You are on page 1of 24

Chemistry Data Booklet Higher and Advanced Higher

For use in National Qualification Courses leading to the 2008 examinations and beyond.

Published date: January 2008 Publication code: BB4274 ISBN: 978 1 85969 667 5

Published by the Scottish Qualifications Authority The Optima Building, 58 Robertson Street, Glasgow G2 8DQ Ironmills Road, Dalkeith, Midlothian EH22 1LE www.sqa.org.uk

The information in this publication may be reproduced in support of SQA qualifications. If it is reproduced, SQA should be clearly acknowledged as the source. If it is to be used for any other purpose, then written permission must be obtained from the Publishing Team at SQA . It must not be reproduced for trade or commercial purposes. Scottish Qualifications A uthority 2008

For an up-to-date list of prices visit the Publication Sales and Downloads section of SQAs website. This document can be produced, on request, in alternative formats, including large type, braille and numerous community languages. For further details telephone SQAs Customer Contact Centre on 0845 279 1000.

Contents
Relative Atomic Masses of Selected Elements 1 Electron Arrangements of Elements 2 Densities of Selected Elements 3 Melting and Boiling Points of Selected Elements 4 Covalent Radii of Selected Elements 5 Melting and Boiling Points of Selected Oxides, Chlorides and Organic Compounds6 Solubilities of Selected Compounds in Water 7 Formulae of Selected Ions Containing More Than One Kind of Atom 7 Radioactive Decay Series 8 Enthalpies of Formation and Combustion of Selected Substances 9 Selected Bond and Mean Bond Enthalpies 9 Enthalpy of Sublimation of Carbon9 Ionisation Energies and Electronegativities of Selected Elements 10 Electrochemical Series: Standard Reduction Potentials 11 Electrolysis of Water11 Dissociation Constants of Selected Species 12 Infra-red Correlation Table 13 Spectral Lines and Flame Colours14 Proton NMR Spectra Correlation Chart 15 Ionic Radii of Selected Ions 16 Standard Entropy Values for Selected Substances 16 Standard Molar Enthalpies of Atomisation of Selected Elements 17 Lattice Enthalpies of Selected Compounds 17 Electron Affinities of Selected Elements 18 Hydration Enthalpies of Selected Ions 18 Systeme Internationale (SI) Units 19 Physical Constants 19 Properties of Water 19 SI Prefixes and Multiplication Factors 19 Conversion Factors 19

Relative Atomic Masses of Selected Elements

Element

Symbol

Relative atomic mass 270 1218 400 749 1373 90 2090 108 799 1124 400 120 1401 1329 355 520 589 635 190 697 726 1970 1785 40 10 1148 1269 1922 558 838 2072 69 243 549 2006

Element

Symbol

Relative atomic mass 959 202 587 929 140 1902 160 1064 310 1951 391 1862 1029 855 1011 450 790 281 1079 230 876 321 1810 1276 2044 2320 1187 479 1839 2380 510 1313 654 912

Aluminium Antimony Argon Arsenic Barium Beryllium Bismuth Boron Bromine Cadmium Calcium Carbon Cerium Caesium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper Fluorine Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Helium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lead Lithium Magnesium Manganese Mercury

Al Sb Ar As Ba Be Bi B Br Cd Ca C Ce Cs Cl Cr Co Cu F Ga Ge Au Hf He H In I Ir Fe Kr Pb Li Mg Mn Hg

Molybdenum Neon Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Potassium Rhenium Rhodium Rubidium Ruthenium Scandium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulphur Tantalum Tellurium Thallium Thorium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Xenon Zinc Zirconium

Mo Ne Ni Nb N Os O Pd P Pt K Re Rh Rb Ru Sc Se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Te Tl Th Sn Ti W U V Xe Zn Zr

Electron Arrangements of Elements


Group Group Group Group Group Group

Group Group

1 3
(18) 2

4 7 0

(1)

Key

H
(13) 5 6 7 8 (14) (15) (16) (17) 9

He
2 Helium 10

Hydrogen

(2)

Atomic number Symbol Electron arrangement Name

Li B
2, 3 2, 4 Carbon 14 15 Nitrogen Boron 13 2, 5

Be C N

O
2, 6 Oxygen 16

F
2, 7 Fluorine 17

Ne
2, 8 Neon 18

2, 1

2, 2

Lithium

Beryllium

11

12

Na Al
2, 8, 3 (5) 23 24 27 31 25 26 28 29 30 (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Aluminium 2, 8, 4 Silicon 32

