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Sewnth Edition

Amateur Radio Techniques
PAT HAWK ER, GIVA

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Amateur

Radio Techniques
Preface to Seventh Edition

Contents
I. SE MICO N OUCTOU


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A UDIO AN D
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SIH ICO NDU CTOIU " Quick Guide to Integrated Circuits .

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- Quick Guide to VMOS Power FETs·- ~ '" . ft... _ . _"' -- _ -_ "M"''''_. .. • - ~ ..I I H I C O N O U C T O JlS ..

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Of . =EJ• I L I ... __ of 7om> I. . o 0 ..~ 1 ... the l'unclio>n of Pflrl' oI lbe equipmenl ~ ul dv ll'" ""'"" lbe . ......t. _ ill b 'O " • • • • I. =8:[).................. Incrua. .__ . 100 in<:l udel 'ho! ~ •• OIylo " r 1"1oi' oymNlo that . b I di'oido-by.• =EIU llIIIJft·.-. "''''t .rn.... -_ I OU T ~ U T _ ....• 010... B LOCK L OGIC -{>I W\'" ~ • ~ =EJ=8- ••• L ~ . _ 01 block odlcmol oub-foY'lCtl'• • nd mnduleo... . .... Fll. .. I I ..·fl ... >.....to ..._... . n • ... IIOd 10 tl W1l1riI .. bc:ro:omin.... ..... ._... ~l""k .. . . .... . __. 1 -Ef..-. ....... CLOCO =D- • filii' ••• 01..t6 .. ond lho l In'CfIt ~ utcd IQ 1M _y can ~ Cl-oo:aOed 10 prov"'..."'e .... T1Ie 74~ TTL I... ell... dca<le M ... .." .. d i... .I I H I C O N D U C T O II..M:lLIII ....e... ---.. ..".....ym bul....• . il'C'u... J-t Tht IIMnI <Jf ~ ....ymN>k .. diMoe.... _.a/ by .. ""1< .".. .. oq _ .n u_ lhe.. more and mon tIM: ICn<.... ...... • • • f- Im ."ram :t>.. Ilh<.. gan hi wood 10' di• • •.... -@ · f il _ til _ 00 • -@Groo"wc Syon8oIo 1=1&11001 lbe tNnd awly fronflhl IIllW...nc: .ell .tiAllonL It . lAoo . -.. _ _ .1 di&&fam IIILIlINnediatel y dcc'Ido... hole numt..."-...11-&_ to thol I"" 7490 deY......II :::(}.. ~ 11 0' • • =D..• =EJ- ... • . ...nd In~ dIcWto hu . -... 10...U ulremoly '01do 1"111\11 of d. _ ......... "'. I numher of """.rI(. 'l:l • • . hat i t _ Il l ..-'..p..... input o. l un<O _ ken " from I MH..n...I .. from 2 ...... S look ..... ...... _ ... 100 kH... ..nk .e. III "'"' th..._... for . . proyidin..... IPPU"lliono ..)' it 1(1 th._ '.... ay>~1a.... ._~-.. _ . .. .I..

1 _ piN 10 _ .. • • • ""-. iT • • .._---_. . ••....I Tlw tolJooo. . No.-t1 4 i~"""""" 1 to 10. ---_. - . .. In ... K" 0 . DIO T ICHNIQU. .. n.. l-~- ~ 0" C]..".I " ' _ " " ' _ _ l"' _ _ " .-tw..... . .1Id PO'" "01111.... ss.... • .-Id h1--ud low . "..._. .. Iwqulnd 10 _ 4.. .. ... • ._---_..' R .... .. _ f . t.. • . . • 0 M " .. .. "'MAT au a . .._..qllbio' IIoh _ . " " " " to. . ...... . 1 11Uth1...... _ _-_..... _ _----_ .. .....

SECTION TWO Components & Construction " .

o:UIra . ""0' ._ iII . --oJ low _ 1II<Iuf.-s found in lhe ' b1 .... d<o:>upli bypuoi. e lin a ract&nal <II . taper " ). radio .f.... ia Ind uaana:.. lion...... alld bJ nor.OM ouch n....n> of adequate "'Int.rooo l ila ha tlCl"1.. oion WlS : 1 lranoiolo r may haoe ~ F . Il\CI' tha )'IlIl'l. tcrn>-. ""'"' in tn1\ll heal lind UI. At Ie&oI o<w btnMJ · QOI rooo<_ ~ 11'-'" of _ hin.. ind&.' rac:k jK>lenliomlPt... pllcidl them lroo eknc to hoc-Mlnin. c low _ indac&&DQ! (1)11....m.et!o" h d I I >... becm ~1of>oN wlUcll haw no _ b I e e tcr. lhen: 100" "'"-.. lor td t . panic:ularl y in the <Ii .1at applio:."" o..eru tcmpctatlUU. It It lh. idel..hl.. of ouch I<! rm.. A JUkk to the '-l<&fc Curm>' in .'" ~ arc .hl. ~ impr<>Y«l bc y<>nd )i'an..."'.. ...... omaIl I pw. " ..00 ~"n..ol dilC4YPll ~ IIlb A fIIure t... '".. cQ'c\Iitf.. d~ 10 the fact till. lcakap C\I1Nnt..c..F eaprld.r.b.irinl .." . no l $0 Iorlll sinot I ~ . liven by D...lpcr "l. a pul<nIio.ullJllf.... T I C H N I Q U ES c.l ta pen In common _ .l.. lhe llfl a. aI...W*l vcr. ron.... hilhly a<!v.hJ.111.. I.1 lhe nlfIlCnu oi an deClml)'iI: far and .._ M "'''' thia iD t W'U . I><". 1bc raataJa taw ot ta per JJ.p. hiIh t> of t lcclM )'Iia " hal J"l'I by .... - aU ..... ind--.her ~ I II dc<:' tol) tlcl 1'*_ lII'r_iahlt Ieo. (cm1 01 ceawur. a. Indc<>d Uw rorracr ta per io gf'I.... hoi.pcct&nC)' _ Il l(lh ICmpCfllun:l I""J"'OCC the of the electro1 1M...n i.'h ennr IS ""...... and opoa. indl>CW~ Cft .. ion.t1lClCl" It 10 IIlICDIafJ 10 ux a component wh ldt ..r lilt Iwl "' . more lreko".. l'oI'<lI/II" I f. _r cq ulpment..F i.ilOrS ha .ic::h-_ oriPnally ~nd fot ~ _ t1CIIi ..OlIDt 01 .r apac!. Unli ~t ".. blo: OCfI'ltalio<> of ~' ........ IUId )OC¥."'11.ucrfaao<e IlIPfII'C>U<In and T Vl 1IltttJI\I.....ill be . al l the .. to .." I n.or at 4 ~ ~ot . too . ..adlot 111 . A.. "..Il>lc in wh ic:h 1M ind oa:tarlCe II mm . " dry out... l . imts called ...IlOd. muoe ""f*rton h. fu.. ~... " .. number "r .t. '" • YicO<JU1 . lhe leu/.. unen. v.tudcd In Sect ion S. .U. " U 1Ia.Icun aj'lprll. k>priI h~ (1IlIl1e'......miI: l'APllcilon t. _ .h'"..tton c.Uy in r. of """" IlIl pot'euet mean/ n..... . 1"1 . " alld " a .f(>ho... T1>e dfllf............lhr"......" l Yf'O' "'01.... ..lU1eII ....ia<a thai wben dlo:><:Killl <H" rcr "'".. h. .." I<> ... 111111 be ..d or . o.a.. .lIon uoed .. For of u-o ot'tcn ..U trY to clar'il')' tlla ..t 01 It..1 llJ ~.. as YlIIltilat ion is nor. rou&hl) .. /I ~ be IIOIed. _den who arc a Iiulc hazy ..... D I O . kw .-aenol O. ~ "'" w .t wrnc at bat or the ral lu"." ·Ioc" "'c.e. he" a CII. ablo: apluos... rehab" or all thc Ctln"''''''I ~ uood con>J"""d'b. wi.mic:ro1111 ~ to he e>~ III a g...:nla&IO ill 1M d ..'" n<>W wi<!cly .... 01 di rt'~nI IYI'CIII.. a1f toJ .un.. . lhe tnIN* ..1>0 oompo>nml <lOI... to tha wo<c thart the pnc.:.. I nd u........ . h : tbc alal:lrol)'le ma.t.Ab<wo • rAirl.. _pr~ and lIIIl.. T _ f(ll1llS of eleo...y <leapitc al l the imp~ u..1 111 .\.c: -.. t noA for a 16. lonDa of taIlurc ..Dr ...nlletn pcno... !be """>alIi.. 1III. no rcwiction 00 llw rnountins pooit>on of IIIoO<km typca.. ida)... II. lIHvol~ ~ H"CO _1.. includca ••"'i1ch the finl .. with """lion of 1M iIlatt....ion in • "'oad<:a<l I'n'tlvtr I I G l VA . I raul l of ino:tc:aJJna Icable <:urrml.."""""'iate ')'fICII teeIl .... a al e • •• . udy III pccuha.. IIlM only of the tlOI'T'tIQ " .11 ronll'''..... POreJ "~ lor ~ ~b ..._ A " " TI U II.bout 16 Dbms at 100 MC/ . !lAd Ihno: eJllremcb low .ution _ oYer !>OW ' " "'"'\oCt 00CIr. '0 nlY !haw bappi. F« IMD1 applical. the)' 1110 """ M I l1Ipid inf. ...-d by ~ per ('Ct1t l tlln.r• • nd """"" hJ. of ~ taJa (!be problatl in the delilJflof lbia _0l~0 seaJ _ _ iD rat. mo taria1l1 IJccn DllmalOd tbat fot C'Weo IO"'C me in l>pctI.... n. • nm&f b...joril y cor .... B..•• low ."ph. th •• will tend 10 ... OUtput ••1>...""I! ..rr"""" Boih ~ _ _ T.....mull'..".IJ ~ (in " FI J'..k law t llpW) lot !be ""rtiaJ J.oed r. soma IKMa • . IIMd for •. a <:Umtn<XI r"u"... " c !W... I"" in4 _ l.IUd ". "'1Ia1oII the ok! ~ ~1t>t1 hIld to> ~ mounted u.nic l ub\a1ar no.ly r ~y)'Un (Il i..... 51railbt _ Ind l lclwlll 0123 .nd '01...c<l. ==11"0' oaIuc.Iry'''' ""'...o. t. Ma carw.l apocil"" II ' 't. arod tineaN opcrcd.... Ion " n T\' I l." than "III): <II"a dlclc>:'tt lc may m.. thcnl ..... r Ctrcu ll o<JD<etned . l"""-h 0jlCCL01 '1lICIf""""'""'\'f'-""'"i. ' '''' inIl . the clect rol)'lil: Clll poot:....... 110 "...l. and ' UlOIJi in..h. Iha' .k>r fa.. . to keoq> cIDcttoo Iytica a& cool &I pouiblc by 1TICf. &1tIi-loptitbmic ("" ~ x l.... arc_ • coniidcrahlo 1Iumhcl' of ditf.&..........." n.Ih...b p cv=nl ..:l mI)'IiI: Clr-.. c.~rten etI. I ill""" the baio: ta... _ h". _ioco ind~.IIypt'l) or /H)j " C " V (for tIdled foil ltpeOl... m Ilia . HI 10 IXI2 mio:... Il~l ~ Iod.... pInl l lerodinI to a dud ~ Itor._ IS the condlllDn IIr .n Sef'1o... I'l<CIilIor .. "'-l>tJ dctiMd u ll ical \CmJlCI"atUl1I (wluch 'oVrc$ wjlh the 1)'Jle u>d <bien of the componau l. ~Iy ........... en M.." pboirHo."... Howna-...ubJll'£l a lin la u... udi J ma) ."'" I.. but abo hu lhe appf'l>JN"late .h Ihc i.. porla nl ch.a....

. ~ R " IIIal cenmic dI..s eI the ~ .... WIa <ICI t7I .-" JftIDnt.. ... .. t _ Ih=I _ CIID 1110 1nI" . . 00" .u tIl4l In __ ~ QUII ~ MJt I t..... ' ..u....u.-..... _ ....IuD U'C -sed. In \1"• . ."1 .Jill llllill .eo ( ram 11nIrtMk """"'1.. --~V ~~~ ~ ~ . 04 ..COI~"'" of . --. oed b.100 bo<l7 en.-de tN . "".........wo eI _ ... '. an ..u.... .. iI _ _ 1<11 "" • • 'hr ' ............ _It.t COl " ~ ob.............. no.'''UIl· T-I-/ /)~' lj " LOG..can Dftly btl I dj\l"' d "....._ Clot".... I" C .. . _'-I .Ind.. I . . .......-d. IUno .. -."" . cnt... ldIIA ...n.. . II _ -............ .. Id . .sa... •1Id ... tlIe • III . All " f~"" idaI . ... . IT is rllrtr . _ '"" ..ed b. 71 1ttI.doli>d.. . .o all ) ~~.... ~ ... ( f . .. ~ eI... Oo. ... "" ~....... "'1"OUnd _ J. --...... IIS""N"'.... .. ..I I .".:P . ....t val...oI. <IIIJy . luab C1ClOh cI po For <:oaIIII*."'' tIV /~' " /A 1...... an: _-s. EMt...d • 'Itio -.... _.. \IIII d ".. IDdIiCCWKJi eI.. a-rlJ._ cbI .. .." 0/ ~ . AND CON STRU C TI ON n V ..... .s b.. .. _ anoI ~ ' ''.. _ .. ..Ic "..iqI _ nd">_"'"" . 104 •.... .nIL ... .. 10 &I.-.... ... . Uo!lt.... /~:.l.. ..... the . . ~ ~ • I Caw .. belaI ' I " .C O . I . ....._ '/...... Hi'l l" .".... . ~ _ ft71 _ '.. . 1t..1. ......-.-idloouII d\loIIIofIc ~ CIOnI .... .......aAionelly.. ... . It 1>tuiNd....t • 1 / ......." ..lih . "'" -...... . ad~ ~ . WId 10 _ _ eI the "'" 'nd. .s and the ...-.. Ind III Q~.".. _ t _ _ r. ~.dl . .. _ IN ~ _ el l ... ON INT . ... "" ... -. ~ C&'boa..

.\her a... . not ~ rt...onaJ """. "'" compnny•• nd whoch..00... .... ... ()uceno lI. h""'I') thc'n' for b.boidiuy """.... f"". ..~ "rc..l\o::t........"'onll'>O: """" ra. lIoch. ra.. y h<>Id lI'UC loo1&y. I<> . the 1..I h i. n poeled... T il h....... . . -= -= 1""" _ "'fi... than bu) ....liod...pa:i/Q1ions ..110<" I ny d wnllcal We i\a. ra.............~ " "' .'h ~~JO IIoukt.mh to bu~ .. Ano! IIw rioja" <lO'tI In 1ndtnIr)o_1 ..... ~ ._.."lOt .y ..hl! bcl_ ~... wvd ..... . I'" __ u.. 1 1"..ke <.1lI 10 ~ . ..1I .. . .n l he ' . ....~I_ " hich would boo fAUCIt _ ~ to ""..!""" T_ D1'bl KftlIl0 <& .....'"'l ol"'d !'<'f Go! I'fti n I I'It. in ..he can Ilford..... CIe..n rnmc: coo.wd ...u -r r..... of pound. 1'<'' '<1'' control of audIO ". Ih _l>lc 10 -. ~1Id bou1I on which .. the "'11 of llw boerd..11 f'IlCel "CR . ( "... homcbr-ew 11'*I'.r. I>< fW1Ul' '' io "". To ~c .... . ""'. Thr . the o".... 1% 1)' h ..rv<100...he .""'" of .U as ~ fKt<>ry unll .n ...... """'1.al"" 1lqf\'1l<l1'l lc . h'h h..... >UIJ .m ." how 11>0 a rctlil> fUlly work.. L~ "..3tl ~ Fom the hcot pruduo:tioo liM tlq\ll. it i.'Ituct0<' . . H ob p..1M: rull in..... .. "" In. ~1 1wI ' ~ ho... kct IlUCh oct..... lhe ...ld IP' ........:an otI en IkhbefalCly ... "' t>.....l "y _ only. <>IIf-......fIdel. of lhc o:opfII'I' tlripl lo H _ C _ tr ~ _ "bout .. ~ n>qUlrina: '-"::ally d. """.. in ( in ...1>1".. lhe . I•• 0< OIh.. in an •n on ..l inlCfelt ..... W6D1"......h .Id _ 10 buv 16 tno1Ml an enrcmtly HI"Ol'IJ MOlM'.. caM f"" " ."'" emtred p"""'o:aJly .n IIYl'oollO: lIllIucn<:c aOO 00 . hid> WOIIld pilI rnlQY POUndo on 10 I _ nc ""'h ...ian . lln....lf...11 .o.1 .."... o:own..""'.Ior okpendau " r-t Worid W. 1 « ....... daifor to otuill at ~ . 0t'P"1laf 1oDl w-al bw>d...hl."ldil\l...l and in II» Iabo llt C05IS 0( aJipunenl. : I iI . TIl. '111m. .>f .. iI PIon "".... J. tel ".. b.tbaI .I u... .......he tooard. 11 bocrd fOO' lM<lClnOtf\ff... when """ c:al!n<>l cuctly . ith _ ICCIltIaJ deood...."Ilf in O~T i.'" _ .. h .Pfl>elU ""'" 10 bit ~ Iu .. . ........" of .. aPflC'al'ed _ ...I h II....."'.""Id COOl lho:i. . Qn pro..-1.. price ~ ruM'"" inl0 lIundred .h nucd 101. .. .... 01 t>r• •• . lOQoI'WIT'C G7' M """m. lruc l'on in 1M 1asI few )\'In• Modem faclory..... poiRkd 0Ul llw pro(~ Idnision qlnwR It'It rat ~ n 001 ('r ~f\OQ"" I few tit...... ..I....'" . nly ~_ Io... ..M<kNtJ]I t-rdo........ pr_nll.. no: dt ... i'II '<'~ .11.. rhotoconducll"" .. by d..c. hllCl"" "I l im ple In Id " of .. " IeU ..... 1n'1"""l lhe .. '" L I ..1INe 1»1 u. (.p".'.. ..... &1 the h<>rlw 00<l.pod ly 11'1 ~ A H A T E U R ""'010 TEC H N IQUES S... . ....... IG """ • .utl to ...oint: h lhl ..n. nho ... ... lun.... on the tIIrp1ut a..-O~ . IK... Thai old '""""') " IU... ~ .tal ......-p tlolw: Of .....i ...... n r ' ".. 100 tbe undoohlcd .. " da I M ullard Olll"'" . ... '6 All t bote OIhct corWd<nlions_ lhe "'M ' 0 .ppeal 10 ..S WI <flOdarn ~ equo~ lhell 10 ._it...pI.. a nd II rer< mle<! in Rfldi90 CJ«. .....flIfbmatt""' P... r 1<-..tfe ... .... m::. '.0 "".kes • •0Dd dIa.. of 1M t><>bby. pri<lc of f...I ril l... . .. ' ~ ... .. tl>\' t ho.~ tome pan in Ih< dccioi<>n. I' i"". ho le . 11\1.... io I • • • n." Ind pennanenl "...-ry about. conlrul "'" h "..I mo li."". r........... I lo>f'ft. ... h.....he -=......"11 ". 1\ ""'. u.n .. n. I ..n: "'*' ...." t> 111I P""''' C -.....""" uocd br n".(1 i n ....... m...WJ'l! m.• ". it _ .-. Ind linn . '" lIo..'!X. can be l1\Idc allO ol rnfon. 5otlI1I M ill Ro-d.. ol equi"""". ...... I'\:rr""" 1'It " "' ."...."-.....n d . t» 11 in ..:n " oed "' .. ..-r..w. rKililica in ""'ich to> it... ~ _ rM:a: .." top perl.. I. rorl. lil el)' In "" ..Ifd prinled panel tlquir"nall 10 ind.eH 10ThePUI"". 1'0'0 H .. •nco:. ...bol">n rll' ~ u.o~ct . ..1) • •• ..lh _ 1o&M. .. ~ torm ol _1 pnucd .1'~ W l'l d\An&5 In d f&lk h> pro w . n. toenha or b" UI ~poo. The lint j . Tho ""'..:m b«. '" gWmo~ m . ""l' jpal {kxibjll/)'. .Amalcw Radio... ...... 10 l'rt """ '" men twId_ fi1la' net"". . ..". . tw J1O""'Ih . .tl i n' n'll"..... . It ~y .. """> or• ... ."... bill . "' y ......- ... . Iphlda phol """'""tdi.. IO oj" or obl P" ..." ~. ll-cf'6"'" 1000:I . TekYtlion in I~'''''''''' !t' " ....La...dl . \irnple I)'~ rut 1M eont... "h JOk'kC II . C.. ..... 10 _il too tkmInd 10 .. ..otance oIlhn1! .. rlJo>... II It... When In need "". 11M: fi l'f'I'"" 1M h". TllC y "'....Ied onl O ..._ "r •• . I"" I'" cOrOlt""'I"' 11.. '1o.le oomchnlCl h 'ah.lhe ""lW... ..s ~ a-. _ .thin the ind . rc bonded 21 ottipo or C1I>pJW foil . from 1·. ..in <:&II r""\. bulk of us.... I::IocttollIil.. ollhl '-rd. I~.hid> .....nled .. 10 luch ..""" .... I n.. hid> d il1cn....hinl m<d\ ehcarc:t tU n II . on.. il&bl y CVf)'.. .... ..... rem.... 00 I n b&ndo to<' c...ct . h.... l ontk>n.. .' _ ol I ~ ~ . tonno of t:IONlf\IQiorl.I.. . ... frwthn' oboI~m for lhe corw:ru<1<>\' . mplet ocn".. '• • ."""..blc from I'" ...-.I. ...t( OQuopmen' """dI ......h 1(' ~ " PS"dc: .. ~ ~ mon dw::llply "'-" .. lmoot ....Uy in a U..... at t he Iinol ""'' 'ct at .t.. n1ftlt lIVoI II" .. oa:ondly.....nl... jd.... .~_ ""-0: h<n\ _ -.khIIl aOO tw.o. _ la . ...u ~ ".la t>le .orI . " loobof:n' I" _ ""'" h .. CIIIU.n hnmc co.IOf It V ~ (<kWh from \I ""..... ...nds h " OSn o f lhe old dooJ'l! of ""IIU'..hat (>11II ) roc_ ~ II '" . P_0A4. S--l\Implon... . dc""k..""_ tho.Jr...'" unit-o bqilln"" 10 " .. ll .. larf)' in"""" ed m Of'tlcr 10 oimrJify lhc &.. . 1.U . .. ..l<'''' l<<fO'. IIltcl"COlinl pGU.1 Rold "... _'.. ". 1d ha>e QOnIm..... "'''7 ~ .....hO:b 1M Ie&' <:a" boo I.-en Ihe . Iid""lion of operalm. Itw """'" ""'fltl'Ui...rkct no Ion.:atdl " p .Ihroust>o<K " IDIIcur " 1_ naJl ~ """""l~ ........g..."".... .... ..ty of .ter mod... oa:lion of • Jito<ardcol otllce CQ pmctl dllrpencr filled 10 .ltbo lho ""!llP"S fftI.. t .....(t) h .~ " M.......... lhc other .. eye"'... m.. .. ... lhe .. .. ho:ocn ""l' vol d .... of .. y llroadca.anc::hed alonf !he oml.... 1:1 _ _ ~ .1'P'c'u..ly fo r t he tut....1'IOn"Ial dtalll/I'lI in . laIfl l~ . ~' .. M ....htfl (lfW ~ Iluo' """ build I/'II! . "'1&<1 ... 1>U one wanl> (&n<l r". he who . ."'. ~ .. ctII_l"""iu and bandwidth...

. ~- . • T_ _ ~ _ " _ _ . _ ....H' .. _ e-- _ _ 4 _ _• _ U f _ .COMPON EN T S AN D C O N STRUCT ION .) .. f.

) . n. .. .LC " .' d • s i • • M " un l ( b) -- • ('J I. .lU I .._""". ' . . .

The .r tMllhere II • Ifl:al dQIl IIIffl'C to l he dqn and u ~ d t r .w.. w"b Il\II\1 II'IOrO operatiom. a( InCUlmtarationl and lhiecan OCCIlI"lmmed iale ly or. Carll ohulIld aha be wen dUrml w\n411l1 .rtk ""'" C_ _ " While.. _ _ "" 0...>nt ao. Nonh Hol ly... anoc1 thal. tr..."".. ~la:trooic lelc!phone ~ oa tnallO Britain .m..h IIlPplicn • ... POI" IWltcll i~ h. si&naIa.. 1I'J'lCCl 1h.!:::=--N " JJ N I.riw! frum the racr lha l lha loroid Iel\I.tly on • ceramle b.l. : I ..-lu. .nowd be _ Ii lnw lated ) and i.. In view a( .1&u«..IIociaI4...pcrimcnta q.-ltchil\l lina 110 tha i they can like hiab -s-I k.. the _tiona! .... capable ol aMnc ' far ftIOCIIt'r "* c__.lIQ whdl OYWiep ha..ith t t . T. r. one 01 l. ole r-l 10 likel y 10 be lli the form at Aickm.....f.. ..K 10 keep ItIt ma l. and there • Mm.1I4 if uocd OOfnICIly ."..1 o:>nlrolled ampliflror wu IMXCId in U«rrMic DnJr! ...!i"ll I..nl..lllct" mnn: a ll. _.nd Gennan)'..c.... a11bouah mIJI1 hi.T00.000 ooms...f. 1 1 volumetric ol.. " 01 the reeds......ire in the p..r Ole Iart« ~_ (.l'Wl io: "U~ .ON INTS AND CON ST R U C T I O N A. OlWW wti t. wtlleh the 11"\ o f an MlpUfia' can bill ronlrolled ranotcly by . AtI . iI:I miDd pertil:ulart y Ulotir uw fOl" . TheM . nll auef} abon . _II . '" " .. !he 1)'pOI! UJOd by Ol WW) bill.. 1"" 10 .1 p .. hal c:urnnb and vol!...nnciPllIed..e for ~"in&. . to SIUlllIIft . ) YOIt 6ulb poten tiomet er to " Mh. .... 120}) Oucco SltllC'l.ll. fitted the: Ql:ll and bu lb (6) volta..... torC!I diro..tdIin1: up 10 SO Mc:h 10 ooneideftd prKticaI.... ColIo An informaliw ana by W4BRS in 1J (JUIM....".... IIqea cl lOO.00<1 N N .....a." Hcilu Renodl of Standard EJcklrik LoftnZ.dvt cell.ad. 1 iN>u1d heIr 00 noduoe ...lu. 1'Iao pointed out lhat ...1 I Mc:jo for IN H80) but low pow..hl a ~ It l'lrllllabL W ~ DPl\Yinoed ttlal thcy wtIl oonw to RIP'" oon-.ve loid di1I". t I n ORP·type eel COIIld be \POd withou t d iffil...-co and otM r I~ ~ c:qllirmcnt..bly by ~no at... "..t Lo......ROd \lOo\aCt$.. omalkr cores for low po-r Illp.nd the aUlhor or • . . it ill dliaxd that the &11ft c:an tie chan.. W<tBRS mounh Itil. The cdl m thiI cue is quoud .. ..p briahU-a n. deal 01 I n _ in UoKtly .ely to pro¥l! the! InDIl 1DduI. '"~ .) I.l>out..nd<hanp w .. ClU1 be IWi1dIed "' Ilhou! ~ucinI !'eUabilll y too areal/yo In pra... boul 46mm .... o I amp. ~ bein.l of iutt one. the W1K AK ..lIdio pin i ~ on low r. YQ/tqc..nda).. .nochcr . ~ . . j is It Ieut a million operalloN when ~ I amp. full t.. ...tIidl miah1 01...Ih unl .. Ilnoe u n.n... ) .. l'IlIJu..-1lato the nwtal . cold weld beco ... .h' . a( . lk.t... 1'1.l.IO " " repa ired wlln ~y or houscboId erment olnoe elco:l rir. loop oe>upled to lhe rL OUlpvt t&nlr. 'N " --- . the Iam.190: tawoe: inolabilily... In IIUI circuit ( _ Fill:.rpl y.. All u...A ~LUivII ~ fOl" the STC Herlt. -) yo lt blIlb to 1tIduc:e lhe 10 Meao/t rna oIlhe odl down 10 the 'lOOO ohms a( 1he ami 01 m y microphorw pin with Ole . Imo..inl y doea Le. One lum _ would o nt t>riol the ~i. He provi<lel an impRMive IrJIUTloCnI tor toroid•• dcapilll the f""1hal' Iln...1InOli ('( the odl down to bdawo 20. . Fun~ IS the ~ to lhe lliament u.. W4 DRS sivn f. u101'Mtic Ir"Cl comrol can a1Io be UJOd 011 tranICloIi'W1 to ira'e&se tal k ~ wtthoul c:a1Ai.. and lhe dqrw ol epu'o. It 60 oolta....... JOO and 1000 _ Ill. photoo....ia or Iron n lfnponom to. n.. cspc<:lally ..he lizc .COH.men.na ..aJ o.....Iina link whldl .. link wil Inat....lrMdy .... tilt I~ can oi»iowJy be an op:nti n& wn~ieno. - ..boul IOmm In ~) ~ Iik..t a ny IDOdcm lrammit t« ..'IH . (wlticfl may be due to.........J Contacts " (E1«'trluI Vol .ti~ f""d~k .. ....".l Wl'I6. and ...... and m Ul should 004 _ ...a the po ten tial on lhe buc. I .rc lOkI by Atrd.i"" • V .... ...hc lcad ona cqab in ~ mayo .luc ~"" ma y I2UII! the _ 10 . Il'i lll AmI.-llChinl to.mt1 10 be plmty of IICOPO ror 1qlCrimeNm...tice it hIS becrI ohown thai the life dependI ...... p ~Ycr !hey l. i. rounded mann« rather than .hal _ sk in reoi.~ IIIlIn mi. mult i·bond h.-d• • . deIlW or rel ia bil ity . mudl oa Ole .. F.. t Ole t1'lerma1 ~1I of the turlli len ft1ImcnI 01 I"" pilot bul b m combinatiun ~t h the 100 rniUiteeond doIl)'t'<l klion a( IhI: rt>oc(lQOfldU(:t ' VI: "..-o..e.. No .urmtlA. llll:/udinilbole _114 on fcrrltr *'Is. I n:la yl '" many ~lQllOnl .uodul artidoI ~ ClIarK1eriala and Applica tions of R.p-e.wer." .r..ko fonncr may W&t more lhan U .miller <prefer..".. . 4 1. in frrrite lorolds can be app«dlNr.. Thi. dcvloe tueh ..lb' ~ turmlli ... in their . for. of tlM I..... nd other .. . . I"'IIedIn ~ . ~uoud 10 tNl .. YlVuld 0IlftII 10 mal e them ilkal fur QOm!'*:1 II• .i1. r. . nd "'"" tneful elO'uroI Prwito carl be . Already there ITC varioul ~" reod:I in ma nufaalll"e . ehut. II daimed . 1) Ihr control PIlot bulb" JIO"I'"ft:d from .. _ FII...ncr only.11 IllOW"l the trarnmiller 10 IPpro...nd Mill hiaher f~ can bf IWitc:tIed with tl1Yer COIted c:ontKta..e.. ~ tde)"lll .*" ton. II It pointcod wt t haI Ihe tuloo Q tendo 10 mlie lun ..ed l)YCl' . 00 lhat the peak l ITCdipped in. and c"'" lhi.... Laf. 1963") and it IOOfI '-'"e deI... f_ operations if r-. drwill (and om ... . Imuot en "ft!1y within lhe ~'Oil.n y Itra y Ind ..u ..tridL 1ltcnI. 1'tMn bas been increuin& i n _ in the dry-reed conta. l.h.".. USA . .Tron A.... d i.....DI-.... 9'lO6lO9 (and Ih ll ..uhy ....""tdI.1 fr~~o _ _ • l.. ... A. Two tuna WIll brilll II clown to XlOO 00..o.to-nnC!....T l'Oft T-:zoo.ndItor.clf"'" (olthe Ol'dwcll oItnl~ r-iotance . ..1 delIil...c small con.. . By VIt)'!rl. d. W2K AK '\lta I.re qUllC lnapmll.on 1180 .. Brit it. mad~ ITCthe IOOrtCl' 1)'p01! . and ttIuI hel~ to elim lNIle the co nven tional lOll of dflc1cnc:y with COlA mounliN elote to I..... Y<>ltap. aiYm o n pap 64. wln. qllCftlflinc.. ~lJ'1I1.ach oearly filii ~ bdon limitlnl . 7'I'ttc No . .utiono arc ~ to ~nl nav.. It eat.ed in 7J bill found it nco:dcd ~ "'na of ...-cry rapidly.ondw.. dnn. lin k wil..-1od OIaen.. 11l67) daIrot.t is not ln volwd)...lcr. boul n cao. " M a( ooi1o wound on loroida l fonnen tor r.. It..da... ReI<I .r.:lion oa:lIA. bct~ uxd in lhe eo.......<. California.. d .lion " r lhe order a( e.. II mipt _ 11 ~ worth conoidemll lhc UK or loroioJl In .. II no t the onl y _ y in IuopecI thai.odD witb llIllo:l distortioa or oipaII from 100 ~ to ~ 100 ke/a. awi ldlClll.<kvita ha.

. _ _ .....· -----<P-... .:uo~ ~ o _ - . _ .=.. .I ' · a . .:>... "I'1 A T lt:UIt R A D I O TEC H N I Q UE S I - ~...~ _ _ _ _WI - .._ •••._ .._ --- .-d -/ ".

1 irl...-011' '''''I' . IC...ene and lhell to II"' ..lie IWCIUr"Wu/l rhoroul h ly in cold rUMilll .rd ".h I lqallY'll maY.JlIvam.k-on ~r foil Mvina Ileal ..ril~ l'el/Uirin l 1M usc or r>!IOloanphic ""lUiprllcnl. "'.kward aJ1a. (I I) a.v d'J'«1I ~ " n l<' It.lIo . ral!n& or . for ally . UWl' .. 1'1 1 0000lioll and 1ak.I d ina al ' M OQK1 <1f lhe rlp.workilla pbotorftist .. II.). ZL2AMJ in lh. I nd aa:unlely locatll under . . "" kmI .. lml ll run..rd .. dQard tbe diode .-buk I"laolic i hc<ol rccetsct paper) lD pru\"kSc the .ei&l Item.ea or bllerd on dManrro.. I ddin. iq IIdbcaiY'll baded copper p rjI' <II" \I"hdl ..rb to IlUI .ml &flI ph. [III ) Rem o ve bo...ocr. The the lftI ooo .Ih ~1C'1ll lacq uer..Ai. • (\Irrcnl ralIlISo .. " (.. ( I ) Pallllini the: QlWi I f'lIlCl"ll dIAd oa 10 tbe laIDina.i<k .:1an.. phntll~1 or atllucnN:n Pnl : llI el irdudc : or r-tuv.. (I ·fj lmmc l"le drcuil boll rd 'n ooIulion.'l" . Il'Id wilh ocioooom CUI (>\It &f1:. I... and ctch W1cb cICIwlt t!w 'iii _ d-... _ 1_ l..mp ra linS.... file. I' IN: boa rd wilh an alphanunw:ric' srw..t~ not eaJlin. ""l h I lJa lo pell corn . 01 Cui bnvd to li'e and Ilk cd"" r. ma rlr. . 1_ . To derj.'U1"Il'fl' <'f ~ n ampo lh roulb lhe dlOdr is 1·4 Mil.. Utct.". polWllnI c:oppc. UIu&Uy (1) ~ I IIIKI"ar.. III UI lnl dry lnll$/"er Iymboh (._ . pbuic l~ . WI or lao drop al : am. bectl wpcrjmpnocd upon ct. Ajn .4 CJraHt BooN.h ""'Jlpcr a~er clcanma). h.. wi .u n. 00 firmly....lId with bllI-poI nl pe n traot lhe coppe.1Url"1QI! aDd nwir.Um:nt ... _ (1 I< ~ _ C. pril:k IIu'ouah vapb ~r 'II nch poinl omrre holoea for compooent wira ha"" to be d ril led ........COM PON ENT S AND C O NS TR U C T I O N . ( 2) Or lcnnm.. on te mpcl'I lWI &lid II rcnl'f h of aolulioll and amoun t of COJIPCf III be l'IIlrnlWC'd. Il\iI on and .. lac:qucr....ouatd~ Q-I lima (10 PC' cal l) thiI 1:UI'ftIl' \ 'oIUl. "... fllliJ....Inc. cldllnl.. Fo r t. l~ 10 dry.K .. (2) tbe 1PC t>I" Ileplive.:. Ia. ( 10) Pft'l lracinl cloth <1f HoCh pIallk piIcce and ~ti<:k f'ia.:hniquc:... _ ..c I upphcrl ). j f will bl: advM blc 1 ~ it II hlIYin.'cnal Id rau shtsmall 'i J. : .. I ~n..lninl an dr. ... Ind a numbu o r U II he.ible lraot 0( cop(\C' ha vani.... 11 willla. de ""lop and ttdt. " rnlob" fo .h plU Iic.cd a n>WId lhe ou l5irlo .pea. 0' __ ."""'• .cled IlIIIu: U ..". com"... boards inc..rUin.. Add I"" ...Io. OIl eornf\OflCn l Ildc.. M~ny loo.. beeo m.. (5) With ohaJll lCribe... t'Ul leadi Ihon and IOkIc.iocts.. lpil "". (6) R erno'AI b<. rale the illUde al 400 mA o A 14mp d i<ldr I¥OUId show .... it In ligpalo'd 1<1 hc'...-/book 4iodc""'" H _ _ oIa P. r).n el<:houl l·rni>1 mk .>onful. lI cmha"'...-bloc kcd p~liI.ilLtllon.. Ink .. rerr ic chloride. . . U !he dr op wilh a l..lId dl)'-t... pical lhllt a rc to) he Ol'lIincd i l l Cove. Utrful summaria or theoc Icchnlq\ICI wert alvm by F .. or .rul. "Un... wilh kil~hcn clnner un til t-hinlJ\l br ilhl too no l louc. ribc.e 1m ._ :: ~~]..L . I I') Lca... 1l. ide wilh pLulir: IU lJIOOIl.u ..Another I pprooiCb a1toee'her . (2) Stir:kinll la pel (1hllI lI«1atc 111m) diAd OQ 10 lbc 1ImilllIC:. p. lli r lil\oul d a HlllP diode ~'" . . Ind ian ink wltb p:n. r<ll" 2 llmpI woukS """. __ IU _ _=_ ... For .seoeTFnf 10 mk 10 ma ke II now ca!..rcr ionaac:a. allhous.l . .. ....1dC' liP Ind agitale rl'l>nlli ~ 10 l imC' ...rkclCd.hed....... Then... (41 U. f.h«\.. olvel ("".. "".. lin pIale. I97 I .. o:nr>ush easily 10 ecve r l:iInlil-board ..k-up.... fine d n l 1'.. (U) Wilh [lldian IlIk ma rl compoorat 1000lio nt end Yllue.. inlin.ph ma rk. Wl'(\Cf Iide up . Dry and OPl1l ~ corPC r . dc-ooclop and ctdi.IYC<! ..." cr .ed lpiri l" hackill. dCln W 'l" tciuon. min ule. Pre. pain l Ipn.. cn li. _ ... C mallit U I JUidc.cck localioll or all p1"cic-l:V\'t'lN ./nJ can DOl 10 I fnl.. _ _.:tOry a pprtlKh aDd . ma l rj ~ ".. rd il the n l\c proc:caed by irnmcnK>ri in I diah cootlinln. (Ill Add 1'. he vo1!me1« . Allc mll i"". ( 19) Spray <XJmj\OlMIl 1 Ilidc .. . mlillru.:<>mpnnc nl wire ho le!.. rubbin.. . Itrip l'ftis. /~ .J &lJ".1 ol ldenlK:al boiU'dI. ha!l-potnl penal_I'll (101"". ""mul sJ . C<MlIJ'l'f'O'Dl MOl' holet. cthrJdl....OIl 10 board... tnl:thy .:1 "'flC1'. ..n l Iayoul U..tcio... . nt It udl dirllO:1ly on 10 unclad lIminale to II"" _ ". end l ur " unlil d. IS 10 4S minuf... rub OOS'PCr arc ilh kitcl>cn ca ne. G KUBOin 1(Qd1t> CtJ_ " iNlliott (A pril. with mel hylaled sririlS.. (211 Wu h o ff flu.-.. he: dIOde I pJ .lIable rrom dnwinl offic. nNol: ' blK. . .... ( :!O) Thread rompoocn ll Ihrouah bo le..I' on~-<.. 0 IOC~1. Then. be IIIUf 10 n'IUt ~ •. 1Iid.y .u k or alau 4l1li..... Tl>e bo..... d l. . ~ ".. • ... __ _ .......e ..1In1 1I<1hcooi"".iudc . t41 Slip ~rd un~r JI'Iph PlflC1'. 10a cup or "'11... 1] rum... .).. lI.. UM'I I Ii. OOM'C't ..d t1IIt <1f itl-. for ctdlinio depen din.. .talc)... Ke nt) U"'Ct COJlpcr cl. . It. moo.. drop t>I" 2 Mil al ) amPi...... OlM ' Ihl n wppcr d i d bolu'd till ~ll ~riboed b~ r l"C<l JohntOn.. ler inlo plaolk or • • .:k.. board III . _ __loo_.. nrI tofIPe1"·d ad !.. "'lk ~n Ind phot"'lfaphic Iedlniq~ 10l' no:ro:u. lUC'd allO I I plnu.rd . Ind uw na ll-rOlish rew a. he ~nl <1f FII . ~ for cr>mJl'lX"'llIO ) Ilk . if _ _'" ulin l ha y. .n ~ a".vy.h *TIll methy\elcd spirib ..."noau. ..0.hal lbe rallnf... IMn ) vt>hl.ne-Off boa rds a llla'lll pr<lprieca ry kit ')"llCm (Ambiltal . lul ion &hould be i trollll if_ or throe hcaPOd teaop. .lith... by Tcchnoma .:C'lh.I clsner."l pare r).. . IT (il . (il i ta ina badJ~) I nd metal ob...n: ~ lim""r 10 QOle .rl" 0( trw. . R.....hl.war from ~ you r finacl"l I nd d Olhe ..Cl rcuil boud... n... photornIst 'fril....lution fo r I fe".... . drop or bI Ilv..) (b) ' . fur lmall--hatch "'00 .. the """'t UEfuI ~UCI fOf tbI_teur .. h kul . 1 "1' . Pow warm . ~ (l) I hr IIV u.. c...jth pI. Kocp the ferric ch lorid c ... nail polish.... and colou~ pens ( 11" .. ( 11) Drill <. k cd..ird..rk ln.. dr::c:>ibcd ill deW! in H _ nt T (I sum up. c bm iNll ma aU cl~hiDl and dri\lin... lr¥rn. _ .J boards on which ..m l with llid-on COI\tar. (1) PIaoI! p \aJtlc tractna IlIItcrW oYe' Ia...... lid (J ) the 1PC t>I" ~ti ~wor l in... lhe usc or IfI<'cial l lir..__ _ ..2 lD ".th pooiti¥e t rart'J'lOl'nc )'... ta pe I..... o r homMkloisned prinIC:oJ draliI bo.." n...-..bomb m ck.pc. Se. I~r Y/!. llo roulb G I'llCn... Cln:> and li me . ~ hocn dcscnbed for lhe proolKtion .. • fe'" dmpl of liquid ....i.. HII IDlllhe fo llow. 0 2}. S...kcd up by lWI·pol iah 1' r"""ina oomplc~ al-.. blue f<>f 00f'!"I" ..... -. ith d olt l&<:qUo:lr. pct.11a_ drop Ia'OG the d iode Pva tho: p. wd l ~ the .t• • Hi.... Lifl rlatlir: pieccl off.. a.LT IIn. a hlorlU4h not aU Ire CSIIfII~: Graph "' PC' ..inlS...n " WIlli al ) Imps: ...ilhoul e1cllinaIS) Pb olO-lI11lCba llica! l\1C'ih" d. ina cquipmrn u. _ pro. .. W ....--oul I. 10 CDl'J'C' r b<. 100 h o ff na il po lio.. A .oordw-e .::.n... .... Dry <>II .. Ca.. lea~lnS 10 dry .U _.. ( I) Delermine clect ric' dreuil. QfC'Illtl 10 he rnoddiocd wilhout major d lffi.... fo[~ : ulld« Iftl .. hard 10 ~I<lR! 1~lrc ... d lhe: Y'OlIaIll drop aaou lhe diode il pelO l. 0 1 __ _ . p hm omhl with P<'IiIM I~I devel<lp.... (9) Tum O\1:r . SCp~ber...h DOl nox:nu.

. ' m ..teq".. I • ..."""' • • • • • • ~ . --. 1"-1 ~ an4 ~ Ion ohould hi opented 11 bdo... _r of .. COQ:IPIe:a ... t>et_ .-. IU~ 01 ~tI" h«t'! ~"" .. u thew . """ A IIp from Gl\\ n • fOi .1ioll In 1M tdldlon of corn....d 1M d1e. ..... . l /\an I .""' . tM"" ..a- MY _Il boarolIl. ..Ihnr " ' _1 .. . 11... l' apparent -an...'e~ ...... lF tWc ~ 0 •• • • • • • 0 '... ... M I " ...- Good'-p ~ .....-ded.. "'" IIICII lI'II H ~ No Pell""l wnaia rail r._ .11" _ 100 _ .~ 11 ...... of Itn)' .... ..1 M ~ boud...~ II 100 pi' ap-ritDr b).:I1D~1~1Om...I nd _ . . Pna_ ~tII. .. A ... on cl lM .....1 JOO M<. 00 ' • • ' ...1t' and only 1PoI up ..._ quc:nda. nw.. • • • e • •• • ..l iU MS IInel'aI muM be 1-..... __ _ .hcr cimIit ~ mow . an oftfriduliI lXIDo &ido:n.n CQ'lioo mou. • <rai1at* Of anpr &1.....1"1. ...........p...bou t l m.. pnrttooct and ol.... .

Inl" TO ' lra nsiotor cues. te use. tu bin.e...l'C . .-rt II IntO tha It ill..fl*KIalll pa1rl an lIpaoed alonl • q . n~.ap beI'"ftl1 the lWO t llhrol. in lhe pblled fe lP<>nt o nly. .n lHQ) In.. pul "'Irit .. ltopdlllly .. t r. WlIh _ ...nlOO1 "'Ill aurd.. .... on IlS'PO'ik IideI or the pI. rqioa . 1Il'Ilh tOme m«ha nil:al mupliq bclWllCfl them..lclflC.l lool iI in lended 1 ~ rilhl-handled 0 M tlul help' IlIape lead l for In. .. for ~'Un"l hcfore at km(ltin...-ye1 a1rudy pk-nly of . Finall y. into A In....1 Ihr Ilan .. d em '" . . a lUmilllum )... M liller In IIp<01l.. l.t ruet ion iI .. their "'JNI1II lIon a nd ". tu l>inll a nd card'ullf' aimp _ cod 01 IHOI.. ith the 1!opIt 10 . tubin .. ckcIril: transducer....st fllle. In thl! lIcld 01 M X F..I ...." .. flJflll It.nu... iIll1lllll)' "'... h it h the toal iI inlc'll.. The metal clei::lntdBI Ic:rwu the reoon. ..n. .......nDUll oIher faclon. .... ". ad"l lll."'>lIt .implool form..f 1\ in ..tllrm.. "..-nliMal ayotaJ "ndp. c:al \libn lionl• • nd \'W.". lub lllll unlillhcre iI . 12.. tllod 10 .hen wmiMifll. a l the mid·po.. Mi ke !he .. . Ilea\<)' "'II" .. t hroll.La: 10 tbel l lem ...f.. .tu trirlllO fl>l1l'l lWO hanoJicII..11 Iont: ooou-" f.hol& filler 11th".... ITIaJOI" In JI. in iJimto'in. of the wire .. l ut"1n.-" . bout • dwcn or 10 p. an MXF CON"" of in pul I nd a ll OIlIPll I ~lOI'...n...7) by 0....1 h. lcnlJlh . lhe 1O<>10 . thai IhilIl'elIOCIaI'a a.Jed C II e u ml'lc iII...n ( UN""'I'~G TOOl- ~: C.. are~· led 10 II . p(Ilyina epo \ y to. 1lIc slmpleal ftlten Ila. On the prinl. P'iuo TedlnololY. The q llam lei' .1 %10 Mc/I willi a bandwidth of 20 l C/l and Ilopbud ~ belief Ihan 1Sd Il-«Ic ob\<touI ...... lor tlw t\ in . hiatal rq.nd I. t:l'U \ " the i in. of U COIlpied raonaloq ill lhe Colli.16 in.:11' . It and .. bou l aood Cf)'IaI flIter1 .. o f the Men! ins ide tht tlandlc and ..t t he I i. h . &iDol one .... l. Md:I funned by !he IN n clcctrod ft 0 11 oppolIllelldei of the plale. Iba . 1 n abl . "'ra of 1' .&or 1 ao.. IlllllOl1ll:Olnplco. !'Pin. li mol hcfON . Ih il lime I() tJwt .n1I ".. filwa. The n llO' llio n the Illhe ".. . Thfto _ m<>QOlilhic llIten MCm hllhJ 1 d..l.. m inute< ' work "'. t><! r"rm a ' Munterck>o.bIc a ll iI ha rder lhan br a. ~ ... l otl brill! Ihll 11..oc. fin ' or M root'ul. (H~. ra n. . COUI'Ioo. ef'OAY I in . wtre irner ted from lhe fl"()l\l .. t he M XF ~ 11 of • qu. It _ _ only • few r-n.lplo tha i It ~ou "'. . for lhe .. oolleeahle . In ClSCncc. .... Tooll Too ll ' hal cnat>lc .r.L " dc1ai t .. lhc inpu t Iianah iIItlllJllCbaGi... On the lid~ of .l'fIin. 1.a ' lI1IpIc jl. F irot... of Ihr A in .WlR.. 1 lhe llIlI::k oI lhco crimp: then don. nitkel• • llImini um or brUI lul:>int a \o'lli1l ble from bobt>y I~(tu i:llnl of 1\.. W itll a file . d ri ll for Xl "1IlCl'bn . J'IIn ..f . 1..~ ill ~l PKb I'" by 0.. but eilltt o..iII'l acr~l. here no::ry " In: .. .l'""~ drIJlod boIe :_ H. CU1 rr ao 2 ill. oU1« dll.j .. I<lClIo 10 ~ '1-. YS ..t boI. IlOl . ~ b.-.lhOllI clocl:rodeI..in to bend (l()mponml icadI illl o .... manua l wi_ wnl'l'in••nd un"'''PPlRIlooh made from 1fnI1l-di&mc't. mo&.u. l utTiciml aim....:e "'C. ...v1z _ fer Oft til '""kit pai n of m<'U1 clcct rodct li fe dcpotued..y l round the loo lft&.. I. TIle ent ire muhl~ fil\Cr . COlIven.:I1deI eui1y OUI a l the bad .. 0nIt end of . e n-t to you ..u-d Y Olulil. Lenlflhl II uoed . md uctoo 01' other dlll:ftW oomponcalS " JNIn of the fihen.olhm qUOlCl 16 : I () to 60dDI r I."".. . . bul rernai.ru plalC.. ~~ a drill b....trnne- r>JCC_""'.h inc a pro.l . The lI". .. knlPh of .in.. for suc:b deviI:cI .."rt lOO in p ~.p"""'1 L-M S~ Wilh earl y ra diw now Or\cn " cuI_1on' i t«n. 19" 1" K..-Jrablc with no fllfl4ammtal RUOIl 'Wby tha price Ih<>uId not W<nCl down 10 arNleuf w. and '" in.. . t llbona imide the '" in.. tal lin. re..he f• .~ tool . Ild I ~ in .nl f~ of lhe Irllll _ l'-r _ ... In f 1«1"".ouploo..-Ind."'" ... he 11Ibl n.. ou r rilhl and race! II u fl"'. l\1it • r>oIctt halr. L Holme. f po.->nan l fihen in lba h.. alpedal.r..kvriw an>o""C lh ~ ' ...rta pc rao. Tbc . 110 Pf'O\<ldIs the couplml med lllm beI_ tbl: .b...h t he lu blnl .*1". fonnod on a a lllle q uartz ple le rnou.. into the h.dl. lId .n. nd re'frend icula .bout a .. The quaru . Ion.lJ!tl ... " bi.ae of lIMN uniu..tot 0( a oo lll .lPCWf. win: P YlIC). Unll • hole tJvooah jtm Iha Is In. p rou chl y " In....''''''' ''YlI P 10 . lhapcr tlla luhi". of the I<IUln:end <of Ih ill iii In. of the cri mp I() tha i . of the \Iore . 1.}t · Ut iOt.. 1 the dtillod bad.tglo""" 10 macha. in . rd •. hole Ihro ullh lhe p p tc . lub". delaibes t. . in. .. ~ t Ihe lt• • modem AlQuircmntl .. .. h"m~'Cl)nlln.oo inn pmoll. ..th • tile. 11.."". llh t llcir .. lub in.The IfOOWl det>th .do no! ca ll for tn llu/onnco...'1 nhllr..• 10 prodllCC • 0.leUn..IllI " tra pped " Ill\dIer the thin met U film cloctroote.• • lId the 1 COUf'led rewnalOl' lInill ha .. can he reformed euily YoiI h .C O H " O N~ N TS ANP CON ST RU CTION .l lcrs "..nd tarocr n lf I t it IcT1 lJ1 hcM...lndle..-i11 _ r hut .bout . equipmcnlt. h.."" fKlorl : C.. d be .!ali l)' poor .n......l ln a Ilf\&Ie end ". to uoc .. III III o.le : toe "1. mden l Ii"". Ih r" ullh the . .:oc riPt-anab. tubi... w_w. It> iI . down 10 2 : J from 9 10 20 Me.... de¥doped ftlwn .... nb tt.ln ha"C bcnI UIIed' ..:. ' ' 'I 1M). ys t«lIlI papillar. llio:l el ill pref..ihc'y "In Ii' Ih rou J/l the hula: in I'lI nted cin.tlni.nl w.. l noJ mup!mp .mal 10 I>e 1<'1 pu t In pn:... pjero. equ ipmrnt eo".. and noat II. in. Then.... I )(..re Ull rIII9 M C/I LllUti In .lend I nto~ "'. I t in.. 0 f_ ionIIl ..olQl II. b .MJ Id ~u t I'Irt il ll. a. ll nrtpLIn .""'" a. tomptml " i1h oon ..

_-.__• ... ""-oc • " ':r I'll. . -. . "'-_ .._ ........_... ' . 010 T ICHNIQU I ... .. ._. 0-1..1....." ""'AT au ...~ " u.--... . .•• ............ ._-"'..-.. . .. _ .

.. ' - .. .P . ~ l~ Q5 ~II ' I . --.. t .. ' "" _ _ "-"... '. ..c78: )i)Y J__ .. ON ENT S AND C O N S T R UC TIO N ..1. __.. " ...CO ...... ..-. ~ Ij ._-- .

