given to the Bakers and Workmen to induce and enable them to continue in the Service ... Ludwick wrote that he had "served his Country honestly from the Commencement of the War (the first Months as a Volunteer finding himself & Horse without fee or reward) built the greatest part of the Bakehouses for the Use of the Army; – ventur'd his Life on several Occasions for the Cause; – had his Property ruined by the Enemy;– expended his private fortune earned by his Industry before the War; and by his Assiduity and Vigilance in his Department saved great sums of money to the States, is now willing and desirous to retire from the Service in the 61st. Year of his Age, with the loss of his right Eye and a ruined Constitution." "Your Memorialist begs leave further to represent That his Department for the year 1780 during which he had 25 Men at least in the service did not cost the United States above Three thousand Pounds Cash Continental Currency exclusive of his own Pay – Your Memorialist having employed the Sweepings and empty Barrels towards making up the Deficiency" "The Memorial of Christopher Ludwick Baker Master for the Army of the United States" to the Continental Congress, 27 January 1781, Papers of Continental Congress, Natl. Archives, reel 50: 230–231. 67. Carp, To Starve the Army at Pleasure, 213–215. 68. George Seldes, Witness to a Century (New York: Ballantine Books, 1987), introduction. Alexander Graydon, Memoirs of His Own Time: With Reminiscences of the Men and Events of the Revolution (Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, 1846), 161–162, see also footnote, 162. John Fanning Watson and Willis P. Hazard, eds., Annals of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania in the Olden Time, 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Edwin S. Stuart, 1884), vol. II, 44. Malone, Dictionary of American Biography, vol. VI, 497–498. 69. Graydon, Memoirs of My Own Times, 161–162, see also footnote, 162. Malone, Dictionary of American Biography, vol. VI, 497–498. 70. Endorsement by Timothy Pickering, "The Memorial of Christopher Ludwick late Superintendant of the Baking Department in the Army of the United States" to Congress, March 1785, Papers of Continental Congress, Natl. Archives, reel 50: 411–412. In this March 1785 memorial, Ludwick (then 65 years of age) stated that "by his Skill & Knowledge in the Baking
Business and strict Care and Attention to prevent fraud is confident that he saved vast Sums to the public, but at the same time greatly diminished and injured his own private Property as well as his Constitution – That being Paymaster as well as Director of the Bakers employed in said Department [he] ... sold a part of his Real Estate at a Disadvantage in order to obtain Money to pay the Mens Wages, and has almost the whole time of Service advanced and paid their Wages out of his own Monies before he could receive any of the public, so that by the Depreciation of the Money he was continually losing, but for want of Knowledge in Accounts and book keeping he cannot justily ascertain his loss. That his own honest Principles and Confidence in those whom he took to be good Whigs laid him open to their Views and he became a Victim to their Wiles and Deceit, – that having employed Mr. Moore Furman to pay some of the Bakers, and Your Memorialist repaying him, was duped by said Furman out of a french Bill of fifteen hundred Dollars Specie instead of so many Current Dollars – That Your Memorialist paying the Bakers every two Months their Wages and from time to time adding a few Dollars more as the money grew worse, he saved no trifling Sum to the Public as these Men got no Depreciation of Pay like Soldiers in the Army ... That having faithfully served the States and been a great Loser by it Your Memorialist with due submission conceives himself intitled to a Compensation or Bounty in Land or otherwise equal with other Officers who have served in the American Army." Ludwick's 1785 memorial was endorsed by such notables as Generals Arthur St. Clair, William Irvine, Anthony Wayne, former quartermaster general Timothy Pickering, and Thomas Mifflin, a prominent Philadelphian. In his endorsement Pickering noted Ludwick's "disinterested zeal, his indefatigable industry in the duties of his department, his unsullied integrity, [and] the essential service he rendered to the army ..." Endorsement by Timothy Pickering, "The Memorial of Christopher Ludwick late Superintendant of the Baking Department in the Army of the United States" to Congress, March 1785, Papers of Continental Congress, Natl. Archives, reel 50: 411–412. 71. Christopher Ludwick to George Washington, 9 February 1779, Revolutionary War Accounts, Vouchers, and Receipted Accounts 1, George Washington Papers, series 5 (Financial Papers). 72. Rusk is also defined as “U.S. ‘Bread or cake dried or browned in the oven, and reduced to crumbs by pounding.’” “A piece of bread hardened or browned by re–firing and sometimes sweetened.” Oxford English Dictionary, Compact Edition, two vols. (Glasgow, New York, and Toronto, 1971), II, 2609. 73. Christopher Ludwick to George Washington, 28 March 1780, Revolutionary War Accounts, Vouchers, and Receipted Accounts 1, George Washington Papers, series 5. 74. Eliza Smith, The Compleat Housewife (originally published 1758; reprinted London: Studio Editions Ltd., 1994), gingerbread and Dutch gingerbread, 174, 179. 75. Ibid., 181. 76. “The Gingerbread Man,” Cavalcade of America, American Broadcasting Corporation (television, episode 15, 15 April 1953; repeated 21 December 1954), World Wide Web, http://www.tvtome.com/tvtome/servlet/GuidePageServlet/showid–4151/epid–224219 77. “How to Apply for a Christopher Ludwick Foundation Grant: For two centuries the trustees have fulfilled Christopher Ludwick's mandate, and applications for projects that advance the education of poor children in the City of Philadelphia are accepted annually between February 1st and March 31st. The City of Philadelphia limitation is strictly followed; no grants will be given for programs not specifically targeted at children resident within the city limits. A special application form must be used which should be requested from the Foundation at The Athenaeum of Philadelphia (telephone 215–925–2688). As a general rule, the Foundation makes no grants for building campaigns, endowment drives, equipment purchases, or general operating support. Nor does it make direct grants to individuals. Current funding priorities target secondary school children; no grants are given for pre–school or primary school age children or for
programs targeted at children with disabilities for which other funding sources exist. The Board of Trustees meets in May and awards are usually announced on or about June 1. World Wide Web, http://www.philaathenaeum.org/grants.html For more on Ludwick, see the biography by his close friend Benjamin Rush, M.D., An Account of the Life and Character of Christopher Ludwick, late citizen of Philadelphia, and baker– general of the Army of the United States during the Revolutionary War (First published in the year 1801; revised and republished by direction of the Philadelphia Society for the Establishment and Support of Charity Schools, Philadelphia, c.1931 Garden and Thompson, c. 1831: New York, Garrett Press, Inc., 1969) Copy in the collections of the David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, Pa.