# Class : VIII

PRELIMINARIES – PHYSICS

What is anything really?
In very general terms, that's what the
science of physics allows us to ask. There is
still so much we don't know about the
universe, and new research is constantly
surprising. The more we know, the more
questions we find to ask. Understanding the
answers to that question is the primary
motivation of physics.
Most of operational physics (how
things relate to each other) can be
understood in terms of fundamental
quantities. A fundamental quantity is an
irreducible
"thing".
It
cannot
be
described in terms of other "things".
This is in contrast to derived quantities,
which can be described in terms of other
"things".
Fundamental quantities are also
called base quantities. Fundamental
quantities can be considered to be
dimensions, but in a loose context. In
physics, when we refer to dimensions,
we usually refer to space and time

Introduction: - Measurement of any physical
quantity involves comparison with a certain
basic, arbitrarily chosen, internationally
accepted reference standard called unit.
Magnitude: - The number of times, a
standard quantity is present in the physical
quantity, is known as the ‘magnitude’ of the
physical quantity.
Fundamental
Quantity:
-A
physical
quantity which is independent of any other
quantity is a fundamental quantity.
Fundamental Unit: - The unit of a physical
quantity which is independent of any other
quantity is called a fundamental unit.

STUDY MATERIAL

Complementary
Fundamental
Units:
- Units of angle (degrees) and solid angle.
Derived
Quantities:
- The
physical
quantities which can be derived from other
physical
quantities
are
called derived
quantities.
All other quantities except the fundamental
quantities are derivable. The units of these
quantities are also derivable from the
fundamental units and are called derived
units.
Derived Units: - The units of physical
quantities which can be expressed in terms of
fundamental units are called derived units.
For example, area, pressure, density and
speed are derived quantities and their units –
square meter, Pascal kilogram metre-3 and
meter
second-1 are
derived
from
the
fundamental units.
The fundamental quantities:
 Time
:
seconds
(s)
 Space
:
meters
(m)
 Mass
:
kilograms
(kg)
 Temperature
:
degrees kelvin (K)
 Electrical current :
ampere
(A)
 Luminosity
:
candela
(l)
 Amount of matter :
mole
Time is perhaps the most abstract of the
fundamental quantities, possibly because we
experience it in a linear way; we can't get out
of it.
Space can be experience from a nonlinear
perspective, and is more easily grasped as a
distinct concept.
The same goes for
mass, which is very tangible.
Temperature is experiential but its quantum
definition veers into abstract territory (in
simplistic terms, it is the amount of atomic
vibration in a system).

1 cm = ____________________ mm dm = ____________________ cm = ____________________ mm m= ____________________ dm = ____________________ cm = ____________________ mm Dm= ____________________ m = _____________________dm = _____________________cm 5. 1 dm = _____________________m = _____________________Dm = _____________________Hm = _____________________Km 10. ½ Km = _____________________m 14. The mole is a stumbling block for students of chemistry.how much there is or how many there are of something that you can quantify measure . ¼ m = _____________________cm 21. as determined by measurement or calculation mass . ¾ Km = _____________________m 18. 1 Km = _____________________Hm = _____________________Dm = _____________________m = _____________________dm = _____________________cm = _____________________mm 7. Luminosity is straightforward (we can see how it changes). ½ Km = _____________________cm 15.one of the four quantities that are the basis of systems of measurement quantity .the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment ASSIGNMENT 1. ½ m = _____________________cm 20. quantity.how much there is or how many there are of something that you can quantify amount .the property of a body that causes it to have weight in a gravitational field length . ¼ Km = _____________________m 16. electrical current is an everyday experience. but gets stranger the more closely it is analyzed (the "flow" of electrons through a medium). 1 Dm = _____________________Hm = _____________________Km 12. ¼ Km = _____________________cm 17. ¾ m = _____________________cm 22.Like temperature. 1 Hm = _____________________Km 13. 2. the longest dimension of something that is fixed in place time period .the extent. 1 Km/h = ____________________m/h = __________________m/min = ____________________m/s = ___________________cm/h = _________________cm/min = ___________________cm/s 23.the linear extent in space from one end to the other.an amount of time temperature . 1 m = _____________________Dm = _____________________Hm = _____________________Km 11. fundamental quantity . amount. 1 mm = _____________________cm = _____________________dm = _____________________m = _____________________Dm = _____________________Hm = _____________________Km 8. 1 4. ¾ Km = _____________________cm 19. but ultimately makes sense as a measurement of items (particularly of matter). 1 cm = _____________________dm = _____________________m = _____________________Dm = _____________________Hm = _____________________Km 9. 1 m/s = ___________________Km/s = ________________Km/min = ___________________Km/h = ___________________cm/s = ________________cm/min = ___________________cm/h . 1 1 3. Dm 1 Hm = ____________________ mm = _____________________ = _____________________m = _____________________dm = _____________________cm = _____________________mm 6. or degree of something.

360 m/s = ________________ Km/min = __________________ Km/h = __________________ Km/s = ____________________m/h = _________________ m/min = ___________________cm/s = _________________cm/min = ___________________cm/h 30. Thermodynamic temperature: kelvin (K) The kelvin is 1/273. 86. In addition to the thermodynamic temperature (symbol T) there is also the Celsius (symbol t) defined by the equation t=T-T0 where T0=273. 25 m/s = ___________________Km/h 50 m/s = ___________________Km/h 75 m/s = ___________________Km/h 100 m/s = ___________________Km/h 27. Electric current: ampere (A) The ampere is that constant current which. Definitions of the SI Base Units Length: metre (m) The metre is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second. The unit 'degree Celsius' is equal to the unit 'kelvin'. 1 g/cm3 = __________________kg/m3 33.Km/h2= ___________________m/s2 = _________________m/min2 = ___________________m/h2 2 1 Km/h = ___________________cm/s2 = ________________cm/min2 = __________________cm/h2 25. 39. 1 kg/m = ___________________ g/m3 = __________________ g/cm3 = __________________mg/m3 = _________________mg/cm3 32. and a temperature interval . 40. 1 37. 1800 Km/h2 = ______________ Km/min2 = _________________ Km/s2 = ___________________m/h2 = ________________ m/min2 = __________________cm/s2 = ________________cm/min2 = __________________cm/h2 3 31. ½ lt = __________________ ml 24. 18 Km/h = _____________________m/s 36 Km/h = _____________________m/s 54 Km/h = _____________________m/s 72 Km/h = _____________________m/s 90 Km/h = _____________________m/s 108 Km/h = _____________________m/s 26. 38. 1000 kg/m3 = __________________ g/cm3 35. would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 x 10-7 newton per metre of length.4 Km/h = ________________ Km/min = __________________ Km/s = ____________________m/h = _________________ m/min = ___________________cm/s = _________________cm/min = ___________________cm/h 29. if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length. 1000 g/cm3 = __________________kg/m3 34. 1800 Km/h = ________________ Km/min = __________________ Km/s = ____________________m/h = _________________ m/min = ___________________cm/s = _________________cm/min = ___________________cm/h 28. 1 lt = __________________ ml = __________________ cl = __________________ dl 36. Celsius temperature is expressed in degree Celsius (symbol °C).15 K. ¼ ¾ 103 250 lt = __________________ ml lt = __________________ ml ml = __________________ lt ml = __________________ lt. France. Time: second (s) The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom. Mass: kilogram (kg) The kilogram is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram: a piece of platinum-iridium alloy kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. Sévres. The unit kelvin and its symbol K should be used to express both thermodynamic temperature and an interval or a difference of temperature. of negligible circular crosssection. and placed 1 metre apart in vacuum.