..rh.y'''''' a· r... Oo:taik un 1.. !hal... Thio io rcrrhll". madtlncd loh . ..ronpl of any 0' lito: rnal~a" bul ab<:> lho: mo.. _ .lIIi"l Arald"" ntiouo a\lf'lo'ioN.......-i_ in onkr of l... 11 hao.ld l"l or h.....ald h.1111 ad hftiw alld coJl.... _ . tOt 10 ~ '.~ " 0' ~ ... ea n bI obtaJ-t ' mon O RA "-~I.. . the reu < lito: oqUIJ'OT'O'Ql .Ih·O'Oltqc I ulalo. hlah elecl rical n:si~ and I~al d uraboihly. ..-1'" 'If tmnc-. .. bu l imulallld lrom. It e&Jl be d rilled. indil:a'Ion <JIIw OUI~ UIIlliU" .""-". taPl*! . Wbh ~. avUlabk . 10 miL ".llly availabll ep»... 'ot .".at C.re.... ' '''''''''' Th .>td prow u.. • for r=wu fll' 1IJ TO o .~ ..-d 10 be ri>.bo¥I . ltoo: .n_ "". 1). add"fll"lW'l' and ripJ.....k hard n. adt. and .. .._•.atoto'· rrou>f. It it aloo a wry PO"'r..".'... b)' acid ""... ilIdoolftl I"" """. . ..trot Ir.... IMro:l 01" _ _ .. ~Dl 10 plauic PAdd.w P.. I.*"iool and h lotally . ~ ....nive . _ lid. hll for (lDiilronnt'nr . 8IlSn4n.rtt lhal <:annOi be boh ed <>0' I<' kk ~ tn:r1oke. """'" haN.'!kanl a4'wantall'..."l1·. almo... 1aIIP . l end< ro be boo _ . 1M .t ...

rd ilyS _uil" altle r" r 1. once dOt<. fo r f'WoI a brief pui04 (loIy 20 msl. . C.mplc . G ~ KO..Jo n " : lCI AC~ l<J!le If".. " IQS T..1.. lly b<:lwccn 15 and 20 volts f(lt I 24 v...i.'t'a~jll a nd botlun C'OIlII«:IiQ!u... from Bob Koh: . II. . The idea stcms Irom I ta:hnique uwU by wt>tk inl JCW'.alin~' It i. " II '" " " 'Q~ ...h ~u 'C'\ In " Inullh..t.<1 nl.. 10 ptr cenl lokran<:e an SI~) ".. h~h prol oxh . .CClrTU$i~ .. and t he d "'P-<>ul w ollallc (a boul 3 10 H "VII..an . _. 11".:o nd'ICLOn . I lie "ode T'ru.lp plled 10 prot.tlm<.'11..'h'ch II's PlIO " Dow Co rning ..llly pU lblc !U pul _in a " 24 woll rela)' ..l" tnul'" lhill il "" poo.cful bru.. tl<><... .. n.~ .lrtl ko. lhe COIl.i dc ea rt ho.......1 cha rtios a ClJUC:llOt lO 12 ' 01" ano..1>lIIilul ro fo.lnner SIr« I..le.il".~ 10 protect vul""rabk tmll il pari.... fo r I U \'011 d.acmcnt . Th il ca n be d om: by . .at: . ".... a l ranf. . It . Il. No vember. ...k pulh-!o-Ialk appli cat ions .. C1<.t.omst atn l<>sphf rk corrmi on ...... P ..l"lcd to ol""'.1y t«harli ns of Ih~ capccuo r. A w.l i.on ind UCl '" mar~cd bro wn.hOllld be tKJIed Ihal there will hc a tklay . a pp lic<l '. wrtching t....'1:l .. kl t'I<I. which can be ' lrt1dl<"d In p . hid. he ITI.t Ii""".te relia bly fmn. h i ltl1.-ct CUll"" . thfllw ~wil . Il<! """1 aw ailal>lc Icn . 1 t""l lt~ "' n:d uccd e<tnlac1 p ressure in r«d "" relaY' when: lhe ml.'en a "" "kIng jutICli" n " I a d ud l ran.uon. It:":h lhi.. ""ne.'hen remowin.. ~~ ...... GJKY i""" rlt a '"""1 P111 1C1 of ".o..d p ull-In voI UilC from I I ~ yolt iUPl"1)' by 1i".l..r<>lc. ""'"01 atn he l Cl'I _ .f Sol". mICrohenrks an d picofaradl . In co o"c nti(lflal I<:1:lY' 111<: u mal oJn: mOWI apins l • Ilop IIMnl tT\(\/"t' o r Ins cer mam C(lntac1 I'fC'su rc rel. . whi.ficanl : l ite numin.... coma infosmlliion on 1 10 1«1· ' inll t>e..ode or e.ilchcn ck>lm.'l\C """' hod by . potenlial ofaboul 12 wOlb i.... he pcJk l l"'lUtod.. ." I..'s itn e.. iSIOf i..l. poi nleU out t.nll"""I)'. erf ul eflCmy of ~lJ(.-.h$. lhe dcwice mnaim adequatel)' prol«ted from Italic and 4u ite erTecti'. l ... kin I..nly 12 WI ll.nl 11"llM'. and K"... hk h K'I:\lfe lhe IOlalo n and ho..... II oon.t lhe pull-i n 'oil". C . TIt~.. paper ha ndlen: hicf.l1rd ..j_ ow.b y "". 1 ~13 ) p."..et 1 the clre ull liOl.tem r" " n Illll " KI. un R) 14I KTV. H . l>c". ~ls lI llnJ u .. h. " -I.g.h IS the I G FETi M O~f [T fam ily.or>d C'lJ'&Cilon :.:.m ekmcnl~ I p."Cl.r-i.SII Ilscr" lli p when w lderl n...o: componenl nunuf." OllUld be: 11. ru. dUllhl. Slllo:C M llk r ctf«t would then dc l...cre tllen: ma y on ly be " ne available: rontlCl ... [ili o n...c.'. d l"'iCl poi nls are lhe ocrew.. Ihe relily lak " (lnly o tl -q<wrtl:f nf e ilt r.due .. h~r l here i.:.'''''. G 38Y.... (rom heill. 0. .lion o n lhe way J. ed . a co il.e a rc l"k:my or CX-eq UipnlCOI and 'U'l' I. l o" .le. pltlh inarII rlllhi llP II'IC bod) ' or l he fFT herore n:movin.. r>d cnfa!"" l... 1 " II relaY' hll\e th ree l1gn. VDCJ... ect ion in """ """Ion w.. JOin lhe ekmcm ""'lion ...i~l ur.. I CO l - ..1' ... the . o r clamp' . ili"" lCIlli.m ecr nne h r. ". i. a l'l'h~"h"n ... 1 " Ally il. .pli• • ~ . and J ".. t\ll!:':I~ '. an d lhe lhn:adcd end. climitW1Ct 0 II\( t...r " '- ~ f 'a. ~ ft " w " . H .n + . ol U 00" _ 11 .. o r I. lro coi l I'l'lO'fr.!n . be It IlIlo.('ly fro m re..·Od....h.1. lite co il cv rrem. dec\ c .... 1 a liT)' lhe rel..ol>lc a ppliation of he. " Wiln ..1 be. rbe devlcci when Oul of ci f'(Vi•....." all: ocalcd..:atCi l. When Applial l<l MOS rr:T.. fI<1 mk " f datll&~ fro m lhe wale r llllcif all lhe n . the U·lin h .1t My).. 1) 1 h~$ . tQ" (b ) 1 . ItIIl1IHccd~ _witch ing in mo bile and o ther " "" llCall(ln$ if lhey ('Ou ld bo: peflol.i . id". way.. Nco:l 0 . _ ~ ~ ". Ions . 14 W oll R l_ .c)'1C\ in (lh""... W ITem u"C<I in lhi.'lIl tl'lc wOf ~ in.. A 'Similar pcllC1 co uld be: h'§clted when catTYl".. An .I <1I ." "".. lhe atT_..".'1( M. y clitTenl : II . 1)..n .. IJ wolt Su p pli.lon hf I po.noJ lI<.. hcumner i ~l. .his 10 the 12 VOII su pply..... the <JOI.. I ltd mu .ml' uter bu.'erl ar &Ito1lld be <::lean to aWlid lite fIlIMibilily <If lIilht dCfl<l$il' ""'nl \crt..\\n IYJ'< when t he .1" rerillng " "lIallC (t n .. I diode a. wilC I'lcI (f". It:t." 3 01 ...... uhbcr c..J>(1 K: licld PMlCS th ro ut h Ille COI1I. (Jul by aol<J in.-l f.'>( lhe .II.. 1 EI""I. I crma"' Uffi IYllC. lIy ap plyi nll owr 20 .: . D2 <:lilt be a "..1'5 ""' I "..... red a nd bind i_ I! x 10 o r 12 " H It Ct:TIlmk: Clt pacilor with the ma'~in l l OI K S ' Cl'. T. Com" on.. . . 12 w(l IIlI"'lcad of t1lc1l rated 2-1 W . mllon wool .. I C I) . "' L I '" l. IIny ~ h"""M ) n • • ull" l>k finnl ... 141i<: 'lCn.._to. 16. . DI SC C( U M IC lU LU J nc l'roprer._ .... " (". ) •••• _ J.. noPJlinS lhe .lblc..". . lube.' h.. "" lillie fo r hpane>iC ooram lC ca >'(lCiton j.' I....o1 ".J t ..".. . Semlc....Z'" ind... u!>I'ally ~ Wlltl un~~ OIM t'Wj<e IMlCalro ...'\u t."" R. (If a I«1ltnd before II\( ". appl i<:alio n : ICC rill 19 (h I. Il>oullh 'hit tsc nen IlOI cc ovenjem fo r nlOb. IS.r<J IYllC d. fl(Ilh lite Wiler a nd l ite ""... ~an he ecne-ce. IO The ..l4 nd. In ~no.nd a 1C'\j"'(>I" lhe idea ca n be read ily adaplold 1 thi...~. .. ou l any 0 cha n. the no rmal metal clip o. n:lay ).CO MI Com bolhl .. I ISI11U d'g 'l !>I <O"d ~'nl 9Rl~TOI" Q~U 'J ..~" .ctCnLS I ~al"e "r300 pF.I"ur IX'Idc ..! 1!ten aUdin.. .. M .1 ..... il.<W. a p te m1lhl ltt damaJed ".. ~ i". for ":lmple. . ~ Ihcula. .... r • quane..... hi~ h ~-a. ill Il\( n be I\(ld in ro r a. h ..'" li. . in .~ (0) .~6 Il.n ir ' C<ju ircdl r." he pul led in aOe' dn>ppinll OUI .11... . of ."e q uickl)'..ltu" l'ly-" dherenl ru bbery ." the Icad... hI' CUt ~4 yoltt ).. il II I.ilh one f.h. whic h cnuId he...l.>(I.on"nll a~1ll hcfo... YKf. ~ . e umpk relay w nlo\CU witlt l oo locr rdit)) as In 19 fa).Ic. t...siblelu o btam Ihc ""l ui".1 'In "..h f1Clncnll in industrial o r couIII I re"".

. ltD.lOldl . ... (I ) No MOd 10 worry aboullhow outaide l-'or conneclioN and ltlo like If lhe)' aft buund with Demo T~ from plUJllbtnl contfk1Ol't. tended.O.. m...)'.. le l n . . . .. . --_ . ...b. _ ~. } IL " . 0 : lM _ " .e:fi tf? >tp 1s e-_ u... .. .bou• • nd ...I .- o . iI ..._ _ .... _ . . ._ _.. •• • • _... . '" " c.. I .. LM .... he Mys.. '0 ' To . &0..n . ICD. • • .. .w. . ( M Sam 01 blm.. . C- ._' No#). .. . for doon and ~ old: r-l1iJ 10 tt. .. .... i _" t c . .. a _ ""t L ... ... ..- ... "'C ~ 0Il1\lnl 1l~ . IS .. ic doG't 'Mf ~)'el" ._ ...11II .. ""'" . . onl y d nowbld....." (1) I"oDca 01 foAnl plAstic ~1 adudcr Itnp . M) NOIILk-.IlI. ..1ol " ~ ~'L C- . ... _ .. . DRSJ4009. . """. _ a' . .-t Hlna D.. . and 10 on : 'heJ Mop I Mm llicWlI. . .~l gt _n_... . prcMda .__ •• kdo_ .... .. boc1ornt 01 &Iu.rnlnMa baM.!1. A. _ S. t.. .

.ique I ~ to be.ohin....cr 10 murlc......nd maldlina dc'vlca-.r .. 1 "1. ~ ori ai nl l c lrocrimen " ... ... n .. ... hcchcr nccwo rh of ca~lon Ind iPduc«n or (0(1"""1""..... is lCiII room for funber in "elliplion or Q>R' lIIoIleriab focl(If>Iiclliom In. Ind h'" ~ lou iI • U tlal fe-I~ of ~I. ..... or (O\'er I mora . Idea lly one need• • cere IIIapc tNl rnuimiza lhun! inductance . W2F M I poin..s =. '_1"""- . _ _ '.t .~Ilda.. . I'• •_ Tn m misl ion . 1lowIt tM I IIIl' " " be uoed 1 prov.. powcn or over I kW• ...u.formallon TIII~ : F.." '. orWI.. ~ u ..former (eilhc:r 1f+ 1! _-. tnLn-.In... . \ bl taoe4 Q I ferTite ma lCl' ioIl l>ul W2F M I ' tIUl"'U tblot t ile.. Ii<>".l I ppI ic:a tlom... . 11/0"0 toroid! cd. 1... .UI..uon... .-_ I.. .1.... • . e ..linc Irl ru!~ Ii'll widely used In doublebala nood mlun a nd mod ulalors btU kIT)' ScvicIl.nndom'OCl". .tional or . ... or hl&h·lmptdaooc amal.cype oon:oo.C OMP ON ENT S AND C O N ST " U CT I O N In 1'-' dcoip1 o f... tliab ohmil: lou t haral:tcrUeo Indurnon of the ... _ _ _ . _ . .'__ _ ... ~... vtl'Y pmmlWlllcdlllique Mtll. _ _. hith-r.. II 10 ma inly I I lhe lowf""l""""'Ye nd of the n np lhat lhe rcrt'onnance of the toroid hclconlCl t learly IUporior..-n 01' nep-vp n llot II prohkrn dilcuNcd earlier in lIICIcnr.. J. ) .L.I. ."..P-...a. ~ ' t -:i'O- t'-' I --. Jood wJde'bmd d ..-kd al low fn:o.-... tbe cora'. .t I ~I ""-. ad1in'ed by r lac:i.. .. tly t:.. this toehniq .:ted freq llftlC)' ranp) O\'CR ~ t rr-ron formen : _ Fit.n.le 10 prc:vcnl .. their d fit"imq and I"nitin.....'+ .1 • ..n...a by ll"IW'IS of tho! form fador ~ ..-. W2t'M I hu.. Wh.. . F I..l r .!!.d" I . f '" tran.. ._ . " -I I '> .. " .. by edae or lIdc by side .. • ~ .c tmlUer ~ . .. 't (. .idy of Impedara 0 --- .. _ _ . _Io. .. . 26. An impmovcmcnl 0\'Cf !he 10000id can UI.1 In m fO!'Jl'ltrt _ l\I.••_ .f . .hiIe mi nimiLinl ~ mdudalKC and lhunl capkiUn<:c: wra can be rated on Ihiol biI.lrlI.. In l udJ trantformuo relaliV'l:ly rew lum .tucrv.. Y . een be achieved wilh rod-lyr'C CtIra..... . 000 rctIult.1 1...1mCt1)' .. __ __. .. .. _.. ulo-trarul~ J one importlnl fador is the shape o f 1M ecee ..>WI). Ih is 00CI00nd ~1 ii_fly called I ba lUII QI:Jft. .... M.1 Ii'll wound on loroid or ~ltrill ioM or the tQroid.nf.P..1.. and it is • miuake 10 th ink lhal the loroid core . • L ..ia..... _ _ T W .!. _ :.'+ _._1 . tlOW« handJiq Cl fllbi lil..... 24... So tile hith-f"O'Il'C"" 1... '1 'I -.. ____ ..3._.. .- . - _ . iIe .1.o. > 11+1 1 -•'b 1:. " _ _ . necdrd . ldths and "-"". 1 .I v • " .. billPt rroblcm in Ulon...-.. . "' .J 4 ..l Pf'licl. ... .. hi••hown (1:1«INHIk. Perha.... ..... out tha i ....91" . _ .. .'I . 19 76) .\cl mo-I tJ.... .-.I U .. 2' Novem ber. bowoner.. t _ l l ...' .." IIII . foe amalew" Ind pror.onal t.... ) ". ----:. reduc:i".-_.. !he ~t tuilable.- • • ...._ _''1_ .m itten to low. IltKh " matchin. tun'CllU I I IU rrcquenclta and m:. ''''_. huntin. WlP M I.ma tdlill' tcdw. T. eoapt t i the >Q'y Iowftl end or 1M unF. • . . 2. .Othc:r broMll'. il tha t or adl~ ....... . . In 1'-' 1.. ....... -. .. .'.

. rormed from I" U h <:ryll... l'f'OIOIypc lilten 'Im'e .. AU Illldd ftJIen "'..b. ....-. _ _ ' _.... I\r.. Tbc acoompa nri nl lable aiYft OO<npa ra li"" detaib cI hit lihcn Ilonpide lhe " . !ille. tbe ratio 01c:aradltllCC"I lues In thr form unJllldan. ) TIT Co_ I (:1 .. I to. .. 1""_ . He lo.1_ II» _ ."Oml\:\ Inpu l and output lerm inal.. . . lilteA. To p.Ide p>d I ..b OOP C()"o'<'a . 0rICe thr lho>om... 191(> ... F 6BQP.._. ___ 11_ • . ... ..... ..... A1I ... q ulle l och I toad . . lhe XAlA ..."-_ ..~I ....li... on U t" i. *' 01' Molt"'.".apt~I"""'" "lllIn a nd imped."1 ' . b....IT ~ _1M. -co \ loR. _ _ " • • Il...__ ..Hz g'}"IlI ll (.. )..{Ifl/ II . ftJlenI -. ~ tha i il . .. I. --«...m........n< reja:tion l I U IDOII ..m 04J . multip/J Illele coefflCient l ~ I/fR ..rn Of in Tll<-'CI~I'I have been ~ un the baJI-bmiDI llf lall a ronliau ra lion..L I 1I~ by FIlUQP IftMrl iolt I<.._ _ of " ' ...... -(. .. mool cI U.. aJlhoua h the o... ._ _ . _ .1l4 . JI.IT.. _ .nd ........b. ...1 .. Im l and by J.m ..:cnlntll'I'l'd iDdlllClM CflfTtrollenll... ... ful) wllb t1ll'O and lhra: ~tall. ~In be made In Ihlll _ ...1 lea IilII ar ound Ilta filler It II il.nil oI'lm the ..../J (J uly.. _ I . <:orroct tetrl'linlol>on II moal iml'f>l1anl ... lwo. I• • I _ .. built thrn . j ! 1_ M n..9 ) 10.) '" " Co_o.. _ .. CrrMoI __ . __ 100r --.. To form Nndr-sa ftlltn in th~ _ y req UlRlO I ~ U of I number cI CI)'IlaII of cverully defined . I. HI._....( d B) RtppIt (d R) UII<ItIooUl.*. b.. _ 1 1 . no :. Febniar)r and Scr>tt'lllber 19n ).. .. I. "' .C.. _ h •• " " .. ... ~ MtQP b.... om e (Redo Co""'ru"icDlioll. N O' 4 n.. "" ''''' S2no "" " " 2UO ft . K>rt labonlor)' equipment ._10<" __ l' .1. "'. " a.1&. . _ _• • 1_. wo d..-..alio ' n....... T Alll... • 10 "'"' .. ) ....... " '" . ~ • IIirnflle c::irwit IMI ens ures lhe c:olTC'C1 lermi n.I... _ _ ...... II h posIible to WIt the _. chtrKIeriuia on pred. ·ff . .. " • ......•• e- A H A TI UIt It A D I O TICH N 1Cll UIS " -._ _-_ .. He ill. ... toea horn H:o. IJO n.bla In ~ l>RQ P' . Olherwiloe r. m. (nnl ~..anber... irol aysla~.. .. ill he seen tha i insertiorl loa&.. ". or the fille..)() n . _ _ _ _. cI o.. ... lh_ 01' rOUf iM". ....( Ilw r ... bictt c:oukl LlH ery.. U 14 . ..... . . Ind ral her JO (but lIIil1 u. t lC'l many amoIl leufll. " _ _ ro. ir !'''' ..~ flvour lhe ~ nf' to 10 M H ~ ladder DeIW'Orkl a re 1100 _II $IIiled to nllT'O'lll'-btnd <:.. ..... An a lter na tive to IIw lallQ ll lhi ladJcr Iil\ef Ai delaibod toy J .70 Uk.. _ 1oIorou 10.. (b) .oIc:Ik>n (d R...-_.. .w.._ 1 .... I-I I'" n.. 1mp:da1llXlJ. _1 ""_ II I _ _....a rH in. Ihroe I "" rour o.hapc rllC10r .1 _ _._ HIli .. lIanio u tle .' .hie~ wilh four a)'Ula I liller wblc.....iJ.. lI.. pllted 1)'' '''' Itdl U lhe 11<"-6U (>I" IOXJ I re ft'IOI'C h kely to . .a1 liltcrJ UI8d AI ."Uell and ·l i.. 1976) or WWku ll"...~ ...s~ bw11 and lesled Ia<lder f1llOr'1 ba-J OIl two....-. ' ohm...) _ _ r .a H (d ) aoa Tho band pa ... :::: It") ..Illie not t\I....-_ ._. _ H.I_ t:. .Il h lin I'tcrtr.. imply hoo.. lkl ~ ...~.. n1i lali"Cly fnt seern I" CJ!'lrM to taekit the «lDIttuCtlon cI liltc:n wilh cent ". ~ 1~ """' 1I11'" ) I b " ..lcaI va blot' bee n found . u YIr. ... 0 fll-17 indica l.l ly . In ...._ I. ." band . Whi le in the 'l\.lteB ... _ _ . -"'" -"'" "" '''''' "" """ •= 16 100 "" "'" . ar". T _ _ odo .m. HI H.b and ~lureJ lhei. "00 "''' ... ....m . _ 1Oo1R ... I I IllY freQuency from rou&blY S to :!O MHl..'... lilter. -.. _ _ T.b.... .-.FlJt..I "'hcre R II 1M impcod_ 1lnl. . ~u.... ..._ I _ . 1...._ _ 1_.."" " "". Id>cd ilIlo the I.. *'.. lleI.00". al¥ _ _ ..._1 _14 -. IIlle l'l..m .~ ilI...~ I' '"' .(.. .. . .. ."I 10 per ~ I"- To hnd "'"'I ua l val""" II IS IWa'I&Iry 10 <>:tIl ~erTed val"""... 11_ _ - C<-po. / -~.tclian and ~Ied an u llftnely useful u .-. • 1 .. b . -. -H .-a. . .III I. ippl<l QOt\.. . II "..... lind d i/fCRllIl r~~ncic:ll.-l.. Rf:F ("'b y........t. .... January. ).. 1 5 fq.ll'l'act nry wilh four Cl)'IIIII .. fihcn Cry_ a.ruo:Iors .. is I ft"ecled by the t ype 01 c:ryslll.. A .... ....9. freq umeiet around 9 or 11)7 Mli. Il._ ... I re oblai. 1'0d lC1.b......j Impedo ...-....au".."...4U. <:omlrtIy ... _ Ily 10 Itr'Id up I>uyina I com plele lilt".1il1t of ~ f~uellC)' a nd could be deaitned for 10.d mudJ betle r ultimaI<' OUI-uf -band re........ . ".ryua.. ... ........i11 ~ ~ n1pio.• .. 1'0.." .. ... ___ . f or many y.H. 1nt'Vllably an e..• ~ "' il ..... . -ua . 2"1... lie min" OUI thai u..b .. H .... H C ..m . ~ item.nodl Imn r""" the <:omblnl nl or . these ha!"fleN<l 10 be .1 I nd oul-af-bo..ii' "" ~ Ill.ble 1 ICftIClI lhe filler Ind 10 lay iI ou t tarefully. 1>1. ... ...) n...d .

.J CII.. .:..th low <leol.I flFj : C2 21Z' J( l ) .n til' made b)' J1N1oin.lDun be food for Ihou~L A relsoned de pllnurol'rom ' 1M book ' may ofieD til' sa tisfactor)' .fe..h"... -_ _ .r .-h!C'VC'd : II I MIl the com rou lllJ in lhe ral io .. a ny illlJ\Mo.l he l ur lee .. ... l""..n t. l1Ic P . ]. IIoor c<><l h nl for •• hack eM' ._ ZS~ W P norman. resister...t ivcly........ heen r n:l\ llal wiT h low ..l liller a ~ 0-701.. provid". 110 lish 1IOrnC " pr>enl roqulremcnll " .. in lhetop o f a n ~il'led.ohaIt ·lx\f'ne polyam ide ClJI'Ild epn ~y . pro perlY_ 'I' mT!O'o'e area"'" if )'OU " . .: IeaUp of lianals I..'" .. ". po/y&mide cured compound . . Ute • o. it . _ 1_... . wilh I..00 2·121: for a 1" l>-<l'Y"la l nn .'hi!. by lhe . to hCll:u rllll a1 rd cu O'II!I' q!Jl:'tions o f e jeetril:aI IIfd y Ih in kln.on lilation a nd do . fun"'" m lta l o f lhe .. 1916) : ~ Some polnbl rnay _ pedanl lc.u . T _ .... flbricaled lItin. MI . (1J /lMflJlt/lJ. ~).t l :IOll 011"". . Th il . ZS'WP. t.01 uncund opaly o. • tiller Inco cin. bul /TIlly det ract from olh"n l uciluilloctrical . Thil ....k: and prolorlaod Iltin con i"" a n Jive rise 10 iknnIlil ia. 1'0 01_ l hat ... ..: . Fi..eqUl'nf.. m ide Ir. M H.n thm 10' ) or fOU.. 19m ~ rnct lCil l informa lion on the U!lf: of "POlY raiN . ~umrlc...ur ep)ll y ~jnl : Ih it..mc" .. . iml'lY I and 2. 11.... Do nOi let younpten play ". (6) 10(..... ny rnak'f1al tha i does llC1 on 10 !tie !-kin shouIdt.. cl'OlQ' Ild lln i.M r. 'll'''''''''''.. Importlnt Ih lnlto 110I1 is thaI the \ilIUlS I~ dele rm ll'H:'d by the r. lin-". . : ( IJ 0 .bo lll 8J 14 1 0 Il lfl kif... se r fl...nd .'lde I non ..lc_d o r weld in.. /1"1 ".idn • very u..!ementa or """."ired up In J'OIlnon. " llhouJh 1p<lCia1ca.e ..11K1I'1 1 uted cwin. .~" .lbod off ..1 .. Amon ...i". nil)' be O'o'tl'OOll tN wilh a b ituminoua a lumlnlum paln l. 7.114 M l b . . lQ/or~• • . me frllClUl. ~ ... po lya m idoM:ure<l COllin.ul . Field. ' 10 " .11 be f. 1 11 8 ~ J( IIo-UI} J( 8 )1 4 " R .1ures 10 form amateur JhiIl. ~ to 4Ile rrnine lhe actua l .. TIl. The ..... nd note..nd eec__ 1)' 1(1 .. nd )'el malin. f"..n cpo "... nJ 41 p" I nd II I nd 41 pf I"C'>pco..h ZS ...... """" thne..... ' J!<"'" . ighl Job .' vcrti(:ah etc ~ Id _ til' _1e<1 . r po lyunrl h.01 10 form a mouldin...nt. or can be JUSI . okl ba llrorn l pen to p tllal h. ideal for 11M Cllemal prokCtion or aerial clemenll.."n l(t 'OUnace prcpan lion .I«I.oIity retin : ZS~W P " ruphllJias" Don 'l forllCllo If"III Ihe l ey ". idlll r" r • .C O M P O NE N TS AND CO NSTR UCT I ON ... . S. ilh a n ~ I~ ue. nllhe .. followl : (I) All req uimnonll mllsl be mel ".c t ~... AI. llU.m ioh I n a!lac ked by ult... in." 1 ".re lhe fo llowm. ohnwt a wa y 01' conn«'lin..ilh B lot U h cryoIab ther boI OO I"'M ill ... In II lUlllble tbian tetmilll iion imptdan~.ote OOI..le tl". both amine a nd p<>Iy.. are te lf eviden t . nd l kel t<Men ma.... +1 1 V n. 'ltl . c lltl" fi /m.hl. S«kdS c. H ClM'YC!!'.. HOI'Ilknon... NY.... y to orick : roa. .. . 0 1 I"rcr-n: l un . ( " Clu" I(QI'r lll' I<"'''. .r <ll" l ucb . ThI rodr ic'nl._ iol el hllh l and dIould noc br uoed OUI of v d Ol)I'I. im pr O'l'C <:crtain rro l"'f'l "'" like tom pn:Mlve U=tll ll.ior. a nd _r plica llonl .j f/()()f' t't>vr1'l"l. drd ~ S«.. ).."1".rn ce n 110 t urned in _ Lolhe a OO Ihraded. A odf-letTI hn .l.1fic.")' " f the aystak . OO. in. t1Ni..rO\Ind lhe ftlt. W P recommends Irom perlOlllll eo perience.. rm WIler.Iue> (>r 1 ( '0 I nd Cl "" U . . /1 ortJ . a nd IhI uw or thl ~ ....-apphe$ to the cu red....... ZS' WI' notCli lha t e rn. lhe ItI.h.. /l illmin ium ..'If filleR al 11I 4 U h Ind .:: rlll r• •1"' : n • p(WI il>lc 10 llIC II.. 1 im plies e "" lha l toy u.. I: pol ylpo ""'lIlphido ad heU_can til' uoN 10 """-lai nl ""'" . 1 ruIft if opt imu m reo.. • black.f ' ill..y arJhcsivw alllJ jip..1".._ usma IE..l. h dc1etm l. if usirla ma lC!ria1ronta inlnf tolvcnta.in.. An amilw cured (\'tr)I liq Wdl l)'1otm'l lOa. a~1 "". hereu Iht produ~" <ll" lp>Ol"iltlOe QlI onl y be life by clllln':lI .tulc a Prfyin. lUI/i1Iftl_ rNlII.ulf"''l<:nl t..Id Jive r>nfCl'1'eo..! lhe inl rcdanoe In order to obt ai n .n rr...... Ualn.. t...u mill' til' Pft!" Im ed _p ilUI corrO$Ion by ooalin.00 II .. tnllIrtI aood w. 1ea.. ". if rcq llire<l.. o R 2 I~ life "ad1 I .. made in lCreo::n<:<l cnckN.. ma .~ l1.l .110' pf lor. . '.m n h. lha l tncd in lhe filter 10 provide the carrier oocillator fmjuo:ncy.j".l'e'O<Jrwnl frcqUol.. be. d " ... wmpou nd .!..')' 0 the cty\1..fe') .""uv : tion pr aet iol (1frNk. I I<"IIil)' u lCh ."" 111 l III '" nun 10 pro ...... beyond 1lM1Irtnll tion or outside the bounds of pl>\Ilbilily . ilh vam i!ih lOin. 1M ma!erial ._ I"'tI...._ _ _ .. moot im port. lhe IIlten ohoul.h III polyvi nyl . l lIlln (:0 .:otteCtlr Icrm.. Inf_ l ion on n.. loI'WOIIl-f.'n<. 0 _ . .laTi~ly ktw-fmj ~1IC)' CfY'tlllll "... . cutin. Ife p. .. a re 10 t.. rpopri. e.... Iptllicltionl.. lhc'yam u.I "'-'/s..m in" a nd po lyami<Jo....nh 10-. t -2 I'f"l . March.. 1...er alII <ll" the handflll •. OO 1 ... 11.."'. . M ...1.4111_ '" 'ooh ... upplied a nd do no l . .. ..1iom.".'r'olyI"d pb kk aJhcolve and lhe" Meurea into poti llon by bo llin . (4 ) Coil lo.inalod .t _ !Chin.' e loella>t flllcn c.. 1t..iled JUidol lo Ntil ". 1\0 ohrM. poi nbout in a det.1>.......Icohol....... alOlloSy ftnioh whir:h.. pan lCularl y fill'" v..Iu . .a Ihml rllnd&men t. t~1 10 add more cunni '"l!Jl'I"1I 10 lI1lI kc the ma~rla l ~ q uicker ._.'If • rOO'oC!Y'1. 121 Sl:1ccl lhII ri. Uo. nd one OblJilll r. RL is made eq 1 10 the filler lermina llol'l 1mpeo.. . '" 'uitable Allen kcy at>d lrnmen<n. CIl"C Ihould til' eun:is«l ll nd .lier... in ~ZS (June. r... (~ erected .. When WI11M J!ua was broken ."... U..itb _ p a nd .re 1 hlnd \c: : but oome 0 aaat h are !OJ." h. (Wlhnn o r li r~... .ompouolls . hl cum pound fOl" the . elC.. in. lhe _ . NY. .. a lub)ed whidl O"'et !he)'ell" ha . (2) 11. . " " Ia 01 .hen cum:I . Alumln llllll ma. mUll be. (lJ ..l t.. nlnl ll"n". p:nll.h. Wlth ... n !he 0lJlTIICt na ute..M rnoo.n Ic m.Or1O'I or C'YCO . ' cer tain IhlIl Ihe lillO' IS ..del .y _ In «M'IIll'OOJf>f1$ .. }'. 0 (>hm~ 1 ' .: or W ...... 2 .. lhe <... 1.)f' imf'lda.y and lhe ""u1lina "POl l' rod filed to !tie dr:!IiruJ lhapc ..... vam~ a. A d c. &"". Muli lply Ih.. 1 ....... A ...a . . II is ftf)' ... " ean be "".. 1l1. you mcrd y "'1. W hen alred . rnay til' arrha! to _ Ihich cu of 1.. alk-td II) let in ~Iy vc:ua1 laboralory I1us lu"'n. . ..-r.. smotl . coati la p JOIn.. ithOlJ l IIwn. rnao. CI .. C _l.!eIian imf"'d a "l'C."~. Itooll l I ny bol" by ep<». '-orne increasinaly OOfItj'>kl d Uoll IO lbe ~Iopmml of tort'ICthint lih 2XO dilT erml curio.: >mall rrinlod cin:uil boanh. for lhal " la:trica l prOfCl1iea mil)' .1.w.. rreq uency tTY'tal.... lha l Iny dan. tiw QOl'I'Il'Onenll . n r".. .cond llClin....'OCY .. lQ mini ma.f ..0 4 141 )( 23 . t...f.I t Z J( 2J • 41 'J rf ( 01"... _i lh a QOIl.. . wd'I I S lind.9" rF (ot ..anl. 1..1. Ide. ZLITB H.r"'ho l'..... ilh II..)it .-.

...111.." A M A TE U R 1' ' ' 0 1 0 T E CHNI QU E S • q uarter.I\oul. r"n::e up 1 :50 N I I I Ibf) a l I'I\I.. <:Urf'elll h i lUll)' no... 1ben .m K Iym : rel'//. nd oeha.. r«:ommendallon f""'lUl'rul)' 00 1 nk'l hy pIIncl-motlnlod kn).-sl. 1. Th...'rll ao~il..... ryn t lyJ'('S ' rc mon= "..1y the taJ1 h lead l'CTnIIi nl n.I.. f ur a..Jc:m mu ltl-Ium • "I' u... mlilol 001 loo.fter rormer •.. : N ever e-"lDlld an y ra linil. ..owu oo.~n ... n mccd Inwlallon 00 rhal maina ..... ..n l rcmrl" ' Kln '0 I he r lheir seltl""" .li... nut bo misle<:l by 2'T r'O"'Cr ra hnp : work II "" I r.. holco to .hi<:h ..1 adrift inaM....ts..!y). "''''''''''' cab\cl o.. '..". curn'1I1 c. iJc In __ arc q ulCl . l..om Ihcrmal ""islanoe jM"'JUrt mounlln.o 2 N (O-41bH (S) Lfve ""'ron. and . shelYft ...m not damaae or hu .. tne1a l rl us !.......ny ma l"" 1 ". M o.". (wa.:d un it. O'Oous 1hlln 1"'..urtlcicnll) . curren lJo ( O"ff oil). Is a l'l'l icd .pa. infinitely leu hu ...bould mcd ll1e abo'«: reQllircmcmla.. m U lmum o r 8 m m ( .""'. a n t>c .n4le rn<:d1. I ... N .ltoro j ad flllnku lle:...1 ama leur lCn"io. . KhieYod by limitin f IUIIln.l ller."I''''' ic lu ninl d icoJcl al"..h ClLJ""' ilm'l hIlw lhe funhc..l.. ll'co.. jtO pIlr1.."1d be ma rled I nd dl>I~ 10 tha i ·'i n"" l~ rlUIl:S cannot "" In-red. 1 ..... .:nl th. Mob . forTe IIlllO 2 N 1<H lbf).:ha... ..n . I<' oouth under normal op:ra.dJlISlrntnl ...-....atN 10 Il\aII Ie.... of c. nIl ou t tho t If 0""' siJc " r lhe eap.olt .d io OJ' f• •• iIaMc from RS t·~1 1 . u11 condltl"".:m.ltlC"C"ll'rollcd OICilla. m k of ksa Illan "C/wan Is .. al All reQuin.: poinb..>1 hl -e ..l nrc dIoold lndude lhe f'I"O\'Non llla l no r-r1 thall ruch a lem!'C'".hal Men ~ wil h . ""ill _II)' reQuin: two-poinl lhinB' .' blll"ll Mil). par. Th.:e rnwn ..'.ry cu n ..'aM .0:. .nd meu.l.hould reta.I"m . . ....drnal"l)' Juubk lhe fa ilure nl" of a sou nd ~. The c:ond/lion ....... M.1 hool-up wi". I .lure (c .1ril: t)'J"<'a if . ..l>On shouloJ no! c... hould prdenbly be lof...! 1""..:.J'lU... U nir. lmp in ccn.. He felt ' hilI lhe " . I e . . In:1Idy FUill' ph ywlly larllC..n.... 2·1 ("f1l of cal<k wa'1 mruurcd u J p F•• nd. ralinll of OW< 6j 'C Tho.il" "' lIIlCHla l ion IJ"IIr for oI ..(J()' . before htinl told" rcd.led I"".n.. c" r... el«"\l(If. w h".1N 10 I'"i nu more 1hlln ).. "'.. c. irly pred io:l . • few IOOR ~ lhe poin lJo menlioned tl)' ZLZrflll : "OUll"'l·· s<xl Ctl .. Prol:«:1ioo1 apin.U In mindl l'i na l/y..l u!"C l uch lboI l f1a ~ or IlIIlaincd IIIIlOIIlderin. Slime intermittent R l'I ma y hi . Remember rhlll a hea t .. h.. " III ~"Ijyc I" ca rth ...holll 1 pf 1 he mad e In 'luile ...t" Vent ilation dOlI .. art aerial ~t>nncctjon ohou kl no l exceed 0 ·01 rnA r -k..4 . . in .. ' isfoed l>y a va lucs . . lem>illllli<wl). lie "". ·C amhOenl . G JJ n l ..lI a l\O IOrrIlI' po lnl ' lha l ....... p... De ra l" In connoN .'.re_ Da.J r. .ilh ru ll~ cncklt. Me tal ...1e mrlal r" ill lyl'C" ere "". inl l'lict 1ftIn. 1. u fol . "'pal..oo. ilh ..not q. a bn'1Id . "" in.e. p rovidin....l"" ca rbo n..'<'IYCr ~ f~ invou."nlilale to the muftnum "."11' 'Nhn1 . Il cad phones sIlo>ul<l n. Liyc romll ahould be ~Iblc onI)o by Ille 11K ora lool I... Noe e lha l swi tdlO!l ClI Amenolll ..roll"...ed on lXld da ys)..-n o!'""-'C.tin n• .e. .11 ..... h""I<1 ... one om.".'-' ""'dm...h orn C'!I'UId 11<>1 he ..ol '" on 0 ...-kinll IU". in_· . he bra .lapa ne'loe o rillill nla Y toe ralC!d on ly fill" III vol" • ..Lonp <:In "". cI he: . p. ~ l M poinl... If in doubt sta y "r. LJ.ol '.I"... 1I....... r.:tlcr in lh . -.lnt!y • r-...rd .nd br~ am rl iludc pul U'll miud-dldCl..1"'1:>le of fine . li1kr ClIP1(lt.rin l .. Iea<. l h ll cnabla . : ir In doubl • void uo. u.JU.II . .J M lh liyc w.1.nd ~1fC d j"j. Iat<lc: .CillJfll .unn. nce of 100 p r im w hICh ".. (6) No lhort -<:ircui l or an:illl ohoukl . .. n ca P"C / I~ sr.aoc Cln bl: met by lOCCUrm.hl ila l ion in nc. leU' SI.nom lht I. ". Th... Avo id h iJb-..~ 1."na...1Id ll/mlinal cyeletl heforc beinll ..menh o...m'm or 11-.l1Cl or l prow..ilb . le o>." 'cl<l~11 . lic 1C:rllnl .I rur pDCtJlUomtole.tlhr1ll WlIh eto.m knK lh lQ . UII h.... ~ 10 G JJ IR 1<1 I.-li nll l~ 1 mA may no... 1-.hle rur h.-'lur is 1 be 0 ea n hed ... ro und IhIll he I'Ol<'dcd lOme low." I pF/l.. CilJI R. o f • ~ Ia ment lhurtin . N . la rae pu l. 1 fo r lJCtI"O!O" cnnt. ' . ai le". (4) The reQlllmnm~ shou ld Ii. II ~..2TItH·.1 {j.....lrit'le<. ..."...c..nchored.: it""..... Is Ille ncc:d 10 proridoI a l leul llUlIirIlum clcaruncco.hN . a.. 0 0 oDt fa rt<>l 1II11iniflCln i hu l II ." w>l1.ly IndJorc..e or "-luli"" marenals lhal QIJ\ he IT'Cllod around hlah-""b.r 1 0l*tWd . tha I .. many DC""" poinll......... ~ •• _ Do Tt-tMIUIcW..td-va h. lMII 10 mm iMide ' M b"IC'!l.e. nd )'CI c.ny ('Oinl . IJ'IooLJ am>ly .ilhcr .. hen lhe other 1eIId'1I/'Cl under tmoi<"..J ./AI cable.1 ("ilunl . n': .~ wtth reo. r re-tl:\ Inmmcn due Illl he c.01 ' eevers are ~...t ho: -... 'OfQO or liP r."".:ted .le tho ClQU.nd -o relia ble:..u".ol S " II...hooJhJ I:JC me l u1lller any co ndi l iolll' 01 si. Th . 10<:1.~ t . rd . lhe Ic:n~lh OVCf lhe po.he .c 1'101 on ly lardy "T bul .tuflCd by ...:ul1... d'. McealliIN foi l In lCla ~hou l4 rll'JI ho: wbj«tod t o tal'JlC .. Amona Zl... " n.-:I ()'1 mA peak . ..u.. U...".......1 1 I.ulul l Wl'f'Ort . low·. n. ~ l:o. '·"'".. .. ~ ar • ••mrlc.h 100000her r.. th lt no 1M Pi"l Is . ir.. J ~Wo _ _ ('-----~K _ .ad.. II tJU:u.p I" ....--0 tlI _ •• _ t..c .1orion . linc It> CII rth 1 ()... )( ho: con1IClO.li..tahle (...l u p Ihe cle ril li. docs r. IJ... Tbe ~ lead adrift . nd lI>OIlI Ihcnnor>la...ame. For rel.. ' • . Ttl.. 40 ..t W n1.0 : "n . rna/nwned ulldc r sinilic mec". toe lo. or noe the INiTIo urth iloonncw. Poru "'k ..lIn. bul wa lch Sl:'IdIlI". loJtClher..... d toe lIlCd 10 mnowblc 1 (ll><'hnle ro wn...... ..1.". met a1kr an y lnt.-ds mu.hlc...'... ' lWI liyc f"MII of ClI ~lor.. m.. C"opu n : .rm<:nt or 0""' Icad brolm 0« I'.... No Ii"" "..... blo: n. Tbe lNi.ulal oon O\-Cr ().: who ew.."llon nr va luca u...linp di<l nat ha"" conlo:...oo I~I'CI .n M<.<>l)'C. : ~ for in.) rnA ).>me .4 mm thid . me'lfu.mo."U... k . l 1M" or . pre<. _.ult In Ia\ of remainlnl haurda . : f'IOndmi· cally Ilownoer the .1con 'o'CfS(.fHm Iy".. Ip mmtek •• a l"'~ilo'..._ of insu l ~ l o<l w ..' ...lI'oCd t>y ..t oel 'he """. ~ lial d ilferenoe o>f rnotil Ih&n U vo lh n=lall w to eal1h a nd rrom. m eunI knllh ...:reaoc lif" by ).... m" "'...".o rs eee. of 'oU'It ilal.. H.... ..... "'11.nin.oukI ho: ".1 n0lo eanh . rea le r lha n 002 me c"'" fIIl' Ie-. ny '-hnll •• I Uop..cll<:e of o lwl_ .0< • • _ .r should be <:Il"' h'" nr ta kl".. Wlm inl labdl lh... . a re defhlt'd u.... il 0 Tbe modem . reol:OOed to 4 mm { ...j In . ..h a ny m.t>dity a ll wlrlnl .vaibt>lc:..... (: 0II1l""'it....1l<lcRd.. PIotU.. (3 ) A ll RqUlr='lenh lhould he mt't when ..n\la rd rorm of lma leur . a nd ram Mar b.. 'lriri na r. o n.. '.l wn lilallon .l.oolUCI/r1I\ <>f f.. On ly 2»-wlt lI.1 _ . h.:•..iri"l.tut'll.Ienl J'OlISible! EYcfY I 'e at o pcnl ml lempcnllll'e' will appro.. f p. . ZL.....i..rc of C"tITNYII r. .poOrol LJ:mpc11llurft.. ..n or 'he able cnwrcd by .. ~ . 0 mum raull kmronalul'I'....ino.... ".e u. CO '. a iil'y for '""ulalinn.. ·rrl.. lhe lNI'nl c ur r.'I" : U ndcr-ru nni rtll filamenl bmpo by 10 per ""I will In. I I"" "'lrin B't. Tile .. ca ll OCCur dllrin.l..... ..) dianw~ . 'lwit . blc lJIould ho: uocd Inside eLjuil"J'<'nt IS "'CII ...uin...lal<'1"" n umller JMS-I" ) h•• .... 11 not 10 .. (OnSioh n.. ~ja""n l lu ""..'OC C nd dial a I'IlI.1o .t>. He notes ItNr. u lllt: icn( l ~ "rcd""I. y 1'1' .. .I wood d. In ocekin_ ...l li. 'n h lfl't-".pped . the I....houl... .r u...."lcr (0...... ".-.Or )"Clolery. hcd ICA S intennitlenl com· rtlC:Ifl:ia l .leo requ ire ..h irYCd w<lh the ". ""rm ._ ... ko rcllil1:>ilily o ( lhe cqUirmcnl ..in...nillt"". lhe n: II ino:rc-. R~ri~I'''o : Wal ch III' nll' .ndlIrd fin~ ... call!loed by lion of ~ II . lerminal C)'dCl..

.."1 110....._ ".... c.1 ..•• 1. • ~~ 01 ~ I. -. ..<l~....~ a" .""ftC ....<: . T""". _ ' N "" • . 11... COII.1I' _ ' In .oIoJ . " "«fi rm. ..1.~ilor I~ 01 cIat1fDl twIok~.... ...1 and 0('flI) Iht t.... y .~ ...Id h.h.... te _ I ... I ~...1eJ ~~lftLao. IC hfor 11).. " ."f. . me'_ )'11 no <w>-u iI wtIh • . ...1... '..hq n il... " n.. 111_ " 'ho:l-"."I.... .110 . _ he """I ...".m..-Iot h ~ .. pmC'Il ....tl'''''' .. Illie I f n .. I" " .1c ..t. h....1 1"..1C PO"" m.I t •• I nd llro. "'h ' ~ . ...ny tftI"'f'Cld C'IIIT':III and WIlta_ Ill"'" ~ lht. II ....1 .. ~_ . Iht N on" ....: ClImf'leIe riK'lml . "r al' l'l ll.r IO'~ . for .m! _.. an .h.. IUN . .Ift' ~ oS... " .... QI" C _ _ ( t>l _ < _ ..-" ' M II () ("" ""...ht .. \/lItun n«d nc>I .. ..... ."I_ ... e ..."..r lln.. .. OUI 11. " 0 "'I n I . ".." • •-# ... Ckr"InIi C" _ ...""". "f • ill.~ lhe ..l..~ pf _t..n.1. ie> I'ct poI. 10 d.... lt ."" . ilin• ...._...) f'C'Pla<-..Ioo. .>Ia''''''' : opt . ~ru: von.... .. .... tore . ! .." I......1..c ...1.um • "...hdlpoll ... "t h...."". T1woklCf." ml op" .. t'Udd~ --..itwI "i......-tlnal '-'&)' has l"'od~ j".Ift (."10...11 .ow " .n:d .. . .. oJ "~ to) I. . hel:-. s...w .. "toc... .". ru . ~ ..... 10"..11m <:ami". ' ernpmI ' I ~... :. m. . . • "'e "''oil''.... .. nd 11-'1 ca n I"" fnrm 1I'IId. Pt"I'I l>If r.--''' ... "'"conptl 01.-.. lm.: """"""'>urWr ..n. U " doq ..t>Iod-Il...rc. .. ive......1lI"'f" ' .') Ii. hd'J'I"I f(llf lhe 01 • ~ II.. . . adVaA.. . ) WlI... a>n'-«' Qln lot ~ ....' . wr' ...10.....p ' .. 1_1 ..<...: . to 0:1..I.. ...... no lhl... •1Ine d ll'Kl•• n•• ....... ............nlurll"ftI .h.. •\ .. f.1o! ... dJDlmm t RV2. .. _" __ .. ..... po'mllo"".. 1_""""" \I""'" <11lb.. .:.my.. ....."" . uoc . ...'1:. . ..cllrr.'11. An .....o: .... .... O . .nd a .. II-cft. (001 " .... •• •'11 " urn:tll okuno .th h.. h'r. 01 • h..... ..h<_n . IlI'" lId.. N ." hillhtr (tv (cl ...IOI' I.. (lp:fW I.t..-I.. QlflI&C\a ..CO HPO NE NT S AN D C O NST"UC T IO N " . hil"-. ."elt""" a.. '1I " np 1 Iht)' hr.....he lhot ~ ~ .h ~ eylll' .....01'... .'tur .l I.. .geoled fJKrrtorIks : l i t " '...\..... ~ ..."'.....y ' ''''1 ..U.twr .'1 mall et _~"" " • ... .. (lOWllI f.-ailahlc thrl Ql n pa-f'orrn Iht . '_In..." '-tl: " 1..1c Itd. ao1aNe ill a II)~ " . .'01 '" ~ . _ '....c " ".... ~ _ -'ope: oIlhe ~ . ""'-'-" l _ 'tol...... un It>t k.... frn...crnt' ........ T _ .. i~nl ..." pU. ..n..!. uoe 01' H. T1w pI\o>I .a oi'"' ''' ..'-• __ .h.. II) -«.. an:... .. .. lty ...h -~-...h an • I I"aJl. . . la.... ....30. "«n:1_ .. n 1 hr orto-.. ott . . 01 toe ' fIf'llC'd 10 I pplu.....d... of t ~ . or Qlw! It ~ comru . """""" .....alV... t... 0 ....... rk '" can toe ' ...>rcnlln••hrnhold 01 .. 01 R\ 'I • • nd .. 11' ''"' ''1lh Iha " I U'Id'UIIll1l0. " d Ihe'. S"«I.. ~ N ... eer d...urr. " Pr.1 f.t1or .. .a....d.... • • .. lhe 4"llt..l"..u".I pnmcT and .u r Iollic m '...t>o<Je .:m. here >(>tt<1"I .1.nl o n I" h ..e.... iJosh ll) 10 ruund 1101 . Ilk' ~ to.. he a""'-'. ....lIoOh (OfIIl'ra'iorl........'''''' tan . " a....... 1 "". Jt . a pI\o>IlJ(... ".pka.l . """... r or onmc' . W.lnd i"". n..." . t h ." • .. '~ ~II ~ doeo... mod· lra h.. .\/'M .i".n mllhoh . U'II and 01' lUrn... TU -...1lI.. ol. _ .....Jun t. " '" cd-tIr ne'.. 1 (J Il hty a!1l pt~alil y ... <JItcn II. . ! .J. .r $..."... have '-" uwok.n1..n ~ .'''1 ''''" l he ...... ' ''' 'e ~ .. ~'CO .' 1 ..iI.. "... -... . ..._ II.nd ..C'I ... . ~ho. 11"1 ...... 'In __ "'IlI'd) ... nll ..."......nn a ll..c-Ir_...h lhti.n'fy nll .. .. 'och ' h' . l\nd wl itJ... 1'C" hapo. ..U... ...'1 ... . In pnct""" fl.. ..un """. ...t>k . '" doe\o..""...........'" . .. ....... Ormmd I" .. 10 : I..ovtty "">110 f.. R\'I rould lot •• prnrl " ~"""I . 10".. pot"" l " .rd . _ Fl T l!e.·1I·_ ~ rd. . nl . h.'.T"'l"-.. ..'or."<JOlI. h. .11"I<"1cd ....' eIko..." . ..1 ......ny • . . ..".~ ..... ......1I A W . th. be 'o knlnt ..f t '.'..T"l>rl C..lli. l : 1M. •• ..J .-lyl"C d<vkca h~... . ' '"' ' hont: '<>dr... ..._""..J nl.... ..arc q .1t a nll "'"""... and .ni '" hm 'tI"I 1M "" ~I 111.oxh.lorlOf .hut .... . nl )'\'lIn lhe rt h. hi. he IIUI n UnlhH or eI«1. ... I ~ n mou nlaJ ~.htr l h.IlID •• Iorm• all .. 1"..&. a>UpierI : puhe .... 1"" .I dl uoo...her .ht)' an he 1<0 lrotn ~ II~. t.nll thcfl I. """l.'" " ctI ~ rrlal"l" ...._ .....r ..... W s ..J CII.. an lWO"Q a .. '1'IlI' _ .. he IP""' I"..1 f"h.... . ' he<-r .. .!ln d(o.o n fM rel.·prouf . ml..J.' 1tbrI .. " rod 1I"h '""....nl'''... 0..... .. ..in.. ' II1UI' .he . . <W>-"' loul " ..... k.il) 01. .. I""'i. .IIO<k ..... 'M .. ~ ." p I lhcre.Ih lime. . "I ... <W>tcft I'OW • ..n . a -.11 HIII.d . m~lI ~ .. t>t. porin l tendo . \'0I~.. ..... Ihrn.he '''""'' '0 ic-. c . lI". h'ploc1..u. I .. .. n.... .-..lronll: "Iu. lhe p. Hndudo".n tria.......:.l.. • c ' (1If' . neoJ . ~ 11. ''''''i.. : . ~n. 11.iu n tftI.. It" m 0 ~ In I·' l h.... 1I." '1Ca1_ .. d..h n"..n.' rYnC1__ : .. ..."t r..nd . '... : s. dt' .ll rd -...hl)' '' I.. . no" ')'Oo........" 11) . ...I WIftOn ( Jon" ' hr II.. rw.nrtil: rrIa...rol\N ....... ..nl " IT 'n " ...._ ." • .. lhe wt lm. .... I I I Ot.. """ porl"C" ldl)l1M .·.n " .n '".*"' .. il ...... 1 • nutI"''''~ 'I Ida) .. 1 ...n a liaft..... .o~ caa po-.l... " IT " impcda " .tc:.nx .. or... """" unI) Nn . 11ra<k f or .. ptl<M .. t1 .-eo ....1loJ lhe "~ilo".0:1 ~~ Ill" ' hr oJ.. IoN " 1... 10 10"'" """"'.h.nd ..ort. 01..s lho: "'I1ef. CIlO' oS~ .'('h. ~. ' I _ 0 _ '1' 0 ht malle \/Ct}' .1lk . _ .110 lJ~... cN.....1'OI& 'lot .''1.. "".-1110 .Ie !'da.... .....'t .....1'DI'IIqIleIIl: rri.. i". ..... .a<we been dl'otIl I..1 lha' : in -.h ""'7 "'" h.tdlinc M1W 1. laoh ~I\/ unokrtah " '" .r-0'1'-.... ...-tl. lu"'. ~ h dlw: iIIl om• ..G--I _ . 0"...t1 .. <JISTL . """01. of lIlJ ""' ten l .... ftI...... Ihr _ '".li limtl <lin .. opcnt...•••• hto.pt k. hnr q" be ~ ... n""in....... Ieft . . .. 01 " ""... 0 : .... .."'" . ." ....I~ :. r f..." ".