Mg Si

Transition Elements

P
2, 8, 5 Phosphorus 33

S
2, 8, 6 Sulphur 34

Cl
2, 8, 7 Chlorine 35

Ar
2, 8, 8 Argon 36

2, 8, 1

2, 8, 2

Sodium

Magnesium

(3)

(4)

19

20

21

22

K V Cr
2, 8, 13, 1 2, 8, 15, 2 Cobalt 45 48 46 47 Nickel Copper Zinc 2, 8, 18, 1 Chromium 42 43 44 Manganese Iron 2, 8, 13, 2 2, 8, 18, 2 2, 8, 14, 2 2, 8, 16, 2

Ca Mn Co Cu Ga Zn Fe Ni

Sc

Ti

Ge
2, 8, 18, 4 Germanium

As
2, 8, 18, 5 Arsenic

Se
2, 8, 18, 6 Selenium

Br
2, 8, 18, 7 Bromine

Kr
2, 8, 18, 8 Krypton

2, 8, 8, 1

2, 8, 8, 2

2, 8, 9, 2

2, 8, 10, 2

2, 8, 11, 2

2, 8, 18, 3 Gallium 49

Potassium 41

Calcium

2 Nb Tc
Ruthenium Silver 79 76 77 78 Rhodium Palladium

Scandium

Titanium

Vanadium

37

38

39

40

50

51

52

53

54

Rb Mo Cd
Molybdenum Technetium 74 75

Sr Ru Rh Pd Ag
Niobium 73

Zr

In
Indium

Sn
Tin

Sb
Antimomy

Te
Tellurium

I
Iodine

Xe
2, 8, 18, 18, 3 2, 8, 18, 18, 4 2, 8, 18, 18, 5 2, 8, 18, 18, 6 2, 8, 18, 18, 7 2, 8, 18, 18, 8 Xenon

2, 8, 18, 8, 1

2, 8, 18, 8, 2

2, 8, 18, 9, 2 2, 8, 18, 10, 2 2, 8, 18, 12, 1 2, 8, 18, 13, 1 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 2, 8, 18, 15, 1 2, 8, 18, 16, 1 2, 8, 18, 18, 0 2, 8, 18, 18, 1 2, 8, 18, 18, 2 Cadmium 80

Rubidium

Strontium

Yttrium

Zirconium

55

56

57

72

81

82

83

84

85

86

Cs Os
2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2 Osmium 108 109 2, 8, 18, 32, 15, 2 Iridium 2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1 Platinum 2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2 Tungsten 106 107 2, 8, 18, 32, 13, 2 Rhenium

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W Re Pt

Ir

Au
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1 Gold

Hg
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2 Mercury

Tl
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 3 Thallium

Pb
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4 Lead

Bi
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5 Bismuth

Po
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Polonium

At
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Astatine

Rn
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8 Radon

2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 1 Caesium 105

2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 2 Barium

2, 8, 18, 18, 9, 2 Lanthanum

2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2 Hafnium

2, 8, 18, 32, 11, 2 Tantalum

87

88

89

104

Fr Bh
2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13, 2 Bohrium 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14, 2 Hassium 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 15, 2 Meitnerium

Ra Mt
2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12, 2 Seaborgium

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Hs

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Francium

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2 Radium

2, 8, 18, 32, 2, 8, 18, 32, 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 32, 11, 2 32, 10, 2 Actinium Rutherfordium Dubnium

57 58

59 60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

Lanthanides
90 91 92

La

Ce

Pr Nd

Pm

Sm

Eu
2, 8, 18, 25, 8, 2 Europium 93 94 95

Gd
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2 Gadolinium 96

Tb
2, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2 Terbium 97

Dy
2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2 Dysprosium 98

Ho
2, 8, 18, 29, 8, 2 Holmium 99

Er
2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2 Erbium 100

Tm
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2 Thulium 101

Yb
2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2 Ytterbium 102

Lu
2, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2 Lutetium 103

2, 8, 18, 18, 9, 2 Lanthanum

2, 8, 18, 20, 2, 8, 18, 21, 2, 8, 18, 22, 2, 8, 18, 23, 2, 8, 18, 24, 8, 2 8, 2 8, 2 8, 2 8, 2 Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Cerium

89

Actinides

Ac Pa

Th

Np
2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Neptunium

Pu
2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Plutonium

Am
2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Americium

Cm
2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Curium

Bk
2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Berkelium

Cf

Es
2, 8, 18, 32, 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 29, 8, 2 Californium Einsteinium

Fm

Md

No

Lr
2, 8, 18, 32, 2, 8, 18, 32, 2, 8, 18, 32, 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 31, 8, 2 32, 9, 2 32, 8, 2 Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Actinium

2, 8, 18, 32, 2, 8, 18, 32, 2, 8, 18, 32, 18,10, 2 21, 9, 2 20, 9, 2 Thorium Protactinium Uranium

Densities of Selected Elements


Group Group Group Group Group Group

Group Group

1
2

4 5 6 0

Key Atomic number Name of element 3 Density/g cm measured at s.t.p.


