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PRELIMINARIES – PHYSICS

**What is anything really?
**

In very general terms, that's what the

science of physics allows us to ask. There is

still so much we don't know about the

universe, and new research is constantly

surprising. The more we know, the more

questions we find to ask. Understanding the

answers to that question is the primary

motivation of physics.

Most of operational physics (how

things relate to each other) can be

understood in terms of fundamental

quantities. A fundamental quantity is an

irreducible

"thing".

It

cannot

be

described in terms of other "things".

This is in contrast to derived quantities,

which can be described in terms of other

"things".

Fundamental quantities are also

called base quantities. Fundamental

quantities can be considered to be

dimensions, but in a loose context. In

physics, when we refer to dimensions,

we usually refer to space and time

**Introduction: - Measurement of any physical
**

quantity involves comparison with a certain

basic, arbitrarily chosen, internationally

accepted reference standard called unit.

Magnitude: - The number of times, a

standard quantity is present in the physical

quantity, is known as the ‘magnitude’ of the

physical quantity.

Fundamental

Quantity:

-A

physical

quantity which is independent of any other

quantity is a fundamental quantity.

Fundamental Unit: - The unit of a physical

quantity which is independent of any other

quantity is called a fundamental unit.

STUDY MATERIAL

Complementary

Fundamental

Units:

- Units of angle (degrees) and solid angle.

Derived

Quantities:

- The

physical

quantities which can be derived from other

physical

quantities

are

called derived

quantities.

All other quantities except the fundamental

quantities are derivable. The units of these

quantities are also derivable from the

fundamental units and are called derived

units.

Derived Units: - The units of physical

quantities which can be expressed in terms of

fundamental units are called derived units.

For example, area, pressure, density and

speed are derived quantities and their units –

square meter, Pascal kilogram metre-3 and

meter

second-1 are

derived

from

the

fundamental units.

The fundamental quantities:

Time

:

seconds

(s)

Space

:

meters

(m)

Mass

:

kilograms

(kg)

Temperature

:

degrees kelvin (K)

Electrical current :

ampere

(A)

Luminosity

:

candela

(l)

Amount of matter :

mole

Time is perhaps the most abstract of the

fundamental quantities, possibly because we

experience it in a linear way; we can't get out

of it.

Space can be experience from a nonlinear

perspective, and is more easily grasped as a

distinct concept.

The same goes for

mass, which is very tangible.

Temperature is experiential but its quantum

definition veers into abstract territory (in

simplistic terms, it is the amount of atomic

vibration in a system).

1 cm = ____________________ mm dm = ____________________ cm = ____________________ mm m= ____________________ dm = ____________________ cm = ____________________ mm Dm= ____________________ m = _____________________dm = _____________________cm 5. 1 dm = _____________________m = _____________________Dm = _____________________Hm = _____________________Km 10. ½ Km = _____________________m 14. The mole is a stumbling block for students of chemistry.how much there is or how many there are of something that you can quantify measure . ¼ m = _____________________cm 21. as determined by measurement or calculation mass . ¾ Km = _____________________m 18. 1 Km = _____________________Hm = _____________________Dm = _____________________m = _____________________dm = _____________________cm = _____________________mm 7. Luminosity is straightforward (we can see how it changes). ½ Km = _____________________cm 15.one of the four quantities that are the basis of systems of measurement quantity .the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment ASSIGNMENT 1. ½ m = _____________________cm 20. quantity.how much there is or how many there are of something that you can quantify amount .the property of a body that causes it to have weight in a gravitational field length . ¼ Km = _____________________m 16. electrical current is an everyday experience. but gets stranger the more closely it is analyzed (the "flow" of electrons through a medium). 1 Dm = _____________________Hm = _____________________Km 12. ¼ Km = _____________________cm 17. ¾ m = _____________________cm 22.Like temperature. 1 Hm = _____________________Km 13. 2. the longest dimension of something that is fixed in place time period .the extent. 1 Km/h = ____________________m/h = __________________m/min = ____________________m/s = ___________________cm/h = _________________cm/min = ___________________cm/s 23.the linear extent in space from one end to the other.an amount of time temperature . 1 m = _____________________Dm = _____________________Hm = _____________________Km 11. fundamental quantity . amount. 1 mm = _____________________cm = _____________________dm = _____________________m = _____________________Dm = _____________________Hm = _____________________Km 8. 1 4. ¾ Km = _____________________cm 19. but ultimately makes sense as a measurement of items (particularly of matter). 1 cm = _____________________dm = _____________________m = _____________________Dm = _____________________Hm = _____________________Km 9. 1 m/s = ___________________Km/s = ________________Km/min = ___________________Km/h = ___________________cm/s = ________________cm/min = ___________________cm/h . 1 1 3. Dm 1 Hm = ____________________ mm = _____________________ = _____________________m = _____________________dm = _____________________cm = _____________________mm 6. or degree of something.