-qulal..-.. 0 K"".. 10 4....1 ' -Jr.r>tl job .Iinlla : " 1 ..-. of 0)'11 _ rot iMla n l v.>t~ .. ~ ow rub oJ. Itu !'> liJlI. ..r . red " 1<' ."" S..ummcd paPCl' L ." of .." ca...1 maniTo " n. lu l'C lithl-ftll.nto'I _ A W•• n' nr Silicone. Nonna ll~ coe IlCnJIO I ca n of primer and <MIC of cok>uf 1c:ac1l l.n.rn..r. illl L pain!.. n IICTOIIS lhe ohurl "" .....IIl.11rm. .... c ... 'od ula..utar PIl"" \/'led for llIe «her .. CI<.. Ih rotlJlllhe 110...lJ...mean lime 1 repa lr ~ ? So. lhe ernitler 01. ry Wn<!lh.r lo . nd rhe ~1-1IWl'OK DOn. ..illJ . 0 Ulrt>I... A pply I"'" tlnal oo low ..)l ...." I... lIml1lr1al r-... (No .he . lI 8 1 ". L m. r.dr · ..rib cou ld require ocrvicin. \l IOSO .... U lhl<'Unll of Illicoon to ..... nu........::e P1'.: J..n lhe Irca_ t.levi usin. • wa~ from Lhe I"' nrl ... bolh fur "" Inl ...d 1 be ~.. y fru m bel .hrn cany on .·nch con •..Il ~! Pain lin. If In) PIli. lurrp Tlber .b. r.Ic.ir. I nu ~ CI. on hoI h loid... dlllli .upplicd in ma ny of lhe ~i" When dT.. rumpl.... n1.. . ..h.. Im. ..U~. ln.. how . ...hode pa per appl it'd ".shop.Il:1o r d o I" I~ the ~ ten'ioeabUil ~ " 01 h i.. 1 "" ..4 TIl" In if. bu r now oft"" Ule orouJ• ..1.. N " IhfOloPl the hole. mll\C' at '1~ a ny ". l".pPr«iahl~. can r-cwl.<»lil1l abuullUpl should d o lWU or lhrce full1ize Ik... prio:. (Ill a pioIuo ..owl l"' ln l• • lhe: Iric k II to Jr... Nt"k . rkt ..t . pru":coJurr il '. ..p...1U ·j:lil.. 1917.. kl'rfll he panel fb i 10 ...:c .. '''iI.In I~ nthtli/cn : an mdi<:.. Tom Waloha'" "".l " nJlnaf) mlncl1ll hlfl'fftll hC' . lraad ... Ii'" l s n .. Ik " " Ica. pn_'.I.. in:"i.. em ""rerun. r.. • " loQUl l'C "". ina o~e r 50 tC rr'A't and ITIUI:h dtaroldc:nn.... ''. "kCuhhi n..-r a n"'ln. as kIOn U I h.. ..( .:ked klOr.-<liodct ca n form ...IIa~ .11..10. "'ttll J&lTId pal"" """""hl lllmfa . I.." d.d il~ ""hldl . n mini"I U ~ """"~ bu' rri~ an im med ialc ind""' li. lford o:bonne . Of the p rno:tlC'e 01 loil ico ~ o il uPI>ur Clln ". pl " Of o ver . . I u. o .....mpk ' _ .. .".hin. tip here II I" .nd ....... a 0 m:Olher-board ... ilh a ..-. : in I\oor poIishft.""' nco... .n. in l l1e rormal ion of . ~ 0 .u&h Ihis I'ln o r Icltd fl om lhe d n. l .hoi 111 the «111"'1 : \'Cf)' h.11 remove l >alo Inll mucll brtler Ihlln lhe rewl n:rT>O'Vt'l' . Wha t can the . Olt".. l'C5u1 11 in betli..ppl y I .u!ar " l:.c alld 01'C' c llUl.. he mor e ~d l ly iow ~ ... """'1 :'II C io 11.. iruil~ lI1ual ""..'e of Ihe board brf.>1."""" iniulaTin.. spare n.. Where inlC'1nlled ciralill a no 10 hr muun lrd on a r ·c-h.11C<1'/'loeO( h~ hea r or a rc. e cnm~n l ~-crnrn l tao"...>I.:cm cnl .c a>nroco:l<lrI ...dc A ppl y anvln..U ...nOd 10 I rn~ lherma l cond oclivil y *".... jot-.wnll ..l\a. I_ I Ll.""r a . ult t 1< .. re..-or1r.. I...ter ' hi: lip. .""l t>clore "anini ". off ..... a n cr the pri mer mool..~.... 11.. q uJl1l rrof. a nd . • lillie inlo I lin lid and apply..... . .m ."td hy kenneth Jcaon in •• f>t> " I.... ..m. . nd .d runl .... ROOICS •• T hiN J" G rey " 'all. Tl\r 1'1..hc1hcr a po.. illWI' k"'• ..I>c<..... I-o w.~ II may br I'.lly pu t 0I11h ree thin if the.ly t.n AMA TEUR RADIO T ICHNIQUES Ih... le il Is in cu rrenl limi t ..m . rin t of an I. ". as •. off"" • numm 0( liro he: h.n ...iollil .. Rut for brllc.. . much equipmenl ia builL o n..! Mi..iont nwJr h)' K .hkh is Tile ncpli w ~ . O<lIl n«loo n ""..00 ru m un..... TIO'I' 1on..." "'tutti..1.:.nd l lien "'&lh Ill . &loi""..' -.. ner<lcd III lhe bIlck of Ibe I"' nd . he ".i n...vnIKI' 1 0 h<>.tlc L U) ailpl. .._ Irue l.h . re IJf!lm... Ill<' pr imer 10 the rron l nf the: a ptIl"1111l. mould be twhl O~c' ...he "" . Ihd ical lh. The m oo:lut. 1 1ao11 : mill ..I". a nd Carplan a poor Illird &1 10 q ua lil~ .lrd.. flll nel is ftl l it fc 10 UN OIV Ih~k... it u. . 00 .lca d he: """ I piece ot comrnm::lally ma... ..L io II m" hn...ood.n" u r ... l h.. nd lhen ru b .-c~e t. "" U 1CIUII •• I'f .ble 10 klrn lir..e. 1""1 oee (It)CTl finio_ UI' ""ilh ..o. vnloc krd phasoc-I"..ItII o f t he PlI'wl.w i l:..~ ... c.. 11 <>IT-.i n. .". al50 leodl to .t 0('Cn1m.. mini um I'I nd o .-l In moitlu... RoJu>.Illli na In l..."""h cheaper.. d ry..1I ...lI .. hu uld he prn~idrd on bol h Iidea....an he . aomrlln_.."". TIi<' can mil'l he ...rem ~ • •• m.'aM .. t!\al .he uxh .. lIl<>N and "cal lin~ ..rKlullr aff«1 .."...he b"..""" ...d . !>.u b .lher Ih.. n lhe pa oJ.. . " I>. lm rw.nlly clchlld lu rfa. ·.. hil.nd ~ir-ctl. ..:-Icra blc 1 uK a nu mber <-l omaller boar".. b) horvoh.. . he T here 10 no lI(!fd 10 ' rh. d o" l) UCrlb"..".. II ad d.. I lind 11."nn lhe ClIlIt undcT • hot ta p fln l : .. ..nmr h illh ~llno. IlCn~ n lrt ..nl 10 dillintl.."lclc... The .. ry 1 .. ""'~in I Lhcm n.n ~ " . :ell' "l"'~' Fina lly...r ' T n..1 "roml~ form or contrruc lit' ll fo r. ur "'ill Iill Dupli<. ilh a)" lune r)..• o r . " In u. nd raTlo~e a raul ly COITIpuncrtL in .. Jlholtld!.n... ""... r". II Ihook! be noted Iba l crccrQn.."" . Ilh l»' I I'fIY'rlf..10. " "... ....-e I>oen pUI 0 r"".. or ..e..11 it la ke 10 ._ _ oha....1 required ..-cr tu""l~ '" .." lhar a lyll . tu. properly. 01 • "... did... M... 141 .. II • to "...wth)-I .. .Ihr borsl.. l ' by I>ruoh .'" nxcil'Cr . So me monit"r ..t " .. Whr n lhe inl ' ..Ih No )W ot l\neI' li lu . 1 be r... .. I Ih..n un lll Ihc wood llartll lU 11'10 . man.lcaI ... coal Ir In I hw ry .rnll a hoJIo.. maLeu r deli...". " n":.1 "'''''l:fthihly ' In D«11'<Hf~ o-n. w n..repdleo l a.".h il '"'III IIld Invol l'Cld n:m<. 12 April . lhe en Tire IU r1'lk.. I1IUII hr _ II d r. Su ita ble a>k>u . tu""". I " .. . ."ui<:.ilh lhe copper il is t uppol<'d 10 be pn>lo:o. M<>nll ur lnit......hal Ihey ClIn be idcn u""'" r/TlllldrcuiTdialif'a." ro. II ~ ""I..itchrn r".I h alumllllWll ." . Ir .."" lhe .ondtllOl'd h) mu no or 1 ...rer"Uy.... to PIlinl in m..." h a f) alo pel'l lle II"'" lholl lJTllli bu l'th a n . d urina rtdtillJ. a. "~ C.dt 1 1"..1. . ..."""1 lru th. Ihnr l:a n be m. Lahr:llin...r ~ nd 1 _ lin~n!ltUTlin" Itt "'"CII 15 rl :i lllilina I\cld l'Cl'la. I( Iny .:.nd lila. rUT inola"""• ... ~ . iliwnc Oll 111010. ...Mln i.. etchln..lIlrl . bco. nd he Then a fll'll)'ihl a oohd hor 0I1'CIlio1 in k a lu n. rul in lhe ...-l m.h 10 lhe atu '". 1'J781: P\I.. .... I Alhrll ~.1 ._" I he 1"\"< "10. lhi<....n PI""". nolhmil 10 Ilie ~ . ... Toda.n Ille .I u. Where "'. · R" p'ay " '11 11 primft a nti . ami lhl:n c..-.nd to lJ'R~ 0 ~.. idc ~ Drlcl ~ uf .... I.... "rilmh 0 lei"". he find$ il d rtlkul... l'IOInel. .. ' nl'IO\'t (line !>k'M . the in ill pan oompan~ .""1c<Jrllad.aJr lalllC p. it it ~I Lo"...n-i«ahlil.IJr Carplan c<>I. Ic . Ihem ..-lIn photoo:<>rlen.h " 'me of Ihr 0 \ulncra bk: Irap........ 1 ...'''1' hu'" CILa\:'ICI . u ..-ctl lf 8 ..1ler lWin h. l'Ia~ IIIW-U. Dupliwlor a o::Iose _ d. ca .... COIT\Jl<>rIal I i. ICnil:cabili.nd Ion: h bulbi. ocrl l<o:""" II . ideal 1Ia.... rnt>\lnlinl L plal e.1 an d .1w ron. wllh <::lIl'C.helher al:ire"'..an IIr used 10 ma ke na m<'J!lalCll.. pIlnl or lhe "<tU IPO menl? 1 hel'C l-. I>u..rNJc Pl'P<" " ' _Urf...n. he .r pnnl rd . loin....e. ll.len llfical lon ."IN I't'll~ a nd mocroa.... 1'. ". . manufa clu rrt.n' . lod rd . urr. .1 roctI un ll' rornbihC'd .e the lafJ:O"'lre can• . . ~"."".. .lin.h In .... ·ob. Doiloornro-illOrt "r .llI..... hen I cnuld 001 . I re increati n.... L . r . Jaron include " arccn .r SUrf..( I Ci paciior....O Io n. rc:ra t ure. ~nJ lhen " "" or (IU ' o>f... brl'ore il-'l IlI'U u. hm....n.... lra nl lStor: .. br.' h .. a l'JPl~ • P r. e:tAlCq>t. ""11 11 0"". IU ..... much brllcr lha n a llhmy copper .... ~todly .-... 11 s..rcrull~ ICll..u. WIlli· ". use ' h is lf oo lJlco .. alt~ p"... Hc IUlU/C$lt tllal both I~ probkml can be 1alJl":1~ obvlalC<l I>~ Iho roullhl y C'kanina lbe wppr• • na lhen Il rlUl.Oclohr-r.. ..1. and can u ~cn no! lo ~. 1"1 I' d>.. com l"'''''''l1 ao !. nliI"'J.rq! lhe: ca nl ~r k&ll 1 In. b Ul .........ation "..ea1N a nd. ..11 .Uo.lI' hl:1' ''' 10 . hulda lhe rcaoal .... I rs ro ..-rut 10 he ... bul • prel rm. tilrlll of ~il ia . .1 _ .. herd rf .ukJr 1Wl1tla' r"......J in 1'>l~ 1 ..<>h"" a ny ". a a nd ... h is io lhe ""..amun....".. ma y .( ...II theM .I... <:.:ulI 01 aNll l'Cnll~ lillie UIC.

yci u hn 10 be rt!IXl$llized Ih...-n\ 0( 'ui li'it y and 1I.LIQ _nu \ended 10 boo..'" " .• nd intl«tl . COMl dcnl hle ~~ in """ in lhe .me n nllC" of ItIc fmnl-enUo of ""...mounl ..• .. Pn'forftUlnce I\a$ «l"1. e~. 1lIc ~ do.h I ....I.icll . h If\OJ'C tIclibk! . he l«hnlqUICI or mc.11. h (Ilnl) mil<Cl' r.-mph.m.! ... Many of lhe d .. Imp ro v""".... other pmbk:ml ha.a ltl'louch nlinuoua has dllI nll5..emil• .. ) p..1 denol.."t>tI..."". haY.... e~ccp' in hillhly eompc lill"" lilUI... of lhe lhennlOnic en pn>p.le 11.". >I .. .II'" .:h.clerlll... .lld.. la.Ih both .ionl....III}• • ~ 0 ' Illl'ill' :r I n I a...a l perl"O'llllrocc or cu......r .11 ) .)'..'" .leriall...incd in lhe ASG B AaIio C~.fonna ncc I llpcrhcl hJ . l1~ ace . ...11.1 ..d...cccplion.doIilPl of the rronl.1..col"'''''' . m ic rl nllC ..r..roJ .m l.....popra:Ialed lhal II h r .. WlCOCpllbillly 10 Imqe l1IIpt>Il.. flO! all !'CCCnl ...1 sohd·II...ant . Ill". ohot.teQJ lhe un" I I')'..I.red lhoI' 1M ~ ."'lllClloC)' a re nol b~ an~ IIICIIII " hooIulely 5'1et1 '1It1 f.he '"deI It""" milA"""'...-... or f'(IOCi"C' performance lie 1\0'0' "r'en lhe uhima lc of lhe oele."')' ltab"il~....... 1 '1 MIl..id'actory Ll. rondi'K>Il' . for (IftIulne "'. d'""ull f'" ... "u..lali""l. ... ma _ ~ mln~ ... Oetirn I'r"'~"y cl l .. lhe ". le ~ "'CB ....'I or .".he made (tn the I\lrer onl ) lJ Tlr......lIvan'• . 1lCIIrcily . -tk.. The Ian"..Il" .. The hm llin.. pa.-hkb lma lt'UJ n x commUllk ...nd ·cicll1.dely . Tnmleodonll 10'Allnmod\h. c le .. rr..II '" hoc"m ... .1)' bee n . & t man.. evert: ..j ..w:r dctcrrninca---o' "n«: al I. n~ of It hal 10 toe r<lCO....e" .r.. " h ....cl . ._ lIa".. lhc ".. TlIc....le .. I ... ~ .hl. i<.......lIen l lCI«ll~111 . " "I( he.n:uil ry. ~n ' .'e rc:.:us l ~yYfol...n impo..1e ..'" II .. _ 10 IIw rnt'C .).. 'Thew Incillde ~ mnd" laliOl\ . i"" fihen . j""l udnI JIO<"i d yn.. in.1 Iat.".....'IlC~ 'tabllll~ I nd d 'll:ilal rrequ~ di..1t_rinll • wid n~ o f fRlQucnt:ICI.-n mcutllti:mntll &I mlnmodu. Cuota ha"C ~lal"" bu' . An OUlsl lUldlfl' dc-ollfl\• r«:c.nrle.nd "...he bell I«t'I~el'l ~ i n ~.omc m".... (.lI.Ja.h."CfO dnftop so . 11 ".. men l .ovaa. .uooj rrom . T ~ .lid..ht~ 10 w pc "". al lhooch Ihty orenN lhe _~ r.... si ner .. ..n~ ha''C boca cn<lDUrapd by the nfl<'d 10 impro .Iao mull . Suo...hd~I.1 kcy"".)' . '" ". . '-n lhe lk'>-elol'tneOI "r hi.epIJtxt bul 11'111 ill ll~ "lend ' In II I """lea nf .q... '" .. ..-e..eloped in lhe mkl -th in ic'l.... .....n ....TU...SECTION T H R E E Receiver Topics H E <lc:vdopncnl JOOd .ith lhe ad ... a mpl." uUmll..he .a~ R'f'.. cou ll.. till.icn l o llt-c>l".....Ct..11 Qln he hoome· cu n>Iru<: I.00<1 r.>rtiln l " J'C"'II r:K J"'rft>fTnll .. ~1db.t it:u1:lrl~ in raJ'""...h_r m...noS hI. h.n. e' ')1-1. "' ndr-_ c?')' I.. iI " nell .. kes "'""" S. lI..d or 0 implU\'C'd li. " houah lhe '" Ire ' iJl'l 'hal "C .larly lhe of "If 1 1lI..n.... iJll'<'- "t>tI. . h IS im""n.m portanl.... b«:ornoo m "". • . flc.. "...n.. n..>1' ~..1I-....t.. II in lho: laIC '~\ iw .n l 1"'1 .ul'll .. nt. rly 'ciahUea . tty lhe rllyaical dllI r1l<' le"ll a 0( lhe human operalor . . h... pcrl'~ Irmda l'NI..i'<Cf . 1I....... nl ~'hd~'..d..-tcnaliol re-pt.l .~"'" . I vc I'Cfl Ia ~ lI ...'__ .mr -I . pl.""lot imporlal'll. n "'..nvidc ""'"' Ia. I.". i<kt... n ml. • .. il'll:""""' r'CJ"C1"'" "r -.>I"len ~lli".1.I....lll'Nlve mIlCh 10 ODmlllcnd them.c " Id fIIobI ..II nll. 1 f. "'fIlacemen l of convenl"' tUll honil'll nlCCkanilml ...... ""k:t.... lh . """1".... under . ir I"""" . ma"". dc-o.. '''. ..l li" n> nl<.b.1nd<~1 or I" .'..lI man~ YrOfth... on "0 .luy.. l lhe R ' her ..·ural" .'Cp.Ider till."'.v Imlleu' While Ihe Icdtn ic.ha . nd .1 9.nd r<'n"c ...... . 'c l ~ " il '-"mu...Il .k. no.. h·roerf.p perf'''mlI'''''' ... lI<><ld dyllamic Bn~) COU I'IoJ ... . ."'o . m . I" d >a. ai r. _ ...blc--. ..nl <ini. '1('1.... . .......tI{Cj\<C'l ·· l pco (ICll' IOI" . a nd d ia ll tty lhe numeuea l klrJPad Of' lhe r..J II e'''' 1 ""fY much N Ih..ma""".)' of f.... W fill... ..""nrn l and C"'lluallOll .." I p' has co 0( Rla:'M:R t'cnd\l:i. 1 II r>«dI lo be ......oblcm ra:rp"JClI mi. le lrrequen." ha lr-IaIlR a... 1-lfH\Ill .tcri1l1C& t o Of"'.n ... . Iy .."..'.h lcll mo".... ItI'J'hft 'it:aIl'd ~. '.. . lll. o m mun . id<-bo." m er 10 ItIc d ... hoch arc <>ficrl repNcd ' '''''''' '''''lly II fI<lrcl1 p...... .....om .t..l isp)...").' ftllc f1ll\1l.. llo n "nC1l I... II would '...on.... bocn benefklal.n . m uld . (low.l _ .lani... ilK".l1 un..illal".f. nd "Cry _1< ' i h ne.... il ha l """' 1101..n... 1 J\lI'h ... IIistoricall~... eYIm .: " &......t.nl in "". N has poi nled 0111.:a.... nd communlcalion!.n..n: baled on ......:h chara.ccc. . 1M hiJh--p:.:nd of.. . nd 1M b l'illlle dy nlmoc ran~ or CI}"tJIl lIllCn.lI<l l la tH llly.. lcp in IO<T>C Imp. h h.c .lIcd .. n_ """"n.. inn_ .." ioI p"ma rtl ~ bee..1 """.n of lhe h .lc dKip. aerial tlotJc •• \ lhil l'Oinl II n pl...".l. I'I~. Ch. lln • "'"'oc rael'" or roIl. lalk"..lb<i<JJ. _ ""h rUrwWnenlal e.>r1 . h .• • h 1 1... dialorti"" ll . AI WOD... -b le oemll. hd t hu Ilillln I>e ...... . .1 nn Il\It&IUre" menll IIIlt.nl~ imrro-. he . I.. hi..b...h.. oJcq> . .. 'n ..l...olid~I. fflCtllU!l'mcnll on mrriWft. ha ll . ICIIIII I ~1t ~..nc lhal .. .. uoc. .nd ~ . bihly .n . mu'lIIum ..IIlhf.. as r~ on load 1l...".n ll Fnc.... r.ro:mcnll c...l h. na!} belli ' " . oacilla lor 11.....i. CIC A rrIlljI. ' .hand (ulllm. ) OU''''' '''' .h..ntl ll><... ..he deI" n of h. "...:'e Ihia II " mllctl d ue 10 alcina and lhe ..'e bul .. 1 ' nl rud. 'C'd dllC 10 1 1I1en. nne imPfO\'cmm'" partiarW1~ in mahan ID lW rrequ.n~ 1J'C"'il\aloon ohuul d mah " d e..-....--n'<'d.iI~ ­ .QI" . b. r'OIII--cnd1 ~_tty . . it'n..lind . rtoee lhe d.. """ "IC.0..m . blc 10 U I'C'-'I '0 achicw reall )' ...... ....he . .II.."" h." rn. opc<:ifk pcrfonnatl(lCl 1...h . ... nncl in'crf~.... .i"" . lhal lhe . .' I>e nl""'lftJ 10 Cl>l'l: . and lunin..' ily ia limi led b~ the ".poncnll. dcw-.. me ff1Ct11U > rcmrn ' f>It><'Cdu'flI can be frull "..bi....<:calI 10 li..'" ... ."""")'10 ~ <:.'Ct1 .llen ..n.. u~ubilll ~ 10 uon-mod uill ion or blockina..

-.. .. L '0.~ ~''' . ..... _ . .. '.' )"""1 .. ~ ••• ..... _~ .. ... ••• . . I'1.. '" 'n . .. .. .. 1 ••_ r:~''1' on }'... to . .... . t o. _ .on lf ~H p. ..-~_ . .. AI1AT IUIl R A D I O T E CH NIQU I S ... .. '1 t 0J-' ..... ---=--ro:ot= ":' ""'"!~ ~. e.. .... ••_ _ • • .· n g·u lao. _ .. .. '. .....-. ... ---_ .oa.. -... ... . . .... . lU .. ... .... •• ..= ...' .. . _ ...

...a. 1oojlI.~""n/lal~ n~. done (in conjunction with lim ited n-uu: imum .l (>1' . 51"". Aorord.I' an unw. tlp".... W .cI. lill~ted jokin ~ly thai One wl u.4...nted . "'.... '" " 'V . .. ~..Jf ~'~I~I""h B .r.I ~ .I"" tWO a.. ~'OfI.io-a_1\eI... line i. .. . all1lOll lJCI:-lig... em. 0 &f .... _. .. The ma ken cla 'm lluIl the reoeiver will halld le Input si. respon~ will nOl cmcrac unli l 1 00U. the!irsl Lg.1." IIlu. I ... m 'll. . E.R ECEIV ER TO P I C S 75 O .t tuned ~uit will he Umpod b )' the aerial. ibu . Olhe .". ...w. ..-' _ .. b. band width ~t '*ftn _ :tod b ~ i nlo at 10 MC/o 'OI ilh ... thil i.n would be w iii lnUIJ.... n .. . US.....11\0. .pol'>!iC CUI"'>'C to II lafge eJttenl in one 10. 0.. _ sha ll be fortunll te if tt. mor~ rrot<:c1ion .k:s.. i"ll la lel ... N-\<ct d rop ped the Uo tremd y low ... ud! Stlfl\llls nor nv... ::. ><!ulalion dfoX"ll in lIano..noJ'Ot'1nl!1'I I~..._ .. .. ".." OIlt al a PO"' 1 ofmedlum "....100 ~ e/.t. amplificn :lre be t"""'fl I' and 2 t~ wone tha n wil h t:ood ".... .r./"l B." is rartial lar1y t rue . more . ... Remote Rnd ~mH""ote e"toaf(" »..e the "... tCl APrlicalion RCfllII"1 "Ct OSS Mod ulllu o n III Transtll ot TullCl'll ~ by Ph ilcu Latuda1o: Dj"iliion.:::..g.... plUliculal fl~ourilCi in the United Slat Cll hl ~ been the 6DC6 and the 6DZ6. I\n in terestirta tectt nique introduced with the 11~ 1. Ual mallflC'f ~ Il k ini OOt a yollaoIe ..... 1.... ' ' '0''01" ..... the Lg. "" 32-) ' 00 Note : Wh ~ c impro."!ff..J IOf aDd shotJ be switched o lf in l ucb Cood 'llOIIS. .. f .. il litt le hop: of avoi d il1ll ~ .. IIgnal.nl._ .~ .ilflall ara fl'N rom dick." ... ...III<.inj in the W1KCS19 ~~cr """ Wl i be d ilC.c.on) l o. " k...tot I ........ FOf some lime pilot..iluati.f.._m. of f.. . a. modulalion with normal m:ei "i llj " a l\'\"$ tW I D X ha. Thi.'ldiliCltiort. I)I ac/.. .l.u.. _ _ ...lO Ittal M ThI:Se o:l .. ... l he fin.." qWJlrd/1W'f " PAJI. . .modu .. IF"....._ __ 1 11"• • • 11I._ ...I p. ..e .n. liJlllb to aQ UoIWI wbe. ••• " 0 . cireuil1 10 a . 1 i. l ........ "'Cm!"" 10 a ltl"<cl ever I r_ microvoltl .·(. ndwloith I ot... If • local itation " sp b tterl" fCfflO\<ct or a ttemUte lhc: "". WhaI aile can be doflI: to rWlOCC c:mu-modulation 1 On lhe ~ f~~y biond. .cl..... tU>d P.a'~ H UIlCI .ndw.th a BO Ih. 1600 k. ·'l 0 11" the IClIl&-mlY be lnoocently c:al1i D\ CQ On 14. may OOC'U.. t CI".mnduLtuion in the receivee ....Iv« will he mueh lo:u ruddy a lf. neither 0( which ap p"1U" to be 1'l1&\k o "er Me The EF8' (Of CQlli>1llentW119 . o r -If '" lUoC is considered C$.t. n be Itiw:n by incnui". 3 l hows wltal mi ghl bappen 10 the s~ls in a lyp lCll sinsJeand double.... ...bove .ldl up ltron.. ndw..n n the t..... _ . ".1 ...rtieu l"' l~ . the final i. ncmer Ie/lli-fllimote CU t-o/f IYP" .. . ..... CN-in._vet r """"" ....0". .e dill.d. 6BY 7.1YC5 bu t on e: rcmc l. 1 the end or th e l...:t &1 I II on out DX si.." p In (J irly constant.r. lnc. (iron l I II.. Uhra·llneAr "al Yell Wilh l poeia l eatllt>dco in tendod to n:d~ cru. the pen::c11~ dilfcrenctl I...n hnea r claM A I. . ble tnooe a t all If _ lUoC •• br Oold · ba/ld " t .. . see R . I mp lifletl and taed to c<l \llol lhe pin 0( the t l . .. (Iro nl lola.1 opa 210 kC/1l tw m the ..lUoo (w JUch will be worse if tbere Iii an y lAm plaood bet:ween tna IWO mi~ .I V .. nd hooldl o "e l. t ron.l (k.. of Nllm~.. circu'tI Q BO.) 6db down 20db d<'>wn '"kill dmton (kc}I) (~~I. lton... In this lCCIion II il I ssumed fOf oon~en...i....... bl )'. . lO I''''' 500ll kcll " "..ul '" the fo r add.Il ion ia m O h kel~ to 00i: 1I1 mthe non -Itnea r M m.. dth . m~f rof luned ~.." lOOr ~ . n. Iflcti~il~ fro m er.:rlc : wuh four tuned e'''' U.._ 9.dth C MC/I) u'. Ie _." in faYOlJr of lhe Ilightl. (&1ft ( .. stage'!....lflCnI o n a bo.. ti. . a 'reli t impl"O\"'C'- .. Th efti'll I_ g~ IIpl:ll'.('.. ~ .... band .c/.../1 I I "" o ...I_ . .."IICJf h""J Cwulu Cak:uLt.f..".-J~~.r ko:t....J>lw'... ~r ." . .g .. n. . obtain. .11 &fld nOie whether the ~cnals I ppell' to cktl n up where they <... ' V "'1 ..' I<e/ I .V R.I" the ClU~ 0( Ihe .:OJlversioo Iill. litle al to lC'!het and .. _ 1• •101 hi...1 h~. l. il h a n e... could be oblllJ""".n. . ll..'.. Acr UlI cimm Q . . but C'\<C1I on Ille l. W hen "Ifl'al... " . The .l blI redU<:Cd b~ • fsew. 5 " 11' il to h. ehain .. trand"lIrmel'l Of po t CIl. . S<'l"" t" l1 ~ CTQ&1omodulatlOn cou ld oocu r III Ihe early iJ.nd mor e ~i"".n l./ .r. f a.. . ..th Ii tnt feni'" co... pr obably coe of the best or the [ur<>pc*n Iype l . • . rer. T Sl' UL "" " e/I ... Ita.o:.11 pol co..IflS a ICJ'Ifl.. '_1 _ _ _ .j'" w.1i Yily. .. . IN t(. p&rtk:vbrly in the US". Lallld~ . ~ o:l w . and _ II outside lhe pan batKI of our reeer.tia l_ lhe pilltUO of YOIt Ig.. y be n lmneJ y 1mI1l..ted than Ihal P cul ·oIl" I ~pn.. tioa mly req uire mo.. ofl Cll a tntljor oo ntr ibo. F i. . of Cif\.. • C. IFlluruq""trd A RJr L H"tJboo/r. . of In l.f..f.ienc:e IN-I a li ngle lIClccl ive filter fet)'liu l IIr """ChanicaI) sha~ lhe iJ .... .ey have no err.". lH . ..no iv shorl· baled petltodes from r.en if aU the stron.'" tnlUlua l pi n contm l ...agr . wan lOll ' M un wanted li gnall nv. ie ty pe of lIpprOlOCh cau he a do pted '>'Ct)' limply by moo ~inli: tile r... rc 50 k ~l ... iabla "". I nu mber or n f l he: ""Ina' frequency IWIIld circuits.."" H I' 1' 01< <.. Tr._ .. boul 10 Me/l wbeee the ptOloct'oo afforded by mO$lli ilJW freq uency luned ci ~u l ll bccofnet. . o f on ly uao nh ml ...C . - _.aid P ili luninaJ ." . Thili a '!l'(:' 1 11:f'I1 i..eI only a le uilCd. nne take.. .h pin III Ofdet 10 llear a weak silJn&l bu.t:.i".n h" "". mc><!"l. l Slage onl y. .. a1mosl certall1ly l:I"Oi'l"l.. n. 1'1.-..epled Ih.. f' o r thi.dt B....bow th<lt ~ opera linl witb hi... .. tip ....dl l he end or the iJ.l.' 0 .. . N umbe. 10.>Cl<.. II il generally .... Itall'll) flOln the I ... I J 1<</1 I t..ctl in the II..rQ. . . n'Q I 61. .. bocn reported under dC'lC lQpmcnt in t he United Statn hu t N-"" nnt yet ~PUrcd on the m.. " . 20 Me/I IIplll woul. de llyed and d OC'S nOt ICI It III on "err _k 111lflI1• • a lthough o n ."~' te l..e.. . ..nal ' up 10 2 \<OlllI without o""rload .. . IiF I9J.~"d is. .. lagc( Ii)..~ COfI"Clllionl l U . On lele~y..

IC..t.. ~ ...':_= 1 ~----.o 1.. _ _•••1 ... S6 ohm lInbrP-ued emitt« .. . the bell: _ _ lOD&I valve Illnen (1 _ the entire • .. 19" In lIll in commerd!lJ ".. ~. Tloio .011.. •• VU (v _.PJl"OKh "" artic:1c on mucinc ~ l Il.an be obu iDed by IIttiP.~ U.f:." _ ~ u ..h..IIOf1 of . 1 Ion& . M' '" " 6916 00 00 . ~ 1a _ .."'.." rai.. No IUbotanu..i an.. llUill up to quoW hip .. W'CUita.---..f. • 0 0 '~l .lW>1 aood Jenlltivity .__. Ci<I"'D~ TbII brinp II' lO the qUCJlioll.:ko. bole problan of UKnbi.. . RADIO TIC H N IQ UIS mml . ith !radom !'rom CTOIamodullllioo.... ..J d. baWl Ift:R.. _ I e.. j .oliM dYIJQ tcd ... T20lI mirnl&llo)' dd'hiMd uan. e. . .ll'_ bcl _ ' '''" modll"tioa ctrocu of .. ~ / ~ ._ . 1 _ .. Mtl. and (0I'Wan:! " .=:.._ " ."e.11'"1 by lhe . .. Oa in ill unalfodld by tesistotl or up co 100 obnw. (:I'O\A moduJ. ..ll IIIT\lIll ~.o.. " l."".._... Iic>on a nd ICfl!lo'nil.lfll traMi.... I ....-. "'MATIU Il. .r Ita. . have been D04ed .-in the ..il"'" .. bdd by _ W be the U)' 10 tbt ........l. r-----r--T-~ m. " "" .""'.~. Wh y DOl Urp l uch lien-II relal i y _10. by Ilmilinl lhe pm In thnc . _ . 0 0 ~....._ bel""" lb:ir dimiAlolMXl Ia the a. 111 001 unwanted J. cf p in diWilnuioa Ihtouah lho ~'V. As . ._ 1~... luc \kjenetallve _ncr B~ U1inC .I . o o " 00 "" . _ _ • • " . eqlal Of better tban.e.

.m of wh ich 1 'J""<'Il in Fia ...l'~.. .. .Sotndcn 10(.... In I"" W2PUl .. Cer tllinl)' the pctformance t1aU l'lll clll imed by WlPUL for such a miJlCr an: u tn:mcly impreW~e .ll rev ived wluch pillS I serica-tullCd imaae tr&l' IlCTOIS the va l\-e .. llUd witb a shll'pCK 250 e/. " Q...'• .ci""r of Squi l'Q. lhe: UIC of 7)60 beltm deflcc:tion va l\'CI U h.t«:tors I nd ~ splilleR htJI lillie h..l"" a l inSIe elcctron .1. . To reduce ima p:. -. m liS n ~~ . cr IlUOCC'PlibiJny 10 C~odll laltQll. .... iderable p rol OCl Ion ISl inst Lf....005 or . irI the United Stat" aTO pn:paf'Cld tn fork ou t the ir shek els fot two ~a1 1l11en .. "H ""n 14 0V .' • . tNlI _ ... . OK ~.n by WI D X• • block d iqra. "' L±~--=' " ) <. ~ •• _ .-w..f.rn. sinc:e this lI01y PIllS further -'li PS be lween the aerial anod the se~ circu ils .tJn\<CfItlonal clast A pc:nlo.. .... provide whll t W2 P U L d.. bands witho ut an r....."'..ith no r.. Since the 1. ca'loN. 11) 1!'Ie IIX&! OIIC illat" r swilct.. I n (Old type Qf t ". a 2'8 ken wiele eryst&\ Ialtice filler imrnedi.. I I o . IIl p but _ ilh a.o uld be Iitlle pOlIn in just IIninl an aUlriode con~rtli'l' in fronl of an CJlistm.rn O..dcly u.. .a.._ . sta lJC.>da and . ~ H AT. stdl II ltlve whleh II ._ 1-. .. fIecthIn M'''.. ooise IiIeJx:erlirocc there i.f...I....~ " I . I ' I o.. I I linea... _ IOS T H. Ik arn deflcctitm va l\U IUCb . the 7360 (which was InltOIoI IX. Q.. .. ... • .>de and I'd fllnet i" n.~" OUT...._Ml.sed .. I :~ '~ . _'N _" .... equipmen . no Icn&thcnins of in terr~ pubcl to lICfU1incl)' a. 10 showsl he fronl~ of I novel dcsi..- ... . the " aae provides con . mu.."O ~ "'.. .... ' lIKC.l 1 ree lurel inel ude the use an unbll ll nnd 7)60 beamM n. .._.. .... tholT the ca. Oobl I IG NAL •• _ . ••• WID X • M H.oed u tNIllnced modul&IOfI in lI. .... 0---"i.crnm can readily be delb:tcd I" either <If t.. F urthennore he hal MOWn h.WULT . IO~ ' 0< ll '~ S _o.." _ . -_ .. filter fo r e..on mixer...~/": ...." FiJ. ftIOCiver. .o ~C'I . (a l.. .. _ t..f.-..k:ulat cd eqUIVa..the e1«tron sl rum belWeCO the two an<.. • ".... effectively U I miller.I. We WQllld """' tNil from the ~int of view or _ _ Another Impo rtan Tpoint l.=. ben pres.tl• •.ltiplier to sharpeo up Iho c:Iwacleristicl of the input cin.-:ribcl I ' result s.t i. n _ _' .hcd on their ~ II recei""r In the beam deftClOlion ~. claimedl d l'lo!liea lb rcd uea rca=.. noocptioa in the I Ubtcqucnl I... We IlUCII tha i C\TO mi..uit has Ixc." " ell'el>i t (.. lely followin. _ " _ " " " . re«nt technique i. b..Ion " I: " " """'" 0 · 01 a.ui t to reduce 'ml p ~nMl .-....u boe:n publi.... ......f. l _R n:o..:~ a_ "'. dllCCdin 1'HIll) ha~e t-fl . ip l freqllalC)' input circ uit.n r .... cla imed t ha I when lhe eirelli l Is eo noctly l <!jus tro the Sll ll'= i..lcnl noiw! l'lIIislaDce of the miur is on ly 1500 ohlin 10 tholl optimum sensitivity Qln rudily be aeltievcd on h.f. e... • 1 •• odHo . _ ~ ~ ~~~~ J .. miurL Thio lechniquc il UICd in the ss.. 9. p' oouo:t. A prombin......otin. it i. Imost immWH! to CfOIImod ullltion can be 1IICd In conjunction with II pre-H .e " " modllial io n there ..lOCillted wtLb CIeu Lahnrll torics) I nd..=k input cin...f. ". ... + .l.RECEIVE'" TOPICS " mi_ . t . ..0 anodes I re: coenecred in the plllh-pu tl modt. _ Tl . : ~on • 0 .. . the mixer .U I deBct. Tt>c un ....

t f<:. . \111M aerial c:ouplinlllrindinl II r«dt ..1'M! " ~.. A flOlpef by M t A. • Wilh lhe . ..a"'"dy been I Uga. ... " CIl'f$T . (ill ~11Ye ..mk:. he NI ")' IJl cl<.. ""'tap Ie&l<ina blIck iDt...rroJtJ '1 U>eI I Bl 2') with lhe .. I 8329).tapiS I '" deoiIfted fD' ' llllwn 1"_rilY If " amplc......vi"... I\alt tho! t."".on &ll. C m. . 1 thc miMT1 ehc:wn Ifter • _1Mty or tnl.... .. "2-1 ell pvallel-Nnod trap In the -naJ is uoed to redllCll l... " ....? ~ &I. """"promiw ~ linea rity and _ ("'lOr . e-s v OKI ~ ~ .__ P1 . . "bo ~ripl i ..It... ioIl o f the old problem or bJ ..40<1.ll lhe O~ I I lhe 19fil II. -.. . "". Tho: \ln boo... &1 for the r.- M ... &trip.- ..tion miMr ilsimpler lhan .a \CI')I hiJh 0 l.. 0( a 1I01k! c~ drnrtt wtth I m..icahlll 10 ..t I....he W2PUL deMlft abow IbouJh ptlClllllllob!y • I....li_ (millCr) ItqeIna Ihlll .ble ' 0 cn-mod ulel... ..e .n P1 ..-_..t.~ bea m del\ef.. t>I ..~ Q-rnul lipli« which ~ .Of but tho! pol nte OC4lCICl nod WIth II'M! ftdUCIIon oh pul'ioul reopollIClJ of _ _ eq..r.. " " " " " r • • on.:.""" lia in lbe 1'eIUl11fl.." AMA TEU It ItADIO T l!CHNIQU l! S .. II ha. (.. lunif\l W'cuit. • ~Ti. . ' 1 ef •••• _ - .. ~ -0 0< .. The reoeiYel' dacori bcd hao ID ~lab""llc frequency . TOIt . tIl 12" • ..lI ttJ". C'imlill .u.\a~ IIIiut is mlUItbbly itnlllune 10 CfOSI-ml>dubllion.F... Wllh Iow-n<_ m. " ~· I Q...- . Cl tt'nt thill pplicl l liO 10 other ronm 01 be.-.ny dJr'I~ lC11 t ~ II.. ."'" .. nw . oac:illa...equiva.... ~ MO' I'w'tbct ~venioll down 10 500 ~Ci'l ....tod 1l\..... . n. c:orl/XICIcd In JlU$b-puU.... II' _T ~ .ltade /110ft ~ .. ..10'1 ' " f lt 5 .::.. p.h y bat M wit!t a t. ConnIoc ....I..iu~ IIl"C1sed panio:u lerly tho! impotlatJA 0( (i) mwn Ie lcclMty ber...: sary n wlecti.. __1_ ----_. _ _ .L... ...c Cvlpilll Is uxd with neplj_llI!mpet"ll~ a psci lon to red uce drin .he IUlII ilIpu... lb •• >cad Ni t.pow>d i ~i'" bly tum.en.. _ l~ l- :' .. how tba OOlllm._ nceiYCn.t:::r- ef _ W I D . or Mclean M ai&D&1l ..... 11M by ...he Lt.:orp onnaJ II I 6C4 r.. . but an.&l lhe 1106O t. ily arnw. l i ~l the lipl is k~ "11 low I ~I II II prarticabltl ulltiJ muimunl Idocli.. .. .o idcd b7 d\anJlll& aipll down '0 500 lo. . ...1mla [ C02.:! in lhe 1·1 Me/li.ppl. n.. IUl'h U lhe 7360 or . ~ -.. '01 oum.~ uoo:I wilh -.. T o .Il.. up III the t«1>on lM ruder may be WOIlIkrinl . +..the llrIt n...m." • 00.....aodina " ul from .. ty hal beeo Iril inftl (by • 1·6 Meft crylli l tlller). " " " " _ " "_Ion Z .\at>Qed wnlon..need cimlil..... amt'llflrn &I ..<ll l... pro umi..... _ ...l.:tllalor a hit/>. ""'"""00dI_ _ _. IlA U1---<al1Cl:'l!e circuit ....li"n <'·on _ u ic . ckc«:t~.. hah. eltmi.n odn..in d ... he '-:. ~ . _ ' . 00 the dHian or. bRak'lhrouchF~ 1M h.. re:... ThitI .~_· ..cJ. "0 '" i~ r }.t ' '''''llIl "- ) n.f.. .... ~ ." 0( tran. r".r. it is inu'l'eI'inl ' 0 not.~ .." aod c. ..ynt heli_ ttJ"... . t~r ampllftca tlon befon: the prod..

l l.1l Tl. I . il.. Go. ~ _ ~ ~ lUff IIA"~ Mct........ in I Mel..) ~" _.. .. .1aS 0-1000 " 0.R ECEIVIR TO' IC S TrIp'" (.'*' __ ~ . _ . the VIII. . -_ _ _ .. No lIIlna«l e1I'C\lili or un._ * .en prtn'id ina COlltillllOUl h.' II cffcaivdy the equivalelll of JO tr}VaJ.oc pto\'ideJ «JDtiDUO<lI . To tune...ll.... wor th recallin. II fo llowl ..fficull «> a\'Old IOIIlC dq....' ... Ioded oon'o'Cl1.. -. "TTl:NtJ"roo:...f._ nl_ _ . McJI BlNnl ftItfl' ._ _ _ "I'Ct_. and &UIIomatle c:orrect ion of drifl.blc OKilla.... m .c.c.. _ .. II i. There ill o nl)' one lip" freq\Jf:f1CY tuned cll'l:\lil in tile Krid vlltle r . ttllllble I'fICeiYer co~ mn.. coYcI1I .. Ill '.. . The....lhiu i' ht.. .._ _ . '''''' ~ 0 ~lo l :KlO'" ""." Q')'fIa' iI used with harmonic it«'Cfttlun .... -.--4 " A PIl.' componc:ntl ln ~ Ddtahet " usi a \he . .(Inlml.. .... ahhotJah iI mUll he "n:ued lIUll wiT the &IfIlphfood h ~ fLIIcn il ill d..inn _ o-SoJO M. whidt forma lhc Mcp::yt:1ett Ilde: tor.. .v .... WllI lII I~ I IM ... " ..me n l« hnkl. k . T.)0 Mc/a tr.. ...l)UriouI ... a... h(>Wn in Fi&.. A"". 14.......IlUlI... .. .... ..... Ind "E-. .. de.h. 6.n .l lo a bou l " 14 " and thm the ~ Ki~ l:)da ~ dial CIOn he lid to WIthin IIClOX 200 0... dbl:lrued in a Hlitillh alT\lltur jou..f. . Ila lC ...._ . _ ..l.. 2-) Meja........ (.or fonn of frnnl<nd ...... unil cal Jod lhc COT:l~n H .... oppoted 10 ~..'IflM The dncription In a 1 9~9 TrrJ rkttl T"fllt:~ of tbe UK oIa " QlocOOe am pltfier on h........"" . ~ ldif«'lll' c:ab!In. . . ..~ ( 01 _ . it be!~d to be the ftru lime Ihi' now popu llr idea .....d\J. in.lb ( .hdl *1M dock>pod foc till bal R A t 7 f'O:Cel"Cf . 01 the desired a n. .' ...cr _.... "' 11 (" 1 rt 2. . _ _.1. S Ion._ _. lha t in the o riainal I'r« ..ue ... by 2l in. I I .. _ _ .hI:h has an untuned I'l:IiIlive &Illlde road..t.nd . U fo£..f.. The RAil . ~ d..LU..l. _ .. . A frolll .owc/........ _ oloo . .1......H ~'" '.N" ....) l he 4 McJI tr.. ' ~" 01_ fi l ..... .1 _ ' .IClOa kno b. .. YC 1_ un il (00 a chu~ill l j in .-. TU1'<1 &lid I . (". &I1fK1ed <:onsllkrablc allmlioo &ad 1tw principle hu been UKd in ..70 Mo.. ~Lnlll ~I ­ .".. roACYCUS IU. _ _ -. 1ANG1. M M ....U from which it 'IlI'iI1 tot _II tb..c.. 12..me home-buill «IIIwncn. _ _ ...11) UKd it! COIIjun{tion willi a noa-erit:1aI1 1.It..waNI Hobbw~ ~ VK2AZN... prcMded by tuninI 0Yef 2-) Mc. .a:I.. 00 '1 ~ I Me. hi ndi for fcedin. by 71 in... t MOIoo/. . on the eon VCfU'r are t ile . Ilolh the doo b~lriodc mi. en l.':uJ. . .nd-1C1 c1taL B) mc&'" of a Ul'pIe marne ~lan 1_ Pi.I (.tnlsl TWlina 4O-s-69-S Mc:h withoul ...Ja • ..ribcd in Radl<>.... TnI'*: wnvcn ion provldea drift cancellation of the 6A M6 40.. . _ ". l i"OotI.llIe the t)'pe of Q1'C\lit Ihuwn in Fi...F.. The Wock ICho:moalic is ....rcc of J. into.. ali lM I ~ ~ it 10 let IN M ~Ja. I •• _ .

dqcl'll'1"• •iW r«<.....n. . ....~.'ter "" ... .1 .' n... I . Ye l '~re a rc ..n amp hlin in fn". Ind the: r......n..lIna1 cnelJ) ru<:h..1I '''''.. e IIndllly ~'T111.c. ~ I - .-). I L . amplif\en to be rclId'ly CUD veneo:l 10 . lin .... " 80. ....IC!iT AMATEU" 11.a. nil <lUt"".. .. . it It "<. des ral!'>o:r tha n ilt\f'>l"OWl. 1Iy .rc 1.....de II~ hili boen deKnbfd II)' K 1I K ).:. C) ~ ~. we...."..h<>uld not pn... ...b.~h ill0 pul I n 11Io:'floUa'Of T'II [~r Il\Qn. emi ncn lly oemihlc "ay 0( imp ".. of 8/lin hy . ... I r'fl'llmp... .• .. A' with all ampliflCn Ihcl inP\l' an d (lU lp ll ' circuit.. CIllO! of the .ller ~ thiro ""' h.. _ QI..l lwlek : r . receiver._OU ..U • .Odin.1tl1'C't' d~II'1 lh.llI e I :ldB or .II..1._ __ _ 100" . (lIt.le J FET .. " ..-.. . .ny l itU8...1l.... rrl9..' --.Jn>1r:c ...'<C ~. In osr (M h.. II _ . I I _ 1 _11_ _..._.""...... In whio.. ..mple .al pr""Idts . ---._ U . ~ n' similar 1)"J>C ('0( rentcde r._ _--J C 2 .I ~ --- ... 'ta ntJ. " "::1 ... In .~K'd .. • mpltl\ct" ptQ.' pnform_ ... ob... WII K..... .he . ken . 16.."'!'t.--. 010 T ECHN tQU ES "Itb!.ond...... win."l-c'THI!ld thllilow fn"'l""'" pin .I." :t-t.".. TOl'UOdoJ inpu t . T ' . IlI'twork in lhe ~ 1l'PP(y In<k t(l Pl"C"t'nl ' .«hnIqUf C'A IIOOP"" lIp 1 ""~tll\li')' (Of okkr IUd""" un 21 and 2lI M M i tt hu trod.. <k>u~ " .. r..nl0 diot.. prCIImp I. I"' u. . . (•••• "...~ . (OtI'I.:c of old 0 1 I . . IOQ "5...'<>UpI.. . " - ~ ce · .JJ M _ _ " .."" " .tcd . _ ' . . r.. must be Up! ck<:trical1 y ...r. _ '. " 0- SOl/pin.k -s..n. An ~ dcll n which Ill . U M Ho 1l1N" ".. --J.. III ... _ dKIice._rs ar e uted w" h • deo.. ·..ll'.. ..p ~.... .lh nne side rom"n•• IfOUnd r>la"" l maunlc<l in a I I by II by Ht In ."l\ai ••." .. 1.. lder 6S1i....' . i<Jco dynamIC ra""".. rot ttICCI""" of . II I lJ __ _.1 pI'O\iiokd thai lhe uwal d .na .. Kn.. -- '.. -....~ • j..... Q -..._ Cl_ . of .I~. .....llnun'"111 -I " . .. 19N ... t...- I .101 00!J1I OeM ..:"C...dd-on ~m. " ••• ..&ulionl.... unn "'u ooilt on. OlW uqlr.. . i"n."U IU.-. Cmw nJellun . •• mlat . ll . . _ (" " M . • '~ ~l 11_ ... the'Trldi' i"n.~.. ...... ~ -."........... " Al l/ I iO(..m ..1..1... ' ..

. ''''' o. .. ! .. _ __ ' _... ilQpe. .. _ - " --_ .. -- .. Y'l. . n..i1-1 MHI A atn l" del. 7 ...... . P'r'nodK'IOI f(W" ' I M H..n CQ... ll~ntJadURd ~ miur ('oId .. 1)J'._e-. • ' .' _ _ --. 864 176} 1163 '" '" 116} ..bk of load prrformlllCC ~r lhe n .Icl t.... fa' l.f. . • boiled on _ oI llw ... a nd .lan (FiJ.. .1Im UIinJ cqulpmall l\ln..e \l1UI.I " __ -..lN) '. ....I Ol OI. _ .=:=::.. No 1. _ r.... .. '" H '" . 11 ___ .. ......a.~ also --...-•• I • - ~.. . .. '... .. lhe b1uaro d......I'-'i=~:. "" . ../M.. 191 tor Nolle.. ~{¥. " •• m . Ca ll.....IIAT'. .. 0..... r • • " ' >0... .- 'K " ' K H 'K " 'K ........ --. 0<> .. " . 1. _ non u on .1 1<' ~ "'lI b . "" . SJlA I.. . . ~· l . M _ . • lu n . e db db ]SO .yt.. .. \ 011.....I H __ . Ind Iol:al OOIClllalor (~_ . IEjOO eec..f._H _ _ ..OL..r-:•••• H H ._...t ...... e .... 26" " 7. _ ...".. ~rwl'\... ."I todwcm 21B and )o Mil L Olha lUll.. _ _ H. 0' W" . . . l<dl as lhe Jl."-1 a llefMa lOl' .---. It_•_ .. .J. 'W " m. _ _ • • 0 ~~ " _ N_ T ..

••• .. ..10 . _ "I"u... . or reoei"ft tuch aa ... ...... ._ . _ _ _ _ _ T1Mo _ . W M T A 100 O • • .... I. A D I O TECHNIQUES ' ''+ =:lV " ..j. . but . """.... .... ... Manr . " . _ .:ti\OC propoaitioo... -. cui" windinl 1eChniqUCll.. I . .. _ .. .._ 01 _ CIaH .1 K ro p' "".. tioo. ' " " .....0..._ " 0.cuil ror. .lMCi1u. ".... . ..lIr. It i:l 1~ '~ u( haolt which mal.. _ II< eo.~.... O Ul _"-. "...... av ' I . the ph)'lliCll_ruo.e. 1 - I I ' . _II.. of tho: llanm.._ _ ~ . _. I .. n 51 " UIClll 1°•".. liT . " . _ .. etc. . &I'll Ifill ...... unlea d><-n with " .. llOll-qclil.. ... ...... co . . r--------·---------~--:ii:l I . ....... "00 ~ . ..." A M AT E UIl .• V SU A .1Io. . • - n ~· . tV' _ _ .... " 1 14 u nn li t .. (:I. "" "" ~" : OoOOlJ : : ) l ~.. 11..""""" ... ....~ lU I . 11 . . 100.uch poi nt.."· to hal C)'Cls whid! _ lha1 when !My cool d llWll !hey 00 not l'elu'll eucl ly 10 their "'"I$ill&l \'&Iuea.... mponenu. the I.. 0 1 ~ "'C I J I I • '~"I' . \ "' ~ Q_ 0.. 10'G' ' IIIr QpKitaooe)... .0'..

_ .. ~inly..\'OIldiq ... Thi...-"...... tha i ... nd u.(. Rec:a"'"" A N.bout Ute 4eaip> of l ymmetriW .. ha pe facton. _ . a physieallr..-e ...... Z.. one 01 lhe maN popIIlaI' ~ .-. " " '__• the betlet It II liu ly to be.-_ . of 4-'1) kc:tI or man CIIUlOt be eIlp«tc>d to proy.f'ebnsuy. iI th&t it ~I I p>4 K$o("Ij.t)'ItaII bet_ J and. " 0 " C> .~ apao:itlncq.... _ _ . fillCl" dcfian 901lkh bu beea a11~ IBIcrftI '. S.. ohm rftiltor In t he " ree ' 'no& crrcuu ...nd C• • tor... M ..ur . _. ppared iD the B1Jl.Il. esdten inItInce thole b1 Q) M .e.Ido a " II II Ca-...de the <kvee 01 reIectl'lit}' -sed today. .JebaDd fthert 10 lhat then illlO fundarlxnQ.Ifl""" . bulapiftll thillmal be put the diffieu1ty of ......1-"" a. U IhowI \hi cimItt..larr: "acted foil a nd mica 1)11(".... to...tlAlle or .. ' I _ __ ~ T_ _ _ ..1iC:I. ..m cin:ul1S. tiooo l ad >'e K mcnt in a m:cnt Osr dra . A typI«I eumple of tIw diffltWtn iluo . ad.nl . becomilII a~ with 1.. Il"id-tcr«n .....Iflllinint.iC.--:r-.f.aUy appaat'td III A_.. l:Mio ..... The only lUI I d . LL (0) . " o... u.... appticaliex>. ...... r . 1962).... _ I.m.. Ii:... IIUA .. .h little mtlIlion of the lOCOflI~ina <. l:<JnU1Ion .. o f jO. " helnl Multl-<0II't . Jan. A .' . hleb ona can NIl _hea deIJaninI all1l1oNt l:lOlWWlcrl can. lOO t ell f "'. brid ac n.b..f.. _ _ Ll..... eilher ... _.. be . 11 .r. to -... _t «01" nxcntly I.. CJ.. u...J.)' ¢:. i.cnodw.. ra:ci>'Cl" not ¢:. IS .. SeYenJ IIICfUI uticIeI bI.i1y to bI obtaioed with coo'tCntWnaf tuned PCthaPI not 10 widely held 0_ haoe" but I'W:D 10 0f"Ie' (reo .... 4... . an. Fi.. l. ~ " ..lUlL types 1«m uMuilable for uu. aoepc lhat of C'C'XKJmy.... Mid to be . low finl lU. lao. _ .. ' ..ll : the c.. ncei---.. I1UI idea II N _ """ _ . batmOfti( frequency .t.....li. reproduced . I':I _ I':I .antljlel of mu ltiple couY«lion.. _ tMl .puriour RilPOCISI U wdI U ~brut..JCl.....r)'ItII filta1 both for n:o:ei -en ITIO fOf u. 10 q Ual tly .. (reqllO:Odo:s now thai ' 1)'5 bIuc."U lraIiLl n.llOdIand.... . U ea " r:. (". I LI_ U _ _ MII _ . __00 ra:ci __• G2UJ fou nd thai by ~ )1na ~rtic:u1a t at tention 10 Ihis poin t. .. In d in.. bitdieI aDd othet' Iypes ol..lalOl" (1685 kc.. somctIlIleI ~ ~ . )( C.11 . _ __ ' a_"'a. ~ ..1 ~ ad ... )ol.ry. fll1' bl lIlIoe. C1 FTMJ _ aofll_ i i.node IlI d ICreCQ ~ fonnl (IpI ItrlI o f . in ._ ..)'Sterns 10 the el(mifllltion or opuriouI ~ a nd even in Ilm pler ointtk Of double I\l perMt ~ it eat! .... Bw a ~ deal ba bocn '-mt iI:l years ....ndI up to U MC/lt a111louatt the tel lul'lO thToudt ....'ll in • double coo.. mechanicaJ or I c:rysW fillet anoJ wilh a ftnaJ l.f. TO ' I C: S . a ble 10 dimlflllll -mly banoonic ""pol'IWI fl"Om the l*:il latOl'" DII au t..n h. f 6J6 .. fo rm of neu t raliulioo is utod Inct'e..... • _ I_ _~ .hkh !he .I VE Il.....en l lype... C...• . ttl '"~tion La what I. .. 'C I. VK1A VA wbidl OfiaIn. [ ... lhe lReflll Q a I\naJ low i.>ot1 .. Indca:l lhe lrend illOWardo biaher inacrmodial. 2S . Ll ..anlll«'U'. bi••ystem oould prftUm. ••• _ _ One ot the _ aerlouJ PlotHmtl iD m&lItlplol ___ lun iRt: .OI.t.u inliY with hiah -slupoo r•• me..Iid'act"')'...5 "'Gh. OvQTC UliIll four FJ'Z4) l....' /tIJdiA FIa. tM lIllOOrtd oaeil. .ho w' rhe esKll til.l.now for . intn"~1«ttodIo eaplld lanl:C:S form 1M orber thow ~ C•• bellll &. ~ ' .Uon ~ fteIlI are taken to redllCl tbeoe ptoblerM. A ClOIIIbiDlltloa of dJl e.1. . bcm...' _ _ .b1y be . id "al\es.UTtNalready OG lhe defi lD 01 b.1Iioo aDd f. U~ ..k fillCl'l a.. in tele . the best b)"1!"_ eapadtOl'" .JCa and in ....met ima prova \'CI')' d iftlt:ull 10 ttIdr:: dow1l elinllNte opunOlll oiplt.llKb the «1mmtln idea thll lhe lIIOR (reqUOl'n<. ~ about oom m unlcallOf"lS rec:eiwn..olatDDl eapec:itot UMd ro.. low 1. IIClwor k in whidl.{.... w ..'-~ "'Ill.." .. pplied 10 P'O"'\'I" a m plJtIf:.en-.