5 Boron 2.34 Carbon Nitrogen 0.0013 6 7 8 Oxygen 0.0014 9 Fluorine 0.0017

Hydrogen

Helium 0.0002

0-00009

10 Neon 0.0009

Lithium

Beryllium

0.53

1.85

*
14 Silicon 2.33 15 Phosphorus 1.82

11 13 Aluminium 2.70

12

16 Sulphur 2.07

17 Chlorine 0.0032

18 Argon 0.0018

Sodium

Magnesium

0.97

1.74

19 Chromium Nickel 8.90 8.92 7.14 5.90 7.20 7.20 7.86 8.90 Manganese Iron Cobalt Copper Zinc Gallium

20 24

21

22

23

25

26

27

28 29 30 31

32 Germanium 5.35

33 Arsenic 5.73

34 Selenium 4.81

35 Bromine 3.12

36 Krypton 0.0037

Potassium 5.96

Calcium

Scandium

Titanium

Vanadium

0.86

1.54

2.99

4.50

3
41 Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium 12.3 12.4 12.0 10.5 8.64 10.2 11.5 Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium 8.57 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Indium 7.31 50 Tin 7.28 51 Antimony 6.68 52 Tellurium 6.25 53 Iodine 4.93 54 Xenon 0.0059 73 Tungsten 19.4 20.5 22.4 22.5 21.5 Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold 19.3 16.6 74 75 76 77 79 78 80 Mercury 13.6 81 Thallium 11.8 82 Lead 11.3 83 Bismuth 9.80 84 Polonium 9.4 85 Astatine 86 Radon 0.0097
3 *The density of carbon as graphite is 2.25 g cm .

37

38

39

40

Rubidium

Strontium

Yttrium

Zirconium

Niobium

1.53

2.60

4.47

6.52

55

56

57

72

Caesium

Barium

Lanthanum

Hafnium

Tantalum

1.93

3.51

6.15

13.3

The density of carbon as diamond is 3.51 g cm3.

Melting and Boiling Points of Selected Elements


Group Group Group Group Group Group

Group Group

1 3
2

2 4 6 0

Key

Hydrogen

Helium *272 269 5 Boron Carbon 2300 4000 13 Aluminium 660 1410 2355 32 Germanium 937 2403 49 Indium 157 321 765 80 Mercury 1064 2856 39 357 2080 81 Thallium Gold 304 1457 2830 50 Tin 232 2602 82 Lead 328 1749 2467 Silicon 14 15 Phosphorus 44 280 33 Arsenic 196 Nitrogen 210 6 7 8 Oxygen 218 183 16 Sulphur 113 445 34 Selenium 9 Fluorine 220 188 17 Chlorine 101 35 35 Bromine 10 Neon 249 246 18 Argon 189 186 36 Krypton

259

253

Atomic number Name of element Melting point/C Boiling Point/C


3642

Lithium

Beryllium

181

1278

1342

2471

11

12

Sodium

Magnesium

98

649

883 23 25 Manganese Nickel 1453 2913 2567 47 Silver 962 2212 79 Cadmium 48 907 46 Palladium 1552 2963 78 Platinum 1772 3827 1083 420 30 1244 1535 2750 44 Ruthenium Rhodium 1966 3695 77 Iridium 2410 4130 2310 3900 76 Osmium 3033 5012 45 2927 1495 1962 43 Iron Copper Cobalt Zinc Gallium 29 31 Chromium 1857 2672 42 Molybdenum Technetium 2623 2157 4265 75 Rhenium 3180 5627 4639 74 Tungsten 3410 5660 24 26 27 28 30

1090

19

20

21

22

Potassium 1890 3380 41

Calcium

Scandium

Titanium

Vanadium

64

842

1541

1660

*817
613 51 Antimony 631 1750 83 Bismuth 271 1560

217 685 52 Tellurium 452 988 84 Polonium 254 962

7 59 53 Iodine 114 184 85 Astatine 302

157 152 54 Xenon 112 107 86 Radon 71 62

4
2477 4742 73 2996 5425

759

1484

2831

3287

37

38

39

40

Rubidium

Strontium

Yttrium

Zirconium

Niobium

39

769

1522

1852

688

1384

3338

4377

55

56

57

72

Caesium

Barium

Lanthanum

Hafnium

Tantalum

28

725

921

2227

671

1640

3457

4602

* not at standard pressure

Sublimes.