360 m/s = ________________ Km/min = __________________ Km/h = __________________ Km/s = ____________________m/h = _________________ m/min = ___________________cm/s = _________________cm/min = ___________________cm/h 30. Thermodynamic temperature: kelvin (K) The kelvin is 1/273. 86. In addition to the thermodynamic temperature (symbol T) there is also the Celsius (symbol t) defined by the equation t=T-T0 where T0=273. 25 m/s = ___________________Km/h 50 m/s = ___________________Km/h 75 m/s = ___________________Km/h 100 m/s = ___________________Km/h 27. Electric current: ampere (A) The ampere is that constant current which. Definitions of the SI Base Units Length: metre (m) The metre is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second. The unit 'degree Celsius' is equal to the unit 'kelvin'. 1 g/cm3 = __________________kg/m3 33.Km/h2= ___________________m/s2 = _________________m/min2 = ___________________m/h2 2 1 Km/h = ___________________cm/s2 = ________________cm/min2 = __________________cm/h2 25. 39. 1 kg/m = ___________________ g/m3 = __________________ g/cm3 = __________________mg/m3 = _________________mg/cm3 32. and a temperature interval . 40. 1 37. 1800 Km/h2 = ______________ Km/min2 = _________________ Km/s2 = ___________________m/h2 = ________________ m/min2 = __________________cm/s2 = ________________cm/min2 = __________________cm/h2 3 31. ½ lt = __________________ ml 24. 18 Km/h = _____________________m/s 36 Km/h = _____________________m/s 54 Km/h = _____________________m/s 72 Km/h = _____________________m/s 90 Km/h = _____________________m/s 108 Km/h = _____________________m/s 26. 38. 1000 kg/m3 = __________________ g/cm3 35. would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 x 10-7 newton per metre of length.4 Km/h = ________________ Km/min = __________________ Km/s = ____________________m/h = _________________ m/min = ___________________cm/s = _________________cm/min = ___________________cm/h 29. if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length. 1000 g/cm3 = __________________kg/m3 34. 1800 Km/h = ________________ Km/min = __________________ Km/s = ____________________m/h = _________________ m/min = ___________________cm/s = _________________cm/min = ___________________cm/h 28. 1 lt = __________________ ml = __________________ cl = __________________ dl 36. Celsius temperature is expressed in degree Celsius (symbol °C).15 K. ¼ ¾ 103 250 lt = __________________ ml lt = __________________ ml ml = __________________ lt ml = __________________ lt. France. Time: second (s) The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom. Mass: kilogram (kg) The kilogram is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram: a piece of platinum-iridium alloy kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. Sévres. The unit kelvin and its symbol K should be used to express both thermodynamic temperature and an interval or a difference of temperature. of negligible circular crosssection. and placed 1 metre apart in vacuum.

(The word degree and the sign o must not be used with kelvin or K).youtube. Lets wish our Bharathmata a happy Re-Birthday (from Britishers) .com/watch?v=E_sW1TPTsvU http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T939eOWGoW8 http://www.com/watch?v=FfEqkxl-t14 http://www. In this definition. it is understood that the carbon 12 atoms are unbound. Luminous intensity: candela (cd) The candela is the luminous intensity. electrons.com/watch?v=whsFazoPzO0 http://www.youtube.youtube.youtube. in a given direction.012 kilogram of carbon 12.youtube.com/watch?v=4AmV8U5lclY .or a difference of temperature may also be expressed in degrees Celsius. the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms.youtube.com/watch?v=6mA2oGNMQx0 http://www. other particles or specified groups of such particle.com/watch?v=TEchCex66O4 http://www.youtube.youtube.com/watch?v=yO_2JULDxlQ http://www.youtube. molecules. ions.com/watch?v=9MHEAC96t58 http://www. of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian. Amount of substance: mole (mol) The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.com/watch?v=dVFWZak04Z4 http://www.com/watch?v=zrgvtzyHOyE http://www. at rest and in their ground state.youtube.com/watch?v=evFhsHuxPJs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5DrHFxZ40v4 http://www.com/watch?v=tVXAjPjSDxg http://www.On this occasion add these to your videos and enjoy ( Don't miss the last four ) Navvuthoo brathakaali yellappudu : http://www.youtube.youtube.youtube.com/watch?v=Wi9YYBMZTec http://www.youtube. When the mole is used.com/watch?v=wHKcygBQxz0 http://www.

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