-:r =::e-. _ .J- . --...rJ . !be anUaI. . It"DI O TI!CH NIQU . ... _ . " .. o..IO~ '* wink _ TrIM My H_ Cryn.......... aDd u... _--_-. ._' " H _ t ..... '-a If'O'I'lq _ _ _ ~ i.. ' AD artenlWot oIl1\11 In-. ... f- .. ... -..... ~ 1lalf4tltlQe ~ Jl.. ... • "'" thet iatcrf-. .. _ _ _ _ li~ ~ fOl' lIlII tillb • 0 = . lhe Ili&bII' ~ .a. -r uocfIJl ac-..01 _. .---. _ ._ '".... 'U '*' • - tU • (0) '_ _ ~_..... .--. '" A""T IUIl.-. . it ill ~ Jrr:-\'\.. IU .. .-• It .... ... "'" "'" "'" ::"11. . JIll ____bill -.: f(0) y...... ....- -- - 4. _ _ to.. oIQ)"1QoII . y• ...::... ~ .".... .. .b." ' ..-IJ . _'. froqc of aao.....t U1 bJ. _ ......I ... _ _ _~ud~ _ _ M"'bemI_IO _ ~ 01 .u In ............. w--... aDd StritaoLad .. . ~ a~~iua ClII' blockiq ClICIl:UR .. ' " . of !".......... . _ ". nl.

. ---.. ..6Q db (jn.." ""..).. .. ~ 1dI1L .. lfarai"Of .. . I ... 11 l ela : &.urva which QI1 bo: a<." au UKd 10 InI.~ · · · -~.. .~. T_trll.....RICI I V I R TOPI C S . tApa. _~..... Ilh alov<er ~lJue o r r~bkl naiIolor.lw. abw l :lOOlI ohms).... T .raM iJlPlil I m~..) l ei. 4·. .-" n il • Pia-n... .-· . l llh<.. tll'Cl' atTanll<'mo:nf usinIJ 1_ lUilably ~ CTWlJt a nd a pai r of {)C4 ' IraJlWIOf1. quOlC'd pafOl1lWll:C licuret fOl one of thor <. \l l '-e~ ) _) Ie ) ... _ ~'~_wl_I_"""" '.."" a 100 l~.... Z-).. ii aso.. t.-i6.~ .aled thlll only one lIftd be ~ . pus c....-...lUllI.. ~ _II'" ~.. CU.lid beller thaJt -«l <11'> " " .~. '" ~ .~ . ~..-.J. f ". bill it iI .. .. I I..." wlfa .... t-dwidLb . tlAn - .- •• 1~ . . ' Ie /i: OC U .~ + Pi..uvioe 465 kd'I &un beiDI: b&Ddwldtb --6 db ..· · . " _ """" _ ' . " ~ ...fttIi1 y poil:It. r .. Yet dear!)' a ~ fUl~ C&Il be made..-.hievcd lBin. ~o -.

.. ....... = ... .. _ 1A _ . .. _ ..IiIIor Cl-ull lr>lio:r by DJ)ZQ ( Dt-am IMina an ~ ttanailwr L1 l una 10 the reoei¥a'. --_ __ . 0' . 1 _ ......... .. ..t ..M. D.. I.1._. _ Q-MuhJjl' . • ""'" .. ''' 1-.' wT+lU. ~ SO Y r ..!-.T - . '" . .. r.. )) .ee .0 Del"". . u .---f~-~H" ." •"• . _ _......... ... ably 'mil.--..._"'""..~ " T OOO ... r~ amd IhoI&kI be 0( lu&lrQ ooftltf\ll:tlolll (preferpot..lT 4" " " . .. . ..r.. .-_-'------.". I I • ~ ..--..__.-.... ~. ~T . u... 1M' wound on • ferm a rod)..+"'""" ~ 0- " " ... ~ U.. .0 A H ATI UR 11. .. LI _ . j. lfM.1. · ~1" V .... ..._ . I... O IT.. n o ll. .. Idi_ '.. ..:.. . 010 TE C H N IQ UIS . .. . ....U . 1._ onze U __ _ U • .. ~ " _ ... . -- ''- ... _• _ .:.-.... • \ ..... K H II • a" 'NI' I.. ~.. ..m.. • 1O~ ~ t/._ __. "" .... !-__ Tj'OY' . OC~ . .• '" g t~. _ _ ... H..." T _ ..... ..... f'i&. . Ioo .

0 ~ uc Il.... modulated 1iaoaJ. Ihown th.1. ..... --.. 111_ 1_.. an dipped by the 6HN6.. l1A U7 IlxMe1 • 1XJn-woa pin 0( " ... . 1be 6BN6 cue for U1if.. ..-kItJ _ .. «l db bdow lhe MmI&I bAt oote obtained wilh the "'&I oril!nally deYeloped for use 1tl broadcul: Redven.7" ....... :~...= ~ " . • • • The 6BN6 h...l..Iol the . """" w .. ... ." . lnja..1.1 100 to the 68N6 p led t-m produa del«tOf deM:rlbcd by W9BIY and W9IHT til OST (May .....J? ... - .o... - ...M ":'I ......m.lar Inpu t ~~ Noillt peab.. • _. W9BlY and W91KT put lhe t..N'..Uon oa.. II II not dillicull to obt.0 O .: ~.Iin (rom the Un. •• 7 :" CW .. "".... ..ee.lIOV M.ao......... I N" _ 01. : ~ T_ tL.I .. lilwuity 0( 11101 6BN6 U • product dcta:tor II cKCe1lent..n M udl pat« pin thall from _lionlll... • •• 'The cin:uit 01 an W1uJU&1 prod.(.... OI MU d rew our & 11. till ... of :93• • •. . .. " I" 11. 1..... _ _ . '.. 11 K: 0001 "'0 l--~ :'~ : c.. O... With ) or . lhemodulatkJo ._ valva . olJ._ .... ~ arid bJ . ~~ t-- .1Cd~m b"'lTl~ H I.""••Y 1. ed rrom • 50 per . ~ n • . " ~. _ . vM1 ) the 6BN6 IIu • con· CATNOOI M _ _ .Iy_ (.or 000 n .m...4" ... r.. . - WlO _ Il · .. .. on. tt.-... A I ()oJ . ~ ~ _ '~ _ _ CJIIt. ~ .... IeI' :.. ~. _ -"1 .' r ~ .1a.. _ _ ~ .m " d _ o l.. . IhowII irI F\i.1. J7 ...J3 •• . . 0-00 ..... ~... . . _ ..:: ... . Al aD Input of 0-1 voila the diltortloD pmduetl wtf'e ..-sured WIth 11. ..._ ~ " .. prodlX:t detect ..(lllnA) {] "'!l. ... Goolft H -.0... Ut ' " n IU' UT " + ~ _ . _ .. . •• ~ n -t ~ .o. valve u foliow...' ..u one ~ .. _ _1o - t .. _ H. • U<JW lE' .. ¥OIb of b..ill lS db dowa •• .lod 51.. HT..0.... " l::l' .. u....1. ""_HT n. CII n be obtained by lain.."LTI.. in put to Irid I...... .J in • okslp by WI ox (Om. 1960). .. .. 00 1' wilh t/ml.. m ' 11 It-a-T" . ntt •• -T~. ..

..022 .... . . &nO<le .. . l ime-o... BIll. _ "" ~ _ ~ _ ...._ .&er......_8 --..) bul 1 Ihoukl \ be: PQA ib~ 10 . CPyotal 11 ..... l'Olt• ..tiYll wnlro l voIlaJCl.. . ! . 1_ -". . ~ 'I'Ol &p 10 a..). 1M LJ._-... Fla....t '00' An int ll!fftl lnl detcdor an:uil w.. "' H A Tf U~ IIlA D I O T IC H NI Q U E S !he li ll.. .JI . 01_"'. h& beta her. . .. iD the &tIO&: &Dol. I<nCrI 1ca.. IiIiW 1:1 red to ....r. output of up 10 35 volll pea1..him ""')' 01' lMy eoe N 1M QJ1ol&I... ...-:t" -... dout*'r : io the.f . " M id to be capable 0( proridiD....b...:b Oa .u .D.uil. illPlIl lllll\&l1s demodulloted bul ..l..er • much lIlUtef I"UlJC ollnpul wlg . for ISOla tion....o(O-pI!ak (1IIfficic. an ... II Ieut r-rtlaIly ImmI/lMl rrom I t . . C _ I. .. ill . l c:hal1lClmlllCllhould be poaAblc.f... IMId 1m .. _ 1 ' OU' ... para'-l U . . YllliIltioa ollt. N' ."..n lbe «IQ...:on trolJed ) Is Isolat ed from the ddeaor an::uil ..... . 1 1_ 1'1 "" (_ I' I 'oJ..-_ .. ! I l la IU " . To -.I~l ~ lbe timail.. .A.r. _dww our old _ _ M\'II' habII of mnalnln. .o. ... pottlorl " ampIi60d &bd...pp1y """ tate and the a->da!C>S II... voIt&J11! il would . DL-UTC' (QI.. o.. Sio:c 1 b.. v.... II " dalmod lIlal it will prorioJe an UIldil toned ov._ .~ Iobown I" diodcl . "'PlIo_ .... MH 1' 4 1. lillIi ~ 10 ORM and ORN.I. and c. The I K . or"'" PI.cor o... • H. Jl ahould noc c:fI"c:d 11M: ' ....... I. familiar hall-...".. ~ o..G. "'.. 0:...tober. 1962) DHFJ do.... separale" ~ ampli5er Is.t iofW d. 1M «XItrol IleaUte or lhe hi'" .1 lkb _ 1'OOflllII thiII prot>lenl and provldn • muimutn 0I 1OlnCI '" voItI 01 DeP.. nOied in RMlt1 EMc"oNa.I).'= . Pan oI lho Lr.1.. ..-l..rnl:a • aubodll det«:lor .pp.NJ oU"Cn~ readHs • IIlld.. ..'""'""y.......... CtrtAod"'oIloww 0 . . QRM/N ~ vol....""1' .... . I lha l very IOOd . c:. 51 ""I. the <k>'ioeI ..lP\l1 .ued &1 lhe . at low '.... . __ ___ _.. 1.110 of . . _ Fia. 41. " ".w. .. 1cYe. .....nallW (1lOf'lD&I 10 brooIlku! nIIlI!I.LIIlllnflpj lll lmpe4aoco tyPe or dcc_ 1M lOt b Illal there 1:1 no simple ITV:lIII 01 obl&lnin.. the L I-I:...lo<k ctmalt...-':".._.diolLn libio lka.D1 10 . _»Yl " .-lII _· ·r~ _ 1 _ . Muiy .. _-_ .... the b.... ' • ~" '" "" D..... o_ ..rnu......I...hic:. A <lill)euJfY wiLb 1 . ': i + _. &II Lt.e.b.... th-..._ {j 2 -7_ '. .:onaunl. • ... 1 """ '" \_1. 1 is reet illo<l &bd.1 0 ry kvd .c n lCOl eua Wllhoeo...1 distortioa . val la p WlIeM.. wilb lhe IDo::ocnina 10 the uode cin..."" .. .c. . 110 fWILChon .1 It...~ '" "" . ) _ dri¥ll an output sup dmctlYl and )'C'I to aYOid !he .... 6 411... . H'~ .-bid! (I(::CW1. 0 ... of c:omponcnll will depend on . __ __ _ ~ 1 .. (-. .... . IUPPf'*Or 01 tho: 6AS6 and .t.n.

. . CIU I _ NcNM tIMIc4... _---. j " .......~ . J '"' ~... 0·'.... .n ~ -I ~ ~. "' C"-l 0 l ' . ~ . I' .. . IO. •.. ". ~~/ {f ..... .. The dnb p1M:el ~ dampiDlJ &erllM lhl! primary of tIM lirW U . n . r:: ~ f-- ... .... " 6l ' INAL " Q " .. ~l'l... (OIlT "~ - _ II _ .. RMJio.. n c ... .. ·... ...11. .. . . . O N . ....-d with a 2m «Jn~" II ~ c:ribed by Vl0 ZCN in .... . ..04_ .. I I _l O ...'or MobHoo W_ A Iin:Ipko cmuA dndc:>ped C 1imil1D& lpli tkon ooiII or In a ~ cae radio . _ '" U....I.. ( a . .. " O'OIjA " u . i- .k C.......·1 1101.....ItECI IVllt TOPIC S . ..l~ . ..

.k . &nod lh6 <:&II _ thM In .jIb. AHAT .. both ~ U4 _ _ _ten . ...... _-"'n&l 4eI ~.. --_...c... ~ • t.....-:II fihcn h:no: II:Ddeo1 If> . ar.U inl~ k¥d iI "'U'J' IIlUdlIow-Ihan Ille nortnIDy laed "&Mot... .. ~ tad of .ln:" .odIJ..... ..n.:u~ fronI ... . I.u W oriL "1abDo ~ 11Iere an a numhcr of .... IlIlboWd.... e 0... ' . .. artlItk b)' KSJK X .-- N--r: ..010 TICHNUlIU I ' l. ~ • ...p ~. ~ &Dd alIdoo .wI be -..-. ~ diftkull *np/J 10 . _ ...l af'aIk. ~ WI GCbcn. . the ......__ ft ..... .. u a "011.. . ..e.. no.. 6ct«lOl' Ioed raiat.-.pplic:a!. . -~--~ .."".II'I:JIkI« 01" 0/ !he onSo:r 0( 1 dblDClll~ lOten whIr:tI lII:JhIide rtocIr M _ ... JIftl""': _ M Il''1.. 4. w.l..~1c . ~ fn:Jm _ ~ • ...lhal thI.. tbiI . ..--s ill. " .. Q -.. _---.. ClII1Unc MecI. ~~ ~'"!----l.. M..-a ~ thao .

." r . ...- • lll U CTOfI '0 -..~ "" "" Ib~ • .o-.. "" .. b .--fl: . ' 0< T!II'''' ... Ii Pi - ~ ""...-----~ • .-.. --''-J ...~ ...

..... tlwy Ibould be oel«lod 1 droro 0 about oroo: half the ..1 If.. of WIInl1 .... un often be lab a from lhoc eaUlode blu... rc.. aUOIO'inI 1'*0 nll1ll lo be obtained aimul.150~ :i: " A cin:uil wbidlll ~nlly appcarina aU O'\'ft the pl..J.:. • ...nal.... Howcvct... outpul 1<1 Jrid). 1961)..c. b.. . "In c'"""'"' . wpi4 ota 1 . A T IU Il " " D I O T E CHNI QU E S u 1 1 < I I " • u.• .- lIO. "h.. lll m: ..n.." rn<>re 0Cl MtOtI& .wlld! il ahown by the d ot ted .-Ie In ~ ~. IlUrlnCCli"n Ihru~ the <ltLit ( input ~iort 10 t'.. '" lWill:hcd ~Inl>ll ...lope lkl«:lion..t ..islor of an UUlpul IIap in a n l\'C . b&-..W .t.. blc port lOO or an amo.UoQ «)'ita! IIhm I m<Jdeot cow . 1 10 t el. I(Idlllon 01 a ~ to I»pc abo wit ll a. R£F1 Junr...")' bel... 1961) In a modified BC341N II • • with Ute .t bet_ the iJ .l coil. u in the q .. _..1 111· ... an ID.... tJc.... ard ..... A ~ CUI'YC II PYCfl r.d.lon ""'y rcqWI'C acljUlimenl .Imtl)' be buill Im o a _ II _II-llCnlCllod boll .. _ 20 0'0lts. M vi. pot ron or.0'15-14. .u..ba"" 01""11)' bc1wcen the a.. _ C:1.. II has belen fcat\lnld _ 11y In CQ IMa l'd! .. ~" In II construeuo"al art... ramc Mril.t... tl. ...... be l he hlV-t ~ible Q.070 ..It" $IlowlIin Fl. 11'. loyO.. orilillllly dml. 12' lr.) hawt: been d_loped rOl' Ham marlund with MJfI\den i ....... .. (Ihou&h no Ifkli. man )' 0( lhatl pnMdc eit her paolo. (AqUlI.. ... M'o a of the cirelli" Ibow il u a Itrai&!>tfo .Pflly woha.. Eo. !l and u. and Pc O'I'CT llXl mW The 210 K ohm .for tho! ~ blUe bl» ..lL III ~ •• I I"' '·n -iF r-- . foI' lhc val. _ - . aiven or .. 4 ~H _ I Illj I ...7 0 1 .BOd D po.tSII.iv«.. bu t an e~lrandy ... """.. thould be O\W ...cr >IAi C .. 5lqtl. . The lunod g rwll &bouId...-. recei .If 100 ..... ......nll III r" .. rron t... _ ' " IM _ _ c:1 X ...Mult''''_ A1lhouah Ibm: lIN been II number c Il'Iu"..tWJlJ<Aly. uaiD&.. Me/s..lJI.md cryatalllll« wHh low a nCflUation in lb: W2G 11K In the 1906' 1". mulikeo. r.lpful in Rduci"" Cl'OtIHnOdula tion a nd bimini..r. with 110 0Ibe'r moo dk:'IION '" Hie ~..~11 l"" rat "".. . . ProdcI« o.._ ~ . Xl . how in.. .. .. .. 1967). lbil . T~ Q. _ puo....lOOdH 1I1 lftlu&lIon 0Il11idoo I""" limits..." the mu.... RU ·. ~ " ~.. 1b1r \IIl 1 ~ be v-n..JCOTO." A .. A IICI\'d idN in 11M ur~ a M1e1e II the l ugCllton 1""1 two ad! un iU can """. 10 the l'ClIplICli. IranUatort of .. Tho Q-mu ltlplio:rdtI:u..Iy 14 .....~urucd Q.Yt"f" . . -"Ie lhe \'ef) okl ln ble d>atvtcmtio: of hip ~l.. .nll the . lie Indll:aln thai../~ .... 1J IMay. and Ol"'fttoJ in _ies. lUelt.m....maJ &l>d u..v 0""" i' /K T~ ••• . ampltlkr irI a val ...t..Jh. L1.. or null flldl Ll a only...nbod m OSl. 'l1 r -( 0< Q ~ "'>0< • m r.. . ~ In h . For imtance..... V. p .. .nd 1 ".f multiplier c:in:u1tS pu bl ~..... ha t it could be IIIOd ..' ~ "I'U...fflIJIQ Thil OOJIIlou ohhc: u-nion ....-e bandwidth to _ • ..." h. eilbllr a fftTl l .....11 1' . 1%1) and a WIIp1c of time& in R1IJj._ M . II 14.... I'UMibly requlnn.""pie modiblion uted F2 [ R (Rad/a.. modiliclltion 10 lhc biuilll ~t..haI •• rntxlew. h id! !be f...:c n lhoc l.1lodc pl'odUCl dC1« tor. unit.. uc:I dcteaor... bul pn:MdJI1II . Th• .. ..ation ..w. IIlnoo then II no d..J... !>out 14...oon ~..l<'Uf band.w.

6 1...b.n d " A8" '" SllQftll I ..l..K _ . ...... R I . U. Im..~ibl)' be of hil.. YlI~ ' ha" shown ... and mefl1 i(1JlJ 1!'I2?5 and IN61A d iodes : F2£R Ii¥es O A85 ..kinll!lrifllmi llg. _ _ o.._ . 1Ii.n _ t.. Ca l"' cih ' .i«t ion is 1IttdN . Since IIlle". CI!'Kilo r ...f _ ...f.roc of 0 Is d~rablc 10 prevenl cllarJina u p and blockmS of llle diodes : Ile _ IWO 1N2981.. _.ft _ ' . 1961) is l he oolkctor-bo-nd (ran- .. 0 " 0/ 0-00 ~ " .. ha~ lill ie df<\:( un the rn:q ~~ I. 0)_' C). . .)t'........_ V. .f.R E C EIV IER TOP I C S . of an IlUd iu noi loe lim ilcT Illlid 10 ha ve been dewloped by DUX W and delaibcd al (I( the: bcM • .. t\Ol a' ." wu kl be ." 11 . (' .m .. 0 1.. claimed 10 work q uit<: ". .. ...d<.. . fllLe . J. tl>c K l l GP tbi lPl. n_ 1....-e . rur an old rt>....ovida ...Ohem\1 de!nodUYlion ia the poor elliQcncy o f mvelope det ect lOll a low li flloa l Inpu ls. "... b. coIlco:1o.t.... .. a_ _10_ 1" _ " :~ " . .. which pnl\'ideo some p i" ... v.O. ~I' .n d oublc<onvenion 1(/07 MIl l/4 S5 "' I.l(0l' detea..g.<llo N olM LimiT. o n J IlI5Ci llalor .. Jevit. in... h. opin ill 1M "iIIrious forms of 1. K _ Pi • • '1.. f t _ The e il't-"\I i( ...._ u.. &I (he r. Ct)"laJ diodcl ill plU1icTJ lar rna y rto.<> IK h . LARAI( ..in.-._ ~ "...n M. • 20Q11 Ir " I'" IOOV It ..c... 455 k I I... 'f.. . (tAR e . ..... """..... CI _ "'._ 2 N <1 08 _ D~ l b·) ~ " OC70 1 .mic filter..e••is u:ood Wn l' ly on the VOUntbl or .r.. rco:ivo:r...... FIlllllX:llQ ir. _ . . <)I herwi~ ~Ironlt siltnals rnay IlOUnd distorted . .tl lhe C MOS i. .. . " " Cl _ _ ."... .._.. pl!Cified bu t art' <ktcrJbo:d u ... -bcnd detector cin:uil tall...-..... 1tIoIlcod. " • '..oUs for .ri<cd how re . y CDUkJ nos. _ r. ""e ' Iso ' YlIila ble a t 10 :!40 M I I~ LAR"" I'Oinc. IO..ilhu u l thi .....i"... 8... " ...il. ru..(' a ~"'r. 0<.-ll.hilily. _ _ .. 1010'..... or aboul fI. ufficimrly hIgh VlII~ III ort!o:r ...... 68 k111l." 0. _ _ 1ocO_n' __ -..j. ~ 0 .. .r. fn:q ue=ncy will be • b<>u.:tOtt One Iauol'I . ""'_~_M _ . Tron.. ..vcr .11 as lhe Mu ra la Cf'U455B. 10 IU.). f"'rtlJdi~ UJ rru eoaJ..~ Cit.lina: I96 S " .l)'.. . . 1 1¥ "'P~' '2¥ 'ft P ~1 • v..._ _ _ . lim iting an. 25.....f...ho:.onna:tion wll h Ille prodUC1 detector....) + ¥ 7¥ •• 2"'" 12¥ . "..... ... I lhey could alto be used fo.m.Ieu" loOCITl 10 u-o.' !fI . . uil .:"il dllta:ram o f . and i......o .hy 5OI'I'le p«>plc an: Iookinr.._ . ohunli nll l inJ'ltt 000 nu...uil : 500 K ."' I " .cq""n...- ... n in ri ll. . lea"'" ~ . '3 ' ••• . The fo1"""'"1 ""'r!onallon it liven rrt lhe M """ functioning o f lhe <. Iiact of t' il . C1.1 ": ICC Fig.. W6BLZ warns dIal lffllla nil1m d lOdcll tJlould be usOO as In lhis a ppl ication (cmlrary 1 man y (l(henll d:q.. 2aKI . . .._ ... ) Pl• .1 0( ".or C I (.. l' 500K ~~' » ~~ ....nd R2 nc-ed (0 . ' . .. 1...«.~n al Inw . .".IlJ . 5 5. OUXW _ ... . lince ... A much simp ler approaclt.. '0 "'CHI• ...okol . alth~ he """ nul lried o r n«<kd llil•. .. Imp'O\I'M A.. . '!I'!I .. (0(" a t 4 5. harTllQlllcs I:OU ld be radialed fro m In . 10 .:y«l"""ining l:irnli l of . 1Iimr>1c .... _ U l IlJ .. Somet hinl lik e 5 10 12 volla e.. OU I Ih... ee.....llclll thaI leads be keptlhorl as o lhcrwi.I. . . ignal input. de1cribr d by K lI G P In QST (Oct~r . ll in Noedinll.. _ . 60 a nd Hl-7 M H/ ). lrimmed by ...'1<1 dtlcicncy."\Iito I ha "" Cvt:r 1-.. 5H a nd If filled .. t ony l>lh" .a..... ~ 1.~ food li... '1'I'III.. ..U broi1d<:lIal Iran. wh ile F i" /IO(b) ia . 9 .e WW\ I JlIl1. .NI.lui~ a IWln. C ... s"".. U .(l...lsl o' D..i licon dioodN..1.. _ ..... Ie.. . from lhe an.. The ~ual diodc IYJ"CI an: no4 . . . ...gliltlor "'. I' . II B9CM pl'O"it!el deW l. .._.

. .... tuned cimIlt of liM lint ~ FET rJ.mllllon h •• of 10... and tMn !he mu im un> .r.. buil l ....hl lhf'DUlhl in )d B depa up 10 ))<1B : _ FIt.bk •... = "-_ . IN497.... ~ by tho: .... 64.... I N " " . and call be . and \. The CQ W1it (a1 ~ AuauRl 1961) by W2EEY/lI. In open lioll.... AlMlUO. aUa>ualor .. pltl I~rd by W6BOQ In 7J (F«maary..... ... ~ hu Ii""" an 1I'tefqe 0( Xld B ~ with !he poccntiomeler III muimum..-lver volume ouaU'Ol it 11III lor ~ priale MnnFh wilh minimum Ii....elven In order 10 pc"O'OOe audio-derkoed • .w $..1 in QOJI'in( wnh _rona oipUi e.a-e.....w. etc. The diode CUI be Iln>oIIl tJl1 . limple _ ilct>od ...!". ' ~ N.. Oa profaUon..... principle 10 valved t«. 6J.boUt H 1)'paI lrom 2NlJ.. la . . ..-... )0 and <tOdB . more l. the oarnrol voltqe. 1Ien t lor Xl ohm IPvina ten d ifferent deIr.w or . .. _ _ • " __ "do ' ... po lnll 0111thal lhe cbwll prcMdeo lut 1IIbl:k..1.0<> OM "n _ . buI mutt be an "'1Wf . t hi. ... boll.lten~ : . T. I~ lina. du ploted PI.au' . . aU..ly t. WhaI appean 10 be • DOYel ICdLniqIMl lor -wlyin. T~ ~ .... _ bIo beca . input and out put oodtat. hich 1M faci lity coukI .. comment or pl'OYidei . 1961): _ Fit. I. .. ~~ t ?rolf r:~ § _ ..e. I\CIlldI j ust 11 i wa ll <:ompoUtk>n rallton. 1 _ .. ._ . . IianaJ applied 10 Ihe bPo.. QOnl inUO\llly "l!r)' ~ notal ln QSTand CO.. potenliornet«. OQ lhe ll5CI I/'allSi5tors as IXInItoIIcd rcaistOf'l ln !he em ilie!" cireu io of pi lKOll lrol led tranUlItor ampIillon. ram....l tranaiatori>ed rocei. r...C... . and all wort).Ci... The ¥Uiablc raitIor CUI be anythin& 0\'eI" 5(1 ohmI (lypQUy 10 K) and an audio uper (loa law pcMmliome1er) it better than Un..... Thif... On pa. amplitW.. Do. A DI O T E CHN IQ U e S ft-. andIeIIIed on t tl... the..-o waylIln .:h allenlLllOft an lIICI'u.. ..- .. _ JOme «ld B.... unit.'IIl' lSuuble pole dotIble throw rwitd-.--o-l lillJ ~.. . A u_-. I!tn. . 62. . u..' ..of allen llAd o n ( pl "..-... . W 68Gg'. . __ r..ina from ' " than Id B up 10 Fi . blJh co1lcc1or 10 tnIlltGr ~ wllh no . " .. I N277).-l lon pIKed lmmtdilltdJ between the Input and II.._ .. In QST (A u J 516'1) W lDX 2m.CImpla . CUI be obtained to... _ w I••• I...01 d . AM AT I-VII. ... ....... S. AJIad4itt-1~llon in lb_ cue ia the requirement or coa uol and r c f _ 'tOIt&p but the rcrercnoe 'tOll ... COlnl*t e~1emiIJ ah iclded utili. A.l II • wilh the a.. ...um 1)'pC (lYPk:ally IH M.'I V ~.l \ioon lyPe ptO'Yidm." ml .I. wt1h the dynamic nnp IiYCtl by f"F. _ lhe. 11I11\1 Ihl'llll d in" ". The ~iel:UoIytic capac. :zo.. _ .T1l. 'Tho tnnllbtor t)'JllI II l'OC aitloea1 eM ha$ used.ned 10 M1il lnd ividual tulal ~ W6BOQ IUgl:ltI 40 H.J. ¥01tqe dmder 8CroIf. to r_ .ilor _ _ "-' and ehuUa ~ !he delay lime. i. "F..

. no.. "_ ... Mcio _....._ _--..... ... ... 41_S _ .. ._ •.... . - . .. .." ".._ .. .... ....... I .. •• • . _ . ••• ~ .. -.. '"'l• . .. ...... " . ..z .__ . ~ .._..

pt. or. bj hty bef1n thaD f1.lllllfdlanic:al Fl'rin...or aU_ in Mabili1y for I. .._. ..... .UOQ _ 111'1 --XU\" QOnlrol W i"" l unilll ciraailllO 1n. ioo. ynt bc:Mll (..'. ta bility recriw:I" tIM tM furltla' dUtiDl. peru in -.. " 1MIInbIIlI' AMAT E UR R A DIO T ICH NIQUES AI ~l... - .. In "... r.. 01 ct)'$ta ...... ~ a > .. fRqucno:ia it ill bet ter lhan 0fW PlU1 In 1el:Hnillioa>.:h " 1)1lC appI icaliOfll ..iw:r wont.. ~ __ to IDe full freqUC!flCl' .t or (taJeivml -.. No.1 OM c:an ha-e the ~ of I..:tion at ... -.1 ltl limit (for OD . .. .. proo...e ..-. . oocn.. modm:l l'req.. Basically iI .. ""-... ~ Tholl G -C _ model RC410 hiP.. )'tIOaiI). ... oorJJloll oontmUOUl.. . l<I.. Dd II the _ lime (or the l'Ii.'"* -----...-. ol the variable reuo d ivider Iypc .-.. J.b1y lnM 10 My thai only the ~ blink lcdlnlqucs UtI rudily M adapkd 10 am lleur 00l'I_ion li lthovah the " ROm bY l&b<Mo ltW.._ ..f..-m.... TMIod n : ~ I. .-e . " ••..........-...FfYn • • . _.· ··~t~O/II v a Lyt e.million.JI ... bul with lhe liability 01 I. ..... b COIl~ro1lod by .. ban k ~ bI-e been PlIb111hed dun"..ynlh$za. ..... -. doulMe IUperhec with I 6 Mc._.'1") ~ t::"~l . I \161... 1M ftnt fC:lII'nl purpoeII b.. . h .. . . ocrioua altempt W p ...._ ...If .1_ • ~ II ( . the Ioca1 OIICl ILt...lllInl l.. ell ! A tun ~ion of Ihil i/ltemd l'll doeip appran In GEe J~ Vol.. _ -.OS......N __ .... The l )'Dlr-t. I........--.. Nl:ei wr suitUlol (or bol.. il i._. . . ". 1M IMA r... """ could put the lei 1 M y :uJ-«XJ) M~ aDd it wiD lUI)' 0 INfoe Ii> withi n boner !han ...c. .. OIJ.Iodcod (lCltator Itclllllq ~ aN ~ mtirdy _ of the quation l.. .... _ _ . • i 10 . e~:.. la bility requimnmft cI poInI-io-poia! tel"tIice. IT . I .-..ty-..." 1.. ... at the Iynthaiza ~Q _uem m C01lJIU:ll.f.. . with ita ~I .....C II IUU/Clj II- / ~ m_ ""ITO Uf<l DllIIFlltl $.I-e_ " ' .ly tuned ~~.: y ..:annin& 1'tOli.. PlU1i" . It iI I..en at the HROXQ aDd PinwJ PR U ' h&-e .. and 100 kc/s IeCOlId 11.

_ 0I(jJ~10I' and mi_cr . e.iliooq jw><..iona 01 ~ pOOrt CIMItllCt mlcmww. D..da ....... .tlal: " c. • TT.duetor It In COlll¥t willi c:au1Q metal fll_ . (BU M P poi nt ed DUI lhal • IIlOf'II IlI. ' rom a delilll by K6DQB (7J. and haYlil been m. '"'b..".l 0001· Wl'tCl'I.lilE C 11V 1 1t Hoc C<orr.ifioonJ.a.lr&IlUJIor havinl &II f. ... ..lantiaUy allow _ oon"Ullion&l ml~cr diodes. (fl.. 10 ~ a typical arranp:ment for 14 .indo. anl planar --. for tIIPCriot' perl'otmI. l:OnW!lUl'.... AerilI ~ o. ble 0Id1...:eiwr .. Tbo c:W11Da: OIII:illal ot circuil lhould .II oeo.j lla lor ~ bul lhit ill b&nl. .urk wil h a ny .d.:I diode.. . f'1I..lkd a Sd!ouky-lMrrier juDctiooD II forlne. BRlII 6468. O)U MF.. Irl llllalor roo..-CIrTidQ rcuh'ft' noiw &II the 'PY to Xl MC/I. .. Iiroo and SCboa~ dio<b. .f. pw. mi un. t'"'O FET...-.. it...n • OIQ UotilTOlt M • aU• • AlT U It • IIl&l _ fabrication I«hniq uet . 1lIq ~ U\ cl'l'cd.... w l H.1ld an aI_ liYlll miMI' circ:villlli.. and OIly c:arrlI:n al hilll eneraY lnel (i. FlIT un il_ . ""'*'11 .. DoRy. advoc:alCll lhe UlIO/ of ~ pIt arnp ld"cn rafber 1 !wI comrno<HOllI"tC."'" miKl" d. .. SlMraI uvcrimo:n lal fronl-endl fot h... MI Y...II... 21 an d 21 Mc:.n bulh ...f. HI .....f.Iy .lfuood metalj. p1 Uum anenide. TIM pu lll".....0 thCI form of a IlDaII d.. 19 jUllClio n-1'El'I in tblIapplicalion bui ll a ~I--. Olu... I ll..fot hJ.r. C.ill MIIlU&nlla lly. lD pndice Ild1 dIOdeI Er\Ily 1a1. "'t'-. 1967). roo. ..n" . Fi.--. s.e... p.. btM earricn" &nl &MI lO IZ'OU the barrier.:I tunInI from 10 Mc/l lo )() Mc/I Ia... .. &lilPUllft'l.ar cireu it (Sa:tioIl 4)..jIll ~trolkd <*:illa lOn ha Ylil proved a popu la r fann or h./lCII to IIlOf'I oon¥elltion&l p". allllt tltne tbit cdilion IOC' to prctoA.nl-«rn""" or pon j UlllOl ion dlOdeI at h~ fla. CoIl...turin .. 10 _ _ the P'I'r1onnance <If lNl...jUCfl(:)' . MiDorlty earner &loraae I.-_ .eMn. 1M dlict' Ibortoomint ll ihal M1W't1C1l 25 Mc/l and )0 Me lt lIishl ~ allbe Ioc:.Ia10i could IIOC the Vad. IUiIttnIIl. Such de~ abo known • Lbo CIMIWMtl a .. Ylnlally climilwod mall. of 100 Mq _ or 11<>.. a smale ra np: prmidinl I II Le alabold l " M c.. bu l I~ are bopa brina: prka down £.-lIef..... " 2N38'19 I """'" ~ I '" '" ••• .N "L Hot e:ut'iw d iodao alIo ~ to offer ~ poIIiblsn. " OOC kx:abk onb' . di tlltftfl t ~ MYlil been puhlilhaoJ Alan SimplQll.itloI al ~I tbcn " DO iIoltItioIl ...tion on • bililhic ./I into 1M ulltJ... lb. : FlI.h • • ~ .. planar ooenlons or lhe: puml oont&I.. 61.

. in • poo:1. -l IIH UC"" 11_ Or'" with Pi._ .... %000l 12N 42204 T PIe.6. U and U an ""OUnd wilh 28 ..... • rew 6e<:ibcb lower. amphtIcT... that of wdkle&ianed valve an lpli6en. n' u -" .. ma lCUT'f would w. on l)' wo rth replDclnt blpolats wilh FlIT.• • .er i•• Fl:. y bccauIo II II IlO'II' ~ thai lbe I1ln&I ha nd .. oili.... utuaUy no eeuee lhan... if u 1000 U.w'" will'"o-.iILai r. (IN ) OUTl'U T .:r toO d~'~ . • M Pf 1O~ ~ .-_.~ • ~n ec -ce BCl08 u u • 51 aotil1l(lM!t ~~- - - . lypiaJ mo<hfk:allom 10 a na:i""l" uli n.. low injc:cliOll 1cwI.. _ _ . FET AI .. " """ .'__ --------. ~ •• 00 ...4 Mc/l ln wtIidl 0 3HtlW uon FEfi ....row../llllRlion in the 1'. r-... So ir )'O" o ka ... The coih Ll ... _ .t. an ECH BI tnoqOClll... ei lher by . .. . with an e... to wlKku.. A M AT RUR RAD IO T I! CHNIQU I S --... G 1MI W ..JI_"" _ '_'Y. 'fbi' It panly from fcar or ruirull& n:M1e value. "1&..J gonwrlolr. oil ' " l ' _ .."..~ ...... "" .._"". . u . l~ .o... alloollih the pin i' mudl the oarne. Theoulpu l H . an nld h..QePIion 10 t~ Heelor CcHe... eapacll)' of "mplc FlIT flap.. A FET om ~ • very worthwhile h"".. Una: It a11ow1 the UM or lhe mOl!llk d Piefw " cln:uil... _ :1£ . ~ ..whic:h O l H 8 W.. Oencnlly tod." .:ilia'".__ --... but to repla<:4l bipo\8n w.hJ. _-.. _ _I ' .... 01\ v. o. few ..11_... .. but bipoLu ltuWlt Ol'a in • eurode coo.. wilh meuul'od IlM!h or inlermlldul-. . ...cm&l 0""" .... Mc:/I.. ver lhal don.__ . poi" ta out.. :N IO!28dB oYer tho bUld. The ~ cjn.L... • 10'" :I ~ .. how.y well he Yo'Orth modifyi". ra... OIl..2 1 and ..." -. ""111 ._ . . -.ulccd " ...IKt'u1ftonl .. 011 diaml-~ Alad din or Ilimi lr fOl'l1k'n. i ' rT... ...uil Ihown hu proved lIliahdy ~1Q" than • n IT c:&IDDdoI from the Iinoeatit)' vilrwpoinl.--r ......... aroul'ld I w. _....aI and ....... _ _ __ ... 11 .....n the mi llCl' and . 4 _ C J _ I ... MH ...1II 10 modify....... . TI..1 . a')'lltU.lor.&h betler lhan lhal o r bipolar \ranIlIlton... It . U .. 12 . Unlike IMII)' other curml1 dcaI. one e>.. .._ PIT _ _M. -_ --.. _ T."bolilu!irll a FEY i" lhe DlCillalor ItIF or by &<tapl i".c:ndron _ver_ ill iIlllle l'&l\IIIl or 1'6 10 .t. He bcl~ lhal it ... I Me/ .... "-irdl " When IIcld effort Inlmi'llOR bepn appRo ". .......-iJ.. M .. ofthileon_r . Bu t lhere i.-. __ I ••• ' .. .. to.. ..--_A_.._ ln their r<-i ble: WIe ror the con~on of old ¥Ill"" mrl.. .... t.. ue M M or. .ri-..... . . n. me"" "1 driR'1'fU!1Il val..... t. .... " ~ w M PF ~ ...ian for 21..y.k!o-bal..-_""_.._ _ 1N4U<I 'IITo _ _ .te.llI fEll ill ~ 00 an y (""Iuc:ncy..... of . --.. ~.. OlO IIK. t ho! vcr rar .. '" . con~_dal.~ 10 mne the MsI u. " .adopts . . aldIO... .... cuuld abo rorm the buiJ \...ti..

_... U"......----..1] • .....:J•• •• •• •• ....u lIled lNl8 19 FET. . - .."'la •• ILl.. ~ •• ) •• •• •• •• .._--...._ . cI pul tlna lIeId ell'ed 6ewica Inco oldet ~Wlicatiolll 1'CQ'j~ 10 irnproo._ ... u tbouah !hill C&lI be ckww without 1"*1 difllcull r .."I!C I!I VI!" TOPICS •• •• r ._ .' . .. ] « 1>0 ' [ """ U ] '" n...I•• l N... ...... IMI ..oe l he ..a §l • IlQ .... ~ •• t " I '-!7 .. _~ . 0Uw1l-."T-~.. in the 'roN..J"l ~I - r------._ ..." .". GJOH . .. r_ ill an ..1h . T_______ " at -.-d cI hiI ok! Edd)'I&OIlII ... lilla"_ tIlin&IY eoouah il look.. _ la_.. _ 1''''... ' ' ' ' ' ' '_ .."... ~ .. ~...--_ ..... ~ .To ' . _ _ . 0CClIITlld 10 • nurnbcl" or tmIIlCW'I... ... n.(CA~ _ lVe) + IJV ... _ .... _ _ "'" Mao . he b... 4.--_ ( L. (a....."".. fi T.t1 I '-!7 f-Jt >-... Mike Bar.._... IC ~ " •• ) « - - •• •• •• •• • •• • --"1'" ..U . .o 'lid : •• •• :=..4'."'IT....(U eVOI in Montfcat ~ lba ...L:i'I ... __ . The potIIibilil.

AHAT IU" "ADIO TICHNIQU E . .. .

51. C.. Homoolr." .. 0 .. 71.It I!CEIVEIt TOPICS ~. V.... .. Pr_ .II $JlM$ ...Itll.'_ 0( A.. '" . . .~ ~ ~... In_tin. _ . ....... -. boca put fOf1l'Vll by Dr R. Ideu ba.. " " " " " ". . .. :'.. (lQ the roo-ibility . . _ . ~ ~ O ·(U) \ ru T :z: ~ .. _ . Macario 01 UnMnlt)' Collqc 01 SwanIn.....M..0._-L-. _________________ --J .. " ~ I-->----~-_~------="':_=':_.. _ _ 'I __ ..

... ". n ra... . Irnpl ....do d .. Iat drwk>pIl'lIIlC lllI I op:ual..olltodl .n l"""""" pcOnl al...1 a . ... a nd II .uI q. .b f""..1t)' IhI han ul. n.. .'". ..-±. ""PfO"lI ttw perf _ .(.""" Of a n u ..wi'h . b ~. ilh . and boo ~'t:l _ .. _ . .. .11'lbl) ~l . I \ ~ ...:t ".....b .lirn and ' ''' ibn t'..k ft1lql>lI\(l"" up I" JO Me.. .kodc 1M M . i ~".. _PrIg.........c ~ IU IUIao . Lr. _ """'"'"II .......roI...... r<.".. llMo...... 'l. b..an r.... ' han f.." . I'Iish raforo "" • ..-.... .. doutok CdtWO -ion _ ."ft'.""....f.1I u( ptWllClnl earrio'r."""In ~ can __ '" NM4 "'"' ..M . H . ... ...nd /Of inIcnn••.. ho"'--do:-t..h ..'Of 11..f . n"'''. " N r-- ."'-.__ the bater hl>mod.scn.. n (I ll .. da rl'f" b f .... if.m.. a. on pon ] . nd aulput on pin l 411 Amr>llt. _pun ...-I.Iftl In hom l'\'bl'ohN by Dl' W.f• ' a l D<.Iern... rafonNftoZ ~" -a' ~ ...! or tlR heon nrnodry (". i' h in!".. wria of cr f(Of leu arnbol_ '-.. IN p".~ g~Ull' .idall..... nJ1 .UOn rot dIol:on. ~ .... C'Ofl \1: nto .... .« hu IN nl.n o r mleaof..d..llh IoIofl . ol thit !)'pI.' . . ( r oa. ano1ll>c rewm of dirt.. 1TIOl: f1I .(.. il • .. li lllif i f . ~ radoo He bd lhAl ~1Cd c:amCf _ 'CR.. ho liP I" 1 m" ..... " " UI Dou~ miUl' .. "... ...." h I ( f .. lin I" " IM . of.pto SL6?tJU ~""' l.nt T"P IOO and the kC" C A)OIlII-.t-t U and In doc U S . ~" "".. '"' ataaal ~Of'fd . nd ~~ II •. I ~ fM h'~ aut-Io" .. _ .n:1Ul."."I) .. anJ NVC' b«n the .Il>lc fO'!' li ~ l .... t ) poo. on pln " lite .. n ....... _ ... c ino.«. ......:a ._ '*' ''''''1 lJ '" _'* .." 10'_ ..!he CAJOI'l£I... form or ... • m .nd DIlI "".. h 00 II 2J M H."" row... lmpllf. t>o.. T ......>nol H .."".. h. ...:rck r~ nr '''''10.II m:o..• ~~ ..'iow bui ll . . _Ia ("FU... .. l..1'fKC_ An also be .. IC... ...n"". . ' 1~I U : . . .... .. rn.-.'" • CW'der ~ '*QI .._ ~ . he JIft__ bl... i lh .. i ."lcar. 2 (a""....x.. amrlilkali<lft.tue 10 "-nI t . dc1«tioa.. ... c:all N "'" Ifl a h'ah-pc1'f ..~ I nd "_I ~l(~"WnU. "'f'I'I'J-volt&Jl"~' lohlf.. • nl l' lif.. filler...Ile .ten'lIl. c_ Cnoc_ (I I Amr>l'l\c. uol the _ _ ha ..... ' ..... . ron u .Ih I _a f ""'I".. .. SU10Ik "T1w IJ.• ...l1li1<> d""" a lunln..ntnrnodu ....n c..'pu l . ...J _'I"UII""'PUI "" "... ~ .1 • . .nd II. M . ~ r".fD. The i........an to..ll. . lto. h....."... ...II1I .....n.mphlicat ion....~~•• - ' ."'" on I l . _... .tiono 01 .s. ~ ~. I douNe-~ mi _ .k'UltllOll .n r--· l.e hGnlC'l'.. t'l'ovideo. ~.._-_.due 10 ..... dl:.._ ...! ........ h. .. I~ 01 " ok .... hil...d. .... _ _ .".... U ... ~"" . II II thuo an intrr· .. " ...... II " . n>llafC for "I'll"".wu lI od J .tl.. ..1 t.ln""...". .atl) ... "'n"l... Of • .. hio...• ".il... MarUI 1\161. f. ~li"" noi... . Inlet_I. of ""'" ""nlrovtl'li.. • r. ..".ra nllo...:c .. &nd . . . . t:lt"nlil hIt.....omW)...l1O . .1. r..t ..-nd til........ _" .. hk " S' l H...II """pl ai.. Tlw ('A k lllt[••• • o a-blol in 'ho .. . lI ....D \ a' . h i'll i r .I.. in""..... ha~ !'>«n ... l1h 10·1 Mil . how ...m ~._ .·l...btanl fl .ror 1o.. h...I. ..."'" . cumpk or q..." or 1'1. than I :' .. ..• ...id.1 " n pon " ..1 IlIIndhnal1lllll' I..J 0 . -'..• a"'" .yc.. "'" lkIa:tur uod . aud '" r... ~IafC .... mploon 'leu.' 01'1 'I • • nd . t.......n..haul 903Bml.I1· c ooa:t. " An amrohltC'l' Ind ~. .nd an a ml' iI/lolI 11. ~ ~ ~ dnalJ. "h irl""l .....hn .. _ICT... .. ."....t>-s)'llCnl In... . ..-101 •. 0'" ..".. <kl. "" l'unt. ollhc 1)1't .... . ...~ ...:111111(1).\OCd ' n ron lUrw. .N In lhe ".Fi•.n ' I for ....ip ... 711 . T lUIl R ADI O TIC:H NIQUES 11 • ... ""'..IOf for r. n r ... ~ __"..m . 1I"ludUlll . for linl d ..:" do.. 141 A ...""'" on th" So.Jori"'Od • ...- CA ..." . Monall."l . f.bl..put ''''1 "' n . .. re.. I..n.... d naJlN carricf dmxld... ilaUUlll. I . ftmMI>1e 10 olQIft <k>i... m..u"'l"kt n..'.Qoa _ith . l<.lido IS ~urcmd)' 1_. __-teoI I" l"l'II II .

. . <0 • ... ••<1 ('l _ ol.. =. 1 and 4. l . an SI. I" • 1 ... A _ _ _ "'.(). . 1.R E C EI VE R TOIlIC S ! .' .. cI .umplion (J( lbr SL67t~ L I621 comtlinalion ie lyp ically 90 mW... The I ... "'_1<1 w ....... ...nil ralher ~imiLar facilit ies.cd. .... .i. n .. b«ausc of the limifed rrcq ...b. .H.. m...-. n:cc plion [t it ~"I imed lila t un lo le I" me . .n pin.:::::'~ : . ~.. hieved w. i ji!'l=ij .lnuul llme-oontlJ m in." . '" -r-r-r- • hi h - . am "lof"" whlo:h .1.. " U!M:d in conjuocti<>n with an SL I621 • .M . ilch ""la. ~Ii :1 . .. ."' .. v' ! . . YI>UI . " ". a"""".I... o.l>ly •• Il rne " a n. iJ .. a.. " ~ .. n Oll l OO-N..I . • • 1 . .. .... _ ~ ~... <lIT".' in a c Nuel)' r«e... ..1. .. ... . . Ie) A....• Juo.'" . ....w..'''~ ..tU.. .1..~ . "... allhiu p filter ca n be plKed bet.. 1f._ .. '" '" .. 1 ' .. The lul .. ~ .•• _ of ! * '" . 711 .. 1•• .!. _ o.h. 1" ..1 a pplication (elf a dc~K'C dcslplcd r... u""' in rn:ci~ Il MI la led t!la lldoqUl I'" q ualify I I t> ca n he Il. Ft>r c.. .. . H. SL 6700 C Do~"' _ · l>O l""' _G r . H . h .>I be IIlraalCr lhan H i MHl.. 1..". . Ibould be kept romrktcly lC~rale "'ilh I"..h ili l y .. " '"--- co .. ptO'.'lion : the bJ.... ..... . < ..• .:"'" '" .'kkod ocntlbk l..:d .. 1 h""...... mip..... . or .() aa in--l:onlrulled a m pliflCnI are l:UCadcd .b. in..6'OO hu J>TO't"'d ..". ...l.. lJtou kl l1l..k inl lh.. ~ p. . f·" ... u.11 :'+1 '" -.. c I .. _ . .m . . the S1. H..I . U .(. . 'i ~. nnd l. ..·.. Ho) ...• . lwitdlcd ()tf durin..1M> irn pro ~elI imap ~)OCIl()n . '" 1 . ' OJ usn 10070. .._ w . • . . (1 ' . ..w. .. .._ I" • • •• I 11_ V _ .~:·t~":.1\.. Ill./I... ••••• ... . l1tc h .. _ .I . .I ..S. ./C. ~'" . . .fll. • . h """ormllne. I I I. of . ". ~l- I 'I. (d ) S ..'a. J •• <1 . ItCl1Cf1I lor.. approach .03 C _ T O/. . . e>o.ili~ity can be ()blail1C'J by . llC""rat()r : Fi. .. ._ ..w . H I 1. . .~ .•._.ICOl')' rcap""''''' "f I.. .. .. -.. "' . H ..m.. whrre thr S L67t. which is an 1 "'111 . thece should lie no problc:m in~l..11-... . ~ ..~ - .... oh ." w . ••• .~cr . • 2·2~ " f'u I--.. • .. . ". Il\ IQ d ...:. ) .u_ '&'!ilinnal Mm. • • • . l " •• • • .. t her 1'<:. . "'" v .~ .I... nd 1101><1 eut hin • • ee ..X"" -=It· ... mcalll (>r pI'l)Vid inl h. OUlpul. __.......ernent the I.7 "H.