Covalent Radii of Selected Elements


Group Group Group Group Group

Group Group

4 5 6

Key Atomic number Name of element Covalent radius/pm


5 7 Nitrogen 75 Boron 90 77 Carbon 6 8 Oxygen 73 9 Fluorine 71

Hydrogen

37

Lithium

Beryllium

134

129

11 13 Aluminium 130 117 Silicon 14

12

15 Phosphorus 110

16 Sulphur 102

17 Chlorine 99

Sodium

Magnesium

154

145

19 27 Cobalt Nickel 113 118 120 120 114 Copper Zinc Gallium 30 Chromium 119 116 114 Manganese Iron

20

21

22

23 24 26 29 31

25

28

32 Germanium 122

33 Arsenic 121

34 Selenium 117

35 Bromine 114

Potassium 122

Calcium

Scandium

Titanium

Vanadium

196

174

141

132

5
41 Molybdenum Technetium Rhodium 122 126 136 140 Palladium 127 122 Ruthenium Silver Cadmium 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Indium 150 50 Tin 140 51 Antimony 143 52 Tellurium 135 53 Iodine 133 133 73 76 Osmium Platinum 127 126 124 Iridium Gold 130 79 Tungsten 131 128 Rhenium 74 75 77 78 80 Mercury 141 81 Thallium 157 82 Lead 155 83 Bismuth 151 84 Polonium 85 Astatine 140 133

37

38

39

40

Rubidium

Strontium

Yttrium

Zirconium

Niobium

216

191

162

147

55

56

57

72

Caesium

Barium

Lanthanum

Hafnium

Tantalum

235

198

169

142

Melting and Boiling Points of Selected Oxides


Element hydrogen lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen fluorine sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulphur chlorine potassium calcium Formula of oxide H2O Li2O BeO B2O3 CO2 N2O4 F2O Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P4O10 SO2 Cl2O K2O CaO mp/C 0 sublimes at 1200 2530 450 sublimes at 785 -9 224 sublimes at 1275 2852 2072 1610 sublimes at 300 727 20 decomposes at 350 2614 2850 10 decomposes at 4 3600 2980 2230 21 145 3900 1860 bp/C 100

Melting and Boiling Points of Selected Chlorides


Element lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen fluorine sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulphur potassium calcium Formula of chloride LiCl BeCl2 BCl3 CCl4 NCl3 FCl NaCl MgCl2 Al2Cl6 SiCl4 PCl3 SCl2 KCl CaCl2 mp/C 605 405 107 23 40 154 801 714 sublimes at 178 70 112 78 770 782 576 755 decomposes at 59 1680 >1600 bp/C 1350 520 125 768 71 101 1413 1412

Melting and Boiling Points of Selected Organic Compounds


Name of compound methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptane octane cyclobutane cyclopentane cyclohexane ethene propene but-1-ene pent-1-ene hex-1-ene benzene mp/C 1825 183 190 138 130 95 91 57 50 94 7 169 185 185 138 140 6 bp/C 164 89 42 1 36 69 98 126 12 49 81 104 47 6 30 63 80 Name of compound methanol ethanol propan-1-ol propan-2-ol butan-1-ol butan-2-ol methanal ethanal propanal butanal propanone butanone methanoic acid ethanoic acid propanoic acid butanoic acid methoxyethane ethoxyethane mp/C 94 117 127 90 90 100 92 121 81 99 95 86 8 17 21 4 113 116 bp/C 65 79 97 82 117 100 21 21 49 76 56 80 101 118 141 164 7 345

Solubilities of Selected Compounds in Water


The table shows how some compounds behave in cold water vs s i means very soluble means soluble means insoluble no data (a solubility greater than 10 g l ) 1 (a solubility of between 1 and 10 g l ) 1 (a solubility of less than 1 g l )
1

bromide aluminium ammonium barium calcium copper(II) iron(II) iron(III) lead(II) lithium magnesium nickel potassium silver sodium tin(II) zinc vs vs vs vs vs vs vs s vs vs vs vs i vs vs vs

carbonate i vs i i i i i vs i i vs i vs i i

chloride vs vs vs vs vs vs vs s vs vs vs vs i vs vs vs

iodide vs vs vs vs vs i vs vs vs vs i vs s vs

nitrate vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs

phosphate i vs i i i i i i i i i vs i vs i i

sulphate vs vs i s vs vs vs i vs vs vs vs s vs vs vs

oxide i vs s i i i i vs i i vs i vs i i

hydroxide i vs s i i i i vs i i vs vs i i

Note:

Some of the compounds in the table hydrolyse significantly in water.

Formulae of Selected Ions Containing More Than One Kind of Atom


one positive Ion Formula ammonium NH4+ one negative Ion Formula ethanoate CH3COO hydrogencarbonate HCO3 hydrogensulphate HSO4 hydrogensulphite HSO3 hydroxide OH nitrate NO3 permanganate MnO4 two negative Ion Formula carbonate CO32 chromate CrO42 dichromate Cr2O72 sulphate SO42 sulphite SO32 thiosulphate S2O32 three negative Ion Formula phosphate PO43

Radioactive Decay Series


Note: In both tables emissions have been omitted.

Table 1 (Plutonium-Uranium)
Element plutonium uranium thorium protactinium uranium thorium radium radon polonium lead bismuth polonium thallium lead bismuth polonium lead Pb Bi Po Pb Po Tl 210 210 210 206 Symbol Pu U Th Pa U Th Ra Rn Po Pb Bi 214 210 82 83 84 82 Mass Number 242 238 234 234 234 230 226 222 218 214 214 84 81 Atomic Number 94 92 90 91 92 90 88 86 84 82 83 Type of Radiation Half-life Period 379 x 105 years 451 x 109 years 241 days 675 hours 247 x 105 years 80 x 104 years 162 x 103 years 382 days 305 minutes 268 minutes


stable

197 minutes 16 x 104 seconds 13 minutes 21 years 501 days 138 days

Table 2 (Thorium)
Element thorium radium actinium thorium radium radon polonium lead bismuth polonium thallium lead Pb Po Tl 208 Symbol Th Ra Ac Th Ra Rn Po Pb Bi 212 208 82 Mass Number 232 228 228 228 224 220 216 212 212 84 81 stable Atomic Number 90 88 89 90 88 86 84 82 83 Type of Radiation Half-life Period 141 x 1010 years 58 years 613 hours 191 years 364 days 55 seconds 015 seconds 106 hours

606 minutes 304 x107 seconds 310 minutes

Enthalpies of Formation and Combustion of Selected Substances


Substance hydrogen carbon (graphite) sulphur (rhombic) methane ethane propane butane benzene ethene ethyne methanol ethanol propan-1-ol methanoic acid ethanoic acid Standard enthalpy of formation 1 /kJ mol 75 85 104 125 49 52 227 239 278 306 409 487 Standard enthalpy of combustion 1 /kJ mol 286 394 297 891 1560 2220 2877 3268 1411 1300 727 1367 2020 255 876

Selected Bond and Mean Bond Enthalpies


Bond Enthalpies
Bond HH O=O N=N FF Cl Cl Br Br II HF H Cl H Br HI Enthalpy 1 /kJ mol 432 497 941 155 243 194 149 569 428 362 295

Mean Bond Enthalpies


Bond Si Si CC C=C C=C _ C ... C (aromatic) HO HN CH CO C=O CF C Cl C Br CI Mean Enthalpy 1 /kJ mol 222 346 602 835

519 458 387 414 358 798 486 326 285 213

Enthalpy of Sublimation of Carbon


The energy required to convert 1 mole solid carbon into 1 mole gaseous carbon atoms is 715 kJ at 298 K (25C). The equation is C(s) C(g) H = 715 kJ

Ionisation Energies and Electronegativities of Selected Elements


Notes: The first ionisation energy for an element E refers to the reaction E(g) E+(g) + e; the second ionisation energy refers to E+(g) E2+(g) + e; etc.