.. r...c.. ' L .. an Ol'Iunum ro.) and ."t:: K~ 1l«'Un"..Ito In lJlt U&IIicnf\cn SX I. lion In 1M rreow:ncc "f IlfOO' 1i. hich lhe t>a>. 1I intd by IIIilIIC lhe I" ""a ble a l«hnltluo--ha ¥e beom de vck'f'C'd Ul !he the ~ IIUUt (hrkmdP'"' . 1lw . 1Cficsof m.."i...><I u I. r. ". "1/1&1 owrt""oJ . i" pin .. n1 I'BII U (P RIN2 in Fl lOl l: and IOIBI ... 2 II til. 1IIleon dna n tro. The p.1\0.Se '~II)' r..i m a number or Ll... hllO nol .1T. rather Ihln opcntU the IIqI! wllh lJ'Ir zero bill CUi<lOO\Itily " IoN. lnr 114' . .1.. Jcvio. GE XfofI .. ...1VI1'l1 no railiOf in ''''''" l'<'-illol'1 . artic:1e &Mwo lhal It.. .C• .. and Iot:aI <>ti l" ..hk' H .ud inll..r. and .. Switcll Oft . diodes Iud! a.UtRnl 10 lho: ha ll<! n r 0 1. t. t1 (l hil ..'" tItll I'HIN 2 in tho:' man"... 1I..11' h iKh/Y df«IM: . "Tl')' errecuv. and iilliolld lnJ.."1 • ~ or f..'l" wu Il<mI:eI"Iled . onlg l mo:I"1 ..... tlr soroer.. R". il\.1 .a.r..! be h><l rompk. M. 11 .:c to nl l in l. R IO. .... tuord ...nd its hiIll _il'on k l ~ 7 kU ..ynlheliit .1 fill"" Cln l'to: laIN.. •tTlInll"""f'1S 10. l'in ) ftum eol1h..oc or • ROl'iwul dM"' k1 opt ror Ihr ~I"" "" I unca.hl\cJltion .. ..."n ..100 HI~ . I t ) ll'e . l'oard II I'fll ~'2 on the Y. he modil\cJlt~ .u bat bco:ln uwf"ul ly aJlJllicd 10 WlI>fllliona! Rltur Dmi..'l"metllalr tftqurncy .1 .'1 Ul in 101D. m n a.. brou. as Q 2 . dncribed in !he HV<lr tl f'IJ.Uft no IJI"t. .."" b y D. ClJllItanl ou tpu t locI 0 "'" iI \Nd at • bolla ec d .1ld inLctnallpel1 ker PlIt>cl.rim or lI. .ep <kl.. ilh .If Ihr •.lC!lU ci""'i l d ill.i..:. n tT IOll heK iI rood r" . l.L .~ Ii "n ..... ~uo:lr'..~ . rricf . I NII I~ ....n . on ly prnni... C. 1:1 ror ced be lu .... k : _ith 1-2 M1I......:. ....I." Ql .. :D-!1dB "" It.. &li hence d it Iltndl\I'C in IemII of dynamIC nTlf<: and ~ r....mll.oI6 &IIoJ t :lnl kc R.. t he lra lbi.enl a mrthod ol obt..lrioul ""lpu la Wllhout vel'}' e~tt'f\". hit/kI . Anti Ihr roll...lton rcrtUI lnl .....1<1 hr ..ociluO'd bur biu fl'I. and -."I. R""". T«ftnlqouft rn"" m.hen re-tll a. mp lln IhIIl ' hr m inimum voItl le ...tl i/i<:alion ... n<'OM: hl. Iu ' he •..uffc. n5~lor it 't«dIl" ho: . 27 U l a nd JQ U J in 101 "' t 2.u.r-*..c><:r.. On thl: 101 MU Ihf ""ioe-h1an h . wthl . .. ~ . s.l.. nd.. 01 r-rt'<Il ..u .'tdl<'<l liller iI 1000 Ill pi n ) f.t.uit wil h:....lJUlI. H I 79 o.. Ih i. lJlRIOeIi... Illl i undl' . rro nl (If ..om Iip<.. T une to 14.)' .01 lilt.. • omall n. nd d"«t"e ". J 4I lU rnist. ."... Thlol l~""l'k'I..... I"""~ t ..nflC\:l .".... .. v.. r ..i'l. I>k dyn.. "" ...... 1 O·2S vo l"... t..~" 10 he . 'Iron."-lihClt".\I'C Iiltn. ~a l"C' .nd in norma l opct1lUn.."..pp1 icd 10 lho: tran"'1"" krra55. l y in the 't'! na l pa lh .j in ron.b. The boIIrd II t!o uhl.. whICh .pt>Ult* a !bed If.' lhor pcrl...al1y...e..'I '" . hieloJ..".. ..... • djualmcnU...l U .. to be l/tXtntmli..01 "YCIIit>lltl n. compo'. ho~ .. h holoa..m..IL Solder I .oo l....1 d tvidrr mUll ee 'tell<'\' IMn a bou l 5 ¥ol il ............ .-iill l i.. cond1t1..l l" m o ..1 Th. ..' "r ..:ci\en hlvina only li.. -.. 10 1 M k2 itxI te Q 2 a nd biIIo n:aillnn.~ CHI In ""1 yell. .o..' in !he i... c..hoon one '" lhe li m" l..". 27 HI .'.rd 't> N IC w ntl«lOf """kd.1<anJJ" "rtta!( A. i"n e whidl c..... "b\ c ... 'illlfic dfti8'l . rorm or '1ft hctl. hrn ricwoed In llTl.... Sc ~d"" the fm: end of _he 1-2 1010 rooial '" 10 rin ) and re-lil .. n .. Cll•• nd lhe . ~u.l"... rd d. ...ndi--PRVin<Aly lIIf. lion ~han<:­ Icrist:iCI . bill' (of lhe otdrr of .. 8fd... T)'pOo.. r.r .I<'f>'tI) . k ... ..... w allO10 IG FETa..." """".d"r.111'0 "... . RI 6....In.o.lCivcn.nln' th l'<'lll ban<h.. ~.. a nd C<Wlnoc' I ..."""'.! "... h • I·' Mil . lilt. TM Sl6 7OOt: iI .:hnique.. ml: iT Ii) !toe "".n l'l loc. .. 1\IJ M. in ide: .. linch". IocIII OloC'dla lo .Iud~ "r tlk' 11M: clwall. nke. • 1Id 1101" • crylUl lill<:t" Il'l1mcd lalcly fnl ....1>"".iahly by ~rul uptimiaal">II.. .:-ftl "'-rd.1 '<0..1 try trlN nl 1'<" lilIl d tvidr t : 27 U J l lOl !' l2 k! I . 10 br delrmlincd II wbethrr .. "..Ii nin. I'd b ia5C!\l . 1I1CRf\cn S X I46 in ".....1 a nd camull)· . r"lat. ith . ldr . un1l I' flll l!'l (2nd h"IHtI ld't ..ht.. un il . tdF c. ~ Mntl iflut liom 10 Ihr FTI OI In cu ..t nn 'llfl War of bolin!. od ln l lhc N>e.. band. ioJC'tI pr in led c'rc. w ilh cr ywIIII <l!iCin. II in f-TIO I B and 10 11' ... h llc k 16.. . •. or t1q"tptnrfll .... and could rrpm.." SL671 . I I . Tu m o n ""l.......o 10 i..n ".rd rtidWDoe "'hile h(li". hi:: a ·l~ ' r..h1 u p It> ru ll ''''II'<'' '" lhe li... 1" .h.h l . n.111.. M. FT 101 H ~nd FTI OI[ tTIU<kb... fi nd • 1 ()Q """""""'.*: reUllOD €<In/llit..lIP. Th ll t>oa....hc\hrr lD nooWum pr1IlD<J _ ' ·rn Iho: hdcrotlyne RItl<'i"C't can be ma.n . nd ) '\1 ~I l in IOIE . homr condru<:lor (<lr an IITIlltrur con' emplalin...<:U "" "nd. inl/.. k1vc 1 ' . R. ..i"...hllll{>f 100 pall ~or ror "." '''"'' i' II (OI\IKlered lhol ooll:hl. RrrJ. I.. II IPpl_ a lIillh I.t.11.."t:: I". _ I. nl'l<Xlor a nd illOWlll il rrum pi n 2 hy cu ll In.. mOo.. ra u lt ·· ~..d 1'IlI II lll' r unll ..... fTlOl ... 1qt'O ~ .. -. n be Increaled "" liN" .." ' . n:u:i"C't " . nd its ....all y .. Remove bonom rover. I«lion I" .• . il up ....in OIl"il'"'l'fl1... brakthrou&h b Ul lhor q .. uocd on lWO> H . rreq ~ yet 1'~'''lI conttanl hUlm ...."" ~ tlw<ll.. illli(lr the t>bc ~ 00 1. .c-N"n kcr bt.o un it ..11 ' ho\Ild 'C'l>ull in • ra.nd intr"'h lCC$ otWn! nnn· li nr~ '.~ . flninl (Ill .... nt:>i-.. lhe S l671JO .ith ... fill. ...:1'1 or lhe..imil.. Anti "... 1>0(ettrirr dlOdel.. .. 1IInps.. IIk' u . Connon ~ "" Iy II 11'0 '1 IU ...( .. k 101 k l " l _ i..r." 'JI(" or "T 101 "'I k2..• tR'·n <Ill t. iliOfl. ... II ' 0110»: R. I"'n"".utn S-mclc r n""I'1'11t I «lIle S · meter a dj uo:l C<Wllrui '''' i f.. compk1r ..k.l rauIIO'd in • rnt>r'Il dc:p n l .. (uttllc:r . aJlf""l'cd fint In Brt'fJ4· ill.n thll 'IlUllnlion tI( 10..00 "" to S~ _ It IhoIJlJ.4 Stron."..... )ltlmtI. unit w"e o:x>nn«'!('11 sec.. r... . $t..m 'I Ct InIk...I"" un It.r i d" nlll ""'• ce k llllu n ... 1 tm "'" . a.'. nd 110..•. n: .c lCl. 1tM. p in · "')I nted ii' r rimo: t(>Uf\'e• • ntl tk¥i....>in.. Q _ I ~"il' 7_~M! " " '· "'·uil h.rn<'l: ' 0 Ihf cnul te1" l .. ml'dwnbl or ~r)'Il..1>.C...1...ly (>( the F T101 . The l""J!ul... lhe: ad\1lll 1qr1 of &II euI)o ti.. ""iraI/".... . purcha... a 1\01 ton much 1lC&1 ..m.nl bias ." 1% 7).. . A.'I"n -.o:oJ Ihe'1l'aIOn . """"."tIC of in pulL l1w miu..lfTnIID. Ito ha...Iut:. ill t.r h.iuocl ion . 1110:) .... nd )...na l . Whrn 'he • . 10 1II a nd 101 i'..". inlomnOOu l... . .. •.. or bRal lh rouah mlO l unr&ble I. ThiI 1)'Ill..~ r rd biM is obIal nrd frnm ......int. .. !"""'CT I<'vl'l. WtIt.rl. . finn llu..r:aletl-t hmtl. ..d ..:hicvw in ~I" or Ihf tcn<kn<... 1111 lhe S IA:?O ~1O'd pIn. boll.." "ITO' In lOt.... Fo .. .. A IlKful nlt lrl' u..-in 10 pin ) ... rrttm ~h . lhe •.. '. rtIC'ill'..1 SO m V n .'I\' 'i"".. tI~ • .•" ....f\l l hr lin! m il«<..10 be in<. . end al l"" J' 2 MU . BA r r...r...mil" 10 ii .l~ t" ro/Itcm 3~ ft ."rully ~ "" ". of I. "'. ...Pll'flII rN I" <kl.' arn"tlC"lC'"" . lnn l lt lU ll....'.. the k<:hn~ue (UnclKlfll by dc1rrminm. .. Ul a nd Rfi ~2 k!J l : Q I In tile lUI B and [..hirtd ' ul'l'<"'in.. an d.n :uillJl y 1""I"'!ar. ZU BA f ...11' 12 k!J ... I' I . '" o f lhil n" " hlkall"n .... ranJC .-ire ' 0 pin 1) and rou te Ihit to n'-'hb.'I"ud.:all) • " H k lh cer.. ...lIh"......... and cn--mt'llul.. IS . ~ wllich lias ~ . ~ K "'~ !ot'n lnJ t he "".. ..". 'lli lh .. I"'. .llIC Q..qe dror.~ e Ihicld .. ..r. l. Itcmo Yl: 1""0 It'\"eWI Iklltlin.......c. remain on IItt " bo ard. l ullahl. The . Ihil 00 raMO il up.. he r" . lIuc.'.. the modm.nll no lrl "v 1110: tNIker '..... J o.. boIIrd In ._ .11".....nd <>tI.." he . .. It . rT 10 IL man ... hieh ('()II. N <>l.. r' u m t he " .rd bi.r'I. lno:rra" ".luira ill 1cII'1 (" M vol ll on ill ta'll! (_uh . .. l<. ' -"" I le rin H on U ....y "r lhe n:t:ei"t::...e.. bipolar l .. 00f'lr'" eonno.... 1"lIkr Iv.. >ItJt:r... Then re-aaern hl. .ble IJ. I>ooard II mounted un hll" nf t he v .R 11 in 10 1 M k21 R""" . One or lhe:q UCIliooa .. Thi.r )'" " do root "". .." .........e a brnrtiaIl dffCl 00' lhor in ll/l"f1>Oodulllion chanclrn..... 1:\aUI.xn. ..( . a.. •• .... YOt<1Inf Iho: rrnbk:m.tI PH l 1M1H o n t he r 'I'emr 1. then ~ potoaiHo ' " ~-'. lIkh . AHAT IU It R A DIO T ECHNIQU E S . bUI lhe lechnique fA ptOI"id.. t "" ·"....e. Prinl lel 0 ))00 . Ho _ .d • Il''''''''c<! 10 lUI'n . 10..l(:Clion 10 an optunum \a1ur c. coJ hill' C... 10 In...nt o:rI>N.n d l!btl lhe: Irnut>1c could be minimil <:d hy pro\"idi n... f. iml'f't»'ai a""""".mr-nty wit!'t nuxcn UIIn.... l. .hich I. 1'17' .ira mnna.. ~I """" Rfi ." 1 ~ 8 .

..... I'l lot '"-.. _ .•__ " _. _ .un'l ) . )..~ _ ...• '----i "".J UC I!IV I!It TOrie S ". .t...n a .N . _ _ . _011_". .-1 ..... ..

.t h tills uai t a head 01 il " hut.. ". protlo: l. amf'/ffin". _ _ .n v....l._ .lly nll:eiver "".. rota m'" be olMrved: kcq) In....h.. u vlty ol .. ~----. r...--. 1'OcI (: 1 t . . _ _ .""" Pla _ . of hia fronl -eDd .. CNooft........4t1 R..th r the QIIlomar..iXl""U iI oa (t hi.ith two InlerMl'Holl Nile-riel ~I"_" in.-t or RmOve a dcvk>a wtri'... SM6CPI. roey of . nonc. UIIn.o:.. . 'Ihonod unl il t/'allM. AHATl!UlIl. .hed MSQ l lXn C4 SChoItky t-rricI" dIodaI . "'<bldl oho . 0 . ThI: ocmi.. been te nt 1100.....npl lfln-.. The: biuilll QllI'Idlrionl for lhe l N I<lO aAl dloIen 1 proYid!: unil'orm 0 raull. l"'neB In the Swedish penodlc:al /tMJhJ & Tdr".:.---I--~ . . Thio nn.......h. is putl..... --.lOl' ~ ~ to d n:u il .....1_ 1 (:t H.. V 'Nhen 'olJ~ by • l.. by 21 ill. _ (w""'"I _ IU ... . TbiI ""'ranC Model 18 Nllef 4~penIC!S eompletely ...lI'.1' ran..-ooille 1 . ..ilh diff_ . &Ad 1Iw d....l a.... U ...._. ". .bJ. . wgp.._... r. In the oriJInIl. W2 D MR and WB2EOZ delcriblll...'~ pJlCllc . .. and the d)'lWnk .pool:iOWfl'.. who round 1M d rQIlI (Fi. H.elI ud cue •• ....... Tbe ooiM f&clot or the mIX«.1 10 or bette r lhan I luner haYin. FUll let..ac be ~ TIther Ihaa difta ..._ 81) in . IdUeYahle wilh QA! OIl 144 Mo:.... applied 10It. UdB ItOiIe Rill"....... .. • ... • •_ .pplied O\1lb. _ .. cIr' (\jib the tu ppraaion of intennoJ ubl1ion pr«l. LI.f. lN I... four ... to ul=nl low AD IDt_1na: ArneriQ.. _ ..:t& . by Kjl:1I Strem....... " < ...w ...mplif'ier ca pl ble of 1KJlTIC 26dR pin and • ooile fIaun= of 2d1l a' 11 M~i•. 1eadJ. •• ..1_ _ I I H </I (:1 D CI D .. . _ _ ' ._ _ 1_ •• _ ..: . '"1'\.. modulatIOn perl'o nna". app liel to an ~). ill eom~.ped around lbo 1eadI-.... Sdtott/I:. 4 . .... hMm• .!molt I.... Coil and eapadlor declib arc J...u. CI It ... ..... .. III Il CA HdIII TIl'S (No_h«. N . ' _ ...- j . -. 1.lheeue: lhlI .. IIbould N _vod bd'0I"II ~ ~"" and a'lIIO.iYal 'or pullillJ the lIfIit on 21 or ~ "'e/l. ..11 and outpul co.e II 011... ' ..aT .DtM. noiItor .. IIl1ed. ilh lhil typr ol lpprollCh an be ~Iff Ih&n 100d B- n. ... I 'IICW and pu ll IbI lillfl&l infO • JowooiM mUer...... 5"'60'1 QleIltk!1lI 11\111 with BIIM:T lTI()ftl elabontt.. rOOUT ~.' phi . Le. .. . .. bial loYd . aDd it iI aha supatod lhat 20<18 pin.. 1ho followla. by 21 in.. 1968 )...0:... 11'C H . "'"P. H OIo' a T _ _ • "'0.... to bill Ilrnited by IiIO and . ~ I "1" 1 l1 " .1. lbe urnt caJl be! po'II'CR(I from baneriea. d .... ----------------_.la:halque ..-. .. YOlla_ _ _ "and" YOIIi.. U " a- lbe lN l<lO .---. &ul:kel.. ... man lhould r-y ..... nn. O aimcd JeNil1vlly II bcn~ than 2 .t " .. t !be leldo.M.« ~ mon::o I lkfttion to dyunMc crOlHDOduiltiocl and inlCr.r.-... SbouI4 a ooclr. or from a ny re&lo""bly """ll-lIlto:rod 4. RADIO T IC:HNIQU I! S 0... a comptCllnile bcl_ optimum p in oand "I'limum ~ modWatloa reUotaOOll. by So lilmn I~ ree.r" ~ l Rl'C 1bc: \Irblol1 v.~ r-...OSf£T .. _. hen cu llin.. Itlou1d nol be n:m owo:l UJlliJ ~1 IOItIwill . _ " - I _ --_ ft • • _ ·. much.. lhe a ll il"l unit ". ~ c.. ...... 1 ""' " 0.

.. rrom IN pc'OUICtJW • ~tioo ~ • e-... &Ad local ~tot .... ~ irWk:&tat ia. ud IN (J"oIo..1......lIer .1 ... the ill". tTocn ~1oIl Io>....k ~Il: MOS FET• ..... ... and miMr.. No dic>doo 1 ~ 0 l 1oaIIRnltniIWf ~-vp .. bolh rod 10 ttw__ 01 tbe tnMistot. U>d siJicorl l1icloda "'Cl'W lined In their p-: . . ..1 .-..."T ......00_ _ ... • 2N361~ " Pradl firm (CYJ'H · HII) fOf ~ millen oc_ .n..: 1M.1. 1. '" ......- . order 10 danuII..aI ~ ...tlDI co-&Il rfil. as r..mdl Mrial (1OfIlInIlmn. lIninl MOSFE"r.u l a ~ thal It1liq th... : .dula.r.... ul bw. . ~ CQST.ic:nl .. _ PI. II.e. ._ _ .~ . _ be Cll:lIZIIMRd br -. ~ ~ Iq bel'0R' doll'lculbcl oa lhill I&:XlR oould to. ' .. "~naHlui AlliQ:I '-23".. s. ...-.. ....-c ~ ber:ocnina ailable ~ble png. redua: ~ aDd dIlcIril:al Ihoc.. . 196'11 of tt.._ ..... 1... Febnaty..u " .... Cl/bl. ill Qll!WIlOII colIeaor mo<x. J of the pwanium pn:>tec:tM diodes _ -=nI&I)' ..II"UII"d 10 • r--~r.._.. _ .104. • .• "~ ••• ·~_"..mctJItbe jii ubknll of bKt.. 11 iI .led ..tIC ~..-ida buil l-m _ _ protal:lioD 1". .'" -.1 II .. 10 .._.... .. . .. BritiIh palenl _MI• • ::.......1..I... "'''''' . in pqet. ptoo'idod Ulal a.. Ii... .c ....92al) h. c:r-._ .. fOG ..". cntird)' dIalinaJcd...._ ..-.~ .... p I ..-.1 .J 1I).-(o-bKt pI'O(enn.ice IwO IUd\ cOOdIs ~ -sed ID _ _ ill I' )----. '_. ...tUc:b lLu T A' UO ll "'~te MOS FET .

i . Sf' _ L. _... . * ... ~ . 1 _ ". .. .11. N -_...._.. •• .1&1 it..._ _ . . 10_ _ ' _ .." I .... $ • " • ... N_ U l /vn UII/U I _ _ W ".~ I • ... .... . ... ......... UIl . . •• . DIO T ICHNIQU I S • • I ({f>' .. .. . ..... -_t" ....._ .. . . . 1 "_ -..~_ U . •• .. ~ n. • • I • • • ~ ~ ..... _. "... "" ---..... ....... tH. . ..... * ....MAT . .. • •.:~.. _ _ _ _ _ _ 10_ .

- ••r:'fu -. .. . G JFPQ ako "'IS a slde. I ~ vanable OIcillat o r 10 provid. Tbc o pc ra tiolutl 'd anU ~ of beln s able to select I n opti mum bultlwfdth for Ihe Ii conditlonl DeedI no nreu ina .11 010 • .J II ulOd {oscilia lor n llled IU"OLlnd 70S ke/l ).a boll.... doet !lOt pmocnl .. W6CAD ill erediled wilh o rlgillltin s 1M Idea of uain. WICl" Iype EK07-110 is Intended 10 pnMdc contiDllOUI I dju.I det..her .lIp M M with _ . alonas ide . hich form\ lM t. he made It dellr WI by LAinS Ilhunl o.. . W hile wilb the Gorman alter Ihe rip. each uains. Very can:ful scr-=ninl and byJ:uIina are reqlli red 10 avoid Ieakqe atoWld the flIlCl"'I. ny opera tional probkmi and II a 1004 de.t the vAriltbJe CIIIciIlalot obould be a ble 10 IWHI 10 one aide.l1y ama kur t.. - . tbl lUIIC llopo is Khic'oocd wilh narrow bandwidlh ....I asicr 10 implement.e/I ill the middle of I lineal rotmtlomo:oter .e blnl$ WI ~ of the prlDdples could... W I _ _ DlOOI WI u n _ lOll • .1 " ')'1 pul ld selectlvily is nI ~ .. ± 1SO ~/I) to 12 'keJs ( ± 6 ke /I).U . _ koo.I wel'O ...X . Ihl'Cll . .. b. ..'Jbc diode . Aorordins to I"" R &: Schwlll1z c:ataloaue.. Tbc diode . T. Since " d iIJf'reOOll " mill. swlnl fo r I 0 to ') 'lol l c:hIDa:e : he therelore c:mtrca the fl'Cll UCPCY to 70s lr. wl t lloclo .. .. similar d i-.. p1ele circu li for sueh I aner usinll four 68 £6 1Il. tor in a IICCllIrld. and . lhus natrOWlnl the <MnI1 p. bu t thi& II no t d ifficult once the teeh niq\le has eeee muleftd. TOPIC S '" II IJlIl IlCI III U...1 _ _ . Spurli baVll no! t-o f<lund.. .wl y 10 I:ffO ba nd width. ~te4 potentials. _ m ... wilh the OIdl la to1" 00 702 or 708 ke/l.vail. proYkIN Ill.. ..lISbaM..l1 ino:Jmin& liacW. Rd emll:e b1clr.wl..aa to be n:tuood m Older 10 hold I. In pnelice he uocd IWO band. . .iD.. h d. . I 111 10 . Even IbiI earl y ref~renc."1 ~ . rel. Tbeac eom plu: filt1Cn are inteDt1ed for COllUll«ClII I pplielltlons II prices wttIeb pu t Illem bryond the reaeb of most IlJ1\Iltelln. witchcf.pua ra ther lha n lowPI"'" Wlen. with the o. the bolletla llo CODtllln illlerDll 1l:l'tleU. 10 alrnplify the tUllllbkl o.. and no un wao ted 111"'11 ClID be t -rd OIl l.. Hil !iltc:r nshown in PiS. ...np-. Tbc over lap CI. IfallL Altbouah hil unli lIIed bllnd. G61.. . M arnnacme:ot but 0100( .ndwKIth con trol . 10 QST (Febl'\ll l'J.J ortIy !h. eYen ea rliel ill I n MeL-SO Sp l Shirter uen..."im. M the ba ndpa.~H' no••• O5CIIUT OR m •• JR".. _ b 10 . 19._ _ ~ . be found .I.ryalak. .. BuT" lho OId lll1or frcq~ ls iJl. ~ _. . _" 11111.e both rundamenl&l and. . are fairly sophisticated 1i0000limp ie 1)'1* were found....w '. Tbc unit leA OlIC'illAtor II buill In to a d iec:&lt bo lt. t '" PI¥I1l.. Ron G la iJ..I I U t llODt • _.cill..ryala l allen.. T " 1O<{o . I problem. but4wldlh of. eKh 6J~ cou ld be dellsned wilh one e>ttreme ly 1Ieep-I!opeJ n::spom. W6CAB whIeh IJldIMSed I com. the elect ronic: tllllin s diode lIIOI1 by 06LX provkIeI a 7 kcfr. _ .. _ GM.. hip lllbilily of the tunina dlodc IUpply line II esM1ltla l WM n iWftS very 1W1'tN' bandwidths. _ 'TlM_ "". !Imnonic outpull.. GflLX's flIleI' ~ two H kc /s medla1licaJ filtlCn {lith« or bot h oIwhkh ~n be IwiU. to leak ...led lMt medwllc:al flIlen could provide the llC(leSIU)' ~ l ids if lhe fund. !be aklebltnd Is inverted In 1M ftrt._. lQICd . __ .. the "K07·II .~.i1ed d iffereQCCll which lend to im pose more Itrinaml serocnilla rcquin:mcoll. """ft.. wilh broade r bao dwid thl. a'eUed (or decreulld) lhe passband of the eecoad l!Jler ~ a WlY from the omlI1l treqlleDC)' of lho lint filler ..boul ) ke fl . w i" _ 1 . .e curve. _ __... 8t..._ _. he __ IidcR Ih.Ii1l. IIleaable bandwidlbl.__ _ •.IIl bil l yslem.. band pul pai r pi.Wn.'UC EIV EIl. Whi le it II ~U..ble.~ o. Eo Thomu.lInml for bandwidlhl from JOO ell rI.rops virl. X 111_.l1 I rt iele A Yariable ba ndwid lb lUter by II . wilChes aDd tunins diode are fed from . 110 1D the second milter. h. om "I"~ .11 _ t orw _-_.ciU6to r I rra.e.. He aIIo 1. 10 ) .1«l 1Yl1em over many yean.. witb illiidell ip uduliqllll. 19S5J showl I romparab le lech niq ue ill I.bed OIlt of l.nd.... • u l ..nalher' unil. 10111 0 TO4n tdtl 1 1k1l' WIlIl) " srll' 1 .. _ I.l1 boo furthe r decn:aaed until. ~ ' ... Th Ull ' I lhe omtre frcq uenc:y (OKillalor 70S ke/a) botb filtlll'l over lap euc1ly rwultinJ ill ID 11.t miller. is aidslippe4" the reo:ei. .I...

... .\ 0 AMA T I U R IlAD IO T ICHNIQU I S G4 BWl:. .nd I"" . "" tilt.....17 •• _ .. Ioco. ... "'"f1f ........ I f ... _ . .. rbe I...1 ~ hclr. Dud n. '10 ...." ltIa <:ompl u .nd Ih .......cnc...._ -. t. dlallnod .. C'phtn ~ (.nm • I.. I\aIln_opled • l'IlOdI _ pIa" . of .*. .. mililllly."..Jco rU)"lI' ITlIJOI' rok..........o llo" ""llh a.... .. I. " ' id dcm.... 'n 1""'..:"" I l'I¢ lhe ~ rnedlani&m by. ~I'. .. ~DiblC' ckarol~ I'" Qf*l1on 0( l ~ lYN lnOd In 1oI>d000000lei "..tc low·l _ hea d l'horw.. ... nd * Offl'iItt ........ C2 ano..""'. lUdI .. • hJonp. r".". .w .. nl) 10 ..lI" opnalor ...10..i\ 1 ~ ~. The " C.. """nude' .~ cd " .- .. io. ill lh be cornpral ihlc . .. o m~ ...........* lhe cia ( .. .m If' ' hat.:..1onwlu n. _ .. 114 a nd Rl 1'1 d l ~id..Im ~ n...1' ....tit llnOftJ illI" rIei .. I hcor ..kfl I<> ' . •• l._ _ .. in. hov.'~"""""" . " at..."... · tI l""*'''''C ' " ."'..•.I . J'f"'<CUMll . l>uilt hli U"'" In 1I 11 aH-1...... 1L a ~ IIJ "vet r.. ' II'U' and .:l pod... 100 lllV\'idc ... form cI 10 tN ff'Gn . ~ . 1'.n fl'Ofll c( him .~ l'ohft' bJ . _ . G6CJ••"" 11....4 J I' f I Ik ma l " ... Th .. 1«1'''')..... I .. .. hI.. h 'f'I!IIlCT. . SI lnuoll ~ k"'Jpl'loneo.. 1"'" of ... a nd .ll:l ......... so:ound r'lJITl.... -.....-."r I RON" K) he Il ~ be" . I.. tow .he enero <If lhe ..l It: I' n>~..l...l 'ii...~ """- < " M M ... ' M.t Cl'Ollb....... __. F'I....1'1 C_ S~ /fl " ... T III . UI Clltw. onI....1M> tN' Vf'4'l11.... k. filum".....'-"'r)' ...ad npcrimeftt. I __ ...4"""" .Il-r-" _1 a nd . .....l'ft im ['ft l<o ln lhe If I" :!lJOl) ohm.. . " ilil-f'QI -...hen d~ ... '...om""MI'lI ~ ......._-". ' • • io 1I.it h lbe..pamlcd In ._ _ 'l' de. from ".11 r 1 r.... I" ....tI'f'110 i". .... d. tll'c. could h:..hft...... .... 'lOft.. tIf'I'CIICl _ ..he .. ul."" . .hed (OflJun<lion . · .... "' "1 "b" ma for th. ~1~... .teh : .............rtn· . 0...."""""t and ltonr • .. • • Ion..flll l" " " H _ .1Iiwr and .nd ' . mpo:lO'lltll r.... udlO ""'"...n Ihit IfITC'\. potrntial .:h .... di. 'l'I¢ .:"r-.l.. Ileadl'ho_." '*""'" '""J . ~ . ~ net* "..lig.... «".. t" . ".._ .-'C'I1Ii. I..m of h... ... . . .. he .\ '-d. I._ ~ 01' lim< io urodoubledly ......~ k ou lru t ••........ lho>och 11 NI_ t.. "-'ed C"'C1ttl) ... M I)".• ..4dela. .Nt 10 dkl rlhule ..nd .....lc: S2. ..do •• " " _ till...... out 'eoi Mal. in • • "".. or ... rn "t. ' . It'" oIliller it not inlftWied for . <'vct.....-."....ith Md· ~ 'Mil *i1 h louoJ..... . ~ - .'l"hnnn.houl pbpe : ... for P&m.mf'lc (onn 11~Il'lOI'l I IU ..." . .ol lhe "....-d for (. IftI ) - u _.. -~.d..... H .."""... I"""'" .. H..... 1 " IN "ur---..... • M ' .. by WII... h. ro:-l e he rt e. n . " II II I "r><I 11 4 (li m " 1IC'''''OIl . .. ' <'>nwnriy • •he left I..~ Ml.-_.. . ~ I:A ~...ny Io. Tlw " . II ......:apkilon Ih " "'.ny . . non· dcclrolytic .r. roo"'''''' I n .._ .--1 .. G:wJTK • • Ilh r"ll rirru. 01" ~It....... II it ... . ... h "01 "'"'1 ... boolldMdl h 0( 1M ~ ~ Ilpotl m.. - - .filter ·....-. rroto7" I.......I .. R I "..... "' ·.I . ilil l hudrb<>tte '11 ' 11 a lIi. _bla . h. _ II.hodl Ihr ""' <kWnN. --_. k. *'_ . ~ S. lhe 0100 R' ru.na l .. ... r.". ra:o prnen.. " .Ion uf 1M eon.. 10 .r.fi!I ( . . f of ._.... 1CIS'"'.'1 ."l1Ofll1l m~ hrI_ 1M rD..fiorl · 01 SOIIIkl i\ it Irve.'"... ~ he lIC'l'"'daled 1"1 . .". ..Iope rhaw oIirloIy 1_ l llll Il'I¢ Sl • • . CI In tlnt .....I . H~. _\::--.--_... n " IIdIOf'l1In ~ "<K l """""'.urn. Ir..m M r.. lhe """oJ 0". " " dqaftl f _ 0( _ CUlk' M1 . .. ..~_ . _...plenwo>l .. ol ~. h ~ .... cllW!a lk'm ht..illI . d ' lia.... SorpIernbcr ...

. 1II "'.fI. . 94. Th a . U40 O u.tq[.1nced linea r <!elector is based o n IWO small I" ruidal coil form . . r"..f.I . _ . 4n • • 1 M 1<>.. on 0. U> Io H _ " 1 LM..1 poin l con tact dtodes i..f. di ode sh culd be of t he ~me lype as t he Wlunt d iode (0 3). b._ J M. oarlhy ••" .w.. 0 e nl lt~ hi Uty 10 !li e rca.... C: 1 ~1 .lI.I.. !1'f'rfOmlnnce o f Ihe c in...:) II ~ lnr lind a Ih ~l. 140 .. I VO.~~f l '0 ' .. . (a bou l lo in. 1-101004... 101'Ol." n a."I •• ~I.'\-mod ulatJo n pllIvidcd lh at the a.. TIle ci rcuit i. Fruin early 1961 onwa r<." rai sHille 1 ranee. /o.33 .. held IOgether.10". • 11 lie.-a . . low. ..noi se RCA 400. in WI.1. I. udio lrandsioti.ls dnwn 1 hdn'" lhe miet"ovoll level a nd o f su!flel. ' . ""' ble o f copying c. etc. Il iJ poinled OUI. . ' .s . After windin ll. W 1Z01 and Dick Bin gha m.:h in lenet h a nd the e nam el rconuvcd. TtII.ked bern". hown in F ig...o.1 !..le.'e. 000. u • d~uh k ba la w. h.I 10 a udio fre0 quencies u~inK linear delection . n=led [or s. amfll ilier (o llo".. calion (about l00dD) need ed for hud. v Their a ppro ach is 10 use rOUT hot-carrier <. Ihe l"" d. u..f{!i.r. r~iViln ~iIlK dlrect conversion rrom . . ~ ec ted Icx. _n . U..RECEIVER TOPI C S fl Nf- " " ~~ " -~ '" N ~" 4·7K .( flag(: !U61 plus lin FE os... 1%' o n wa rds in QST... t)'PC . 9). been made ill t his desil[fl to over. .. o The on ly slURe presenling an y rea l Ct' nstrueliOll. Dira.. ollor<>l' ." 1%9 ). n "' '''• • 116 p' I.l_ 11.. 70 Mc/~ lrons. . "OUt...lu n: I re . J "''''• • C 4 I.f.n<od lIau.-idc:d by the lransi' lors 5a 1."'...!! i ~crlprud oJct..o fille r which delerm ines select ivilY: see f ig.. Fig . 1Yf'C..10 d ra" ·n in Tedlllicil/ T"I'irs 10 the a1traetio n."n"bly 1OOd1. receber . in~ lin ell oh m meier.1 Conv.b. wilh ~II fine luning by conlroillng lhe FET mcilllllO No I.. r. 0 /. l. bOy.. ~'.. The: OS /" a n lele lilI)'S : ..:1 Con· .. ling on lo ud . rl ftoen 110m . U J ' a •• li . allcntion . 1_ a .lUCIor (a nd valve) ..... r.l=.Jk ts.. Ih"ugh for 1 ~ .( l. .lt ~ .. illo.. The bea uly of th is ap pro ach is that the re is only a sim ple prcseleclor tu ned circuli.w.'!Pl. eU1l1plel ioll or ~iver (if necessary ine~stflg va lue o f decnuplinc resislOl't in lhe fil'1lt IWO slages).w. ~omc lhe in here nl r m blem or lhe au d io im. .imllie ..ac ~ d lrc<:I-C" UprcJ hll....i. baek-(llf diode" (02) in a r<lrw~rd. no pnted circ u ilS.h.m. in ferio r to th ." RI'Ai.11'" .... ' II . (Ihis is 0( no COIlSCQUence o n C1"<K.-(lnly operation loClecT ivily co uld be sllarpe ned up a 1 / 0 hI' u. ~. lhe back-off diode D2 ca n be rep lactd by a n approp riale rc~i~ l<lr wilh 0M in perfo rmance. is no Im la h ility in Ihe high-ga in a... an d lh is ..-.f.!M r.I.u il with convenli"".t Wi lh the AAZ I 7. ~""".I . "r semiconl. two lomid wide-ba nd l ra n~· formen and (our liewlW J> ka rd 5082-2800 hor-earri ee ac diodes.) is SUI:~C5ted by I)... l. L4 S t u.S n..-... .1111rlled wire. I....:civer. W7WK R.. pro'. ._ Id ..... a re lrimm ed to abou l nn in. ud"... 'I he e nlin: ampliH pllone u"" i~ provi ded by Ihe lhree high·beta. Ll .hiued del«10r circu it in o rder 10 brin. eless Wor ld (Ja lluary. lha l if lupply volla &c and ambient lem pcr:. . 1 M. un 11 'hlnl .~ . l'C:lu llinll from the article .:<. hak . beginning an d end o r CH nr lhe three wind lnll' '"=Jie«s " HOlte:trody ne:t O<1 t <1c to r -r' Os c ill a t o r M PF102 •'-"" '" .r... ~ver rea:iV«! powerful llI ppon fmm No vember.l~ ..b. hoo kl be chc<.. T he. ull .i~lor reo. even in the ot>senco o r I rc<:civcJ C<\mer. . fl«3U-~ of the hi gh . _ •...J117 '" 'f' " " car ii/li tion intcrfo:n:nce " ". n an d illOOrpo rales an extra . filler is c ll"octiw ). the clippi ng leve l rilhl down 10 receiver noise level..s.. TIll' I.. ' ... 01 lVo .. o f relnl iv"' y . Some care ma y be needed 10 e nsure Illa t the r. I\e.. nmenl.ion __. No a ltem pt ha.. 11 _ .~ing resona nt D lilt~ ralher lhnn the I..do ub le ba l.h g.. 28 en.. lOn cadI I<>m i : ...hni'lue " by Wes Haywa rd .e.. wb le... 1I0k. . howev er . dia mder) winding lciH lar ly o f No.l! pro blems is lhe linear detector with iI."ed since IUlom:ll ic level co nlrol i-. n e l<kquat e. liJllo.e nUe mlllS 1 achieve m. performance...ogn ilion for lh l. taled to have ltiY('n excellent suppression of 01'1 . Ton .. n.ng the low· pass a ud.. lunc r ".-.<0" H M .. ' ' ' ' v". al il. ..0 '. Then . Not e""n nn audio p in c ontrol is f. This p resen ted full eee ~U'\lel ional det a ils (If a 3'$ Me... 'lCCli()tl.

.... • ~ ".lO't ". .. .. .I _ c..'... .... ..11 1 --_ . _ ... .... TI U .t.~ ~ -. ___ .... •• . _ _ _ rW _ (IlS(.. ' $ -.. ) ..• - ....... ... ~ ... _ - -. . T1M-. .O J ... noo ... 10 II'"" ....... .-.•..-. ... . .. ._ ~ I..m".TIM 0 "" _ _ . _ ~~8i"'.. ... . .. -··_-.III . .. D I O TIC H N I Q U I I __----*._-_ __ .1._100 _ _ 10 ... ---_. _ . - -....~ LfI ~ :'/ ~ ~ \ _ "w _ _...o-oot ~.

. IectiYiI)' bocomer..." aaEptlIt*I . W6QYT In lhe Yet)' flnt I<....o.-d lbe 6JHI ... II. 0 .0.. V). tloq (I( • lOad pox11. nu... bul 22dB _ . artie" M -= .. Iad ica~ lha t illiermodLl1atioo hct_ lbe lOra would be 2248 ItTIlapr IIwllhe '*ired ovtrul l H~ duc 10 the tarae pNk 10 .. ... ra:epUon QsT...1k also prtlInll .. er.bol of U .. (ff) dolIble lhe anode dlalpallon (3 WIIU). OJSYC lisU • n llm ber of corrIJlIlritom oritb UlI 7UO: (a) suod dm...La l l be teriouo anempc to redUOl IIOCl-llllearlli.1 more 1m-I tl1lnUer clww.. l~ it IIkI wortby ofl'>ote fnol lcUt bea.b .t deto. for """ II linear mIJ. ldl...1 detClC10r aod L f. ... e. filler COIti _ than I IQOlt CI}'IIal fUter-. Sueb ... aa:pl ra.. R~<Yt>UW Tw..f. to be for col DUJ" dcmodu.m.r.-.l>o-.... (I ) and lbe IUblllnlial rri< c &<Ivanl .. May.ux:... WbiIoI IiDe&r detactJoa 10 _UaJ to dJRa<OO. IUpeI'bcc ~ The lrnporuno:e ol lbe IInearilY and Inter. Iad~ In UlI ctlm!Ql R C. the n the \IIlWanted Iloamodulauoa tat would be II 1 kel.•.. 1 o-boIb. balanocd rnod u lalotl" ete ..1to hilhly bencfll:l... Bul when h COInR to e.fI-ctJooo '". when u .. y half lMoI oi l 7)(. it loccd DOt be Imp(*ibl )' biIh fa. be .. voltqe • delirable. W<lU1d nW<e a u.. He hat. .' ¥OIl lI.lCOUI\I of wtwIl becatnt lo.-l anodea Inruoonduetaoo:e (4400 ..' IPOd in tome tl/lliaM . ".1I 61H I .In..Ith 0..... TIll In.ty In In -'-1arloed fann. ferin. Yf'O _ 100 _ _ u-. April. . r more dl"ceti~ Tbe oombi . by 0 Q . opcnte II 0 vol" (l .~ U--J}. very 10001.. Ippean.. mlcrmodubllion bet_ II Ind lbe dcaited 1Iip>al QlJUId p.o.dittortlon.>'eIIIeI thai wbcn all ml«..11$ (u In lho COllvetllioNJ pl'O(IuI..1 M TO P' I C S '" veniont" aIlowlD..na/)'IIIlndbtl!l lhal I hip \eYeI 01 b. .teriltic:l . Proreuor Villird d CllCl1bN • bUanoed M f req. . ..c. .. 1961 ) J. II.lll a..). 1 Thit illUII11l11oft Ieado to t .1o bolb teeel vetl and Irammillcn hu been II~ .-.. b... .. OlJGO ... u.ll..It ICElVIIt IIIId MIoodlv!ty .. ..una.oa• _ • aoI. lDOdulItioo perf.w.dio nll en IDCtn f. provlda lUI a.lon fo r e. Btl! lhit bit llIllaU. a nd QII uldutt..I 46$ ke/I and an inlcrlcrinl aifnalll 464 l e.. a..1. Villani.th ~ ~).isnaJ (5 V} . of dda. ~ 10 btu 10 pt.. lbal. I"1"tIm l'lmctloo oIthit val. u wilh 73601.. I1lt lo or lhe or-.... .... OJJOO.. if fltlcd. lhe cornrlele cquiw. in}CCIion and two .. tbo ptoducc detectoo"'" ll l lhe np. (c) l"OIlahly Iimilat . cond Ull...-I M pria: . I'M&.... thI .'tof and ooted lhal . !ow-d1'tonIon product deteet.. ~ by Prie.. to be tl ken <>l. ncelYlltll Il1motI ...tor).bocqtJen l Ji.. of • diode det«tor..) delIcctor p/llcI. 'Nhi".ttl Crndl.oown U oroduet cIcIeclon ("" Sekaivil)' in • . m:el mi. In \hat artie. Th. Mrio..." (&1110 .s.. complIlYd wi. 10 con¥mtloaal rood The .. H. thll\tuIa Ii_ and .. n)' .. Y(th..m int: In.. R..0).1 MormDnk: dis lOrtion n:su lun l from low level ••1. In a combinallon 0I1biII 10ft.Ollmiller drcuila.o lCdwith the-al-known lYre 7360. thi n for .. lile the 7)60 it .b. AtIOl~ l vallabll beam lIet'Iectioa .. but aimoII-=1. troubk. val o.latloD and bunl-ple ciraaili in Amcric:an eolou r tdcviIlon m:e:i..llable 10 lhe UK thfOlllh R CA who can IIIJ'1'Iy I da ll shoel (wiliu the 7)60.... l lhe det ector. buicchlrldcriti. lbc cootIdenbie value cl beam defIeo:tion .. He .. audio ....e..~ ...... ." u.w..cy conM delCO....ICr and alto.. t . IiDll prodLa:cd will be mudo Iowcr thaa peall. .. hiM/pk.....loa ~ h 1t. ScpIol1l le bele rod )'llll deleclon ha ' ..ill ca lled ... of lbe 6J H 8 . 1 malO yean " 0 10 the d .uer-. LaICl" (QST. of 1M JllO~nl ank:Ie. lha l an ... I arriwd ..e.5 . lhe I&Ille U lhe lbtRIlIlipl.. lIIOd.. Within • 'I'Cr)' few yea n.• . to_. prOlluct dcl«lon. What II PeW ht 1 ' ..iI1awn fint came illlO use.... • _ _ 11. Almos t euctIy the same CDIlC~ ........._ •• . 15 vola.. audio lmap....vetaje dillo.-. "*.-. In lbe coa-enioa Il'f'OC'aI aDd 110 Impt(MI the etfOCl~ of t'O' t-<klOClQl' 1l:1a:tiYit)' fll1ladvt.. u. InjoIctIoo:o ~ 1101 l'IlI.• and...• • rcoeption... ma n)' H ¥Ul1a1Cl over sim ple IUper!leb..b WlYcIonn.iet1Ioa I(H V) I t ot66 te " delirN .".. (.-...H o.. whOe lhe ....u... hicb.nal'" In 5 ... .nmo. M _.ltley...:>r It DYal It'IOn dcUable for c.. marl)' kilt boob IlIIIOI Ih. .odYllt'l Ilhould Ih .'aivi l. tv..... fully II I mi:u:r In trl.

_ '.. ~ "" n . ra..... ~ - . .___.. '" e _ ..A2lXlZ ... _ ..I. -.1' --1J ~Il .. C . .... .._ . ' . " . " '" '0 n.aubly ( WIno.. A lIfI*. _ _ TABI.... . • :10.. UlU I 3S IIInI ftoiIil ...J.. UUMll. r.. ..Al311 IS _ V606et ~ lA24lJ 11 ._ V Induded In lbt _ orindifll data rar ViU.. a...... 1..w ..... L . . &1a' frDnl !tic M uflanl 'hIt. . - 4' _ 21....YMa . vioIerI nztaI I.~• .. _• • _ ~.. . _...oa.. " . ...... . 0<71 ..--r~ ...... 1In1..• ..-U"#_ I-. 1... .l... .. "' ..... QlaoMd ~ iIIdode _ w. SWO 1967)... '" .-- .. 11 _ ... ~ In Table 1..~ ~ - {I. • • . U210) u .cw haft4book : 111II .n.. A H "T IUIl It A D I D T ICHHIQU I U AJ. ... ..... . H.."w.ADOl 1S mID )'Illow IUfII . _ a. .Ille f.... u-. ... . ......... .. 1 0 ...E 1 eo... ...r-"_L__--'_~_L__"'__ ...C_ . ..----.._ ..0 '" " m '00 '" " '" 21 Q N . . . tinta."-:a= _ 1'1 • ..

He hal ada ptod !be ofiIin..r.t U ..... lI ..... _&IeP fwthef..l _ oflhl k'lM d . COlI alu iUnp.M' _ iii ~ . .mod I\llel"l I '" . 1000. kcplacinl !be twlIHriolk PfOd.. • • "" "" • IOOIi\ . I_volt f. be" '• .1. ~ a. The ".M ....".do 10 cope with the 011". ....llldB aI 160 cft . buldpaa Clter Ir-fI0 9" 1.loped (u pari mI "' ".1248 at 240 ell . ... .IUC I!IY I!R TOPIC S us " .4d0 al ..<iIl Vinkon IDd lil ver-miol QJlIICiton..villa 0/ ~ and _ I. filler ol lblli I)'pe 10 a roa:iwr goIy modo:eIlf.r.l .hole projo. _ JU_...U\led with l'QiIlon 10 p..&.IoIloo 10 6J1el"I for coa_ opaatlcxl.""'" rnom .i. lI\a....-. kc/I .. ThillarldY 1'CII\oOYIlO!be ob..bullOftl immeo1.....t llf\« Ihcl d ipper ) .leIy ~ &1_ "'Y «ImbinauoQ m.4dB II: 110 C/I . 'A'lJcre ontl. CIOInt... til &ad 0DdI ....n' ~ ~ ~ .. 0_ ....i«t l &n<>Ihet OUlllClIIN unil in which "'II puaIl . ahl. lime "I willi 'IlO audio fl... I I -4Od R down. op. Ao:tM fIIIor ZUA PC hu paid IribulCl 10 !be uoer. 7X1.. I II IPl'""""bl~ bene.. '" _ l lIdB II 6-0 kc/I _ :z..1 ..... . pro.b.m.JebU.n ~ U " If U O MlUMW tIM abo de ..6dB .. aI'Icr rl miHati'Alioo\... The IIUie& l. D' . lbout ± )(l C:l l t 6dB down and ± 120 c!..... apin 'lrilhoUl 1oudUn.....au. pol . )llO C/I TABU: J . OYl!f I balldWMtlh 0/ abouc \lOll eI& &Ad . I a K.pll faetof lhan I'" oIhen.ll dtcuil 10 !lie a 0I>U9I& 0/ FETI n ·l a.. .!be rtlQum.atlclloll 'lritlloul ba.... F1~ I-..e ill ham.. J UO &ad 1:lOO c/o. "'-.101) ""'Ill !be lDCUUftd perflll'1TWlDt IhoMI ill Table l .mol1D 1 KlI .-.'!l .'"I ~ ::!?' • ~...... 10 rel U. He iIl ... Ihe mala ~~r .d baMwldl.. .b..-. llllen...»10 al 10 kcll hlP'll Ie." . 1'Ihw .:l o n 600.." . tiaI.."".r.\ed P. OperaUoo&lly.m. . _. ... thcl l1lOlli_ (' II AI. ....·-roo. . ~tY I'IIUIII ill aD 1lpplIR!D1 iPI::r-. _ 6dB AI J-2tell ......124B I I ..d IlIppftlUioo _ U.....:z..- :- D' • \~ • • OOO KI 'I~TI ~ .u... '"'" 175 cJo filler .. '13... I 'iV1 ~ 1o'''..)'JIlI u. n .. Rut :zuAPC hu IUc:ll thla typI of ftJ .." kc/o. C&tI ~y punch up the ~ltI IiIICr OIImbinatioll.

. a nd llndt tha I.. thai the detlll:tOf Ct. 011 the flnt I tl p.inJ the bcod\lI aI Dal'I'l:IW-buld NCepfioll.. .t. Wllh the l'pW.Le."""""n"'11y-o._ D _ . 'able DI(:lnaron...... Ho ~ thai InlOffcnllXll II one. wlth. wU \OIina. ny of tho. InIodCI Wl'Y mudl W(JfW by r... l'.. ... 1'" T... "he The: helio:r . 1M ....n. 00 10 ~ bloctln. . " • •• • . '.. and ...... Itll..hI c..1Iid1 elIn read ily be buill into the linal i. nd ba.. ud ilOly ')'linn. -• • - _-.... . them unnllldable with narrow band'ltidlh. _ _ .. c:omplr1e 1)'IIftll. 10 •••. hich .. bib!)' 10 COIli(:CDlnlC on . thou sh lt may IKJt Ippeal 10 the P111'l1U..r..."' AHA T IU Il RADIO T ICHHIQU I S """'" _ N... _ _ 101 ..t. and lhl..../I ..jver c:rou-mo<lu..ej \OCr h.._ ... It sh ould be notGd.. .. .. . 0 I0Il It""'"" From R.. Input ca ll o(t ea remo\OC mud! 0( the trouble.... .._ _ _ _ r _ .... bandwid th..u no IePllI'll te' d . II by III) ~ tlllly IlIldcnIood ~._lOll.Cl. iIdlln. from the .....ke._ _ U_ .. 11 wort h IrylDa-s-nlcul..sv..l'CICqltion 0 ... . "..1rY . thlll ..... C Amo hl : • •imple-co-ad d . .w.. .-•.. '._ ....ommu nallOOl RlC'C1ven.f-------.. pin II bKklnd. .. (lid .. I' Illn..n _4 10 d_~I­ should noll hi.. .. Ived o. pin conu oJ actin.-here one <IJleR 1.boon ~ ~:I . mi~er <:ll'CUil (Fia 10l ) can I'C uoN wiIh VlttUll Uy ....h In • r~ _ a. bu t If Iba r..A1I . nco.. 'Pf'ClIr UDOIbmld 10 DOiI8... ... • _ ~j.not""r ".. there II .... _ I _ _• .DO!Mr il~ rnenl lIdlic¥ed by red ucin..b .. by man d rlll'lk: _ tricl:1on of ~Ivel' ~ bandwidllil broqhl • not..c.....n be _loaded ~ Yft'Y Itron.... _ l U"""'Q "" ' 1 . .. . .... GIll: urect. TbClllNlJ ~ band~ Illter II dTa:tMly 1111 amaleUr' 1 OW'II ......o hm PQICIlIJOIDeIOl'''' '''' the Input (Fl..1. ... n oI'Ien bo I&tiitac&oty. A rclatod polDt II lhal 10 pennll tinter na rrow-bul4 operatkm.IUI room fer uteIuI PI'Oll'lU In lI... . _---_ l N M .... one d oet not CYm "'ve 10 modi!)' lhe fronl ~ ncI to IndU<k a ny new control. lOO e ll filler 1 . M M IDterfAl..- . hk....:-ry 10 to .Li. bed drlll or one IOn or . At JlI". b.....w. . AD iIIl_ 1III cumplc of 11Ur... rln. Itch on the b.¥aI.11on an4 bk >ekinJ.. itcllin.. Some open1o:n have • .. in lbe nonntol e.. tIw 0 modem jatJOft.11.. mode ... ... .-----.. For _ mUll ccx. bit normal .r.. " Man y of . In pre:u... _ 11. dmrla allcnuator lilted I' the ..c_ U.. u_ _ ... more . . ddol<...rty it ttl<: reo.. ~llon. limp\cl 2l)G. ..tbblc .. " pu t into Ihe R«lver ... _ . lianak alld ptll ouI of halalK'e. ~ ''' I L K (fi)[J W) who I'ftlric:h lUI bandMdth 10 . 11M! only . r- ""'"'m....ound bu t (lid recci~ " G """1ft : MTIll!... both fl'Ula' mitlll:Tl and roociven mUll ha~. IransrOl1Tlrr Ct..tioM 01 to man-mad\ine . . mode .ed.... till . .. III IIVoIn fcuu~ II lhal II ""luin!l no . from Did .. n o -r.. noted durin• • vail 10 • ndlo sutioll . all 1M Imcohl.id« balll No< oetver "not operator .. ..... e.li."" atlOOM I '-r on c. o..• .i ¥ft&1I whJctl 10 0Iheft..._ l . . - w ill be Rlrovel'eIl. owtlookod.1nr for up-d. MIn .f.. very simple ell'CUiUy .. ... ll ~ uo-bltI lo red ual tbcllian.m. H.. .. b ...

.. .. .....IIl 10 ani ." ."" Bl- ~--. _ · PC _ _ T.. . __ _ ' ! a _ ' ...oftrIIIr_~ II • f. . funouI debale UMd to «JGceDUate oa that ....::::: ow ....ta.w • ':\' ._ atl«nplir\t: to _!he lWf. 'J'IU...__----------_-... L1 Io p .. A-Mf CI '... 11...Iu.... ...".antiiM .. .I-.. - * _.. . .full oirtaik 01.b. .....f. and (2) petfOl'tl'lallCe under conditiom d random '* all. ' 1(11' rot a.b... _ . :.'. U ....w 1tIaI the til the rU.. iii........ ...... .....-:l \liplDelll but _ _ 10 .i--.--... J:taT&. ... __ 11 ilDOl much p>d 1Iyi"l....t _lor .• .m. If. . _ 1_ L1 . _ ' " " _ .0 .Il IC I!IV I!It TOP"C S '" . dU!ia. ~ ---(II' _ ...-. ]OU ..' "B D SB N BFM AM :I~ '~I ' .. ~ 01 mo4WaIn ImnlI vi eummun~.. R.m.... ..nb ....ctioa . A form 01'... Llk.. ..-bo Ioob Iftlo lIlill -.. ltICJI7. u_ ~- . limilcrl IliKrimiftrIOr ~ boola . But.. atltllc:led mucb It*ltloe f10lll am&kuI't" lJIou&!' k hu tumeod up ~ c:rirniDalon illhr ...~ _.1".. _ •• L1 _ . _'. 9 dB " adwantqc 0/ u.~ 1IM. . ...a -.." CIdI&I.. I t _ . ':I' " . P'obIml .. ~ do:flftiti . U.nb IDOM W. 1_.1Ila::....::-=::~::::::=::.. w_ .n'rd.... dn::uSt. . ..WIiaaIor wil'-'t ~ !tal Pfol'olei. lou . lra.'1' IlI QUtltI .. . full..m-nbet htl'r' muo:tr.II :L . . "'... R. ... .. _~. PJJR" pointl lIUt tilt whwt 01 thiIJ e-cuil: &&I P. .. .... w diI<2Wnia. radiatiolI contpUWd wkII 1M IlION COD~ ~ ~ fUlJCl'"A'~ Qmoil..lomr:n 0. or q.. oc-M.M..1 f\aut'e cl ment . ~9691 by J..... .. _ MaooAro M&J lbowandao/~...lnl. '.. UIeII r. ... IIIUl KII:lOWII I faclOl'1o that llt'il cIIel'l dWqankod : ( II the fuml 01 d<mod.. . til about I Mch 10 I'fO'Iide Iimple aod cl'Ilcieat dBala ...oa ~ It II l:II.no. n. • '""_ _. CIdI IW' . ....... .. OIru t ' 1_ 0( 1M ~tiDIlllJ f... ..I C = ... dit- . _ .~ion ~ In the I'l ftha .. _ .. l OS. wiDdiap.fJ)JIJITIolIIf1' - ·W • ':I 1'.. _ fi&. T. 10 arm.. " ....S for ~I~ Lf.._... .urty ...... _' . "Ill.. . booIa ..

..efJeo:t lIanAlalor ..ft. 0 ( _ <:>l IM . .. I.. ..ti¥eJy (lOmI'Jla..'1in.. the dri ~ Icwls .-n k W IKm. [flan JXJOd ~"'._ !'!O' ~_!~ ~'! t· !-'!~l _ _ ~ ' _ I • _. This point has Ixcn Il~ by F .r... . who hu been build ln. al . "oed in 144 "1. and lherI m ly by .... . >I>irt' ..ich may be pna:dc:d by land vtuall)' r...Ilnc ~IO D " of F'ET ~ . bouII. _ _ I' I\.oodc l.. _ _ O HIOP'.. Ioj~ . ! . of !he dllhcuhy of llCb~ oimul'. VIII. ra:a~ and oon~ 0 One of lhe _ """"'lUll cl ~ unall ..lun... d C. a vailahi hlY.:IIOO de\om) ". hy -orne I .."". f<N' boIh fT...<Inli.. 2NSl97. ~'S.n crl ~ tn di"l'potnlrntal wilh act ual : rcsuh. IlP ~2-U» 01'. a modem truteei_ buill &roIInd a 9 Mc/' l:I)"Il al fillC'!".. r or OOl -QIrrler dioda an '*"lIMUf l1l1.h r..nc>tW. hll equipmenl _ SliD iacompktc lhct ru:ci VCl" -=tio>n .. " flcn In ca.. The IilJu LIIJ.. bk prio. 0( li _ inlqralN a l'ClJll• . InI . a minor reYOlution in low- TblIltl<.....II.. '*' W ally B~ onkv.he . 0.1_ "..... TIS U. cum.mlconooluctw Derl..".. boNI "' .....::rnWn. .. outpa1CJftlJiq I1iI mai n ._ in I'tlOMl YQn 10 lm~ the frun l-end ped<Jl'll'l&lll:e 0( h..lancod diodt rniAen "''' 1 hot..b.......J S. 0 1 0 T E CHN IQ U I S " . 1'--.ml'l" ""nl 1_ n t l )... 1... .cr 0 rd.>lJe wtd b¥) low..~uad n. con. of linear inlepalcd cimul.wla blcl for QOInIIlunQlio!ll ~ utton...'.. OWlO RY. 0 .. and prd"er&bly h':pinl li...~ . " boNt ... 3 1011060 __.In le l1t'll 0( quietrlesl and 1deaiYiI)'.u1.. bout IOdS.1! all clllioft has been .U m."".. oc:mioobdoo.l. J ".'1 .mpl:ir'lc:n.."'" amalCW'l conaidu t hat lhe f$..*.he "Id~ 2NlUJ. ""'"' Of less ujIlIo. ul inl "'" PIc. biah-pan and aood aot. bcca...... is pvina the ~ COllluUCtor impurl&nl _ opcxonunil. r.II .I· I _ ' ..umcr dioda (__ a.. ThiI h&r. .. imI made (or J'1' . ara K luaJJy MY leu nu.. pattI.. oqu ipmmm...."'.... pXId Y.. T IU ft _ . .cy SL600 oc. Uw ontl lN mu&t rno<km FETl.. . . 1a liOll ~ .>1' ." COIl ~2. '" b._ion. ~ is lhc lP'owin & _ 01 ~ douh le-m... )'Cll f -eo I lt&rtlld bu d4i Ill I404 M IIl FET co n~!In. bam built in li m"" mod ulat form "'lUnl VlII'Obo&t'd (:OnIlructiOll ia 11M <tie--.....t."vcnen... and... 1Ihou1d be 1'!lCOInizc<t.. OIein_t"... A!thouah• • 1 the tII1le cI writ in.'" by red uctna the lime RIlI uinld 1 llneloJl and put l.n"iK ftcld...l mu.... _ _ • "" ~--:-" U.w.rrCOlueoc:y pin .lN4&16 and TlSU. r r-<h Tbit t«tion hu lndic:aced lhI..a..ImOd.. 4d B .r.rlin. ' IJ..• ..T a nd d. .u........... "". .