Ionisation Energies/kJ mol1 Element hydrogen helium lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulphur chlorine argon potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc arsenic bromine rubidium strontium silver tin antimony iodine caesium barium gold lead Symbol H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn As Br Rb Sr Ag Sn Sb I Cs Ba Au Pb First 1311 2380 526 905 807 1090 1410 1320 1690 2090 502 744 584 792 1020 1010 1260 1530 425 596 637 664 656 659 723 766 764 743 751 913 947 1150 409 556 731 709 834 1020 382 509 890 716 Second 5260 7310 1770 2440 2360 2860 3400 3380 3960 4560 1460 1830 1590 1920 2260 2310 2670 3060 1160 1250 1320 1430 1600 1520 1570 1660 1770 1970 1740 1798 2100 2670 1080 2073 1412 1595 1850 2440 979 1979 1450 Third 11800 14800 3660 4640 4580 5320 6060 6140 6920 7750 2760 3250 2930 3380 3840 3950 4440 4930 2410 2670 2850 3000 3270 2970 3250 3410 3570 3850 2736 3480 3880 4120 3361 2942 2439 2040 3420 3081 Fourth 25000 6220 7470 7470 8410 9360 9540 10500 11600 4350 4950 4560 5160 5770 5880 6470 7130 4170 4600 4800 5000 5480 5400 5700 5990 4838 4560 5500 3930 4265 4084

Electronegativity (Pauling scale) 22 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 09 12 15 19 22 25 30 08 10 13 15 16 16 15 18 18 19 19 16 22 28 08 10 19 18 21 26 08 09 24 18

10

Electrochemical Series: Standard Reduction Potentials


Note: The data given below are reduction potentials applicable to standard state conditions.

Reaction Li (aq) + e Cs (aq) + e


+ + +

E/V Li(s) Cs(s) Rb(s) K(s)

302 292 292 292 289 276 271 237 168 083 076 074 044 023 014 013 004 000 015 015 017 034 040 054 077 080 085 107 123 133 136 151 287

Rb (aq) + e K (aq) + e
2+ 2+ +

Sr (aq) + 2e

Sr(s) Ca(s) Na(s) Mg(s) Al(s) H2(g) + 2OH(aq) Zn(s) Cr(s) Fe(s) Ni(s) Sn(s) Pb(s) Fe(s) H2(g) Sn (aq) Cu (aq) SO32(aq) + H2O( ) Cu(s)

Ca (aq) + 2e Na (aq) + e
2+ 3+

Mg (aq) + 2e Al (aq) + 3e 2H2O( ) + 2e Zn (aq) + 2e Cr (aq) + 3e Fe (aq) + 2e Ni (aq) + 2e


2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 3+

2+

Sn (aq) + 2e Pb (aq) + 2e Fe (aq) + 3e


+ 4+ 3+

2H (aq) + 2e Sn (aq) + 2e Cu (aq) + e SO42(aq) + 2H+(aq) + 2e Cu (aq) + 2e


2+

2+ +

2+

O2(g) + 2H2O( ) + 4e I2(s) + 2e


3+ +

4OH (aq) 2I (aq)

Fe (aq) + e Ag (aq) + e
2+

Fe (aq) Ag(s) Hg( ) 2Br (aq) 2H2O( ) 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O( ) 2Cl (aq)
+

2+

Hg (aq) + 2e Br2( ) + 2e O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e Cr2O72(aq) + 14H+(aq) + 6e Cl2(g) + 2e


MnO4 (aq) + 8H (aq) + 5e F2(g) + 2e

Mn (aq) + 4H2O( ) 2F (aq)

2+

Electrolysis of Water
Reduction reactions at the negative electrode 2H2O( ) + 2e H2(g) + 2OH(aq) + 2H (aq) + 2e H2(g) Oxidation reactions at the positive electrode 2H2O( ) O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e 4OH (aq) 2H2O( ) + O2(g) + 4e

11

Dissociation Constants of Selected Species


Equilibrium in aqueous solution methanoic acid ethanoic acid propanoic acid butanoic acid benzoic acid phenol hydrofluoric acid boric acid hydrocyanic acid carbonic acid hydrogencarbonate ion sulphurous acid hydrogensulphite ion hydrogen sulphide hydrogensulphide ion phosphoric acid dihydrogenphosphate ion hydrogenphosphate ion ammonium ion methylammonium ion phenylammonium ion HCOOH CH3COOH CH3CH2COOH CH3(CH2)2COOH C6H5COOH C6H5OH HF H3BO3 HCN H2O + CO2 HCO3 H2SO3 HSO3 H2S HS H3PO4 H2PO4 HPO42 NH4+ CH3NH3+ C6H5NH3+ H + HCOO H + CH3COO H + CH3CH2COO H + CH3(CH2)2COO H+ + C6H5COO H+ + C6H5O H+ + F
+ + + +

Ka 1.8 x 104 1.7 x 105 1.3 x 105 1.5 x 105 6.3 x 105 1.0 x 1010 6.8 x 104 5.4 x 1010 6.2 x 1010 4.5 x 107 4.7 x 1011 1.4 x 102 6.3 x 108 8.9 x 108 1.3 x 104 6.9 x 103 6.2 x 108 4.8 x 1013 5.8 x 1010 2.2 x 1011 1.3 x 105

pKa 3.75 4.76 4.87 4.83 4.20 9.99 3.17 9.27 9.21 6.35 10.33 1.85 7.19 7.05 13.90 2.16 7.21 12.32 9.24 10.66 4.87

H+ + H2BO3 H+ + CN H+ + HCO3 H+ + CO32 H+ + HSO3 H+ + SO32 H+ + HS H+ + S2 H+ + H2PO4 H+ + HPO42 H+ + PO43 H+ + NH3 H+ + CH3NH2 H+ + C6H5NH2

12

Infra-red Correlation Table


Wave number range/cm1 3570 3200 3650 3590 3500 3300 3300 3095 3010 3100 3000 2962 2853 2900 2820 2775 2700 3500 2500 2260 2215 2260 2100 1750 1735 1740 1720 1730 1717 1725 1700 1700 1680 1680 1620 1600, 1580, 1500 and 1450 1485 1340 1275 1200 1150 1070 Type of compound alcohols and phenols alcohols and phenols amine, not hydrogen bonded alkyne alkene benzene ring alkane aldehyde aldehyde carboxylic acid nitriles alkynes ester aldehyde aromatic ester carboxylic acid aromatic and alkyl ketones aromatic carboxylic acid alkene benzene ring alkane aromatic ether alkyl ether Infra-red absorption due to hydrogen bonded O H stretch not hydrogen bonded O H stretch N H stretch C H stretch in C CH

C H stretch in C = C H C H stretch C H stretch C H stretch in CHO C H stretch in CHO hydrogen bonded O H stretch in COOH C C N stretch C stretch

C = O stretch C = O stretch C = O stretch C = O stretch

C = O stretch C = C stretch C ... C (aromatic) stretch C H bend C O stretch C O stretch

13

Spectral Lines and Flame Colours

Gas Discharge Lamps


Element hydrogen (Balmer series) Wavelength/nm 656 486 434 410 397 389 helium 706 667 588 Colour red blue-green blue-green violet ultra-violet ultra-violet red red orange-yellow

Metal Vapour Lamps


Element cadmium Wavelength/nm 644 509 480 mercury 579 577 546 436 405 sodium 310 5890 5896 Colour red green blue

yellow doublet green blue-violet violet ultra-violet

orange-yellow doublet

Flame Colours
Note: The data refers to prominent spectral lines.

Element barium calcium copper lithium potassium sodium strontium

Wavelength/nm 554 620 325 671 405 589 650

Colour green orange-red blue-green crimson lilac orange-yellow red

14

Proton NMR Spectra Correlation Chart

Note: Approximate chemical shift values of hydrogen atoms in different structural environments relative to tetramethylsilane (TMS) for which = 0 ppm

11.0
1.5 0.9 3.0 2.3

10.0

9.0

8.0

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0

(ppm)

RCH 3, R 2CH 2, R 3CH

R = alkyl group Ar = aryl (aromatic) group X = halogen

ArCH 3, ArCH 2R, ArCHR 2 O O O CH 3C , RCH 2C, R 2CHC (aldehyde, ketone, acid, ester, amide)
2.7 2.0 3.9 3.5

CH 3O, RC H 2O, R 2CHO (alcohol, ether)


4.2 2.2 2.5 2.0 3.0 2.5 2.6 1.6 2.8 1.7 6.0 4.5 3.1 1.8 8.0 6.6

CH 3X, R CH 2X, R 2CHX

CH 3CN, RCH 2CN, R 2CHCN

CH 3N

, RCH 2N

, R 2CHN

CH 3C= C , RCH 2C= C , R 2CHC= C

15
10.0 9.4 5.0 1.0 11.0 4.5 3.0 1.1 5.0 3.0 9.4 5.0

CH 3C C , RCH 2C C , R 2CHC C

C=C H 2 , C=C H

C CH

ArH

O RCH

O ArCH

10.5 9.7

O O RCOH, ArCOH

11.0 10.0

ROH

ArOH

RNH 2, RN H

ArNH 2, ArNH O O CNH 2 CNH


10.0 9. 0 8. 0 7. 0

11.0

6. 0

5. 0

4. 0

3. 0

2. 0

1. 0

0. 0

(ppm)