.. _ ~ 0 :. .~ ~~=t .:0 ....: I . . . ....p .......LQI _--.~ " -..... ca. ...tI ~_ __ . IIUJt _ fl• .UM .. I.. ~ I . CJ. _ _.. . ----"'II" _ ..j....... _ _ .. . f _ ... SL020 1 ' 0 .. CJ" a'. . ~ .. .. . .. .&JO . OK SU~10 SU l1 2 k_. . . . • •• _ • ...... ... Sl.-It _ _• _ C I ._ --". .. . ." IC IIV I" TOP I C . . et . T 0 ..-._al_.. M _..

"" "" ....<loo_"_"M'... . ...F~":'~ •.... _ . . r llt ....• _ .nc. _e. ._ ... ~ . . l.. .. .. .. "".• _ .'C M_ . Dt....lklll ":1 . It........ _ ''''''''8 f---r'-" ~. ._U.11 """" d . 8~ $oI1ft Jj.~ o-em " ~ "'" " '- ..... . . A ~~ . .. 4 '''$ '-"" ~ - '" .. TIl...5_ .. U ." "'~ 'II OW :. ...11.. ..1-~rt. ....~ I' ...~ .....

_ U . " pol ... ~n I ppreclated... 1959..r.. a1lbo11sb its IPPu... _: ' .. 11 2) to reduce lhe Innuelll. 1 be inCI'elUed. _ 10 ..ned" bottom<ouplcd 1I11Iy U inll l bisb-Q t(}O'gjd if!"J\II.. II ' ". .lh-oelcdivily I I low lign&I. tloi U Introduoe Je\Iele limItallont on RUMr perfOflTllnc:e. ... T .... h iah ' hilS ' ~J I nd poor ._ U ... AUgIlIl... de_illT' .... IlOioc bandwidth at Ih. and t hen 10 rOl"Jel l bocl.... no liaual ll ooiK free. ....r."'I "'''''' t:t· •. J!P. . in a.I0 WI" " I. ... il il l triple.n ImPOn&lll ~ndcr lhat II I le.f......Uon to u.er il will a110 mit with the no.C of this noise by about l'dB.Dd...l between u ri&! and lint m iller ill unusual and lillie kn own : _ .. ...ned...nented by thD Intenelioo {mWnS) of two oul-of'....." to • I~ of tnlIIbk! to IT\Ilke tho nclse bluKIwid th of the Lf... when In faa lhia ma)' .:. When properb <k_ i.nled Intermodu1ation p roducts In reeeiYI:n rd en to 1be Inoband ' 1aDIl1s whieh IDI)' be . ...Fi). .. Ill.... _ · ~ A _ ..w.. . _ _L I. wllh Joc. Unde r DOrmal cooditlon..Jly p'netlted bctcrodyue Iipliis. . M.. _ .R EC E IV E R TOP ICS '" 2N4416 Cl_a_ . ._ -W.".. unkladcd roil Q .d 'W : and ..!cally II is a bandl)Ul tille r derlvN from • Tbe lo w·JII..:.... . Le. si"._ .. 1 ' .e laler Ita.mllCle with I broad. f""'lyo-y- . the n OM: 10 produced may be In-bll.. Anolher term which ttlU eaUJeS I01TIIl conI\l!lIon Is 1111_ .pw!n... tMd to coYI:T tbe elted of .. Sosin on the del illl of II. I b le 10 ... tbe IJ. .. It II e vident lhat ooly .. Il l .... inoomin. band ~ilJllA1L U oli" C Nlu-madlJ<Jtioll stroll.ul f" r Ihcl c. u il doeI lhe fllrthcr convcn lon to . i • . and ftller fIOlle fi«IIn. bOClllu e the naTmw-band no i"... I RUive r...idcr n:ciproaol ml.. it will provide Ihe besl pouible Rjeclioll outside ill pusband : ".nce. nee be too til ..f. noise leve l : " Ihil prllbkm b ~Iy IIClrioll$ III e. . ~ 00l I lilter IJ'Pl'OlIl:b lUll' lI'CIIod by S..ffidl:nt to I chieve hi.. " I a " " ....~'I~ "......... So:MIin wnlCll: . in. jllT'.l JlI'Od_ I reduct jon <If oianaol-IO-noi-e ~tlo by IOdB.. ~ ••• to .-.....nJ perform ~Il $omIl 7{ldB redproc:aI mWn. -~- I I A term eew to me 1111"lled up RCeOtly In I [ect lll"e by D. .. be the MIx"'. 1)42 10 1343). (and U ma." ' _ .lenl palh by.f . Ho wever. lip l may not f. I b lab noioe fllCtc>r.1 IIwoy from wanted Ii.. 1101 ..tu...:c<l 20 " ..r .....II l'Jl'Otot)'Jle havina "'1-' c Jemet....w.lon-Jc.. This '" called I"ff/pmnl/ trdxhw aDd ill InCll5III"Cd by the amourol o f noilie inlrodliocd Inlo the OIltpu l by thil phenomenon.ic1 in vl lious lJIiJtcn.. _ tbll if lbe I._ • .. The rewll II . "'I..""..... dc.. .' or th e " Ie rodyne.. B. Illite ioterfenna l..ll are mixed. " fo 111...... ". noi~ i. ....~1 elfl)' .-wn.... ta._.i.. Colm ( I"m~ IRE:.. ' . 11_ _ . solid-lille commllllicalioltl l'llOllivcn.. In o rder 10 ceerride lufllcicnl ly Ihcl Lf.iBJta.. l poa<...IIoII Il. .. This W illi rw:1proro/ ml.l l ppe&n 1. B. IIlI an equl.. .noilivity. ppl-=. ope~tor) II i.-....e el ion . ItKJproc<Jl . band.10 rcocivcn. . Onl)' YeO")' few m:>eiven hive !his parameter better than 7011 8.. ~ • W-pole lninillll.. M -~ - Intel'fOlooW.. C _ iC4 _ . 0 ...1Of' will oool'u".. _ . of thcl roceJvoer.. Such I rooeiver will Ippear noi!y uDder operailit& cood illon&" ud an o petl.. When .... balll\C'Od mh er (FiS. In 1UpeT' het I':QCMn the n dio fn:qucnq 10 wnvcned to inter modi"le fn:quc...._ ..dinS receteer performa.... .. . e~n is more oft en arasped. tiD .. Un.. . ud tI\lUl)' eomlderabl.. l d ..t fbl.. b<mJwidlll ) Ihen the front~nd p in mll..y) Ihil type "I' fille r ill" tbe propcny Ihl t fo r I l peclfled numbe r or tomod ein. and a1t1wl¢l the lIltede.r.... He uses thb VlI lid I l'JIUT1Cnl 10 jllilify wb4t II ~leafly I complex I nd elCpeltlive I~h to recefver del ian in<:!Ud10. '" Cl rQ _ " M _ hI'.. b.1I 1n the I. . RUMr with I blab IigIIrc of roeiprocal mWns .:llit.. M. .1y rell tively ~Ily bas I phenomen"n called rociproca l mildn.1 the mi.~ .. 0' I . '''""'I'''''''' _. comins th rouSh the n iter II Ie........ 11 " {l'OUible 10 oon. when /noe l (d B lilY> 0( Inle01erenoe . baruJpau filler . ."-.. lilterinJ..... Ihll wilh lhe rec:elYer " '. _ . ..1 Ind '''''lIl """il Lotor lM. He polnll (lII1 Doe of I """'I In. He 1110 deliven -. ."'" 1"/ntlolo u It . Ill..lInal ~ kc/S I. fooo nI.. dwin II nol quiel (mea n inl lo w oo io<: and _ . idebanlb (_ Seclkln -4). ~hain only sIilhtly wide r t han lhal o f lbe ayotltl fi ller.. \IOOfM ..

c:.-.~ J.:... e . c~ ::--:... ..".. . -... __ * .. _ _ . _ --I .11_ . _""" '-0)... . .-.1_... <1' " _w. . . -wi. ~. ..... ._1' .~ i_ I .. .....'" AM A TEUR R A D I O TECHNIQU E S ~..".. . ..'t::'::"'-_-~. G _ n .... . .nloo_ ' ~ ± _ _ • .-. . .... I:: -::.. _ _ I _.. _ "'"' .W . 'I f $ _ _ . _ . l/ cce m . _ ... " •.". •..""... _ . V '_ _ • I I ... 1 H UD':' X"'_~ ' ... .. .. _ . .... lj2 ." .

. "..". thai II 10 "')' Ulal 1lIU&1/y the OICilJalor I'ft\Quency Ia '-1anced OUI IlI lhe OU1PIlI. a no_ IIl1\lR of 9 to IOdB.D ..f.. Co~ . When pru:cdcet and rnl10wed b)' load Iloeat ~ d . tboM UIOd In .. I1rur lloa if o ptimum pcrfOI'lT\lll>CC Ia 10 be achleYed..II. pP"O&Ch forms lhe basil of the ~~~ l64O and. Eac:b windin. ynunetril.. milleI1l&lld modulaton by ~.... " .e 1.o hiahly attnctive for heterodyne v. &lid other frequency ')"IIlhe... _ ....lg". hc:a no r.. _laCe II uaeo1 To obtaia optimwn performance lhe re must be IUIJIclent local OICillator iojeetion... " . ~ ham . !Of and IianaI ... ovamuch. of coww. II proNbl)' dclil1lbJc: .. tU I ..1• • ...5OdB in can:fulIy t. _1 . bul ICnerU!y fl>t hllb-perfonnance applications IOlIlll 9 to Ud B or pin III WA6NCT SlJ&IQb thaI lWO wita IbouId lint be lwilced toactller ~ me&IIl 0( a . Good doublD-balana:d d iolk mPcn ... ranlC of up 10 .tI1 require atoUDd 4 mW lajectiotl : oomc: dco. Wbetut . a Jle&1 deal more ooctIlator powa than teQuinld fur aD FET RUU. IpeQ(l. 03E1F...wountl I1III I~hina IfUIfonnen.r.il One or the advantqn... wt._ In<:reaslllil loaaJ-ooeillalllr power up to about I mW fo.-d c:are in coo.. _ ' 1_•••• _ .f .. "with all balanc:ed ... It illmporWlt to remember that if no d . thiI apprweb al_ probably lhe best d yrwnK: ilia"..".. WA IFRJ indic:a1Cl how the bala nce CllD be Improved b)' outpUll 0( IS 10 30dB (and up 10 . pom l1IIIy be IDlerH plcte brOfod·band moduIcI are Ol>rnmerdally available buI are Cl>I1 ly lleml whc:a Ol>m ~n:d with bl>me Ol>TIIulxtioa...f.llf..rmanium. nd I : 2 Input aDd ou tput I1IIItehin.. a1.. 100 mv linearly... 1Idl .ed .22 volta acroII M ohma). d... Powdeftld. C'Vea .IId OUtpul II1ln.tl a~icatlonl. E. IlIIY..... 00..Ih in..:a1 Ia)'Ollt of the unlta . .u JlOiae fiaure -. : 10 minimize ima. IXlIy the Pinal lteqlIellC)' and lhe NnHlod. baa pethapt _ r beelt the empb· . tranlilton and F'ET... UP to I to 3 volta r.". h. ran". For 3·' Mel.formen. eoaw: rsiorl I. Pot Iooc1 wido-band pcr1brmanoe the couplinl bel_a the U'atllformer windlnlll IhouId be .... plK1. b. Mcc ba1anaBet mixen anet modu1ators. IlIe re II no IICllld 1 .-0vpN.... (in lhe use ot I : 1 I1lOO biftlar·wovnd inPul I.. ~ from or the mlaor ..-.. 51. • •..t. 10 wind 011 10 tbe loroid... and • dynamit. ' _ .l. Hodatinl. 32 erwDdled . . owoer !.ibIol: to bui ld a 144 Mell Cl>IIw:l'1er withoul r.)'SImII. dilfel'elltly tim ed enamell caD helP.ill a liabl lrifllar Ialath of Ytife before mrtiD.11y lUilable due to IIIe n:1atiw:1y poor fl>l'Wllnl 10 bade raiswlce ratio.. acroA M t>luno.Ire. III addillon 10 the usual 2 .. The f01'1Dlltion or double..U iIIcIude the COQw:nlor1 and llJlU 1 _ III dec.beo repealed WIth !.iodee... lhe bo!-eatricr dic>de Ihoul et be a ble to cope with lipllls 0( 0YeI' 300 mY.u rlnl forw. The -=i1\. Impor1anl . can COlllis l of ~lwtIeD aboul 12 to 20 luml (accordinll 10 core and frequency raqe) at No. lemic:onductor receMt'... I . Dd rewna resiIIIIICCI on • tclat meier. • . .. rnIu... 1I1e... ~I "'. In • d oobla- _Yin..641 double ba lanced inlelll"ted<ireu. or crosa OOIIplecl pcDloJes... IhlI helpa 10 ~ the illherent un balance P( trifI1at.. h II Irnpol1al1t 10 ronnect the """'" in the co~ PI&...he third W~ 10 obl. en.m. tl1lnlformcn . b. lp h or up to. liahl U . triodeI.114 otber rpurious re ?: ee It II uswo lw pul ooe or more tUlled o eltcuil_ in frolll lhe Im.---. but convenlional If:l'lT'Inium diodes are no! re.h. _ . Thll CR-. amplilW:r 10 r. k Ulal coow:nioa p " Itu. broW-bul4 I>~tion. direct oonw:rtlon ~M:n..~ C~ I VU' T OP ICS '" " rIM.. . _ _tional mlwr.he plc ' I. malChinl by mea.. .. addilitlNl l complbliloa II l'Iot of\eu usea III mlRn but _ Ill be .f...f. • mplillen. ~r..f.4 MI• . and .he more C\DIOmarJ diodo-quad doub le-bal. for t he aJ)...tehin...:oupled .r.. 'Tho: n:jc.luable for moduIalon iD ".llmina:tloD III canoflltly balanced lra/ll. compuler diodes can live Iood perfOfJr\allCle. and typial ly o:OOdc: quad. . 1ta ae: It Ia poa.ud . and . '"""_...116. bolb h.ued tbl:a the --.boul 12OdB. Il6..... '...troa loroidl are DOl m il) capable or ptO'iidin... rwilchin..o. II...f....k whicb it _ITII to 4eterve. anothu II the . and lhe use of wires ha.Ie&d III k>u QU1 be acltiewd ...k1e1 are " liqle bal. a FET nmercan handle .lanced uail' )...ibebo added to tho: llOito fiaun: of l he lint Lf. 1r. f1:POI'tI 0 IIIlnl bPth OA 811 and unmart.Tb ll.1IaDd-drill and !.. With femle to m idl it II pP$Oible 10 make the miur e1f«tive OYer lhe wbPle m .. If:IlCI'IlOf1...f. In the abeence or hot_rrier d iodes. 1bIr.forma~tb tbiI ' )"'Item the iDput and output d rcuita C&Il be thoae of any Ii" " dIallaed... dilferenoe freoueDclee In t he output clrcuit. and J ..cl:1on or fundamcntal lnpul frequencie. .

Thc cLc.. Proc l EE:. l his pa per!hll Ilstod I number of . ~~ $iol:e the tn nlillOl'l are QlI oIf ilIlbc ablenoc of . • """ .1]anced alTUl aemrnts ..-. .>u<oupkd lBmjstor mIle r.e. pproKb is IUpponed by SOC'l>e oI\e6O\'eriookcd wort in lhis field by JohD P.ta.t Ihl..m. olfuinl II l il/...in ly Ill.:.-k-¥o: inJl'" sip&l1 u d the local 0ICil1&loT from overJo.. " . aood dolibk r.1 _ _ "". Mel.~ SeAS ~~ ec "'" '" ecce ."lIIIIla phase quadraNre tec hniques.. .. III. possibly with . Ute WI i'I introduoet Ucnibnl eotI"1'Iion Iooa. ""'-O-W_ Ita'" Fla. rran aemcntl.. transfo~r to proyldc the reJO/Iant cin.....bilitr. p l f~~ and lhe OIci1lalor frequc lKY a re balanoed OUI. eIl.. thaI .Dd. d'illJttllCl of diI'ed<Oll "CTlioa and induded the btuit: outIiDc of wbal I\as become the simple form of di~_Aioa recolYC" . _ _.: l!c n llIld the I.. could c\lnl'" ate (OClC l idcba.8 (XW I) lyndtrotlOUl I'ClCCiYc r bricl'Iy ~tioncd (aIo. ' ~..w. DUNX.. G ..lQ1&Jw. in DL-V TC (N o. ple o f "diR!cI.ploit 1M p rirx. Doublc· blllunccd mb en . 111 IF ---_ .laIor and iIlplIl Nanau &I !he aU...sout* t.. c k ~ from a 6·) '\'011 hellIer Hne.. both D~RKi>lu".pcrimc nla l multI..mcnl. lot of l'l!CCMI'I lind lramc:cm:n tha i an: fitted only with . 1 es1. " I ~ _ .1Id direct-convcl1ion reeeeeo : in pre-miur and belcmdync.t • loc:all*ll"'Ior freq uency o f a M q....pjll lheoedi>adYan"'aea il II .. diO<k sen:.dd-on Q-rnultlplicr.. b.Iypc oseJl lolto r systems ..f. .1 modcnte COlt..n !be dmAt is l..11 7: ' • simp le an d moro . CosIU. .1 ••I<a.. so tha t hll. NQvcmber.. how bett er dynamic ranll¢ than DOII-b11 I=d m. ~. It ."UI I)". or ~KUlar tmport&nl. eo. ThiI pe per provideI u.p fOC" !tiP' pcnormaaot: rt:U ivcn ...Ithou. 19$6). and diode ~h l1nl wnfi Jllrationl are only sin. the sln&le-tramistor In j"" . IIllcn (... il leftdl lo Il(t iU . de lCriptioa o f their IJilem II 1 broMIbanll-bul bycompa ril<ln wli h c. _ _ _.l b. hmiruolc<1 from lhe ou tput. . C.ernn>l. But Iso ..ics.t 2·7 Mc/I bcKh &I I ~ impodanoc o f $0 ohms With outpul ~ ... have IlIC ful app liclltlOlll III superMt .1ula:: aDd usefu l coave. bin the Pf09I'ttieI (. Convcnion pia ill these c:oodiliom iI aboul 1210 1)d 8..iD caD be obuoincd &irmdlaDctrlnly from lhe IWO-lnnsmor' Cft'lM-CDIIpled ' miu r cl mb er Is dou ble-balanced.. I I1..d hcm1 1 ma y lliftl:h .f. . •• D. several other fOllr-dlode miur ". Thc a rn. such u 11M.. llot h . and l ipll1..illOl')' o f dircd:<OI\vcn!oa. in . W2CJtR. ott the possibt1ity of bi&h "".. Hist orically this . IllCI(a llltbly .ni1aWe jg the rin!~""" IIliMr fw instance .teI" The re ere ltill quite..a. complele . "'" I I~ I 3" ~~ . An . cl t hil tJ'j'JC.de dn<:t~ ~ rt:Uiom..Ia -)'ina the h.1 or MOS FkT operation .oo-d how a " two-phasc l yndtnMOlll rcceivc r. While lbc diOOe-quad On.i1CCfS. pointl OUI Wt ~ . The rina llIO<lulalw bu!he di:adftn....¢' In the out· PIlL nc. ... is thlll . houo of " " I R£ (Dccembt'.. faili lo proYlde eer!&in real~' o f per formance .. m..(. . II..Dd .. one comes up apiIKt the A N fFRR. le-b3lance d.o TECHNIQUE S ... . Iligh A1pprnUon o f bo lh Iouol-05ciJ... 1970.. pn» Icm$ lIS _llll$ ad"'D~ ill the ~ mUer COlIflcantiol:\.. _ fu1 QlQlitlo kJlO*. Sl'Urptcn PAOlC Slt (£1« .~ '--. Wlnina roillt ror .:!V ' Ia.rmonic:s ol bo lh !hew frequencies lend 10 be praelll In --. IYtlic:aUY 6dB (wil b bot<arrier dWobl. The IOQI 0Ki11a1l>l' inj«tioQ eeeds ro be bish-. _ hal a tendency 10 iDsu. ilW.dina wblcQuenl or the rt:UM r.s . 11m : popu l:u armn ". 196 7).. D U N X . Cr<. I • . Fla..w1 OIllpul. (Of iDPUL 8uJy Priestley.ke.h Pf"ClIb tup. hich are of J'?1 value in lhe <ksI~ otcommunicalion equipment..:c Is the pmp"rty of double ~ I t. ITKlre . 10-' Mc:. SuralLl aDd J.. .lanced and double-b.. Y"eFY90 "' ()'~ 000I . f':lnlc>llarly 01lC that Wol:S the u h! na l. T1lc firS( amatcur 10 CJl.dvanced. Thl! W l inlcnded for 46' ke/I o pc ratloll.1 hishcr intermediatc freq uencies.cd ill ~ cl bo lh IipIaI and OKillator frcqucn..llblish fully lWilchina Ktioo in t he I~ : 0 Iypically froon JOO 10 900 m\' for 'Ilicrwl e. but could bo: used quite elfroivcly. ~ w ll ' In.e..a p. ~Ily recei'o'e. 119 outlines. $imp!c ) -.11_ " .moo. I ._ . .uit. loom the: .. Gardiner. o r the Ol'lkr of 20 10 80 mY .. dclCrihcd by Adlben i Hugenroth. Tbc buic pentodc circuil on_pIIS'll 16j lI'IIly be • laSd.. . Fla .b. b&w-d a rnn. an d IhlU larte ly . G JJOO. Since then he hal builI oevcBl more RCCiY Cll.". COD~ " for fully·lnnloislorilod h-f. hh ill own miniature powee p.. . in many appJations. brOllllbu>d " "So b.. ha t WII tbI fiQt l'IIbUshed uoc o f the tell'li tlir«t-Nn rrrdDtr '"'"~ is the nporWlI pa pcr 00 I ~ communicatioal by Costas in the f&fQOtl& &. (970)..1.. 118 II lh e circuit diav am 01 1 unu. 1'l'bidI tI rudily .. Btn direa~nioD aM offers ady..nillean l ~jeclloo of both the Input freqlJCll(:~. il cc m.II..: Slrcn. ) . .iI1 """ "_ "" ''-- .. recefvers is bl:licYcd to ha ve bccu K..

e • .~. ..l ""'- -~ . _ K...:1& MFET bipolar tra MPF102 t'tc and 1ION:~ devic:a) II with the " .""."".. ... r- ~~ ~ I- ..w on '~ i • I GoI •• •n """"" ..ain ..'" '-V . ' ..... In...... "" ~ ... .. • lIdio-de . . . ~ "" """ " . .." . .~ '~'....... '-.... . -: ~ _ _....... """" ... • __ ..... to obl..."I C I I Y I " T O P" C S . rruok.-.no.

~ """" ""' " I ~a . 81_ '1 T eo/ u - -.. ef_ T_ T...ledp the linl-ever" IUgestloa that the ~<OtllvetUon RlCelYet miahl ba\1l ~bt appeal 10 amateurs In l>J"eIlln. roceoo » billie Dl"I'ftt-C:OMef"JIoIt RecaWer To the bel l of my kDo"... 1M... I!<lI 8A/ v r o ... II I! hiihlipted the fact tha i M ~'I( I>OW ~ ' R F~ . T .. 1% 1.I " ~ T ~ 1.. ~ AMAT EU R RADIO TECHNIQUES + ''11... ~ ~ 1ft _ _" . t ..i&ftal.:::"-_+ '"'- ~ . '2'0' SUb BCl09 -.(" ." ..inoe tbe nabk oscillator ncodcrd for dil'llCt-oon""rrioa m:cption It tuned to the frcqUl:l'W::r of t he In<:ornlna: .... Wlg .... I U. t ' ' ' IU. without aD )' additIonal hctcrod)'nina .. n!." t... ..Jc:onlain F EY• . This JUAll'StioIl ba l since been followed Ull by qu ite a number of arnateun..... . 10lJ1l .... .. --'~:"- -... The JIOSsib i.. H_ 1'/"'1 2 T ....-. ' " -. o r the fRQueDC1 01 1M n ote..._ . ru " o f t he IlClwor lr..IIer n tlot of time cce- BCl09 The rtrolol)'lle receleer U!leI • 24-voll $UJlPly 1Jnc.. c ."_ "" 1 T ~.. each . lt would be idea. lo r U IIC as the '11. " " . Itl . .W '~--._lnl lhtt'e l«Ilona In O<Itput t of OK let of tbe network WIth Jma.. .... "" .l.. . July...... ....!ity eliot. l4.... ....'" ..: """" :J... of an auodated u a nsminer. ~ ill TwdWm/ Topics. -HU' W1' ..1"""" ~~ r.n ...... CIt M _ ofMIfI. OW 3S8. u d the lirs! facto ry-bu ilt un it of IItD . P l and P4 a djull the phue shin \0 90· a t the upper and Jo-r end. 0001 ....: U "" " ~ -. of u. --. . _ . "lI U " IN ... aDd PAOKS B • In proceA of mod lfyinlllOme of the delails to p m nit the usc of U V(lJtJ. lI munilll from Cbrlc!l Ury.. . the WI)' to com pact traM~.. ~... t- .. ""_ m. - ''0 "- .0 .

ln p .. This operates from a single 9 volt supply and has a centre frequency of 800 cis. prov\dcs detailed ilII'o rmation on the design of low-loss passive bllndpul e.. h . For many or !be rtoeelvtn wbere It is.. . . . _ l < ~ "'''''' 1...e 800 cis ocDtre-fRqIIC~ . CA30J' intcamtcd-c~ uit hi!f!1.._ l • PI" _ IIlC' lO W S ~W1 Ol'l'O~n .a. vacatiuns..T--~ OUIPut .. _ _ _ • • MC1709G PI ' " 1I01 _JlWUII'" """ '1 ".I'IC '_ . The unit operates directly ota !2-volt battery with no zener voltagl: regulat ion.-. ..... to t..' ..0 .-. or ph one roccr tion has been developed by Ron Wheatland... l imp•• "'''·.. Ml'S 6' 14 bipolar t ran sistors. " ...sng potentiomelc r..w. G l SZW.>l ble for c.. 124) com nnses a 40604 dual-gate MOSFET heterodyne or "diroct conversion " detecto r .. tI . .. __ ated to tIoo . In QST (September..--" " . h s used a pra" tical varia ble bllJ1d_ width. • I~ "I . One is the appllcauo n 10 directeIlDn:rsion receivers . able of pro viding numerous.. 2-\VoItI battery-operated c.1. . I110 els III 810 elsccntre-frequency . _-.ilh bandwid ths suil.n ~ udl. circuit a< shown is suitable for ""ntM f".. The Ten Tee Power-M ite PM2: ' WlL!I favou rably reviewed ill CQ (Ap ril) and QST (J une ) ill 1970.OO to :rooo cIs. lbe ebseece o f chirp and transistor J).._ elL T1'>o f l• • 1:10..... n uoi. 1.RECEIVER TOPICS '" type.w. ' . ItO </1d ... r . r " •• • ~arp ...".. ri/l is an excellent compan ion for camping.. on.....' and 7 McM. This filter looks very promising far e.. trnnscelvcr operators to sharpen up selectivity for c. " 1. filten . Rc ~h"uld be adjus ted experimentally 10 comllCnsate for lhe finite outl'Ut impedance of the 709 and tracking erro rs in the 'K ohm dual·pot. ~w• • . / "" " Out put ' l ~ t:rl.quenc"' s (rom abou t :J. The sU lUlestion is made that the receiver should always be tuned to the high side of the lillli l to fllcilitate worldng to conventionaltranscefvers. .. recepuon.. ..s. taking uti to . _ I ~V ( tclf Oll W ltw 0l0JIl1 ttOCIlWlSt) _. pen•• t .~~T'"'!!... tOOk _ptl.t .b... of the waverorm. GJ~A I' 1 actl •• fiI._N <I... '1\. and 2N4427 (SE80tO) tnlml'l tor p .Uy t he tra nsceiver (a block OIdlirle Is l:iven in Fill:.. another Is the desire of s... bout 300 mAo Basicll. W I'" . Iilten. 1971).w.... to _ . ..s. ftal <o n ••<<1 .t.<I"ul . t1'.. in the fotm of a dual-s.bl... Gl I'AI...... _p. There are several reasons for t he increased interest rcocntly in au<tio filters.. cpcrancn and po ssibly of usc lisa In the IOl'. l. are suitable onJy ror use with reo:eiven hiving ...rlablo centro frequency active filter.pin audio amplitier . ' OM 2M FII.I'/IUiD1 thai the really narrowbiutd eo.. Fop . bo th bands.lmc the bust .... .b.. sec FiS. .F capacitor across !be OUlpUt Wl15 added .. 130 ... John Ra Mon. 11..f.. . An Integrated-clrcult audio filter ". .ptlfi••••• ' 1.s.. u'iCful sla rtins po int. "P ....w... GlPAI indiClites that a value of 27 ohms can provide ... a. harmooics is noted by QST....-. C. cs. and 300 ell to 3·5 kc/s 10 switch position 3. Rife.o..... desirable ./buffer usio. It is all ba'Cd (lII the popu lar 709 operalion"l mnplificr Lc. each control beiA.. very Mow tu nlna: (ate... v. <0 do. Swl. a ltd that the: 6·8K obm resistO!" may Deed I djusuncnt to avoid positive or /lC&illive clippio. etc . .. teII No" " ..r-Q sellingl for I. O JSZW points out th t the (). LO.... .-4 pA7~ 1 =:. . The I OAW DWIOTHI '" '" Input 200 k ~OO k m e "1. p oootao::c.60_cI.11$. D. liI.T"'''-+-.. The rel'ie~ rs suggest that this two-band (3... GlSZW has D ot ITlCUUfN tbe Q of the filter but SIIggesh it provides bandwidthlo or appro~ tely 60 e/s..47 . Mora 011 A" dlo f llt or.. twosure v. WA2PCA.a.w._~nd~d t ll _ I S •6 k '" --------. such as some of lhe aerive filter d" igns. witho ut theexpense of in'lCrt ing II na rrow-band crystal lIlter...

m.io o componcmts..eley or q uadraNrc delector •• .e. a bandpass IUJIOMCl of the order of 400 cia. eollYell.m . L -------..• lho pb&sc-1ock ed loop performs lhe l'unt:tion of a demodulator. Fostcr. ~ the II. tuner e o:! • liltle i..tislaetory on both local ano:! distaDt ""'00_" p ro vidi ng the ro is • lipal tho ro.lockcd loo p.rJ artic le: . <above the ~um frequency recommended by the rnaken) he fOUD d the un il Would Jock. M.. . A letter from W. E¥eQ aI t his hish U . a nu mber of bandPlW desill:llS...ly 10 such co rtlfl clI. H """""" .. ..e. demodu lahon with out ally elliemal runed circui~.F IIIOI " 1\O ~. 5OIIIld). con nCCliolll othe r than Iha.SIAI r.m.. Brit ish 6:zs. iolesrated Nned ~ irculu ma de easy : ' Pra ctical. Ihoo t h one mus t add a word of wvnillll. 1 Coptf old ROIId. phue shil'krlsp litler d rivin ll lhe NE5 61B te . 131. Burridge continued hill InvestipJ. one is up 0 the problem that tbe tun ing rate then makes it diffio...ull to tune a!XUnllely eoough. ampIiDc:atitl.e. transformers • • . W.-... elitninaLin.clcvisioll transislorized turlCJ' luvin ll L£. a centre frequency of about 87S e/s an'" pro vklin. deta lls a...kin& luis IlCVCrai mtereslina f"\IIn:s.ll &33-$ Me/I..._ uolna" _ he wed the N E. the 30-year-old pbase-lccked loop lCIChniquc i! hein. 1% 9) : . N .m. \ out"" t LIMITER "" ..1es o ne lu".. we ll as ~I ltations. is ba'led 0 0 the use of 10w-<lOSt surplus 44mH lo roldal coils in conjunction with standard muc lOO-yol1 mylu capacitors ... s bcTll of p reci<. imilar SiD ratio on .. • voltqeeeetrclled-oecllletcr. amplifier and lowpass tiller : Fi1l1J2~ 1I allo.pass tiller prod uces a selec1ivi ty comparable to lhal of th n:o: i.. " lhe level or lhe inpu t signal doesn 't ma ile r as 1 ' as il e~s a certaill Ihl'C5hold and II below 00 a certain mU't1 111m t llat wou ld latUflI(: tile input IlaJe. TbR fa nn of f.. down 10 7 Met.. M.M... In 1969 S. ~ eompouator. Brentwood.. tio delec tor. al. . ~ --""IJ I .. r. H e pul IOICther a receiver for 144 and 432 Mels lncolllOrat lnt a $isneli!:s NEj61B Lc. and . the . detection bas until n:c. Bunidee of Sout h DeVOll recounts some ink l'C!lting cqlCrieooeI an N E:l60B AI aD. driver stille is ra tber dilfem> t frolD that sugacsted by Signelics bu t t he Lc.'" AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUES 1ST Elcaronil: OompooealS LId. To un den tan<l how this type of uni t worb reference should be made to Eketrolllu (28 Ap ril.m. ure elloull:h the Jianal-noiw: } .uh.f.. TV IOUftd never sounded bl:ltl:r.cw" .S60B to follow .jgn uses r.e sho wn are II in lhe finn '.. re-eeivers u th O'C uocd.."perhet Inllut RF IFM J : . am pliller (CA 3028A) at t:hi3 freq uency. n.." 11 all worl<s on a whiff of a liana!. initially 1 ! ha.c.U t . &sex." <10 anoI l I 111 f -"'DrL . ~lIy associated wllh \lI'lC n" .onvened 10 \·6 M el. ~Insl The NESliOB is described as a monolithic signa! l»llditlcrcr and demodulator ')"$lcm compri.i oll!! Into the practica) InC of tlle.---...se." Later. OUtpUl at 39 Mc/1 followed by an I.. W AlPGA 10_1 . F ig..m .-.-pw up l he selectivity for o..cvated circUit dc:IlJ':'CRtoachic:vc the type of re. it works: ' He no w feeds the o utpu t from the phueo lod: -Ioop de feCtor into his hi-Ii X I-up &Dd says tbat ..r.--. sUilllble for L m...w. ill8ll _ the ll o.tlte price in . Subsequently he changed the inpu t l. il is a h.n.--. Now.. 1Wiea1ly Ibis il ln the form of a do~blc (Fi~ 133) with a modifll:d t.--.. siooe once it ~ c1~ 10 an Input frequency iI is dI'llwn lowards that level and held there .lionaI l. wlLhan n. only cee el<\Cmal elemenl n nocded Io r tunillg . ma ll quanlities is (or was) fairly high.:ently been confined lar. . WA1J'CA incl ". the .i..o p YClI in the noles supplied with the u nill by freque ncy Deed 1101 be pan k:ularly pn:c.. o perBliOlt.qe devices for lhe I'fIOCPtioli of 1UTlAt.lIdw. DefKtlOll An inlel-nued ciroui l tCChniqUCl which po lcfltially oIT en .m. The v. Phuo Iocb n. . ! lanals.in • "1"& 1 alld cope wi th otdllator drift : thou ah the aUdIo outpu t &Dd lbe &ianalJno~ fll ti O wu low.- '" . for l professional spac:c-tT&dlnl and similar appl ications. dl:tottor to r lelcvh ion IOUDd (un ike tho: 405·1ine wlnl 0·' Fir. and f. .in... For «ample.f. h n...tlo became quite III.. )'Item.--1 I Inl>l/t ~-.. however. p~ )O\. thresho ld problem. anoI . with an Inser n loss of on only about Id 8 .liDe Icle yj. in. This design._J'-''''::':'j Tim ing C&IlIIel t<J.p.'l and 1I1~~ a . Tbc i.h1y selective cUeuil• • simple largo-tolel'llDCe RC lo.n taSU ia becoming aYllilable in t he fonn of complete linear integrated circuit modules pro viding a ph. To quo le the t1~ ctro".n c.... N. PIwf-'odl F.iso 01 sta ble. . weak ~d atrQllI IIiIl\llIs. . For f. . . Amon. adap kd to enable int.nc tlcs ilItroduec:d l'LL uniu such as the NES60B.

" ". Its o utpu l aoes via the low-pass fillcr fonned by R4 and C1 10 the osc. I.. On " . al. ..m. for aD amateu r in an urban sitUMinn. 5i ~.cd the NE~76 ror phase-lock ed Lru. lhe .-ed in "a lII'COnd generation MOSFIIT rco:crvc.. filler..c... o vcmc:d bv R6: if t his il 2.. hll~ appIiatffill!l notes."..~h... H oJ• • _' '''.c. Tllcre are still man)" varia bles in lhe de. in operallon pia 6 is high or low dllC10 the osci llator l>ulp ul ... 1970) and ~ful')JJIfo..... pin lil I. -{'kd from one \.. bUI . .r enou gh 10 pcmlil loc:l<in.. (i... it (:lUI ~ot: IIllti. Inloctl_ of • I ./f.f.1vo ••.nge of Ihe ph >uc loc k .. Qolrl ~ w look _ ~ of.~ \0.f..f...... ith (l... 10 the CA :102I1A. p. I ~ r . if 10K abou t 300 kels. broadly D o pti mum sellin&. lion. . ii... ~ ..ation Iype oscillator voItalOCOIIlrollcd by the CllTR'n l ""uroes .nl" one h. /las b«n deliberat ely Intrictod.. the aud io ou tput ten ds to be . direct con ve"ion w. • •• • "' . Fill_ 1)4 shows an aml..tions : Fil . The o plil>naJ R1 . o ne alsn hu to consider choice l>f i..ell do wn 10 Ihat on T\I or v..l7 1) as be ing panieular y su.. T he gain of tile CA 302lIA ha. U .lll but d uring openinss sta tion s M 80 00 ranee wme through . . The mo.r.. =ptioo.h. I>..i.(.kcd.... '.n. . burst of noise when the amateur ends his 111Immi... 0·001 whb llc.t. fo. PAOKS" . Audi o output is taken th rotl...dc" Loop Demod ... .. I H ..m io ~ .tics will be elTected by diffemlCn between 7401 devk:cs... I• • ..~ 1I ..1. G ate D Ii amtn&ed 10 Ih. t he NE56~ is dc<la:ncd for usc up to ~oo kcls.. mont f • • ~ .. n.f. _. would represent a ditficult cha llenge (tho ugh thi. in effeci. Kl aas Spaargarcn . Adlllitte dly s.in .islur ..l t ha...4 _ _ -.:illalor 10 com plete the loop..m.1c 7401 intC\l:raled cil't'llit. ce n be 1._In "" 1. lill'u ffin. T hc JHJssibi lity "f using de vices of this type for ctreet-convcrsron receivers i. Ilml t !klO kc. T "" .. On .... or e ~tTl.. f. however. .Jut..ro .-...161 4 • • .tt•• "" " ..l h lhe 1 oscillator locked to lhe incoming si.ign of such equipment..7Ot m .e... Whereas the ~60B/36tn arc inten ded for Ule up to 30 Mcls.. " (WjN'l~u WOt'Id. too great sekctivity. December. . lhe:. might ".'Ut .. .. ... 1 t he l igna l is .iver wilh a Fo~ter-Sccle)" or ralio de tectol ••When tuninll a t.t Idea.. po$Sibly by a lo wer 2nd 1. T hb SPlliI'st... optimum resuhs Ire I chieved whl:n the ".. p te Ihus IlCII as IUl am plifyina: ph ase detecto r. Ihit.* . eft"C<:l i ~ne".fl'ecI the a.'l L~ a linea. 0 m ._ .ow-coal Ph""".. h lhe filler R ' tC3...... f I .. 47K o hm "". I~ I 1. .....r" tor In "Circu....'10.. d. th is might be taken furt her to the I pe e cent bandwidt h l. N ~" "'. that wmc Wit o r I«lICkh circuit b needed unless one i. h..Bnal .~ k "o-cr sec . ..ianal lbere is II fairl)" lIladual drop in nol. oln H ' I••• • • i. B and C form a relax.u u.") If. ~ d • • ftd III . V ..'" in'proved t>y bav inll l. . ""ina the lo wer-cost N E~ 63.n.In. rcu. . 1913. a • • M .. + 11v N .1 lhe: fundamcnt:tl bccuust uf the bu ilt-in autumat ic freq uency C'QIltJl>1eft"e<..0jemen t sUIII. amplifier is been foUD<! a On f..f.fatto ry perfOf'l1WlCe for mostamateu r e~pcfimental lpplier.Il E CE I VE R TO P ICS . .'Csted in QST (Marcb..itI...'ls. is lower andthc: tTaC kinj range o t the p. 1.puni and . . . might enco ura ge the use of double eidebend supp n:S5Cd ca rrier whi~h is an u lremel)" crr~live mode) .. Iock. bu r lhe scll ina is DOl critical...ates A.. l.~ 10 be adva. One ~ti I gels Ihc: wddoffi drop in no ise as thc ca rde r is tuncd.h • "". . Tlle o peration is liS folio". SI ratio .".. /treate r ~ I<'<'tivi l)" would be O«<ied. uf the f.) 1 4I£f:1 '"' . IWlCd cirrulta . pre pared to pul up with I. Althwgh lhe prectse eharaclC:ri..' • . The CA302SA first i..." . N I!MI . stroD incoming . .I.lable fo r n.." ' . ..c.bJ.b... Too linle ...upplying pins 10 and l3 a nd by lhe value of C I.. .. ~ .. . $lenal input p ill 4) hlive lu be l>f the hl ht order.ol " is 0Ci1 tlu.ls lhe tnl~k i n l ranl/C' b)" fcedinl pin 7 from lhe 18 volt pos ilive su pply via I.m..ioll inpul pin Il and a .~ '" '" C5. .m.1.. " . Jul)". With C I 22 pF the opcnlilll freque ncy is about 10 Mels and tbe fnq"cncy band o ver which a lock will be mainta ined is . in TCMll15 in • hekrod )" nc _MIle . IOQI O<Ci llalo~ even fo r 144 and 432 Me/s. -cJ .!. signab.. l'.r I mphller.l. .. r e C<JIPlJI A~d l o .bul it is diffieull to be sure whcther this N reall)" Ihe case. ~ I• • . " wo rlh)" of .Md'Oft modl ~ "" o.dvaJ>C:ed j". ~ If. ev y ol ••• o owi. iM • •••• 6d . ... ua ur e N£ S6S ~ C C.n ~ .UUCS!w by Signctics..nv." "'~ 'one• .m. WIth p. ~ _Ift ....c.t of an f.'.. 10 pracrjce there are no t man y loca l signals t o eonlC'nd w.1 .I.. results are much as descri bed earlier fot T V WIWId except tlult tho i.11 . 1.rK:e<l until loc:king cceurs bu t nl)( so fa r 1..~ ." He rcstn l.. also shown tha t it is JHJ" ible to use combinat ions o r the much lower-cost SN7413 and S N7400 with even better ~". deoign n:'lwremen t is to gel a nice balance belween oclc<:livity. and trackin.. "..l. signal leV<:ls at both input..at when pin 6 is bigh il opentte.b. .. provide< e tow-ecst pharoe-Io<:l<ed loo p desnodUlatoT usinll a ni)" a sint.l. and fnx:d"m frum .70 ok""" lock Is mflintained fo r abOlll 2 Mc'. . MId $I> sto Pl"ng the + I. bird ies. For o plimwn fe\ulu.r " (QST. Imm . This I UUC'II IMt work «>uId be do ne ia applr\ ng l . ~ i ...ctcetil>n bt. ..wamped by ncee. llI.m... 337) Rod ney K.~ ~ M P$ · A55 . u.cas one approac!lcs II~ central posltioa: tltis cna racscrhlie ~v<: s the impre"iun tllal II~ recetver <:an I'KOVl:r moduluio n from very weak ) ill"ah ino.

~" . can be connected up to one of lhcsc ~ivers and induced 1 provide & <.m .s.V ~ I. it ut with many of the C'ltrre1lt gcncrati cn of doubje-ceeversto n receivers with """eke w l ./ucncy of the v. cryslal-cootrollcd bJ. tel.r..U The an~_r. a:Z Mels l00:. f or examp le many Trio eq uipmenu use A ~tlln i ng mn p o r S9SS to Sl SS k1b Of' SSOO to 4900 kHz : so me Yaesu ~ivcr$ use 8900 10 8400 kH~ and _om<: 9200 to 8700 kHl. the other is provided by the crys lal oscillat or• WI1cn the two in~ul ~ are identical the su btrac tive mixer produces zero rreq uen<.. pin 5."'IoI.. tuning rang e.. ~.~ . ". . are usctI in a familiar crys tal oocillator arr anaemem with the Ol>IpllI passed through I Ihird gate for shapin!: lmd isula tion . . few millillrnp" at a reawoohly stab le S volts from an exi~l ing supply.r. inp ut were: h.. TllC problem with PLL Sl"tems wben app lied to am ateur t«Cplion il the tendency to jum p to and lock o n the loudest signal a~nl!: at its input...". .... I ·S volts .l.oqUilre . mil ..in 4. . .! . ...o. il in fac t lun !n.. "ZOO". In. . Audi o (Iutput swiol is ju st over I volt. . 1\ illiw ally pcssibletc obtain . . sz vol ts (13 rnA). I'ig. 1 beluw nomtal .ltl'llC1ive to II1l»c: ronsiderin ll oynchronous demodulalion fo r suc h appliutioos lIS broadcwlt recep tion.'''1 h•• ln•••_ w i'" ~ .. is tuned to n:ccivc on 14. 0-9S volts .1 ".. . etc. " ._ 1 ml.r. f ~ +1" ~'( .. reverse lunio..: of inspinatio n.. 10. If the v.. acc:ordlol to F.Ollilt the question of u.celver. ' ~ .plays with lC'!!s Ilt. 0-9 volts.) ' volts.b. "1 1. T l> l n n.o.o.. h thc«l any way in . I made R 6 10K ohms since there _nwl no po int . .d "r. ._ _ ••_ 100 1> u10 H </.. ... .n 1 "'''.liu ble zener diode . I fOWId R7 (4·7K. .~l . ~ COUll!.hck. ~.ess. in lhe receiver ..n. This 1 0w-t:05t J)'Stem coul d pro ve o.~ " " " '" " " '0 . O l DY. ohms pre!oCt) essen tial for aclj. lIS a near. fooo wi'" fi• • U I. (1Htt ...t... • • • • • •s ... ' '.. cilhn direct ly or from a volla ee-<!roppioll resister and sl.1n I til>.. ..lircct display of 1M 0 kilohertz calibration In each bao. Thi s o utput t hen 1l0Cl 10 lhe CI input of.!2l- One: input to the: digital mixer ill ..* . 1977).s. ~ ..li b" 'I h ·o I_ti n 1••• I• . . It is ncocss.• •• • .uy to know the v..nloao. 10M'.. "' II.000 kH z. T he:d iai ta l a da pto r is in e!fect a wbtrac tlve di._Iv<I 1 !. Vo ltage tuod iolP witb no d . Most digit al d1. l 1000 pF 10 p:I near to 4SS ltc/s .on5 of ccevenienee on ly o ne IJ". and c." :r ~ an d capacitor.t. l1>e signa l fro m the v.i..DL as his lOOn:>. apply ing tke nor. pilllJ to...tinl t""ltlftlCY.. .. 117 ? '"~. '~l> •...f..' Pl • • IJ$.w. in freq uenc y in step with the dccreas inl f:e<luency.ow-aoo. I'o r mu.uil arrangcmcn!. tors ' . 6j' ~' 9.lWtC1\t i~ a crystal for Ihe r. :r ~ .r.b an externa l freq uency co unter. ).r. "'_ ... pim :z. silJllJ. .. "1 . .. o r the beat nUle of tlte e:.o. l 16 shoWl thel:in..Jsunro t to a definite frequency .'" AMATEUR KADIO T£CHNIQUES pro vides flnc adjustment of the o pera till' frequency if required..o.. I .:.o .h. whic h tun es tile re«iwr to 7000. . Thc usualtee iq~ is 10 measure the freq uency o r lbe v. b.Y output : tun inat"" !«Civer up the ' ban d rt. piltS I..t ':' DC control • . l. wh o in tum acknowlwllCS CQ. . and for •. 2 1. Fpr this rclt<un there is lill ie pllinl in providins ca librat ion di. to am~ II I tbls you need to ta ke .\ playo indlcale the frequency to . 3 an d ]3.u.. Joe Oopper." .. oscillator ._ in""l 1_ <l.. I. tePJ!. IllnCli in the same directi on . ken from the v. ~ ee O'v'\al I can co nfirm tit<. . This is fine where tbe vJ...000. I I an d 12. • ~l 1 _ _• 7401 1. wilh each sho wn... I found that when CI wu 22 pF .. . ''''Q Y _ . variation in ellaract eristi". __-!. ~ through the fo urth ll'Ite of Ihe 7400 device fnt sha pinll and then..hio. is ill the affinn lll i_ at the co<l only o f Iwo TIL im C8nlt cd cil"(Uit5. T W Olll lCS of a standa. 1·46 volts . \be 0 rreq ueney w.n..ary t o rrtctlon for the intennediato freq uency.. .w. r. Aanler.. is used. ....1 the freq uency uf tilt: trnnsmission .hich the receiver is tllned . . 14.n lIavin. ZSlFX (Rad"11 ZS.kinl ana:e wilh a 4 4 1 ban dwidlh in tho receiver. reception t hat is not quite the cene thing 0.. Ma ro. l"" "' Owe' t ... that is to OIly thai lIS one tuneo.b. H. . 7474 device which form~ t he subtra ctive miJtCf. v... The essenti" 1 req u.r. . the v. a bout 4 Mell and I had 1 se Il nOOl ino. e. aDd 1 per hap s lhe chaDp: in Ihis value WII3 one reason fo r the chanllC in Open. t. stage II ~ ilUtcad o rtbe us ual two but the sensitivity ""as on ly ju .lOO kH l the digital m!xer provld es a lIQWlr'e<wave output of }()(l kHz whit:h b fed 10 the co untel' to provide a disl'llay o f 300 (Ihe Rlt:phertz being indicated by ban d 10 which the receiver is l uned )./ I._ "'.. etc.. i mp l. ..s...o.llilal mi xer . II CT)ISlal lUld • fe w n." the t iso ai freq uency. down in freq uency. wn tes : " I made I>P the phase lock loop I1Sin g the SN7401 an d il _ "'" 10 be perfo rming III d llimcd. • . .) . (I N '4' e) .:Iutts in In o utpul from the dig ital mlxe r stead ily increas..w (ound in many .-..<:<.. R. • H device.c. up the band. • • • .td 7400 Lc..

. •• nc~l\he\elulln p• .J V. Wop: I.1 ff'tlqUftOC)' .--/ ) v. if. 137(d) ovv tbe 11 mpier ochcmc o r . " ee '00. Yet a furlhcr prao:tlca.mno nic content will nu l he similarly auentLllted). as lOIIows: " W hen the local o<Cilb lor vo l"'l:C .lic ..! O blKk--to-back . kss u. 0KiIIIIKN' Irimmcr. are open cin:uit. (un"'" an n .-ilh cubic dlanoetaiw. The opo:ntlOD of tile miJter is d escr ibed by RA 3AAF. from powerful mterfmn. 1J7Cc ) It Ihal it OVCfWfTlCll · tbe loss of "' lfIIIl po wer In l he COIl plinllo the loca l osc illa lor : this d l'lowback is a vo ided by lI." RA3AAE poi ntl ou t that the advan lalfCl of Fi•.uil allTeI'Il "Illis hes.iUI' app:an at QI .hich mdcI be lJCl): if Ibis is DOl qu ite n.beek diodes than 10 achieve an aocurl le balance o f a ·t miller hav inS elements. the fOUl" diodes)..eoember..RECEIV ER TO"'C S n\'e.Ihloulh =v both d iode:.witchin. R odiol io n of the local oscilll lor vo ltaIC from a mixer is much allenlWlcd w n on h inpul clrr:uit tuned 1 twice tbe rrO\lucncy ur the tocat 0 olcillato r (alt hou lh JeCOIJd h. tli: ~ .-enion ~ ue ClUcmcly attnClive for amateur.ular!y pbasiqdcmoduL-.1. When the . ~ rvzM:n. 10 the 01 Input of lhc 7474... ai.uil then: is 00 d ir«l culRnt (i..lllnccd mi .ICd 10 the ioItd . used.ith an in~ or w.a&e. . 'Y.nal: MlCOOdly.:rn. i.l.l c:a1ibnlor: awitdl oil" lbc calitntar. suio:tly Iyrnrnelrical dllIr&ctcri.ilco the ai. troul.. AI the pc" h of both positm: and nc ptive half· n WlS of this vall. va nl.II:>C but iwI. " I.witch dosm.\b(>mc on \be 7M Hz blind) : alld () local osallalo r ndia tio n \IfIbs all d . u . /fJI 0J0d00 Pflk 1D RiMJio ([)..-lc MJ1I.. 11 lofu.n " .ct"fprodlOCC lkIcctor for \1M! ill d1rtlct. wliom aK" nOl detected and CtJnI. ". OufpUI rrom the eul (abouc' an by 7 an) and acc0rnm0d2ted in~ the receiver or tile COIUIICI" T o iMtal.. preferabl y selected for ma.. Th ill R"l'fCM'll1t the Io-t:r and upper siddlands ltipCdivdy• ...h. thai diftlCI coo.. II beat appcan in the arwil of tile dilfcrcnoe frequCQcy (2/. and 1M an. io tbe Ic:..&qucndy produce: DO no<sc)..1 000. iioll 0( Pl""eI"fu l ..n pan il.k o.tice it . $q.bt Wjlat tbt "YlW 1'bc adaptor be buill CD a SlDolIl pece of V~rd.....rantee ' ideal' ehara~lefblics for 1"' 0 bat..er by usi o g d iodes providinl lhe vo1ta8C" current ch arllC!cristic shown by lhe: solid line in Fill< U 7tb)..too..cr works like a .'liOI tbe " bala nced " a rrlnplmenl lPin. or " . RA)ME 00IlSidcn.i:I i:s a .. Hor-.. COQlKll. frcqucocy C2/LO) II d ose 10 tha t oftlte lianal frcq\lClll.~ 1'. For mixers .Q this ""II)' lhe miJ.) a. re _vt. f~\EllQ' wunlcr. Ialor. two cu bic elements (i. the dmI it at a freq uency eq ual 10 twice lhal of !he local oscil..aF or hav in ..l nll<= (pachgcd d oub lc-bala oce d m iAen of aood perfonnance are iflCrCa singly avail able as complete unil$ but (b) are " ill quilc upcnsive In tenus of dir«t-eonvcrsion receiver a><1$).. Both (2) and () an be m ini miad by the use of • aood blllanced or d oul>le--balanced m iAlrflpr odllCl dctmor.ppnn simpler 10 .1~hin .ide 0 <:C freqllCllCy f". hievct1 wilb IW diodes.-hc:o !he sipJ freq llCllCY II hi&hc:r..:cftocr . RAJAAE..') _..e throe main <1isadYllnlalCS: II) doubliHidehand mri.f.. one ee od:lo:f of !he d iodes conducts Illd the s ianal lOUl"l:C is coono.. Iirsl dlcck !hi: hand-edl:C rco. 1b." 1_ ailltlfkanl PI'OJlCl1Ies en>o:rF: finl Iht: local oso:i11ator m lm be luned III a rrequency one half that or tbe s.. reoeMn. pras." RA3AAE" delector i$ in te nd ed to providc an eue mauve to I b....b.e. Th is dearly iA on ly t fUC for. 10 a 1lI!Ip!. ided foc rcedin..."oe '" " .l . ~ . caIilnlion ..nal.1OI II uocd) : (2) d inxt m>dopc tlcmoduL-. the OICilllllor .e. PolyakO'l.o tlricc the loca1 OICiI4tor frequency: or (/r2/u» ...ymn~lrical eubiclll pllrabola and een btl .d an.·n ~ ~ . obocnc the ~-oul of the ~r ".i•.. but there a re man y facton tha I fIUIke K d ilTlCUll for hOlllll conSlr ueton 1 ac hieve IroOd balilO o' e l 11. 1976). ... bn1lod • mio.