Ionic Radii of Selected Ions


Ion H Li N O F
+ 2+

Standard Entropy Values for Selected Substances


Substance H2(g) He(g) Li(s) B(s) C(s) (graphite) C(s) (diamond) N2(g) O2(g) F2(g) Na(s) Mg(s) Al(s) Si(s) Cl2(g) K(s) Ca(s) Fe(s) Ni(s) Cu(s) Br2( ) Ag(s) I2(s) Cs(s) Ba(s) Au(s) Hg( ) H2O( ) H2O(g) CO2(g) MgO(s) Al2O3(s) SO2(g) CaO(s) BaO(s) NaCl(s) CaCl2(s) CsCl(s) Standard Entropy/J K1 mol1 131 126 29 5.9 5.7 2.4 192 205 203 51 33 28 19 223 65 42 27 30 33 152 43 116 85 63 47 76 70 189 214 27 51 248 38 72 72 108 99

Radius/pm 208 68 31 142 136 133 95 65 50 198 184 181 133 100 67 64 73 62 67 61 55 65 55 69 60 72 74 196 161 126 126 101 220 174 135 110 120

Be

3 2

+ 2+

Na Al P S

Mg
3 2

3+

Cl K

+ 2+

Ca Ti V

3+

3+ 2+ 3+ 2+

Cr Cr Fe Fe

Mn

2+ 3+ 2+ 3+

Co Co Ni Cu Cu Zn Br Sr

2+ + 2+

2+

Rb

2+ +

Ag Sn I

2+

Cs

+ 2+ 2+

Ba Pb

Hg

2+

16

Standard Molar Enthalpies of Atomisation of Selected Elements


Element H Li Be B C N O F Na Mg Al Si P S Cl K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Br Rb Sr Ag Sn I Cs Ba H/kJ mol1 216 159 326 565 715 471 249 78 109 147 330 450 317 227 121 88 178 378 473 515 397 283 414 427 430 337 130 112 81 163 285 301 107 77 178

Lattice Enthalpies of Selected Compounds

Compound Li2O BeO Na2O MgO Al2O3 K2O CaO FeO CoO NiO CuO ZnO SrO Ag2O BaO LiCl NaCl MgCl2 KCl CaCl2 CoCl2 NiCl2 CuCl CuCl2 SrCl2 AgCl BaCl2 LiF NaF MgF2 KF CaF2 NiF2 SrF2 AgF BaF2 MgS CaS BaS NiS ZnS LiBr NaBr KBr NiBr2 CuBr2 AgBr

Lattice Enthalpy/kJ mol1 2799 4293 2481 3795 15916 2238 3414 3795 3837 3908 4135 4142 3217 3002 3029 834 769 2326 701 2223 2709 2753 921 2774 2127 864 2033 1030 910 2913 808 2609 2845 2476 953 2341 3274 3002 2713 3528 3692 788 732 671 2699 2711 830

17

Electron Affinities of Selected Elements


Element H O (O) F S (S) Cl Br I Electron Affinity/kJ mol1 73 141 +844 328 200 +456 349 325 295

The electron affinity for an element E refers to the reaction E(g) + e E(g). The second electron affinity refers to the reaction E(g) + e E2(g).

Hydration Enthalpies of Selected Ions


Ion Li+ Na+ K+ Mg2+ Al3+ Ca2+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Cu2+ Zn2+ Rb+ Sr2+ Ag+ Cs+ Ba2+ OH F Cl Br I Hydration Enthalpy/kJ mol1 520 405 321 1920 4690 1650 1950 4430 2100 2050 300 1480 464 277 1360 460 506 364 337 296

The hydration enthalpy for the ion of an element E refers to the changes represented by En+(g) En+(aq) and En(g) En(aq).

18

Systeme Internationale (SI) Units


Quantity length mass time electric current temperature energy electric charge electric potential difference amount of substance Name of Unit metre kilogram second ampere degree celsius joule coulomb volt mole Symbol m kg s A C J C V mol

Physical Constants
Quantity charge on electron Avogadro constant Faraday constant Planck constant speed of light in vacuum Symbol e L F h c Value 160 x 1019 C 602 x 1023 mol1 965 x 104 C mol1 663 x 1034 J s 300 x 108 m s1

Properties of Water
Quantity specific heat capacity of liquid water ionic product of water Value 418 kJ kg1 C1 1014 at 24 C

SI Prefixes and Multiplication Factors


SI Prefix tera giga mega kilo deci centi milli micro nano pico Symbol T G M k d c m n p Multiplication 1012 109 106 103 101 102 103 106 109 1012

Conversion Factors
For Volume 1 litre = 1 dm3 = 1000 cm3 1000 litres = 1000 dm3 = 1 m3 For Thermodynamic Temperature 0C = 273 K

19