. 011 0 thU I h . it' lho. b)' the fulldamc ma l mi" inll prrnJ ~ 15 . t".0• • .·u II h .. he "". harm on ic rruxc. 'n n'_ ••'u•• lo' C? 71'Op " ~ ~ .f. Thi..rimina to r llctwork p ro vides a d .. a re o bta ined a t m icro wuo wilbou t the use or ei the r lillers o r b\lla nccd eirC l/ils emp loyinll hybrid Junetlons...ng ("al ll..:ep tion uf s..1 iw l.. b...II"I/e l~ mIlCh h igh"r nf lower the .l.n ""'<0'" .n .. ( oil a . ... For i:<'rTtIan ium d iodes an .Ili"n .t<'C1 10 1I1 l'ICl wcr n I a nd 4 ' ~ .. a n<. lI . osona toe 1ll.......he ... . . I.1f""'1_ d c" n Ver ~ i l. 1f of tho •• •• .. o_ m••or ad U I" n".' ptim um pef fo m.....e th ro ullh sc ppresston of local oscillato r no ise sidebands..m impro ve Ihe note of e..no .. and in t um ...1 o>r .n mlnal ors.... _ OpeJ:l1linl: a l 1l~lr rne sigun l fr "'l""""Y is lhal lbe re c't: i'er in 1'' '1 circ u.-"" II ~· II<... m i._. 1 ' '''0' _ •• ib ecl_ lb) .1) ( kHt l ( 0) .... ! lor 0 H MH.I a" t" " na e.... imc lll .1 a .' OIK..: . crs toe 4 lind 12 " C Hz ~1l0 W1\ lh" l lhe I..sc nlia lly 111" "" " .:illa l<>r " ".. r u r . " . r"q lll. .. d In ~ '" ... pe.. k nt o f oscifbt.. ..s. ...arcuit LC type . p • • . ....' nl ·end of a simple 3 ' ~ ~I H7 d lrect 'eo nve"i" n =ci l-c.es . 1M 1. t. Sla lLons. () Su ppressio n o f d irect det ectio n. 1 IJr . l • • ••.. itles 1l... .. i.. idea lly.n) lhe a udio signa l from the lnc"minl (.l an <od • • • • n n . m Ihe f...tween m. ~ ..r ".r f(ltIn a nre rema in.. .. A re port " 11 ~.lcs II ~ l"".ilh Q .lh low dis to rt. !'>l p -" Ift:"l 11~-1"L. re " l\fIer· ' .. p~.to .... 01111 1/" h) be ni lio. . ra nl/" "...nl. .. a C'l"llll is 5upcri or 10 . In /1m!.. Th e lIiihly .)rn"'".. CUO'C with . a. ' • • •• 1.... 1 min . imina tor nel wor1l.. ..' .. !\ JAi\ E ~"""" up ....nl/ inf"U1 n I Slllna f•. is opli m um .l does nOI "pull " lhe oscillator f rcqlXno:y when it i. TbC'.. (Ulle<... inn . ra • •• " • •• 1.. il> le to HoW'e'e. ' . wilh lire v..1 la' lle peak inverse vollaltC bUrnout...IJu" "..>le eon ven tio nal lumpod. r Ihis <nil..1• •• o.. :t1 ma ke per(. f. (4) Inherent self-protecti on agaitl.n~ l.. ( .. C'. Cry.10. n10nic ".ir.. wh'.l rl . vol~ o utput wlUch.o n vol Ulle. .e ·10010_ " . 'l'I)'inl! bias to the J in..... illl""..l l0 I' ...n.lmln"tor for NlJ'''''1 na lor d raw~ "lIent /on to lhe usc: o f quam CT}'3ta1s in n..1< use f"r a .m. .:c . rn". When uoed in .~ . fl" hllf1l nccd a..h ••• •l"•• . t>J. " ' n apl'lkaliolls wllere hillh sta b ility a nd . c . i..... l ilfllLl . 1 3~l d ). ~.~tl n)... lb l k • • ••10. .l tll<: ro:>.... 1'1'79.l" -:.. <- .\ CIilio... . . ""e11 o bc. .il".. " Th e ".·' ''". g f ..! : .e l he ".' . Th " f"l lo w... .•• n • • bI • • . m io will he red lleed ... On I '" Mi l . n:o:::ivcr il ceu reco ver (w...·"r rs sho wn in hll .~ b...... • . i' lua lly inJ"pen..'-bk 'f}'~l i5 a ble to mainlain tbe A n a rt«:le in TUM. •••• (d •• to .....b. . i. _ .. nli tivit)' lie pllrt K:ubrl y important.J . "'UICC fo r """ol}(! lr. . . \ " J \ . .f .01.. f"... p . to h 1>1 •. ."i. in~ ncal toe a l o nly aht HIl ha ir lhe signal " frcq lIC"c-... I.. T he art icle ala tes: . """. .. ..e result. .d llal" ..:d by the: use of lnll_r (\ln i nll l.~ •... d rive "ond iIIO" • . oil""'" . ....c. .. usin. h. . . var ies directly with Ihe iDput freq llUlq' over it s))tl(:l fled bandwid th. . I ~ ".I"..~ i la ~. A d ilol.. .I LUtes on cmtal I!lte n a nd d iscrimi- ~u ppreb i nK O J Reduced ~rc nyc rsio lllllSS to o lhe .I t i"n which is It'!.1"' / 1 -'- II' f l• . Th". ce o · .. . 13bilily of the !l'iCilinto r can be imprm -... 1 \ 1>2 • • • •• / 1 .m AMATEUR R A DI O TEC HNIQUE S '- .. d b. oils.: 1 n. r. d~....t) II." r . y.."n· " . oI ll 1_C l l lt I. l .. p . 0lL a~ "':I wccn tHi ()'7 ". h . II. how" i... a d ''Se. Ihe ori~inal d tell il m"" l.. h i$ .~ill " l<>t injectio n .. d . .. '" " " " a'"'''I1''' (2) Lo we r nolse fillu." (No ~. . 1 ' 1 . rn ~.. . ...o.h I d_ _ ooc lll• • • ..n~ a hk It..~ illal or inj te l..f..

uop ...cri minalor (0 with in very do"" limits over tile ope mliog temPl'rat~re railS": by virt~c of its rapid chMgc ill reeereeee as a fu nct ion of fl"C'l"eocy.tli e II5C:I 1I 2N937.lnr C3 hu II relittlvely co nstan t imped:mee o ver the lWYOW band offroqucney de viation. " ". " It Is feas ible to cu~lom-dcsiJPl 10 an y cenl re frcq ucne y in lhe ra n ge 400 keli lo 22 Mc /llllnd fo r II freq uency deviation from as low as S kels to moo: t ha n 100 kc/• ..m..... ... ..... O COlJCJe.. al 107 Mc/s inclu ding a cryst al select ively filte r fo llowed by . I~..1 0 ·1 - u • ".. signal . voltllle d itl"m:nee acron the two IIm11.f. o btained u. Tho prin cip le of this petwork lIes io the \'Ullage divid er formed by CIlPllcito r C 3 and the impedallCC eompri1ina: Cl")lTSW XL.l . . ' .'e. ....1• '" .quently. ~. the lenli tlvity is relal ively Iilgh.. Fig. l'1:Ct:iven adoplinll " 1()<7 MC.1 1'.s lOS a balanced rcctiller . AI 0 6JP p uts it : .RE CEIVER TOPI C S "'F0 U1 P ~1 ( . CA30U A amplifier which is fran srormcT -couplcd 10 the ve e +1 211 '" -..... • !o. 140 (a) shoWl! II iicllemalic diagram of IIcrystal d iscrimillillo r net work. 1Oo1M'1f H 2 7 V . 0 6. Co n. 141. The remainder of the d iscriminator nclwod IId.C ou lput rep rescnlltive o f the r.. ' _ 14) _ .1 " C/o. obviously no o«linlll)' LC circttit can aflflrollCh th i.. .m.lIlCOUS freq ucncy o f the lneo min.uticul:ltl y valu abl e fo r " oy n.-.~ ." ~ crossover frequency of tile di...1'"' .. 139 (a) was designed SO!Ilc while ago . T1teeircuit sho wn in Fia:.. wllich is especially desirable in tbe detecti on o f narrow-band sigllals. voll1J. =j~r whieh h M a $COO nd l. endorses lbe view tllltt th is aflflro~ch is p..II finali... quart< <ry.i rcu i te d the C\II"\'t becomes m uch st<:t:vcr and ""me care . CaJlac. 1"'1 • ••0 . .. do:>$igned 10 p rovide a d. 06JP says .lUSC crysta l.. ind uct or 1..._"" i_ . 11_ ... l'<'t "' ~ d I O F"'.' -.. 141 1 _ 10. f. .. N . nctlded to t ed uce the slope to suit operational requireme nt•... w · ~ •• <1 r. . "" -. <11.. b.I _ _ It ... . 11.'" . whe reas the reactance of the combined Imped lUlC':' d omolllS chlUljtell ra pid ly fro m o ne end of the frcquellC)' band t o the 01 -. The second d i$Criminator is shown ill Hg..c .. (0' _ ~ _ 10 _~ -. depend:! o n the inst...lo... after QlInsider ilblc $Ca reh. the ' voltage acrosa the co mbinod impedance element. T h l. cen tre frcqUCllCics should pn:fcr lbly be IlOO"': S Me. ~ ' (~) tu''''' ~ •• n.. e.'\nt. performance.. come' from n STJ u.. Fig:. p mo ld" "11 ' csl.. <Ii i < .2 an d capacitor 0 . . .--. for lowt:1" frcquomcies tend 10 be la rgef a nd m Ore expcM i.lni a Polyscope .. I a m con vinced thai th is type o f d iscri mio"tor is "bou t th e o nly o ne good enough fo r real narrow-baed cperancu at 10·7 Me/. cryMOol . C. " ~~.f..L 10 " void the p robl ems invol ved in muh iple conversions ..f. 10 15 U2 (h) sh~ a Iypica l outpu l voltage w"'~ freq uency respu nse o f a crystal d ismmi""lor. ~ $_. .. t Of" _ . .. 141. N .-. If th e res isto r Rx is ~ho rt -<. • ..h . ... .f..u. ina: the limiter . Tho e~ocllent cltarnctenlties of th is <llscr iminat or are sho wn.. o. flJ. 141.. 0..

­ t ion fro m this id eal c:oodilion lhe hlith er the level of IPs. n J kc!.. In h is p ro totype . and u .m.:I.lo o..r.. FETs.. operated M non-5witch lng mixers (i. One WHy is t c d rive th e mi ~er with a SlIM! with vel)' fll. then a~st 1'2 fo r eero d.f. .. An ~miooDduc:I <>ll AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUES CA3014 amp!iller{limitcr /discrimilUllor. . The two LC circuits are adj Ultcd foc max imu m audio ou tpu t eo llS. the otbeT end ! " n. N o . 1'1 . The J -J pF' capadfo r s ho uld not be increased in val ue silll:C it provides lhe teQuinod 90" o ba se di fference be tween the t uned circutu.rfo.:uio n note comments tha i the ~'1'}'Stlll must be II fundamental med e device and Illat besI Te!lu l ~ lUll obtained with the ct)'ItllI . e.tloo a l Solld-slate C imdU Conferenoe . mlltC'rwilb l loS d yna m ic /lInll\l of 115d8 or rOllgbJy 40dB M l ltr tho A.W'Ve)'Cd the problems or dynamic f'llDgC with ICmlco nduc l.f. to-peak of au dio output ca n be obtained F rom II devi atio n o f on pa ge 8 or their AppliClllion Report AN. U (I 9n ). 142 . . the advent of l'ETs raised h lllh hopes.IKlO~ Simon R un dle.. 1 14 3.." " Els ewh ere . • • Better perlOl'1D&llCll bID bee n obta ined fr om clew:lopmcnts o f the s witching mixer. N o..tio cktector.. d iod e-pro tect ed M OSF I:. c and faU umes . input to the J'3.ge. He notcs: .m s. The =ond (quadrat ure) tunod cireu n is ~ist i vely centre-tapped. This des cribes an experimental h ..1 In _ _ f. This UiIClI II C rysW IllI a w betitute for the LC t uned cireui t o f. uita ble for 1L at about 455 kc /s for the '\e rece prfo n of 144 Me 's n .crou the 22 .f. voltage a l the o utput. This SUllltestS the icka of II Irc ntF. O ". (ORV IlMam " rodlo. 144 'OC'I r N)CUdiIWs . A grw .. idcaUy the switc b sbouI d change illlltllnlancously from ful1y-oo to fully lofT .!.c . .... ). howe~er1 Rafuse has wa shown tha t betler Jlo!rF nnance can be obtalOC<l when usi nll o MOSF bT s as tbe switch ing cleme nts ..Mitio ns fr o m 'on' to • o lf ' ta ke p lace 13 q uick ly III po$<Ible . f 47\1k¢l. o f 10 ·1 Mel" M odlfled Rol. signal i. The Ievcl of IPs produced by a 011 swilChiD' mi~er depend.( .I ~ J ..lII. J. advisab le.ol .8. DJ2L1..a. 1972.c applic. A P~oduct Datoaor--..tK>n IUmod up m uch too fat ' a . _".. plea o n be hlllf o f dual· ga le." An ea rly reference to this a pp roac h i.m . r 1'llCeiw:" and bow Ihe..t..• a ud io and oscil latOl" lI &1C1lU1d find it admlrab1 su ited to aU a pplica ti on" 11le inb«c nt y Clt$COdc interJUll connc.. q UlW nllUre-lyPll t . ThIs a rticle in lome de tail Into the probloem of Intermod ulation HI this Sfo. "I'}'l tal discrimi tlllto r is d escr ibed by Nation&! 10 k 1010 IF 27 0 .mpfOYrDlCnl ln teoeiver linea rity w uld be a chieved if mlx er lincarJ ty could be irnproved and arn pli llcation al slgnnl frequency omitted ...• so me ClJlo!rimen ts haw: been < l1ll1..stent OJ NXC add s : . on a n & rllge l 44 Me ls f.rce o f oOlloli_ Dearity in superheter od yne I1:CCIVC" II tile ml ~cr.y) d iodes a nd O'ci l1ato r d rive of 1 volt e.. Some rq>l't$CnWi ve perfor mance figures lod itate that 300 mV peak.f..e. put out .. The suggested circu lI p rov ides &djuslmen t nf l>oth b ini a nd It3le two potential .i_<lm-lypc i . 0 8DM N l1!ICiI t wo JrIOS-llil-pllir in tegnted c ircui ts tu ampliFy and limit t he i . .i"ll leIU !lCd. in HQ 1WJio.m .. rnixen 01 high d ytlllmic ran KC " 1968 lnlem:l. d iscri min llUlr : F ig. .r ~ U 1 JO for on k¢I. fa ilLU'll d ue 10 c1cetrOSla l ic p roblcrm.'" with a symmetric:al waverorm.altd M OSFEr. Pouhoc:y of PIcs. m ixer perfo rm ance il 10 e Dlure the tr. G 8llNN . s troo.. . -.m .. O:OInCll fro m a re view o f p rod uet detect o rs by G laus Sond hauss. . <1> 150 pI' •• ool. i.~1 ri.lio o o f lhe dURl·pte MOSFET makes il ideally suilab le for ~ p n:-amplinen . A final " 1~1t ' On a WQl f.t' mi~er. th ird-ord cr ia te rmod ula tion prod ucb o f tw o Input signals a t levels o f 100 mV are typi call y 40dB bclQW th e level of the wa nted o utput li gnals wilh in· ocrtioD 1 o f about 7dB.. I lim usi l1S 1M type fo r r. ftl>pt'OVln.la te d evices rc r T $f1l:l11· li llna l arcuit deslans " ) fo r lip to 500 Mcls is pul fo rward by Ma u rice J Ohns tollC.m. l iifUlb .ve local OSCilla to r sigl1al .1>. J uly. W2T R R.. aN cu rrenlly bein S tllCkled.. lhe &reater the de~iH. E.ly . in what a ro known as CNL or W DliOUO\lll non-linear modes ) ha ve not PftfOlTnod III well as we hooed a l h.. tra n. An InICrait. Fill:. 1' e lcdrolyt ic C1PllcilOf usinS a clear med iunHlrenlPh si~l.h... A commooly used switc hing mi~er .". ...b.. pOlential a.. . llI inS hot ea rr ler (SchottIo.. Du. JERE Con/nClKt . Alignment Is straishtfofW/lrd: tc ee TI fo r OUl'l imum d .b . devill. a1lhouib good 1'I:Iul15ha ve been o btai nccf a t .f . .JtlC!"lItcd at lis sene.f. 'l• . 1972)..f. pl"O\Iideo the a rcuit fo r a modified ra lio de tcc to r . . s (" the bc<t o ft hc solid-.f.c..nl of lhis rel\istor Vllri~ the dev iation i1Cnsiliv. T l at><! n .gt . P. T a m p resently invo lvod with a rea:ivc:. tr .. and we have u~ SOfIlo! 4000 de vices 011 the _ mb ly fluor without II. :r0.~ .m. . ~nl freq uency .U'C'I ca librated fN ' wdl lldj~ted signaJ$ ' atone m d to ' for idiots with the r. lhat it makes use of two . tra "" f"rmcrs ins tea d of the mo re usual spect . Ml xe~ '" a-ae "'~K P. advantaae O the Vff co nven tional ra dio defcctor i. tb e do ubleb.... ho\VC\'Cr. c-or o-cr ~.r. trn iary-w o und 10-7 Me ls tra M fo .f.'\Cy Radi o has. II UIoCl ca pacitive cou plin l! l~tead of the m<ml ~uaJ induc:tivc coup lln s bel _n the two t uned etrccns. ~&k l VP_P--" ± 3 kc/s an I...e.. .n. ..bnced diode ring. symmetric MO SFET. maJn ly on t he ctrCC1i V<:(1CSS of the swilchinll d emen t.l th e a ud io ourput vc il a bout 20 mV r. The p rinc ipal sou.26. Soa first Sle p in improvin.. li gllll. feature is the lUi~tor in !lerici with the crystal : the adjustmo. t o be found in the paper by R. d Cliip uslns RAe dua l-pte 4Oll22 M OSF ETa. Raruse..'ot l l..: f ill.de uoing • pair o f stcp-rceovery diodes co produc:e I JllU1lre. It.

-4iolllon _ .-V tn be =ivcl iu the pn::5CllCC of unwant ed aerial input sill:llills... dalMed . n IT • J 1 : : " " n n[ ' ''' 1''' w..) . er (develcpcd a l MIT resea rch la bo ra to ries) co uld not be satura ted with the maximum ItVlli lable siWlUI power of + 12dBm. onl y 10 k..h hllh ~. " +... Me given in a 16.r. -"" _ - " " IU.to. 147. _ . whereas a + l dnm ..... r.m." looloonleft"" _ ••. A p aper in Prix: l EE .. R. ". Int ef'mod.) HOSIET nd • • .I • • nd (0-$ ' 0 I t-t 1. Ebenezer disc:l= the i. I." l 'O ntr"l u lon . .... ~ c " a ..:UI'Tetllly avail able low . 145) used four F airchild 2N4067 devices..nuod c_ _ . Lo . l3 . g "H........ Sanla Clara...oIIU .nc.. ...: : .f." t il be used nea r to t ra ns mill ers.... the basic coDfiguratioD is 5) given in Fig .. 2 ond 3 .lb'" b. 1971 by Dr J.la t lon a nd Se""condlldon N<rn:mbc~. characte ristics of a nwnber of devices used in single-slage r.. '" . Detail!.o ( C{L»-ll ' 1 141• • .hly.....h.. I I ....d 10-. . ... ll n" bo lun I .. ." 2_3 Wetto 3O . very high local osci llat or power of 2-3 WUI$_This type of mixer b used in the hi.. of 2 rolls. "'I ol o.. +n·5V n lJ1 C OM L tu"" to JO MHl IR2. .. . A suo..ll!iislon an d ""Ives were F' •.~ the Iimitinll fa<:tor..""". ~ . the Rafuse mi. 2201 La urelwood R oad .f.slllgt: amplific:rl millg <. lhe mi ~er Ilrranllcmeul used in the R3 90 receiver. a mp lifiers as pa rt of an investigatl oll int o "active ...._ UI'O ' . TIw MIo. • Ed Oxley h as developed a v.RE CE I VER TOPI C S l OCOI o l Cll lo \ O/" us n .. This atlowed llignllb of between ]0 lind lOO /...d••c.bala nced mixers (Siliconi~.. . H e/. one of the bellI h. UJlO MII.. 11K: Rafuse mi~et (Ie<: Fig . iWllll w. M-J$O H .. 120. .1011.nt. USA )... BellS and Dr D..~_~g. Tn it pructiCllIIl1T<Ull>""". " 'h1 ~ .... !:lOon m to 2 00"" .m.... _ _ 10. wideband miller (~ to 250 Me1 u../s olf tunc.. Vol.and mediu m-power hipolal" tra..I_ fi T. No . 9~5 4 . cenrorn!a.. To.. on .'ling four Ull O devices.. giving an nvcrnll dynamic: ranJOof Itbout I lOdB....p age SiIicolliI applica tion noto : Junction FIT~ in active d oub le... e1. Note ltv:. ono ul:h to Sll(Urate completely the R l 90 mi x..t_ .uccessrut Racal RA1 772 rtoeiver (u sin8 four BSV81 Swilchin... lance net w.. Bulc . A.. odoOn.. I. receivers ever ma de.... I. ...n.• • ~ smco."" . .. wl... H . MOSFETs) to achieve • 90dB dyna mic ra nll". . IU it fClIult o f reciprOCitt miJdn~ the local o scilla to r no ise convernon wa. At IOMe/s. _ 1 1 _ _.erial.. ' ..c:ssion of sinllk.

"""eon The s ubject or re..eull eoonllgunl ti" n So urce fo llo_r : BFS21t Emiller fo llower : HfR lI> sou rce followe r: C P6 S1 Ca thode follower : It07 " mille r rollowei' : 2N4128 i\n ra ge lr• .e.+2V I"~I" 2 &l6e21 -+15V AG "! "' G c: . SiSM" unless Ihe ampliller has impecca ble linearity.lured in mlcroampe... n....llni6cant .ly fro m the re. (or oontrol e:utft'fllS me3._ HNI 1 _16 h.i ." " OLO ..uve III two r~lIell=ics SO kc /s ap <Ut centred Ql) 100 Mel. W.. Two or Ih m: 'o'Ct)' sironil l iil1al..80 ." 14lI)... The rouroMCliun helical filter {Fi.. eo 0 ·' I-<> oon ~ • " ::100:... .. been dcicribed hy D.f. Pi n diodes tend 10 be rather costly fo r h. hollul fi l _ .. r.-1... ~' T .f. these Were SUbjected to two-freq uen."1 1 °" .h . The onginal dct.vanlMllC of a llen Wlt ing al l 001 of band . 0" " !! eo 0·' i A)I.. $oc h l\lO th. An lIt1eo uato r W"$ toquinxllol:fl lble . some SOliD a tten uatioo beyo nd Mbaul S Mel_ o ut -or-banll. thi. p asSIn& Ihrou ~h All amplifier can p roduce a Il l llC nu mller Of s pun".... brMdculinll or lelevlsiOfl o r v. di . and well ml lcbtll.l• • . • _ 1" .h .lnlo couial line. .. en d a con llolled nlnge or so me 40d B in the p assband . Md ""' 100 K .." u f a hish-Q tu ned tille r in front o( a v.lI. _ " 01'_ I' I ~ HNI 1 . " ""ICl"')' _2 t .. the original idea was tesled ulin. only On two octer 7 p.lI.E!>M From >If " I .. bo. ...lf.""nab ly prkod .h ..... m ":' ' i .bout J 10 5.. D L7A V. 7 O"' I ~ 1 ~n . ~ To . e. Fo r ~. rc«iver pnw idCll th e furt""r all..l:.'" AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUES bui ll wilh inpul Im pcda~ Ihl.C..e . un 6CITlirond"ctor rect'i""ro o{ wide d ynam ic I'IlflIlC _ bll>-e ~ t l"Cl>SC d lhe imporIa n.lTaJ1iCrtlCllI ..u ... .. we n: l he 1107 an d a mcmemiller v.t an: hi&h co mpa red with tile so urce imped lUlf:C o f the ~ko<1 m onopo le aer il l. A.tart with.'ICd on bipo la r dc viOl:!l 10 co pe wivh the 7 Me/s b>l. to r type 2N4 128. u f th ird-order anll..g. _.. con tro l ranI" in fro nt or a v. .t ""'" .eot_ In"". CItremely ". applicallon s bUI the BA379 {rom Sie..\: mi gh t prove the answer..:rs thut eme. Wa lte rs and Pro f.oand of about ± 2 Mel• • t 100 Mels.r..:. 1 l...d d. 1bc published resuus ind icate tll3-1 inlcrm od "l atlOll p roducts producco.... i d. ectfon . depend ing llpon the ee nu ot cunenl (fro m 0 10 . c:""t""' __ ~ t U " "" lW o"n<l In II g ~ O I _.. writ es : .f. apparent ly derived from ll.. IIe<1 ... b an aUenUllto r coul d be controlled by "... I ~"" "" • l AG e Gan.e. Q 4AIL. o ther imermod ulatioll prooUICU (Lp ..'.h. line at lhe SO-obm '1 Inpu l impeda na: sock et o f IIIe r""ei~..•eonlJ'oIIH Aulal A.. I". . lmo'~ _ 2 1"'''' s. three and nine turns =pectively. eote and u~ing IWO BA379 pi n diodes 10 provide up ta 40 to SOdD o r contro l workin. Ipplielltions a di ffere nt tochn iqUCl lui..h... of .. 11 d iscussed by Tb Moliere..gna ls.. '" -+6V &t ... leoel Rei" '" 10 Rel:aU. ~iver fronHnd ba. and inspiration WlII [o und in IIIe Cacllin technique dc velop=d in Australi .. The u.h••_1 IS ed TIM onl}' Iwn aml?!it...vere IClt with llYIllS eo loo".. II . This includes a p ilHliodc a lle n uatur willi C<ln<lllnl impcdllJlct: (F'i..ontrol for pre-con vertc r a ..l by this filter are well oot' r 50dD do wn rel. ...h.(rom local v.100 -lOS zo . V.SO +70 L 0.. .." ( RaJio Rutl. nl . y e~eitalioo wil h eae ll SOU """ developin& an inplll level o f I volt r.s ..illll used rour pin dioGcs bu t u InS found 10 be betler 10 usc the diode./mobi lc base slatio M. .f.ly : " H elical fdle'" wit h pin d iode Q-<. The res utw arc sbcwn in the la ble.p ." secti ons. I. .80 ......... 1973). 149)pl'OVides a pa.:ei""r a . secondary llIld \:OlIlral wIDdinp ~~ determined cx peri- "". bot h b<':i ng de. S.& fro m Ihi.'.-lous Illl1lle-stlllta ampl i fia~ CI. f. PrImary. '" . Hewlett Packa ..~ ITl(lre co m monly essocuncd wilh Innsmi lletll th an ll<:nal p re-amplifier..~ " _ . G os ling OfSW1IrISC:t Uni ve"'. in C Q_D L (1'10 ... diameter (un known origi n).nd llher diIrk... ..h .I. I lle con l l'<ll wlndin.. power bi po lar lran..at!w:r tha n the usc or a putent iometer._1 .l g~ 1 ""n _) Gl G2 '" ..5dB ..r~11971 C:Dnfrunc:~ book ).. G.." I..11 10 be R. con verter..es.5 Ihm:.lUI 400 pAl.:eiver fro m -end perfomlal"lCC in th e p~nce of ' lro ng siilla l..i. Q ••c 1.. 8..or..-~l-.w ina ove r 3 10 30 M cj l when used Wilh a SK ohm po t . two ferrite rinKS of 0-5 in..-<_ •• • lI. ro up is r".. In IlIllny item...m . . fur ..~ 1\ 1~1 ''' l~". o r Ihe Philips . fell that ir . .. The 'y" elll p ro vides 40dB Orll.• • 1"'.~".) dcwlope<l in tbe fW1l1 end .. fwtd""'entaJ Ind I" I ~V d8 dH . D avid Spau'l..ntl1l1y lI. der inlft".m..d llppli". tl_ n ...

c.I-C.l improvemen t ._"'" ~I _:Cc) . and 10 load the a . (A) Cc>nbvl~ by potenlknllele... This idea certa inly look. Oearly the opera lion of the a)'item dellCOds on ensu. but Ihis ii lullkient 10 rNuoe inpul ~IlI&1 voltaac by II factor of 10. Under test a complele abK'DCC of wavdorm di. A gate-protecled dual 'ante MOSF!: T..c. ~ ' '' b l~ 1 ' e... Ill..:lIeI and the effective ru istn!>C¢ of the varillor deaeascI... much more of Ihe conlrol ~ol tllac will be applied to the staRO. This has the effect of red uci0ll: the muimum on wa. bout l OOK. "h ~ ~ ~ r .c.r _ .. " type 40673. a pair of liny ferrite bwh (FX U U /...." TA BLE 3 Rewlb "ith Cachla . ...01 _". -•• _ • .l llke a userul improvemenl on lhe sin gle-trac k pot oontro1. 7 Mcls Wlll much qWe!er and clear of intcrmodo lation pr od ucts. proved bel t..e. \.hich he says can..llacmcnl.ol rap ilKre.) . f.(lUp$e<j to the transformer and 10 increases irlSoel1ion loss.c. ohms fOt scmlconductor l'1XlCivers. while al tlle same time arranpna that the \flITiilor'l reslllllllCC is mill witIt weak aitpWi. could ~ly be cop ied in th e p ps bctWQe n tile brol dca.nua] PIli . uses a th.w. He 1-8 Mel' 14 Mc/a MaL a lt enuatlod 4dB "'.. Tbe actual values depend on th e ..adof lbe larger rinp . p ~ of . _ . In aeneral..tronlsipls so that most of lite L".o. . h better than expc:cted.. atlenuation 10 about 22dfl. On 14 Me/11M device clcanod up-sideband .....T.. ) witb no abrupt discontinuilY In COntrol clIanIcIer. " enuation). « ).. ' Ok+ tllk (. "".od _~ . available at lhe a.. oluns with maximum at tenuatio n to SK ohms wiLh minimwn .. A word of warni n~ : do not encl<»e the device it! a small melal sereenil11t can nnce thi.pplied ilCfo.w lt _ .g. will ad u a sboned tum (.~ • • d ..r..q it inc«lIl5e:S_ 10 the a. since the pcrecntagc llpplied. The puril'! is unlikely to Ilpl""O"t' of lUI a tlenuator which docs not providc at all scltlngs I m. ~ . The threshold control can be a<ljwted so that the all enuator ' bitl:5 ' at lhe desirN sisual level.mpr_ •• AGe P"'or~ In Elrt:rroniu (21 Ju ne.tor . statod.rlltor .. V . "" 4 7dB .. M ilt! been described recently in Eln trOllics Ausrral la. n llte. belleva that the simple potentiometer bas tho disadv:ultap of leavinl th e U!\Cl" the problem of deciding " 'hether 10 conned thc roto r to the set OT to the aerial (be opts for conoecllo.. liroc.. Tbe resistance vnluel of Ihe varistor aDd RI arc selected so Ihat t he varisto r is about half the value of RI when the a.I 1 .iJ!W .to . SalI'ati indicales that the addrtlon of a varh tor-tlllot II a resistor whose value falll oll rap idly wbc:o lhe volla. v <. tan Popon. ignlll le~el. While wc doubt if this would live . lIfI'i.. IImpliflU atage. .tive." I ... of i mpro~inl perfonn ant:e.J <oJ for "" (oJ ~<I~f 11 Ill...l... receiver can provi. to this sla.wnably eon.152 ' hows how this i1 used to provide II voltagedivider network made up p. ..... "'. on weak s.. . R I will be about 2M ohms for valve ro. 1973) M . ill ia..e.004 _ I. 131 (e).u1ly of l tlxcd resistor and partly of the varill or cceeeeer betW«-ll Ihe a . Oller formed by the vari3tor. t he r..a. as shown in Fill: .ltenwllo._ 1 CI) ". of lhe order of t 10 K ohms tIC altc:nualor has litt le effecl On circuit Q IUId the variation of presenled re:sistanc:e is limiled 10 a facto r of 2 : I (c. I SO...10K.. (or manoa lly . .. J unction-type FETs were found unsuitab le Jiooe they c:ond Ud p te 10 source when ~V«SCl bil' sed ..r R_/Y~ .PIl& linetr potenliometer... volwge nppean across RI .tanl impedance co tbe aerial and 10 the l'1XlCiver.a . imt>edancc aerial inpuI. • C' '" 0-1'<...e.witeh inll oll a ...l. reaifier.. oa _ ' .controlled r. I I furthe r simplified by usioa only a single bead.e. . J .. The pu blication of 10lIl POIlOO 'S idea remin ded P. inll lhal t he resutence of the vari...."~ .g. rectifier and the a.C. that the perco:ntaac of the a . the rotor to Iheaerial) Illd abo may result in a very nctkeable" hop 011 " effect.. uee. This mean. . certainl y not the CMO with a seri<:s-FET type of auenuator tried earlier.. pro~ ide a contro lled attenuation up 10 SOdS \IIin8 a dmtl-aa lllil pO : see Fil' 1 ~1 (1)).ill drop to a suilably low fl(u re on . as used for doeouplina..c . Since tile time constant of the '. Thi. ~ . . Results are l hown in Ta ble 3 for both forms of control and witb a con trol voltaac swina from + 2 to + S volts and sceeee blu sct at + 4'S volts.. This broa dened the bandwidth 10 1·l to 30 Mc/l and various types of FET were tried as a. It was then doddcd to try ulin..e. ••• I II ~ f ('I f l•... _ .'.. .c QUI be made ~ery low: hut as tile ll..g... I•• ~ .l.lm. Ihe value of Cl hll3 to be aod CI chosen for nate nIterinl or mod ulation veneuons wilen the ~oco 0 t he varistor il half the value of RI .RECEIVER TOP'ICS ....... O ri" of • pote ntiometer ar~ment that provides a true C'O nstan l impedanc:e: Fil ....c. with a minimum channel resistance 70 ohms . Fi ll. i. d. tl y. a l mulmwn. J.. voltaac th nt il app lied to Ihis stage will nry aooording to the level of thc control voltage. syslem I h~ provides the benefits of delayod a .~t signals. 1 I mp"'. hy usinl ""il t"""". Ihe roceivcr l?Crfonncd rnw. RI wilh silCflOl1 level. cl .Inl . altema. VK2AZN fT. it i.. amplifier io virtually unatrected by the lI_ a·c. < ppll<" .a..t by dual-gnte FET Ilnxtue""y LlsI ttla".. FlIT weak lianal. < ~I . cin:uilty of • co mmunication.I.:elvc~ and . the resu ts were suoccu fuUy rq>eated. Weak c.pl lt ler. a ltmlllltioa 6'dB 3dB 30 Mel' ldS •• When Inscned in a Io. lile I Wi lchina In a really good crystal tilter: ' Atranll. voltage i.- or lherefore USCI an alternative l)'Stem .tortion was noted.. _ ..._ .lc.e.l-C. FftqueIlCY Lon 1·8 Mcls 4dB 14 Mcls 3dB 30 Mcls 2dB (b) COIltrolh.a .M"'~..ny pnsdica. COlllrol ck mc:ntl to Tefl lace Ihe m.0 IIIl rf Iront-end .Je II ii rnple bul elJeo:t iVC= mean. but o 1tl11quite simple.a. ~ " ~ ... 1 1_ . The " varistorizcd ·· a. .w'" 1 .d fm• • ~l .ttenua tor it might well be useful for ether pu rposes.. T". .. chan.

lTlWtimu m inpul iml'\ldance o f 20K ohlm and o utpu t Imped ance it abo ut 500 oh m•..-"--'·""i---"""::r.."' I AI ~ ! FU U I~ ."Ola .._ hoI4 . No l•• R.W... 2." . ian als in the llUdio stal es o f a m::ei\'ef 10 c1""n them up and reduce \be effeo.. Pieuch. 1972 . t......- I . 1914) r. .:. liller. ia......: Opelll tors. G 3LCS... .w. leavint P ili in wltlch cw ope rallon is feas ible.-----. V. Fi ll. January .- . includ~ for I:UQIplc.. I... A number of lll1iclc$ on vario us fOl1l1$ of th reshold gatitli combi ned wIth ampl itudc limitini a nd filterinlJ bave beat written by Joh n J. both ... 1S4 tJ!OMi a a . '" PI• • 115.. 1913) by o er en Nib w n. an d hum. j . ·· > ' "* ~ . with it... W2 HLV c laims that a1mosI ccwnplde immunity eIIn be achieved from the sideband melJ)" o f m091 phone and broadcas t signa .. VariowI t«hn i<jues ca n be used to prccess c.1l mvone nts of lhe Hc:cknwn fillet..... 1973). tho UIO in caICaOecf teW ral thte$ boId p te Hnute11 with Cr1ern· p ting am plitude limi teR ..n tune thro ugh the broadClllt section cr lhe 1 M e/I band an d redllCe these slgnab \. up in tbe Swodi\h QTe journ a l (No .. for example.' te!"".y impu loc noise and ~ back.. 2N 414) to p rovide . : Fi ll...I . <ltp pl RI thresho ld.:tJon o n C. . . and illCrease the: n:o. p ik. ~ I .eiver's absolute outp UI \eYel b y 8 10 12o:I B.. 1912 and September.. j unction o f ~lurn . S M1AYB.ly varia ble frequency and facto .cillti~ t o switctl it in o r o ul of cil'CUlt: Fig. U 3.1.-. !. h d l"" Iom' _ _ hy I Ml .r. provid<:s in CQ-DL ("'eb n"" y . o:nt hu..w . H. ..J ___ C ] • .~.~1£ b ut. using sta ndard 741 L ..'" ! AMATU Ii R RADIO TE CHNIQUE5 r------. Th is Iype of Ind uct o r-less lllier is no t o nly useful 10 c. T .'. W2ELV I Ullm RlJdIo.._..nae me nt ..' . given c~ in input lcvd . . Ampl itude limitin/ _ usua lfy rock-to-back d i«lcs-i. adapted the ideM UM:d in tbe Deckman liclipol Mode l 881 un ivcn. . Duda.. m •• . c. transistors (e. ""..arou nd hi.I. DJ 6HP . This mea ns . . o pera.. b of no ise:. no tch mode . II is claimed tha i "~I\ included in all the controlled slaps (al ong with the T a mp lifier stl llC) o f II.. It will cope wilh inoomioz: signals up to llboul 4 ._ .0 • .ple and energy-gllil limiter ci rcuit wilh pos t-flte liItl'l"inl ' u*rII the emitter· ba. O I T ~..: 'N' ''''' . Th is venalil" filler QUI be l uned nver 450 to 2700 cis and t ill: Q varied o ver II raoge of S to I withou t affectin g the resona r u rrcquel"lC)'.. ' -.-. r-'. incl udinc fa.mes of canien each oocu p yin& o nly a bou t 200 cit of spectrum. tltat he ca..-urtl le Admo Fille r Des Shc'pher d.---~ .. IICmlco nduclor ..:~ =:=t h . can be b uilt .. sUl"JTb " c_w...lll lIctiYe filter to p rovide a .e lio na l lllllp hficn and cce vemlcna t co mponents instea d o f the ra the r speciall. With a two-stllge a rn. Mo rt oomplcx syslems." • "' •• C.uitable d iodes..dl details of an acti"" filter alool ~icaIly similar lines bu t with Ih e ad dilio n of 11 notch faci lily and eeelinuo".. An ot hl!r version of t his approac b turn . . U S. <><tr ! " • 4" ~..... hal ve tbe dllCibcl chanjle in receiver out pu t for.. etc. receiver tile technique can imp ro ve rou: iver sens itivit)' by 3d K.'" It- .. .. e lTf'Ctlve in gr:t1inll rid 0 tpiltes of noise: tho: ~·known Ihreshold p l iog cnu 0111 the fuzz of sigooh ~Iow the level o f the wanted signa l. :: :.. Ma y. also 10 ph o[J<.~.... .l!.

wilh + 27dD.. We all lit e 1 Ihink thai quanz crysl al ll1ten 0 x in~ po int of + l5 to + 11k1 Dm. I n practil:c ltley are 1'NO-llIIfI llnd pa. -£:fOY " '" ~~ m m " -w Top~I~W - Pr .b.':l. 741... ror c. I S' am . used IS bo th ends... .. He wrilCll: .and Ire more of I problem than th~ rcmo~ed by 10 0120 kH z. R.. A pas.0 l--. V " ~g -.. Su itllble de'lioes indude the vur.linear ~tallC5 : some of the lldvantaSCI . ~ Tbis means W I u is D 1 Ol 00 difficult for II designer to cod up wilb the lillen (nlll>cr t ban the: mixer ot t.\ LAI1.. md lit the present o n the Il... ~.. ~i:.d y been ~icvcd by using the l'ery e1fCd ive bo ill -in ICloctive j.IU C£IV£1t TOPICS '" M' (103V 01: .~ call be il\C1"e." IIodlo b..t to eXllctly the ". 0 fillel at lilis spacin• . .. only t wo re.. hould be abo lll 8110 Hz.. 1 l Loge i. 748 o r lOl A ..i lllll i docs OOt d rift n ibl OUt or tbe PII$SbaDd d urin&" own " due to d rift in the lronsmil ter o r tbe local recci~"r. W ilh the co mponen t valllC1 indicated lhe reliOOlwt fn:q uenL . The i. . . .ivc. and finall y lhere is the I'Cr)' important req uireme nt thaI the wan ted r... usin. " " c "oo ~ W ~ ~. 156.ill have al.." Qt1J If cr' ·S/Illfil/rr. pves tbe II$Cr II IlC'N coooeption of the need ror h igh o rden of rmjueocy w bilil)' .s.d .)·perfOMWlOll you . (J3 RZP. prolhx. slaBC) prOVin. l C 2 ..d In Am • .." .h• • ~dl o •..""t ~trong jnterferin. Insread or roc-....6dB or about 640 Hz al -5OdB.. Ac1in C..oad q ualit y Schotlky-diode mixct l uch al lba t in F ig. reci pru<. pe rfo rmance.d . ~:I~---. D. '. 1974) : Fill... ..4 LA4H K. s. up-amps. I"'o. -:.. bot Ihey Dre rar rrom linear o r reciprOQOI ~ Typil.I... " 1 '" 'h .. of O!ICil1ato r "rive. rlo:t the inlem:pl poin l.iII not be achieved if the filter com es ... Abouf l5 1 IlidUrn is typical rot a 9 M Hu . fir.1 limiti na Iactor fo r tbc over all i.al.d <i n: u i t b<><l "'. • • lIl ••• d..fter o ne or mo re non.~ .r. !lo. Ct In .. wltb limplitlcd forms of mil t)'pe of hlter ..1s in the pIOw... ~~ .. tha t alwayt need to be ~ reMCI1 wbt:n d~i n ll lbc \I>C of • . double.ive. r.. .boY(! abool 14 MH z In 0\'CnI1l oond width of 100 to 200 Ht is a bo lll the limit unlesl high-sta bility eq uip ment is bein. Radla (N r 11. . ha nds .1 I" . i pt.D• • "" CrJ''''' Fm.b umped bandpa$S chanoCfeti~lic. A . hu been dC bed by LA 21J and 5Cl"i LA4HK in A malO..... ")' lbere are acouple o r poin t.ries. ~ ~~~ .an l-"n/II . J5J) but 1l00d resulu can also be achieve<! . when offtuned lhe errecuve ban dp ll.dio filten.. . ' le..M.. of .SOdD).u w. ln the 1i!'!1 «Iodilion the tiltcr provides I bandwidth of o nly l boul SO liz III . If With Icss tlcxJblllt)'. ill llave an ... 70 ..r.d..:t t)'pe: which ean be adj uste..m...porl network s.me I'C!IOna nt froque ncy as lhe first IllIge o r IUcrnalively ~lillht ly olf-sct to pro vide.m. FIINr A ~rsa t ilc filtcr bas been described (Fi& .lten o r the car ..--~i~ w . Y ~.n f'ctcr Eo OuI d wick..' . linea r. -u.W. receplion : full protee:tion a~. . One. fi ~ luned with a reson ance determinc<l (in p art ) by lhe: value of R2: the cqu i~a len t ~ i"wr in the !UlOOnd sialIC is I p~..... provide a +37d Um a re p1Lv.nt . _ tv .b. The fi..s.sbarwJ or on ly SO HJ. r ------------------::z. poi nls oUl lba tl~ dllya it is fairly easy 1 aclIieve the IOn or inlerm odulallon dislon ion 0 (i.. Tuminl il round will often .l!otd to aboul 200 fu (l5SO Hz III . . ~.. lU. CTY'tal lilter ..m ..' 1]~ .ally an b.ll.

..ynlhell1rrs e ees nOI heIr . II . 1'9 .JJt _ _ _ .tiom ""lla oUy w()rlin& bctYo'ccn the broIldcllst intnlden can be docmlly -.... •• . ... Io(" al + f7dem 5Q... _ 10 ' lIUUf" G I C "I'OUI . first n:sort may he 10 If)" .... it the: question o r tfCi... ...Q o '''"I. ovioJc I ""'If out pul dur"'l th e oilthl ! Th ai lIllure co mes from l ummm.oca l mnin....... On tile otoo band. I _ " 'OOD.O J"'-" ! '1 I . - UIOI IM . ... .. i!l"al Irequency r i.... d due 10 . ---~---- :J I ~ • . if.1 .tn Whid\ ""'"' IUb. has prcscolll4 a conIpo'iite diaV*1tl bPod on clctaikd in tcnnodulal_ muwn.... h QID my llwn u perif:rn:c J would "'. I.-ide 1UI1l1 01 inputt at " 2 and 1.. l1bo..." _ 00Cl~. "'L -j-~f-' ''G • ::: .. y 0( aiIeSo.. tress-do ""'" he SO earrie... I _ U • ..'C heard one dil. thi rtl· or der in~lf intercerol poi n t..l». r. and later N'J'Ubiithcd ill OlJ M ..""'tlon of Tr ... .. t\'erun&.u.. tOl' dira:11y I ' till a erial 10 tIle ~... with MID\O UIl-bYPlU-ed fl11lllcr ru i... .t."'" Re<:e l... D~ol...-f_ _ .1. CIl:Ilnparisoa rt'Cq\lUlC)' ~d l". . r Ul rome sdcct i~lty in fro nt u f Fia .'l:l'db lc 1IJ amplitwe ·moduluion n orse on the 0 1111'''1 of the 1 0Cll1 oscillillor .' H __ ... . 'Criul madlinc : prodlla'S all rlaluc ~1Q ....lIow you 10 UM a Sch"llk y-di od ll mixllr..-... AHA T I!UIl RADiO TIECHNIQU I . _ a..and I _ k from lhei r ~h.w.. ~Ill)' po.. 1 .". .1I1 r . I-- " "'0 0 ·' 0 ·' _i_" Uoriol . _ _ .c " ''"" '" ..u ." .. 1...-.. I . . _ "' WI.. l PO/i 6Ot! :JD ) 'J. u unfortunately is rreq uentlJ the Q>C.""' i". f'Oo..".*. the pha-e. Icnt cece.dequa lc ll" in lo .tioonf..f. 9.. .. and ~lly I'IlOU lIwl Iw~muIUI. .o _ t.. and h«c thc m nd I~ rrrq~ ... .......00 ~ 1_ . _ ......~ .~) ell" Ii•e . ~ ".("'--1 " '" _ ~:~===4=< .. DK 'M L..ccl:ed 10 • . ' ..ynthcliz>:r as ' . .. l. eo .....'.. 10 tl)' it Out on' MHz in the early inEt .. r..y by 1M • br . o f ha lf·lall icc filtc"'.. lnCd in !be trans(orn".o.. .. oce II. _ " " 1M.. lor ..._ _ I..... h ated wit h iCItlt -JllCion ..m:eivers ODe 0( the mm.l miur I I-i. _ _ ._. u. ..illu~ <kvdopcr re jer 10 • . is the ferrilC=.. " loul sa ... ~I'JI .lpt or e. .:. ' 0 010 Wllhout l iJRal 1iI1cl'ln. .. tclcvlslon sy'le""') " " lin fl .. ' ...U at t he iow.. ldllU l !wi. I ~.. .. Twu or more tuned . ""_.... ~P _ _ . " -' .11"...lod .. Imul Sdunuec:l. .n mmc:nd I lownoise bipolar ITM M j' lo r of the type tlc vdnpc:d for C A TV (wlre-II" .ed loop i!.. 101 in Fi ll. - D IUH~ . III C DL. _ _ 11' _ fernatj lt CHOt _ 1 .m _ ._ _ _ ..-.orlll4 o ut .' I . nmplilier : such II ' the 2N' I09 or BFWI7 or nrw 17A.:...(requcncy end th e lill ie P01.Ct¥er .or hi.bout + 2'd llm inlClUpI bu t i• • n )' .. dual-pll MOST'F..) you QlD p:!. _ ...d uuNlOOt .-.. atlcD ..r.. •. .OOul 12 Olm.neOWJy·....:uib arc slill a good kk:lI. --. run wilh "hI'U I 20 mA collecto r current. td'orc lhe miter." _ .... Ev= . l" p UI I . ':1::-. ...'l307 MHz : see Fia.unple ..... I"~.. .. ' .. U1nl potn t.. Pa-h l~ the bcot. _.... n.. l U ' U: P ' ... lra"'.etcrishCS._ . ~ ovt '" I o.. 8lronll signals from l 10 30 MIll.r... by one firm indicucd II"u a t1'lom bic poi ntinl towa rds [ u ' ''PC could p.. .ol.. 160. _ ."0""_ _ -.. Some alcua. o1o'i . + 11' I..... ... it en SOUDdI I honiblc II'1C5S then .mCIIII or IU..l impol.... afl er i. pbz>c noOse. . Part o f the problem with cl'}'lla l lille ".. Ittr.....L. . . ... _ . 1 ~9 .... . all t. ina the Pl llCI icIl per fo rm ance of ~y ama leur 1'CI. 1".. Sol ror me . eeee noo. ..... 111m I lmOIl CC1'tain ly the ~ hu TUlONI b ly JOOd ClosHllOduia tiool lnd intennodulal ioll clu. ...1ct the 'I!IS-rs to . t iT I" ¥ • • • ••••. . If thll i. "*"'. " . I..dctwmd noise... ~ _ • It 1 • ..d• • nd the like! ~ oee linal point I would . _ _ f lo ool _ 1..h-pIlrfonna.nd ..r+. i t. -...

n tot .2 . b UI il i.1 On the hor iwlIIlll uit and the vertical axis shows the inlcrmoou lalion products in terms of 61156.. 6BZ6 or EF89.ar. aI "". '" ~ ~ • 'i" •• - ICC" .._ ~'<Ih Q To ..lallCe via the •. .... _ . Also on this topic.. . ll<>d-'lEf. H i 1>1. ' . " " . C. - - • • . bu t 1 1.-I.v . Jan Martin N~in&. "...h... though less co mplell ~ n." L3 . \ receivers . . . Rct.o much easier to use a 61lA6 docibe15 difference (the gn:lItcf the <lilTe""noe the more liou r which can be d irectly substituted as it has Ihe sam e base t. ~ lor r?GY I. CIII.llSCCiveu eveR higber va lue resis lon. eI I' ..lO Ok .. and mOR: rocenlly illookcd IU thoUIIl we mig ht he Il:lur n ing 10 such simplicity la nd low cos ts) h~ means o f direct-co nversion designs. However. the Iystc m)... h.ra~'veJ Reee'verr G~B FV).C: m uil which .""" .. LA8AK (nSt.. &.1 0_" lu k'.. caused b~ non_lilll:ac o pcl'lltion _ In !>Orne of the eompany'l bl.sl solut ion would be 10 change this valve for II The input levels ar c im!iCll lc:l. - .. ~ '~O . many modern dlrcct-converslcn (lesigns.hl (R. _ _ I ..e..ll•• ~ I.~ 'I U GOH .. !SI..I '" '" _..-1.11" .n . is relatively hia. • .-. m~n l has a sr i<! return resil. " ~ . l ur".d ..en .n M ••• ' fir plu. .C. 10 •• •_ _ ~lm ••lll u ... d.. .... ohl . If'O/I'l urlhY'''d "" dp F.(Innedions as the 6AU 6..f I \ ao. nolC!l thai the a .eo l00I'H . iI applied 10 ella rp-cu lolf va l\es . _ 1. h ~.. I." L. .. L3 tapped ot 1/ . 11 00 1t_I. 1II'lI': wed.. lnp u. F..g. CO p. <:ireuit in sorre Heath etltl i~ Ma ny o ld -time ama teu rs mad e Iheir first nx contacts by means of simple o. .m.: l:>11~..0 . 1... _ '" '" "" '" J I 1.-'..lu<:inl Ih is resistanoe ma y IIlllkc the e/Tect of lI...rid C urrCllI less important and thus Improve t. uch lD the 6AU6.

. lh. A hhough 01 usn a.. . as d . M.. 11 '1<"" lwo Iwill·l ri" d e valves. " Ap . il'ht " ..... Scl·e. 'e b. I>oul.. ilO""l ellilh .. 2Otums . alte r the Iue of C I hy . a nd th is can be d " "" by usinll l & .. a lllplitie r.Le. ruu nd a pre·"d cclOr fI!ler (I'il' 1M ) n..a lve h .Il. .b.'. II ' A N. a~ .caener..27p sllvt e mlca T . . "hsl iluli" n '" para lleliltg addil io nul ca pad l. TIle ma in =aV<:r is IJne4 10 ma umum . I'o u iblc.. l<'C h nlq. It . . 1.. . m A yl.... 3 of th e co il connected to ear th. d llalor an d luni"lil nrr allllements of the maio receive r.. F" r ~. '1Il aeria l IQ p in I M I..r.o.-IyT'C o scillator is suita ble: Ihe one .. live rece..hen a n d .". Iw com po ncrllS I re moun to. u p II sn"...rier n: -in.. hnwn the in put . . 1'". e~eel'l for so-ne rej igginll of Ihe mi.... In scll in.. ..l!o<::i llalo r w.C3•. lie ha. ' r . h owll in H il. K(p:nen li\'C detect o r fo lio ".""iw rs ga~ res ull' II()<)<. 162 i. re<:eption on rtte il-ers n ot ha..I~::·.1 1" . hUI layout i. up.<.. Wilh Ihis lechn ique.dn ped for a no lhe.:::~·~~' ~: '.... s witched »r.lI:lled il "..f. If thi...rth llQlinlll ha l l hc romh i031icn of .f. lhe ot her ll. lrnc<:l In "'~ .'" AMATEUR ItADIO TECHNIQU ES \V 1i" long uWmal".I I!\IlU I• . _III .r.u.. Ill. " .QIl or moly a bout (." can 0'11 '0 pro vide .. a..1 urc r fQf the Ra d io Kolor Mo..... ". will. Baird.. Co n. r~nc li" n i" l\ <o . •• I b 14 ..rl h 10 eon ...occlver .n <y a .J<: l IV hu t il ca n 'l u il~ easily be b nil l III ho me.e " po rla ble ru..."j 10 Ihe ""·o-k. N<:. .v. MPFI05 than D good .1.f. hip · 5iabilily conve ner a mi lD: MOSH iT s. . cous for (jIlT~'e. .i'~ l'ly and "' d iroclly a.'n ' . ical ....d L2. You m lY be Ju rp ri. h. f.. lly mllCh easier 10 bu ild all exlern .ll< inll f'.. I..... lII11pt.'n . 1 •.1'1 ". lInd C. _ I<u 1 ' -Ilty. kave reported good perfonn~ no: " n bolh l. " f ." . u. Iurc co ol roL SWi lCh 10 14 M I [z a nd a dj uSl l 2 for 14 1<> 14 S M l lt l.. a l"" plffiiblc by c Of1 ne<:lin ll pio 9 o f Inc coil to "". . ~ Il J ha s rc-desil]. Almost a ny ... lwcen pin. th is lime usi lll]. th= -ga nll luni ng ulIOC"ito r neree 12 r f = Iion.. E.. J and 4 II' a elllllio UBlioo of Ihe m a in luned coil. l he 0 c1a-." unlil 3'! 1 4 M Hl. .o.la pIo' d """ ibrd belo w a rc 1"~~l he . • •h 1 ~.y switc hed 1lI1 cr suc h lIS Iha l "... T hi. ide quite ~ 1 ... "wn 9'''011 hillery. ly fo rOlI a eupa. ap plication il muy l. FSGY..r. lo"'ers lbe frcq"e nq ra nf. a ' Ingle·hand na iver for 14 \0 14 Z MH z ~ ptjo n bu t it wo uld be ['I. ertio ll i. the Ii. "onvt rler a nd ada pled it. o.j"" I-iMC MOSH :'T. l o w-eo n H.. ire uil etTr<..:'~:':.d a hsorp lio n 11.'IP'lc ilo<.. " Th e h. ~ co il lap n:plC5Cn" a l>oul one-quarte r the tu rn! fwm Ihe earl hy e nd ./ el'lOOl1' rcr fe ril.lnat il from a pentad" valve 1 a 401122 d ""l '~a le MO St' I:T .I<.1 "'''''''' rrom an ar1 id~ " Si.. Kmrli !ieT..·. I (o f the p" " w nd . c.b.we. i~ja:li"n woul d (lthe.. ) then: should be litt le d illleulry in a lignmen l If . .. 1.. f• • <10 1 . la Me v. we I a. too . lil·d ...~ f ... F.•. I· 1 • .f .h:"~~\~..o . 11 ~(3 n..cd wilh the e. niac. U~ alj.. a mi leur re<:q>ti<>n. 10·5 MH z \ fllc 14 MH t rn..olar tr:L n.. silJ." Cd n be pro~Kkd by i . ...illna ls k:. lind c. J"}lishoo 1:ftTI " : t' 11l. lhere 0 Can he " prohl ~m of breakt hro ugh o r W n ni ~. 1 L l fur "" w rag<' "r 1 1<> 1· ~ MH Lwith the " I'.U1 ll~ w nd Pl'''' inp ul crrcuuj.-". t. 1M . T IHo ..li" " .e ~cel l ~n l s.."" for """ill.C o f t!le coi l a li llie.·. IOI1i a re ..()fIlItlunil:atiOllS rccci.". sw ileh 1<> 7 MHl nnd adj u.. 1 b~I"" (thu u!:h ~oib ~hnu ld be = Ol'f><'d to prevent .l.~ ca..l _frcq uc'". """.y'I~1 os: ilh"" r 1" ill " W it ". nd "' Ie rocr. " .ing a " C C1_ lil p .... .<. off.><1 ant enn~ ...h.r.I -. &abl. 1e sitke. . A. It hil S II total br utcry 1:<lll'. 11. 1 ~nal.Icotl_.. an " c ces no t r"q ~l i re ariy mooutce TIon '" wireu ( u uphnl]. ...!«'lH. lind lite co ils mouo loo on ' he h" ndc hangr 5wilCh. (a.. '.. ihlr at ..ed. . '" •• • I .. ... o ren the ha rm o nics provide .. 1' . ing 1\ IXIsslY<: ~n d lXl s1 si ~n.f . b.... ~ . .-. p ic a UIl'u l fo r hoead pil' " '''' """'rtion. l ui hy Y. 1 Ihr hl'oa dcast r<:<:e. r."'.I ~ '" Q"C..d 0 . II hilS h«n dcs iIlOO<l .s ll... W7CSD (7] ..~ M ll z COl" .nl\ thi s a ppr nach.f... $. to 1.f.o . a n . n. Uo"' evrr B' .. .:jvisable Ih""" c" ili Cltll ..... ua l Lf..ver can pro. .s.o h h m" . ll>es two . 51<18'" to . mon ~CY-l: ha llCT " " "d theu Ibe . MH 11 .:e. ""'.. l1 l" ""ble ..ndard of co nstruct ion . lho ugh il is seldOOl m<:n h . d I I MH o.) l'l' a n a . u gel ".$. . lrll<:l" n. = rlion o n ma ny "I lhr oMer h.d wilh the windiolil b<.. lUll-lUlled imJI..•..ver. lind 1 «:pre<cnl a hJghcr st.. ""tl~ pf the bctrcr" all-wa... """.-IlInal j'N/II'nry a.d Oll . 16.. . MHL.ve d CICl:ln r upproocil.....ade ~ o ullem pl In re-optlmize C lpo ncn l 1H1 values a nd ha~ fo llowed Ihe orittina l a .f. I.~d in on o ld IcHi n wit h Ihe <:.. . ol io .. . . f"rn.s.4 "f u» wll wilh No.h ick1<:d cO"'J"'r1""'" I....'Ci~e r..Cd.cilla to r d rift nr in"uIT. not Cri tica l. .. pca:h resolved by Cilrefully lu nll l' the externa l """ iltolN .. "'" .. 1970 l W1CSn re pott ed Iha l.rad inll n ne of I])C o ldc r h .z. receive-s where o.\ to 10 o 1 _ <Ita ' IH. n..lIla lo r C""'" .frCQucnc y mir<. ". il1l " 10 usc pl " ~-..I!I() be coIll'leClCd with pIa 3 of VI connectcd 10 No. lh.. loa ~ an • . _ "'Ido .~ blt: 01 rcce i\<::f1 ftC'I"C..> it is ~ d ifficull I" ri..! . Once: .lla b wil."i':~:!:.r=:I~. 1 i . a. Z l2 115..1>.. I n Ihe-e 0 d ay'S "I Il"" d H . a mp lifier ""'"' lWO IiCl 09C b ir.sa ry " !len USillS a 1:" .. ma ll e~l"ml l oscillat or wilh ltnod ban ili.i ll'" fo r scmiwnd"c' lOr~ ~nd vulves. int e nded for e..lh it.. mrc ' ro nlro l. s..r. a'" a d uaH ta ' ll \..o It ~ .8..s .o . no B. l ~...·c. lI a.1 11m slm ple r.. G l ry Molrs. ~ . br• •• cu co l".' '":.ly " n J'5 M Ill (for 1 M i ll bandj. i1nd Jimila rly a djusl U fllf 21 1 ' 0 21·. Like th e ori l inal .."':.j of perform" a.nillo< Ir.s.d .tl .wave ra diQ" lly R. u!.. t ~ ( irc uit amm ~'nen t ulC<l by a [lule h rrulllufa.. uperJld .. Th e UUil II hn u . srnce mO<lcrllle d n fl will no t a fftt l .F. z ::~ : k '" ...t tas k is ' 0 en'\U n: lhat Ihe cr}"l'lal i.. both •..'. . i. 'iICh ' 0 l '} M l iz a nd. communlc. 1M 1m! l li2 Jhow rcp resentll ivc dc. 'll. Anatole. . Wrs . the re arc eo i. tle ma r m u lll . Carner re-in sertion III oigna l fl'<:q U<:t>Cy "'a l quile I-"'O I' ul1l ' in the earfv da >-s of a ""' lcu r s. It is U. il i~ we ll wo rth rr mr mbe rillj lha t ca. OIlC H' iI COl:ICode-Iy~ rege ncrH ive c ircu it.rBllgeme n l. i1 tho ullht j""... in3l1y dc. . f ig.nd l and 11·5 Ml ll (fo r 21 Mllz ba m!)... . 165. "..F.ssa ..b. Id . h ile oJj ust inl': Ihe slUll co .al os."" . w 1 v. Ihis w¥s ur i. TC<:CI' II" " lhc " ' traill hl" ".••• . il. uflic ient inject ion to rhm ina te the need Io r baads wil" hing.y.n •o•n ~ b.". has la ke n lit< desilln o r u 1 ~ 62 . .t pro vide.w.h a r. by O mo re u.. _.ldQll:n a Nab" L1." w lod a y.ing "" I"" th ree o<. it ive_inp ut poten l~llllelcr.w.'(l Ihal H roth er s'm l." a. o.Pt\'ad IJn inl(.O .f.ll . ..><I h lS . 1 .W. rece iveI'!. Id .u I I lhe retu l l~ lha l a re "". b..noJ liab ility a nd ea'l)' tuning than 10 imp ro ve the h-r. II...:itn l b..:lo ry_built <.\ a t""<Mln. Oe nco C I' (va he In "' ) cn ils may be u".er " "'.t . pro vid inG the iIl rt of ""rfOfma n<..~ k.. if no. lIlil l o ""01"f1 . for F ET Jenliconduclors."d ~ lIluo-tlJl\Cd l orrMf" t .ge whc: " s wuc ncc 10 tne 2 1 MH ~ hilnd. Th..d o n Ve~"l . ca n he p aked 0 e h~ lit" r..o .l "i lh ill a few rccl "f the . 'a pable " f e l1 ec lively u. the . Such receiver s shou ld te u. (i1l'Y Mo l. <lon I. II il perfla ps ".. llw em k:a C2_3 ..*. m hl....a l <:"II. II need only be p!.•• ~.._ va " I...T oscillat. lhl1"l/h lhi s Can be Qverc".. e tu . II I far lo....o.:i1llilo r lS fllr ~ ~it ica l IITo'n . . Ia b lilly of Ih~ roo:i Y<:r:~ Ioc.."" F i~ ..ler It i ~h' p a ~ ~ nllrl . gc.o. h ui llKlIIIl a couple d to m id.. 11..Ovcf1'l ge.. b. In.nc by u. . are lendiD to use more com porcnt.:e pUnn ude» lhe . Zea l.O. ". ' "" ual " Ilh these coil•.

1<' =.. lI .. •• _ I~ ~. .e..! ! L ir-::r::--"-::r:--l i • • • _ _ •• _ •• • • • ' I• .. Iion o. In QST (Ja nllllf)'.. ..i ~ " .. ro " •• w" .'e<! MJ. i . Dick Rollcma..l' _ . tI.. ""rfonnar". Ho w Iilood it lhe prcS<:lt l 8Ooc".•• J' b...h •• ••h .. .n l/. " In t ile 28 MH1 owill... r M H . . ~ .... lhe co il rcsonalinll 01' 24·5 Mil l ..1\ mixer could lie ". as lhe dial is cal ibr:l1eO SC.... .'. ... " The ct-cun I 1I. . . ..>cy : t he difference ca n aITKtllnl 1 st'\'cral 0 kiloh ert l on Ihe hilj1t er overtones . Ori l:inully Ihe eryslal was ordered 'l'C'Cifyinl lllu. ..Ii()(\c-q"nd <1oulll . • •h. H"I • • .lnr " " rio reliabl y o n lhe scvcnlh o verln"".. R"" rove. <Ioubly·blllant:l:d m i~.UOS l+ S MH I..ng e«e<'l ively wilh t he sill-nail lhal come I" .-::J'~ ~~'.' e b~lanccd .".. n E".II.....1 i. TRlcly r" r each ...d . .16.."u. ."." ....C .. Jay Ii. MH . u ~ . W IVD. u.nlS a hilj1tly subversive v~ (" HulTllll n enginecrinIJ lhe slulion ruei""r " ) On 5Omc: ofle""" n<'l lo. Ihe Dutler a rrR n ~eme nl (.. lhe atnalcur wants... .'. ~ 01 ... the figures mean unythint/ in " racli<:e ? SlIc h t hl".. 14 .. . n. . LI. .. ili" n the I lug in L is ~ <Ij"'l e<l . •.. Tile 17-5 and J(l'5 MH1 rgon~ n """ ~ rc elft>l: IC by ndjusli ng llle .IIe<!. helhl'. 14 MHz .. """'Io _ ~ ' <. u.. '.I )oJ MH • ••• • " d d . ~ .. . .llcn"lcoJ ..of rommunica t io. . ..I •• l . However.'•• h.I>I. .oj• • R k. We accept (even If we can not always .<~ .. U. '~ Hum.... 12A . t.100.~. an: nol el«In.1.. "'l"c ocy . ror 3 ' ~ In 3·6 Mll z will not hnld lI-DOd fnr ~ Il bands .m the 'lnl)'. _. u. ~ • IUll"J 1 n ... . . of wiring lind Y atve.1. .. as r".. . .ti N • • ~ 1 ....U .ri". . ryslal Oil ill seve" ll.rous . lhe " umhera ".... Th is is due 10 lho: rad 1.• . . 11 d' • • .... ca lculat oo 10 dis""l any om"l I.I ...... ahhough II lhe os. inl/. wril"" : •• I can ~" n nnll lha l .inl/. drawbad ."""". MH o...... " b..uri.... .. . . ~ I .' e i.... II'O..• • 004 I ' M u d .. I. k...... . 161 ~d .. : ... .... which one ha< In plly II lidy LIlL dnys for n new h.....1 '• e..... . -.lh. '. . r".le cry..'.:a l harmonics bu t ove rtones or 3 mf'Clt"nl"" l vibfation:' (" Tl (ta mC Tl .. h..1 capacitance IIp'''' r".._ 1 ..H • ~ . .. u••• . I l ~ . 166). • U"""..n. . ._ 0 I _.o~e<! I .h.II.... of . ~ ~e eho <_t of bo<kw• • oI . ~ _ .C Q .1 MHll he dClCS have lhe disndvnnla ge IhRI lhc ~"iver lun"."o.. backward s onthls ban d (i . For Mil l iTlJccllo" In'QuCncy is used .. •• 1_.me " r seekinJ 10 improve 00 t he" l pecirrc:al. " dl b . . •• _ ~u II " "'* -. iven du rlnll.. in Fil/. U.Pli.....(l<' lion wilh r«ent He gives fUll <:rcol il 10 the eareful a ll""Iion 11"'11 tIM Ixcn ..M ~t-Uo~ ..._ _ . Innes J·5 In J'4 M Utl" r«ei vc 7-() to 7' 1 Mli z).1 t llc o""rlo".. 1 ~..f '" 00'"u• tI>o . Th is avoids any slm ng lIirdie nn 7 M ill.. w l>l e~ eOft b... h' .1 ·~ M il l. i..1s wllh my tunable 3'~-4'5 Mil l receive... 1'f'21-$1 .h e r Un "~ tllCnla l rn'ilue ......c pnd desIgn.. PAOSF... . .4.. s MH •• .. ~." nd . or have they I l1ll1ed playin.. nvencne.l off gootl anlennas .~ible 10 "I~m l e a slIita llle 3 ' ~ M U I. . unlil the o"Cilll.t a ".. . Since 1% 1 I nave lI ~ed :1 _" nverler for II.... ghl$ ure da n~". af . 'd pa" l<u'" n" •• 00". ". " """..b' ..::illa h>r nTl Ihc 10 ~ . .e 2810 1·8 Mil l 1 "". ' ••n • • r . . d lrimmers in th e app ropriale sw i l ~h l"'>Sillon ~ . 81<' u ailabl<: lotlar wilh a dyn am ic ranllC of over Wd K and Qlf'lIhle or cop . _. al.f.cd.... 1... 17· and 24 '~ MHllln . "m <~ . • • u...10 nOI . .R EC EIVER TOPI C S .1 re"... f or urenrcr d yn ll"....h· Ie ~ I . '~~7"=(.on 1C«lvt n '! li as a ll the impol1a nl innovat ive ". u 11_ . ide". a .S.. _ hof.e<! .c<.... .rs. . .. .i nce llle n vcrl" nc r~ lICnC~ or a erysla l are not exact m ulliplcs or . 111711. f...m. ""'~ .. <. . 44. ~ 1 .2. 1 ..solld'1-1alt ruei""... G. il Yla~ rcqllin:d r" r overlon" ope mnon o n 10·5.<1 " F.. ' de<! . loo aspco:IS or ruei"".oat " ~ I' .i"r Ree.... .lily n<cillnlCS a~ i. .~ . "ul ' M " I.....d Ihem) t hat lhe hcsl dC'lilln5 are likely 10 uSC h 'lI.If.~ I~ '. no w been done ? A re "''0 in danger of slavishly follo"ina: fashionable In:tllh 1 Are Ihe " roreu iol1J I dai.lu l for l he band1 28 to 7 MI lL..101.. T hey make us look <:."" 00''MH .. . "lC receiver.. 1. ~l J." .r. " I . 7 Il CCIl2 1 ".":'~~ \". "''' e_ ...~ . lllis was ntll c"n. I .....u ' ...II.lhe pall dcatle 10 improving fronl-cnd daian..on " or eom""lihve models regard less of .n en..~.h.. ilK:ally lO l ollr current rueivo:rs... 11 ~ houl d also oe cl'pred:lIcO that a single C11 li bo<li~".. .~n . 1.inecrs really aware of w. ilho ul nny cdd ilion. u.. ..

Fo r example . .a n all he so l.~y IUk... f"". h..kb~' limes.:ni n:::. j.pen. .I>1• ..on . n excessive a mo"nl (If h iss a . n i. circ u ilry (h um lo ops remai n ''' I'' "r Ihe Ifo.eu in I' n .-e ~on<xrra:d .. ... ill h i.. 0" A M AT EUR R A DI O T E C H N I Q UES I" ".~.u " hc..C' SYil~m? MoSI In an ufa<:i urers eq "a ' " Jl"Od " _ ~ _C. critil:a l of h um level Ihan ' hey would be o th<:rwise. . .e....ww.. ~ :"-". ..""'~ c . . ' 1""'1.' 'n...-1 .. ' ."<:rs npt iroro.<1 uea e u' ~ powe r '...llat iulI between porls an d rcd m. Ih" ... end of Ih" ' IX"ive r.111" p.e.g.... f.ra te tiller<. in...lrcp... " .. umphlier ( H ~ ..l.." ~ .. -1V l OOk "" ~ " s Y '" '= . I . d y ." ~ a '''<~ " f ". sysle ms a re "' !lrsc lh.... le .. u_B .·n """ .. pora tll1 Ba .....l ue {i.. " rry : ' 11 <1(11... n HP 2\lOO Ool.l hat . a li. . fille. ~ ~ b.I..1 o UI of " 1(><...f . n nn " _ .. brca ll h"'''llh IiI ...II.. J " f the detec tor.. 1/. . l 1 1• • C · _"" .. ! I " . P IN ~'<>d " P I" " 'O~.. II.~".. • • " ..ntl r.nellee. Ihe IIlCfca.. 16'1 10gethe< . .• ... o u tlh.. W I VO 1ft Qlr.0 0 . • .e singl" I'o im ea r1 hi nu lh ro ufl!ou i Ih" . b.1JTlCSI a nd "'''''I nc~ i bk: lilt er a va ila bk . 1k co mpar "...<Is to male 0 PC. I ~O)} using H I 2800 hOI-<:3H lcr (& ho Ul yl diodl:!l.n A G e .. sysle l11$.. .. hilh-ga.. V.. ". a s rec lhc u lI" n n. he c"ns i .""h a ~h~ mc l ens ..r..inlle m'C may I>e defl~len l ......l "r~ that far I"" ma ny ra.g. .. • d.... W1Vn pa~s a 11.e.n ' N · d i od ~ d .ivc_This . wi lh (he e ireu ill'y jll' ( ahea d llf Ihe Lf.'~p J..... " f a . ~ to . i.e. ... 1 .on . ' ~ Na ~ .. .r1 .<. lh a t il pro vid..s.1..v """ .v i n ~ aud in bcanls. no'" I'""" ..h ~nd ktckilllt ".. unl "_ ..l..". It . (F ig . .. ... flal ·· a. U1 I... del eCl..jo:<: liun ... o r from rauure to " .._ .. r..s ihle." .. 1". bl.: ' He b<:1 i<:. Y..: ll pOjlular .I...-.. any 1I·It·e.-1 .." Ihnl n~tll" lI y prt>tlu~e th e so u nd 0 ' . I _. . 0"" . I"f'" . ~ I •.. ~ . I..ed 1:.. . W IVO.Il.~V "Gen.. a _ .e. goo<! iSl.. . .. . a nd Ih" .C.new e 1 ' .e.ally loca ! <w:itlnIOI''i artd have " r" I'<" l>" il1 dis'ri bu lio n. bl I . .no." lhey cn n i~n<M"C it by . I" ".11.. lLler filter.1 i . b..I . r1.1ftl ..:! eno ugh abou l w ha t h" ppoe lU 10 the . <ui .a·e.lu<:c ..N.. ".. ~ ."!ell I" Ihe fille ted S I~Il" 1 " hy a se rk \ "f t el" ."'" a. . in eO~lll l'n ( i Il8 SO ..1/... to . . d~si ltners have 1 1V1 »'orrie... to.. rco:ei.g1' 0 r'''1ll" Ii"ea• .." l 10 ~lId ip OU I ~'ull..... iJeban d . ..IN ·d"" le alle~u· nl" " ( 1'.1'· n_Il.kl hum .d lh a l .e'...uu~h " n t he fron t-end .. . ro"tin. faclnr y a.i(y of d .1 huma n opera 10 ..illwl it . :. e1 mny .I .n n to "' ha t hap Dens in . slope lt be ~~U" o f tnl'lIt s. _ ••• 1 •• p . " ~m e .. . y... f"" Ii...a nd orme r. Hi~ h h um le.. .... . . " p • • .• • • 01 10 o.v o ·...l.. It rcw" r.n p ro vld mil ~ Il t1 o:."IO' he......" have in Ihe ir bru inl"'" IUt>~y ~lc'" pe rlln p9 Ih" ."h " ~a "" hlc·l:.l .. It .'011.. . ~N ~ . flile r (1".. T ' . 1 <a .. h" .. '" Ih!' .h" will he ve a bou t a &l H co nvers ion lo u ..>pport u. .e bt: m.>< ->< "'0 ".. p" o. • • • d b. TO e vercoree a \\al ehnr aele n 'lie h" d e~i..\l. l(10dH e h ~ nlle of~illnn \ Input ".'. willl. a l''''''l'ria le . c nJurs ing my""' '' 1'\J'll·hd d ""tier th"l ". E\t' n qUI~" a .. CO"~i'. h."IOR I.. M P f"1 0 ~ •• 1 ~ 0 ~ rtf 'M [ . ilh Ihe "lca.. '.iull nl r""e" " rs hut c:m be e.I"· ... o ver. T his dou ble lilie r t""h nio." ctlcks.. ~a.. d hy good . ft<! n p ... .. H < n" tes lha ( Ihe us ua lly r""o~llI ... "".k". nl 1 ''' 11 " Ihe u. "" .. __ m ..... . lth lilt "' "l'So< rw ly " .r1 "I... .ltrc<: lly wi lh a .I .. 111 11.w.•• . g. he r"".~ hJ. d iSlor . . I". He re<:u. pumpreg.. I'r o "id_" Ihe lUli" I h~lt .le d " ct:l. N o Jl • .• i ~I13 1 in the s tng. . B.". I.~<:fl:(lmc by uSlIlg ' wu ". n.1 er)'••~ 1 la.. I".nd!.. .1 n o .. ari " I.....1de.nee. . f. ~t~ g«. .. '~I Ctns. " n uUp" Il. "" V . l jo n mo.c . _ • • '0" I Hl_ . Hil i W1\'1) notes nnu " U nfOrlullat d y IlltKh "f the wor k end . ( r uhi ma le ".1 " I f ..io n of Siro nil s illl "" l.lu "l1 in nn " nduly " l1 at " ~<'u"t1 .ed a "e .e.Hh.m • • I> .o... <vcl'... idd mnd noise)." I'r o<.I.i\l'. Ihal. D G~" G ( D o.. f. W. '" an nlll"l e" r ' '''-"<:Iv<. W IVO " . .n he: .. Th i~ [" .om"". . ilh an e ~edlen l e l'}'~t al Iille r nul far II" wn Ille cha in. . '''lind '' of' e" aeh ined wit h ...0 . .• • ' dB ..I~. in.. th e form of " tess th~ n 3d ll chang e in nud io l>U Il'u l r.anl . g. " In".. p V." ""ho u. itk... i.. sY"em fOf the roro""" Il.(c1 ..·iddy u.ling <. yel \\ IVO i.. v . . a llll c hic to wurk cfTlXlivcly in hull! ba nd ·pa"" a nd ba lll...! un Ih" l".. <""". . f. liller) is ...g .l~....h e. .<.. I'm~ i dcd I h ~ ( .un ". ky pr " hl"".. "--<. ~er. ~ u l l fru m h ".11 ofa lle nl. " I aU.. Fm the p ro duct <1"1"" ' '''. ...""" a.." t he add. u!x:""K iously l u n in ~ il ou l . <~·" "m which 11·1: I:a n re~ d lh' be a djusled «l " " ".loo bly· ba la"ecd dio<lc ring Illi"" .. I•• • " .. \ IS rlX<lg ni.h. " itiea l e ye "n :t. id" a . . lmuM ulw min imi'" osd ll alor ......c. A (ca lure " f s uch a n a rra ngeme nt i. m u .

. a'lll a .1 u ..hlrl ion of the si ~ n al in this pa rt "r thc "". No ' ember.44 . tll\:C can ~'ro.Idili" n. U1 lurn on . ~ na • . ( '~ ' ~ " 4 4' 6 .b...' y. . an d r.:' Pflt'....'. lind .t rulillc stumblcd imo su per-regene ration hy a ~" i<len t . ampltlkr 1.g"t .1 1I In plif":1I Ii" n '."t "me far hey" " .."unie fre ~"el'lCi1:< of IIle ord er or.00 ' ...1 Ihc ".. hunl ina.. .·c ur ' t n> n ~cr sjgllals. ..m<"I~.iti _. .." .''.ti "l: .blelll' tha t ha ve al". ~ "' . role lI" lO' a!'><J1Il . simplc t"." b. range. Il h . Apart (rom hllm.~. " r a ta pped tm " i... hid . h" tune cuecr: hu t "illl i".l"y (lI. rull I" " d"".p..tronr $ up .0011 a . In I/o ". w il h H lgh-p arro rmanc. In irs Imsie f" rm he n" tco lhe (nll"" 1 1l1l .RECEIVER TOPI C S '" '~ ~ ~ :!. 52lMl.r.. IIr<lund lhe hills and ' alleys of b moo r . m.l ItlO klf l. ..o..1I 10 sita ' <'l< . " olla~e it I". nt " " "y from T R ~.civer. half-mlcro..t means by ..al p".. . S<1" 1l . . ' "n..oml'\lter' lImde cl":ltt. c" rt in\: /I •• porla ble" SCi M Hz rece!. design i.i l:nals).....n . J".1 an "" li..lh It'I tc and SOu".t . ..al "..slllge ".i.12 1... fCl:t'nc rah"e ... rn:lus. p"lent r"....he Wlull"" 10 a ll pru Nem.. gootI in pul/<><ltPUI Ol"k h 10 SO " hm. ...".00' A.ersauluy a r cos t. d".li!kr dlo:><k fOI T R3.·jdc a minimum po \\er p in "r "Ome 1Sd B and "'" 'nt.. s w..tiktl a' a . N'd .I simIlar ..lI01" of a . deserit"".1' 'ow . for a SO Mill s. t}' :t nt! e<>"<c\l"cn l . a n nrn' II B llIcnt Ihat hn. fi"tC i~" 1 smoot hinll (he u. li e h:o d limc " nl)' h' i"enul~· n .C.te 'lSkm ~ if I could t<:ll him .. . .000 "F o.IM ) and foO.C.ICtCCl'" when Ihe n".. a.·". "'<Irk 11" suddenlr turned a n \lgly d w:kling into a bea oliful . !>(. l<:para lcsl.f.e was 1I re' i. I" 1 'l~ 2 RC A h< ~.. in!' iUi good slBnal-han dlinll Cl<l?'lbHilie1. rca~i nll ~ta~ llII in. ~ ".. llllQ co lleeto r· to·cm ill er current bi. Since tl1en il has surfac ed o nly .. "'..rey Nea ce's IS9 flCOpl~ If! Niimcgen In I'J."" If. or by . ole"'''''u1.1111.J "" O'OOU -.r L.". o-ot p. While T R3 i.. 1 ~78 . Ampliflar The vaiu c of 3..'ra rily work Ing '" nh A.olt se nsitivity)..h... ~.. pp4 l o. or b.!rive upplfcd to 1l<.Ito _ o.i..~.l.e ha. Th e apr lk 'll" '" ur mode m Icchnil]ue$ to its des iJll and OOMlnte l ion ca n lIivC it ~ dded perform ance a nd .l tw" ~Ol'" J fET.. th. m ollf.h.'·. . H.. : or I'o:.>ro"dcMI recep tion: . ..m. A... l1u t had no idea "' hol t it me" o t. rOCCIVC...e term i na '~ by mean..:~i.d II~ Ihough it ~ h ll i e .. the I>a.f.·all." ZLlVN dOC' no t attempt lO suggcst Ihat hi. i" a sinille st:lge.hJ .Ie/l.h " n thol" 1 000d ~pe ake l" ur a two-valve I". . Such ". lhc efT"" t . it pluy".. iw lI. : its lack "r"" Iccti." Il. co n 23.. ( -' .c rs up 1 abo ut 1000 M I I ~ . h o ~ ld ~.le !Sl: HinB up an " rdinl ' Y regenerlllil-e receiver. h...'" t1l'l'k nller).. role rrom Bi'out 1'12. nillllcS(Iypical l)' . ..·. ... .oco. a ualion in tho: fJr..nd.n. WA I HU .\ to 1 9 .. ~ ta . :ll l " u l ~O F-' '" 0.~ y.1 "" 1" ''' 1.Ill.'i<lcnec th'll nOl ev...riminal io n :tll~ inS1 impulit no.. Altho ugh hi. TR 2 ~~~ '1.h••ltH:> at ...f..."'1 i~ .na lly Bnd lill ie ~e rio us wo rk hns teen do n" o n . nn ((l v... wh. 1I ' • •old T. .per· rellcnerati. W "' ~ I1I · ~ rlo .".e. .' cxtcnston uf th.e.. recd n.. a t " . .~l. he uls" II j" v""." 'O. but " illl illl' Ul . follllCr: Fill· 170.1. that carer.h. I.. ind plc. Ilc " "Ill"Il . . in a rC j:ellcrati "" ... •. Over the rull K .. h" ulJ I". he had come IICrOS$ the lei ".li'.c w. :.. or I'l unl jn.r. s ill". RtJ<lif} IScl' temher.m.11 sUI"'. ". IIi<amptitlct "' a caw". l LlVN ( B"·..~ ·in. ~cross lhe ~Vlla l . ~ .. pp&4 -M ) C Andy f\o"". r""eivc r mi~er or wide dyna mic ra" ge .".....uni"l:I the superregclK'rJ ti_" det""t " r " t>y NIII Ilradley... SIlOrt the su""mc. fi e pI'CS(1ll$ lhe resuus of pract ical eweli· men tat iun with simple recei.p. 1I...a l uther >tatk..• • "... ""r iver "' "S..... "~lemlllllo 2 ~ M I It N"rth America n ama tCl\l1 i cominll throu.-lIat a sup<: ' .. . k tll tll n """" lhe I" ine'~'lc or whm AI " h lru" il ."ing th w uilh at a TI.I •• su per.in. tinl: ncl". a stalle shuilid 011 Ita .e " Ipe r-rellell ~"OI'K-" . biased oft·.T." . ~in\.. '" ~~. II H ..~ihl y by l ul)s til utmt: a !' IN diodc I>r "-'l.. the o nly 1. .« d .... The.. ~ .. Tu ill en:d lt he lists liS u!le as a sinj(le.G..... rellel1cra li" n " :oS <l n". tely lhe inelcusin" numt". litH it ~ NJua lly impo rt nnt tha t any d ..'l. R..." inabilily 10 h"l d a " c"k . (:..• . ". . tlrug " rtlr tne'tlium·w:l >·C t.. r 11m H .Iel.m.t as ~ ud. " idcly rccoj(nia:d .. In 10......" II " illl widebmal hn.III ...... Th e ...ren An ama teur ".C'C .. In the v. udnplin ~ cin:"itl')' fro m hi·1i p radi c' ~ 1 (lI<\'Oid d i.I" mina n.. J .Jea. "".tI_.0 ..u.nn rs t hat the l ope' -I'l'I'ell is n rasclnali"/1 alld ulln=" rlly m"lillned device • • .... .·c Ihe wl"'t· rc~e n . .' .... ~ .k circuit . TlHo I.t i ".cs. ror e" ample by uflCratinj( T R3 wilh ... .hcr. a g! in cont rol range of better t!wn JfldB witho ut d""l ro. ~ "" as .<"Ceding s.ion o r "cal. ~.<."mal vult..k I".ml..i llalOry ae1l0 n is interr oPled (q uenched ) . 1978.•...-cr in 19)6-37 .<. 1"" " I ~b t . Thel"e rema..... . ne 100..h ilc tem!. I . dogged the ' Ul"" ·rCj. I"dlu.Id ..· "aile receiver co uid l... 1 '!4 ~ . .. I:>ci nil inlrlJlucd by the 4S0 MHz S·phon.~ I ~" Na"y Y . W neti"'I.'"C o ne uf lhe . ... won dc. ~.t.. 0 . I ' ~!I '-'Ill '0.:al1<-.. Jtrml t l"n~ ' tlddenly hemd 1I .d . nd Ma..nlo prOlllinc". d paid to <l ud io de.1 ~ .lytle in h.""" " hen . c" n prov ide nn ""' I'hllcallo ll limn. .110. " ml '" pull ' n sc\( .. an d he lJ'I:S .".""ir. m"re a nd Illorc nf the ~itlna l eur".n"' i<1. I" rrorm... i"' pn. Ilunk of my youlh had sud tlenly d ""' PJlCa r~ .~ic w nfisluratlon i~ l uitablc f"r ot her band' ." JO MH.I~ .1 inpul If:lIl..ta liun.... .1 up m Wcst (if" n.\:in. al "f illterest ' n lhe 'fifl i~ when r· uropc ·s firsl v. )"S tem til 'J Mill d.ny ur". t" . i<l i" ry hut 'l il1 imp" rlan. ~i"l! hiCh."' " t .. . Arm. n rurt hcr possibilit i"" r"I" imp!'u . n" t a 1 M 1 1Il".int: t be SUper· reIlC n. l ' t took "eeks tlf intc nsi..\:. bmadcn. a bando ned i" tere<t iu lbe pl'i ncil'lc is '" he r" untl in " T. My im m~ ia le reac tion "'as ttl f<.i ii" '" i" Ihe prese". h .I1.l ""~ u n.e. re.lcnl) as il ha.rea-~i llj.ker Iumc r"". I'''..

. ....h i'e ". ._ . ..'C"... .. . w.. . qucncbed nn d ICp<l ra rely· q "e ncllcd de llXh'rs .b. ." II'" 11..! d..l t.e-oti •• <k ...s f""'l"""C:" " aV('form ..'C n l .j-ch~ ....tor OIICill'lIion a nd ' eOnll-':!nnll II "" rk Ihe in<:(MTIinll . le a"a "lIemcn l In ove rco me .. .unde r li.-l"~ tr S. ll 1 summ:l rire a ll rhe ideas and """"""I WoS or 0 Ihis lktailo:oJ i1niclc. C o. ( "" J'F1 0 ~ "' P F1 ~ '00_ • • c "" nJ.. cr o. M •• . c "4..r.h e no il'C problem in lhe . honlod to n . {ZL3VN he is silen t o n Ihis I"' inll ..>!s a nd •• dcl"-cry .... T hi~ m igllt ena ble im emelll.. Lower frequcnqo ..Ii ......AMATEUR RAD IO TE C H N I Q U E S -r'00.f... • • • ' • • . lI... ' . o r c'-.. 10 7• tee. o.m .If ZU V f bI u o " ...I< inl lhe lktco. 10 2. ly o vercome. 1 i..."n<'C of a n i.. Il• •o non •• • In d .' ' . he circ urnsl." if L '«h"i quc mi!:hl not a tso h.ing I . " " scnsilivilY im"". by a ny 0100 meaM.. ed .S. .<le ad d ltiun ... bul one lha l mi 'hl . C <I 1<.' n. h.w. eel from t he ha rmon iL... a nd 'cry usd u1 ..- """"a' . ad '"od b • •• p • • ... uit.. _..._ . J "1. . In "' ... - ~ ' 0 0 0 1'* Ib ) ""1""10 . . r"e l ....ved. t .1 ..111 a. 10<0 ..: .>n r:rt n.:n lulled wil h". L Sla l:c 1<> pl'<.' be a pplicllble 10 lb e <J cm(l{lullil ion "r • ... <h<>lo .. .-.te.<I. m inImum .l... M .nd1 1CI he hrou ...eei~er 1 be 0 m. since Ihi......e""l 100d IOll O n he la 'l. an d Ih i..• • • • e . . rm'" WOfl hwh ilc r"ll"w~ up is : •.nlO f .( im "..... . 1<> . n:ma ...t'ducli<. ""'In \Z siJZ"al '·.. ~o . Z Ll \. (of ' u ni..":.. lh"f: a ~i ~ naHfl:quc~y ef)-"I._ ~ • • ~ c la i"''''d . .ro o ~.. he OOIl>CS u p w. as cffc>o.l•• c" . ' •••• 1000 ... .. lei• • '"ft. " 11M: c1t ocll r:rt l\lnco... ' . Ahll<!ul:h "rl~ ' " .. h .ma n l circuit..t.. e .. receiver o r Imn.. nr _l ... 1 ". •• b. . .( aJ FI" .. ." ..leney use". .... l illnal... Im ply i".f.. h MSQ llclt:h 1:. ".Lisle nel'$ ' 0 Ihc-sC ro«i....... Ad .d &.. u go ".m . . _ "~ .k ie~cc.i ~ts minimi1C. n •. :. . a ". Ir..nn l: a dvocate of sqm ra t" 'l ~c ll chinll.i ..le.n R"..: In the "t>-..1" be ..-. i • • I. n.:~plion of n ..l.·.y .. n~niahly 'h in~ . _ Im . ." a! lin 11 111111100 r....m.' .nl ).' ....h. . lable carrer OI l carrier r.l ~uelchin& ­ pcr rUfm" . 1<.ft<l..0 0.'C h .vdy os . II." " Ja • • It... u .y ".."' .ti!...-<I ""c. nch.. with lh e p"""ib ilily o f fU rl her seloclivilY hein!: a. : ' " 11 is d irr._ _ _ .... eno. c hs:td\~ nla. O ne won .h. " la lin" IIl1d redlJl."1. e _ c .a nd mu pu l ki. .jess f" r c.•igna1. . f... ~ inJ: : •• H Ih is . ed rleql.. .. OSl"ilialo r. 1e commenu : .. """Ie ~.. (I...".rence silln. M'<l .... .I CIln he made 1(1 C(lfIC " ilh roth tilde moon .eq"cn.' i.. II t he correcl ~l . L l:OIt inll de~itts 10 pro vid e rhe SQ lIClch a ctin" a nd I" key ...r.. e ••"..· ' ." · rad iat i" n. mod"'.. "' _ •• ••l.h. by inj«. j cn .. ...>"... ' n. 'i Y1:rS a m UI.. h l ' "" Iro!. lcs lhe n!'Cd ro ..n.I • • ' '' . ' fT • •f ... 10.. ..0.. o.e\l in bot h ""If. in hl nd ·wid lh e:in he i:" inc:d ror ti. c-o ~- - ~ <. le very . Dr n . . .. y r."""" . ... .....•• 1>."J'C'I"-rq.. radial i".•. ..'ing h" w the FET ca n b" lJ>. _ ••_ .. te. oJ sat 'S. • no ' " . n I.. h ' oll ab l.coocc " r . ......"' 1 h.. .. ....r...'" O ut PUI l<l a ueho am p hl... •11 _ .<c 4 . .. " <KIll'''' ~... ' ' ' ' ..... M M Y _ _ D_ ' il. c . hl . oJ" "". 02 ". .~ 1 fill" r in lhe in p.. " PI' . . my ta .... _ ad ohio o r . sq uck hinJil .. _ r e_ •• _ 001 C.. (If a I" " 'er freq uellCY O1Cllla lllr. i" ..N ad lievcs ". ---+-. ..... • • .' c io.. th w. . 1 1 1l •._. I.'" can he Lai1<lrN '0 . ho.. prnunUlbty by P""'-IC 1c.. 1_ p P b u' ~ .!: """"' . ~ . ~ml'l il lJdc an d d ural inn o( q u". lad .. d cl. t _ . . and 0 •• b d. II fl'I rl " (1m . . il"" I:' The il'\jl:cT ion frequency gi n he d en . ... lcch niq uc el imill.hey are lis' eni"$.bI...e "".' ". ."S .. .i.... as . be " . !"'or reception n f e.n> ~'CptiOn. r _ He i< a .10 mon: n M pln sq udched SUflC'h<l...l' I lh. o f _"anchio .w.. ha n cr...l lll... SCl. he u.... ~ SQY...tL icm I nd interaclion t'oel "'-er'n adpc...f. .... 1M: d Ol$ ill . ' 01" '0 .$s rrouccd 10 plc:Isam I'fOport"".. .. h" Ih..

al osctnater (lun illll 10'1'7$ te> " 1 29 ·1~ MH r. H•• h ' ~ _<I • • up ' " I H Ho .. The •. Depend ing on whe".n. hoo k.n . S"l"'~~('M". t>..m111.. ) is sllown in F ill. b UI I" make U~ of Ihe inhe".m. reIlllir.e Itu~e.r.~ e" .. ~• " • tI ." In a "".. clln.1!> u .nc : .lct"" l.~ . .3\'1' i.e .' T~ .. lIo ub '.iII ucc:d 10 puoh the feed back a (lil more HIlII!.:dition sof the Rad/(J H"mlb. 'CO . .. ' em wilh rel ia b l~ " I'".• eeoc r-t" ""....."1 up Wilh rome quench h""~-it is your c ho ice... ac tion of Ihe lu~ r·rei'<'n....MPFiQt> MJper-rcgcncrMlIVe " "..~.al des ign slmuld I>c: ..f. id e lhe boo k brough t loselltcr y c" lIceli" " or ..!QI.'" ". the dele.. All the d ~ i. Lid uenslein " rada r-type receive rs: Ind theM f-"f\'mooyne l.ill illSt> he 1'''''1." o deli""".. ~ .. 2" 7 ~ ~. mll pu t Ill g".~ . Olicll iator .[l. vollRge lO t lhe det ecto r output is cone .c n~ r. ~i gnll is with Ihe ulmos t eco nomy o f e<>illpOnenll .. n. 'od.('('('1. "" .'epl " f K ul nm~lic ~...n ord e r 10 uVe":" 1tI<' their rep ula lion fur unr<:lillililily. (he pml>lem of radiau ion I ' signa l freque ncy) . .:vealina:....onr. in Ihe ho"k ar e based on va lves. Ill( Ieed back co n" o l ha\ p ro \" l h..1 nds of p~lsc TCliponden.. and fo rms ""ro b. .tie or "ny supcr-rC!l.. ra ngc is limited... this radia lioo is 001a t signa l freq uency alld is o r lu. of providing rtlCCplilm o f ( br. _ / -±') n > 10~·7~_'21l·7~ /.. ~ f -..l 0 fl'cq ucllq.hen lhen: is no mCll.s .. "pa rt from oo l uning lind volume.. S111i5fa<:IOIY. ~. IHa nd uses I 12An (1:...era. i....I. <...• II~ Dr J. ... (!ild ' he que''''h wavefurm still ap pearl a t til .l Ihal lhe i...><...ty is opnmum (an d rad ia tio n k:asO .oe M.... R.. nl ll. f<>r recetvers..tI vo l'alle. Luu!:hlin.L " 1l1l ·. \ ". T7 d . ly.l it IT<>-o!> .-- So.' a nd loprilhmic mod. A loo k III u." r=._ 2' HH.H . ~ OOI' ••." p<". ..h e OUl PUI l 10 a cOl\ve uli" ". " .. Nn c rthelcu. ". ihle. io" i. pllj.e. ..' or .vc ~l allc (a l 21·1j MH t ) hlllet. . in tensity. •.eive r fulfils its ain. " .n:l1o r.. ' iV<: I tUlt<" is O!lCil1.. lhack is k ~l't 10 a minimufll.""de in to super..t ". 1J1f . n 1HI ep.lt in"l " . n. ~ 1 . ~ 0-0 2$ i .: .h 11'1' and Germ. lind a kli of Ihe pal CS a re .." Tl'te boo k not~s Ihllt It m. .lI ip" lind ai. ..J... .e o.: 5Uperhd Itch ni. -Il.illl 1.t econom ea r. broadcast s" perhd r«ei'-er in which ""'y a 1lnllle double-mode valve is ""'-'<I.·(' . D. ZUV'" .I. .'i. f..."n "..c.. Whilellnd'... SimilRrty 1 D.e Onl) essent ial adju. _ . though mOre complicaled . The e. when man y lllm.. loulll" r d iod c .. O. transceivers e tc.." i""r in which liUpe.'. "."un.l hy a c<ln Wnl iona l r. r . ~ble and fCI''''' duceable..n $labilill'llio n. VIa form s t he iUper-re.r. ::: . (wbi<:h o~ n:Oflla. ~ 111e f. receiver known "...('.. d ue 1 the relatively In. f ' • ...-ati. f.. "hich providn ~n .k\'<' IOO to l h<: mat ll~malic5 o r linca.> T he Hanl"y ""dll"l "r Mran~"lllCnt ."lcri. WlIile the Frcmcdyne d oes rild iille unwa med sigl)llis. The o riginal lou ~h' i " MM_ IOlI M Hr."!".al..."n. U."d .\Iinll.n ~.ell c.. I'iltet ing lI( Ihc q tleneh frell""ncy I~ sl ill ne< '3 I'y follo "'inj. 19$0 ).nodll' iden titk at ion of .' "r.·tk tcellnlt am plifier. While Vlh fo. . of oJ)Cm tion a nd a n imroducliu" t" the CQ".. _" .. 171. 01 " n Abov• •_ 1M _H• ••nd II <11 ~ I bu• •10 .('(111 ) valve ..oll al lol.lel.rctJiu.h freq ucncy is set as t ll ~h as r>O"s ihle " nIl lefl al that...lIcn is self· quc:nchinll I I a t:>oul 20 . k "'a~ pUI inlO a nalysis of super ' regen cireui ts . n be IIllpl. -n r e " R eYj~o ' A f~II· lc n~lh 1. lind then: ".. add. Sensil iv. aparl f' <II" Ihe a udio F01 r .Ie.. Malve rn...-. inci utlinll lhc .1 based 0 11 llle inlen:s ive wlirti me i n vC:Sf.e t:>ascd on SUI"'r·re. amplifier "noJ olf·!U rn: dlscr lmlna rc r. li'ed 10 ot:>lain very-high-Ilain d . n < ~ ~ .~..g.-crned 0 witll the au d io d i~ lorl i(tn 1. IHl:'pint< tnc SO u".. f .. " I Ff" S~l""') we. Ten> ""' ~' .. erator you .ene .Is to be a cha r-.Y.1" lIuench ". q uf.II rise o r a q ua rlCr of n volt o r more will he found witll a no mere Ihan a'l1ma:e li gnal.' tahle «.e"". lqt" "C'llll. hu.ily r'res.f.. . Ol/Iput il la ken Irom Ih" cat hode of VIII lu lhe • .oulCl. discrim. • __ .n wn cm ploy a s.:l>Cftin.. Lm. Su po:r. Vi" 'h ' 2An ' OIl '" . det"" " " " ul.unl hle vol taRe wlth no si ~nal... e"d . Why d cmodulo1e in . f----- ' CO " ". and in so lvill¥ sume of the q uest in ns It:t'l unanswered hy the early ' Mea reh by Arm'1ro n ~ II ml " Ihel"" . Dr Whl1ehcad writes: " 1n Ipile of litis urere is n" d"u'" .icn..>i1...eo .>1".Ill rol.·. or how ha rd lhe J uper'''''l.pel-tellen . feed back comrct is set..o nini simultllllC(luJ!y as miser. he ' Ilr>cr· regenerative stage u11l11 1" H e de~Cfl hc~ II r. BU I n" (he m"re prK tit:ll1 . i.". 'h ".1distomon d ue to no n·ltnear.m..Icl. The l u""r-tl.. M H. .nj!:Ic.. mpliti<:alio.crafl (Ihe ..."perhet form of "!\.•• p'''' .on al T Rh (now Radllf '" Sillnal~ Res" a rch I:slablimmenll.l !io.:. _. h"'Ullcut receiver Qn be mad e usinll II " ! . .m." .. <kw t) r.m~ II C "Vcll'... 116..). Drili..· followl.al.. 0_ N • .freq ueneics.. rt~en~ra l i"n (likc re~c n er. . till ..30 kH z b~ virtue uf R l. f.h l l Ihe "".:"'1. d modula led by Ih" t1ucn<:hil1 ll. lind a lot of wo .ably Ihe m.R E C EIV ER TOPI C S '" 5 I1p . 1 le".led hJll in~ capa citor a nd r"". / 1. d o wn the 11I nk co li as fa r ." I~ ..".. ""'hileh~ad (Caml>ndl:e lJ niven.m .. Frcrnodvn e drcu il (which has al'~red III .!"" of D..lmh od ' SO .. I'his is sho"' n In I' i.ng . ~ '''' '" 'oooe ..

. • " !l. In USC on the I mateur bao ds hll boe n ~ry I" .r.Wtt nmcnt ""!L1 rplul 1'CICC(~1'1 and tnlnwe iven ba5 nol m eo uraiCd many ama teurs to undertako the fo rmidable t • • k o r huildin& I'CICClvon or tra nsceivers from scratch.. In _'do .. c should 001 foriCt thallhere arc still man)' valid rolISOlil in favo ur of do-it·ynunolf. \t$i"l ~l .u. commWlic. .in« the audio dunnrl..cll Iho pricu or "aW equ lpme n ls a rc rilio.-... ~ - ~. I'H)f shou ld .. _ _• I " ~.>ll. "0" 100 ' 00-<.m dc\mnilKd : o. I 'e 1i~c1y to be otlla lncd "'i lh an A n O~ .IlV ' 1Oil - -i}.. nor shoul d It he overl ooked lba l OYOn ""1'1.l nd 2 : •• rcr. particularly in an e ra Wt.-. in circuit wmrk:..1'ld land mobi l..e fat t" r . AMATE UR R AD IO TI!CH N I QU I!S .o n.. l~uo. • • . Ray Moore. lID' ... ±" . "C>( ~ '..l)' th ai ~lOCh I ciretll' has a h " h ooi. .In(l J and 3 IekYision stallO<K. It i..1=-. rapidly.4C · l . The prCSC1 rt'S~10fS .o r -f .. :..1. >tI1t cmpltu i. 1M ready avallllbiUty o f new . V3riOUS lra nJis. cd • • 1 IlOl whe n l hae h.. mlJ t i-bwtd ....h~ n~ 1.J.a lions l'CICCiver.. o. roccivcr as Ihe ba sis o f a now recoivor... an okl. ".. ..n~ lI)' hl: how a '<'1.!.. . I.. • • • ... ind .1.. .. " 0 . In Ha.lonal dcsigMr a t his own pmo than he co uld hope 10 bu ild I better and cbeapor fa mil)' Soedan in his bac k)'llrd • •• t ~ (:Itdt is tboll lhe profeaiona. seco nd hand and O .... of ho me-built h...#n-RI:t'c No 6... h.. hiJlt...1lC1' sho\o... of 1J.h. or 1110. "'"(luld " ..m .. ..... upoda ting o r old recetven.)~ tw.. ':':' ./1....'I A. Uf.l'l p me II 10 dllilln the uhimalc pcrfortnaroo::e set bU to dOli.. m. 0 _ -.afl. io t he 'e ill:htics..._ " ". However.W " -~ " " 0 ~........dl as lilt 70 and IU Mi lL alNlnIr bl:Ind>.n ' he nll~ncl )' hip ". O~ 90 ..~ 1 1 .. • • m. _ ~ .. E'''"''~ ~ ~ . L...tmlkd f<al" eng.... •• - ...... there a re oflcn 1I00d rea. rhe: best reol. _"g.'he ~ ila ~liooI . i<W'l · · l'I(lise ~ of a $upcr-oqcn oklCl _ Im!.in : To Build or Not to Build? Fr>t' ""..1. -K Hi ..c . ~ -.lit' ~lal iom cl1l. OI·K ID IIR.. it ill iUlportan t . . quite apart from lhe Datura l SO llSO of achievemenl Ih:l t comes from wek projects .:._ M.. Junc.. " .' m nle it $hO\lkl be pou'bIc In .1 ... 'tZUY N_ _ • • _ '. __... I nler""t~ . II- . ~~ ~-. "<l· otf ins" lalon..mM I rkel...sty led reoeiver thul a n extt"!:llle!l.. -.. M>unoJ ra<. f- .ily whe n buUdln...s "'" d ..SIlY 10 tqo1lKlr R } . he " .111.. I... lly it IN ) I'e ' ''XCI."..Iaad h)' f. on IKIn! n " lIll t>k... fnr u5ing t he rmionic de vices 1 lhe si". .."eno1ohlo: d_n 10. For c. a mau. ~ m : u ........" - .. 0 forllel lhe aflractlona of !lSin..al palhli of l'OICOivofS 0 intended for filIed_S1a tlon operatio n ... decoralor . bas wrltlen in f{(JIIl RDJ"' : '1bl! ind ividual aow ucur can no mor a hope 10 bellI tha pr ore.". ..'$ s>mr'c u nJ:k-' r3. (~Ijty a ny_ "t>cre hct"«'fI aOOtIl \10 and IQlI Mlt l (re. II I and R2...r.....Jlly . altl>oulI:lt many are stitt prel'ltrW to un dertake modification &lid.... _.I. mulli-mode.cw super'l'l:'p:n (plus aud i" amplmcr) u n J"rOYIdc: a ll df«1 i~ mooit"" . ny yean lhe percen la. toOO OOo(. but medlllnka tly 100<1 . ioa t~t tbe re Is DO need to '0 10 performaoce 1'CICCiVCB.. \ h I SUllabk l d .

Poorly tl"Ofli cali..-l.Aed Nailla medr..01 1 1.l urt' ..._ . and euct repl acements .nct .... _ I~ fu1lIn or bome-buill r«riYerl .o _ "' • .ssts a nd c:abi.R E C EIVER T O " I CS ... .~ w _ .lt be rocls ""pa ble of l~ in eood cood ition.. _ .bnI Qllltanplal iq !be p.. . Iow-blodp:t receiver.. Often il is in the IllOlChaniail lkw ls tha t modem fwary· bwlt ra::ciYerS an: h. 117..cturt'r 000l1d :tJfor d to polt inlO . pa n i.. a rilPd wAs: and pcr hapr.I "' P. Tak e careful thoulhl or fut ure main..ot. f. .... bich could be c.... or Illeut .ed rrinlcd clrt'\lil bolIrd s slill p. sprinp by 0111.ubrly if he is lik~ly to be a disl:LllOC from lhe s upplien or m.no:r~llI . bishlYcomplcKeq uipmml buill 10 colISwnc N )' J'C 1UtIdvdt. tha t . lon.e .....ae of buil ding or modiryi nc m:ci.lmneI 0( t~ptl'aIU~ and humid ity if tNt.an invitc ma inlC'ROlllC'C p robkms in ' Dy OOOlnu y .. 5""'.y be d lfficull IDcome by.. • .. and ... P.tensi~ shielding ••• you (all uw: mort' staee\ .. is aI all pos$Ib'e. in 11'Klsc <laoi&ntd (0( a speeiflc:... )'ou autom.Idina is W I you c:an o.lype d ill<.llic:aDy in5en p..C ~umlniwn p.. Then: a n: thus adYllll\.. . 5Jlyap:d it_ tha t no .u thoushl ohouhl be gi~ (Q lhe oooditionll undef" .....itir..~ ..... .••• _ _ . CompkJtity .. humidity..limited Iask... push-bu uo n swil ~hcs by d ust ._ " 1. . oenl. you c:an U:5C circuits that fOQUlR! consider..no::h."" mUSl be a ble 1 withsta nd lhe c ffc u or hea t .l ....1[ is a.. . lISin.. .ru. ffer from ". hea l lind humid.nuf.D& mechani$ms. Wbc:1l ])IJ..J.ccom~ by eood iPlItruct ioa books aild ~ic:itIf inst ruttiom..J. _ wi.mwhat mi&bl be Icrmtd " WIlli· profcssiooal" tqUipmeDt. . reen spot" corTOSion or -punt:1 l1r : c yariabl c t )'JIC \:arbon ~omJlO~nlJ may be atfoclcd by moi. ' . " ...~ll it he does nO!Yo'isll lo bui ld his 00Il'I1 ~t .I.. _1‫0ס‬o ...Ih he. or . tenai!a'. aftistm sud! as the oW NlItioDa1 HRQ.......• _ _ .. It Is ~tCf 10 USC heavy PUf. ADd if you do ha .nufl<:tlIren....l. < -I _ I.y t.. to use tqwpmn u Ih. · ...ly anil:l1:>le..ccd ilems .abk: diddlin& and ahpment • ....t in rood trim ... hdl iI iJ li ~dy lo be o pcn tcd and .eria1 for ch..II _ 1-1 nl_ .. 1 p. . _ .·. r... aYOiodinc n. Ind uct o rs and IrandOfJTl<'n DI hitthvol la lC ma y .. d ~t 0 e and in!iccts. ....sin& a m:ci-. ~You ean sun out . YP.Y)" aluminium p&a ~ ..n<! far from idea..I _ _ C -. Look fot eq uipment th... )'OOl tan double dOl:ouple 1t\'ftY stllf!lle atlll put in . P..dcq u:oll'.~ ir... LI _ 01> _ _. Ray Moore poinIs out 11'1II1 _ of lt1c ckliJhts or bome-bW.. c:ornpIIex cquipp>elll live wme l"""chl lo tlw: e:nricOQmcnt under whicll it is operaled .....onu... .'" .. ... c:aa _ tbe la test compoomts or JOOI.. t problems IN.=.." _ lor ' sr: _ . . • -'" .u ity mai ntained locally. the ligtltcsi possible 1Nt.. ...." One ad. sam. _ _ ...ly: rub ber tnay dc1criora lc rapidly... thaI YOU call Ibm be con!ident of tNintiininc ... _ .'J:Ir enmpIe any n:u:i\'Cl" 1""1 is 10 he w. w i'" ..hen lhe inevitab le raul ! oa. troub le and somr comromcnu are very vuIno:ra b le 10 hwnid conditions.. put.lllt' fo r the amateu r.rdlI.urs.. tllDi.ed in tropical count". "' _ .: s~ . )IOU QII dniaA (or a partic:u1ar band or activity • . hictt II5ClI CDmpotlCnts thaI a ~ tilely 10 rem:aiD----R::adi.WO..a.)' an...

and the ~ry. Low w modatlt_ To hil h.nz OICll lalo u llII always bdn. withou l s pc. iblc to Ii. ".3y be ".. hJch may be vaned in d iscre tc Ite ".. o verlo ne " r~<leney..". . fC1.oa...... o peration on h. ~R'C COLPITTS 1_ + 1" .. or about ± l kc/s a t 21 Me/I .f. Po pular forml of l eries mode cin. For Rood "-I.l latOl'$ it evel')' bit ...ttw' lran l mitters ha5 been o r variable tuned <>Oci llato rs.. dn. f:: PI ERCE M ILL ER - .m. an d lellve n a t that . this type of circu it e or l ite Pierce ci reult il recomrnmded for tranllSlo n .p. Transi.b...orlThe 11I011 widely uled h. Il..cd in a e~lal oven .ftI. Sio"" tem pera ture cha.ut 2S ~Js. Sc:ticlt rcsolliLlll ci n:wtl lllUAUy include a tuned cimlit 1llld th is ma y be inconvenienl ro r ' wilctlin•. the freq umq of the transmiu('f o r receiver need s to be held du rinl • C<Jntact10 Wilhi n abl .. Mv e a fimher pro lliem to con lend wllh _ the a pprt<'ilIble lempc r1ltur'C sc:o"..". kria·mode OKiUllOn ColpiU.livily o f !he j unct i<>n...abltily il for Iypial ma. Ttaoiq S. + '?' + . been a marked revival of interest in cry.dUalo " 0 l"'ral c ill e ilh er the parallel nr l eries mod e.f.HLatnu is a Il ud dea l hi ~cr Iltan tha i of o par allel typea b ut tbe ..iAl rrecauliollS.. I'icrce .u ltl include the Sqlller. a v<llve with lI i~ mot ua l con.ngc:r o f lnam istor d ULracl erist in ha ve N aI" " Adaptod rrom EEA . There is no one magic cimait lIUll will p rovide the high ord e. of tlUl<ld circuill Bt:c. Wlille simple fo mu of synthai~rs have been ad opted by SOme lImIteuo. most ha ve IUId to depend Ul'Un adlievin .u r a nd dela y time!. O n 28 Mc:f this is a IIabi ity s of tetter than On<: p Bl1 In a million.b. Cry.f.ble frcquc:n~y o oct.umurtl ~lIibl . and v.. lor crys tal ooo. stalles shouk! be a voided If l'Ou ible: due to apprc:riable build ..a<1"'1I<. OUlJ>llt il considerably lo wer.. TABU:: I n ....ty tI.ell/aton y~d leas cr. In fa Li." SECTION FOUR Oscillato r Topics e cspctiaJ1y in" aro Wlh In POJ>llLarity of 1. Fi. the redu~.ch~ the dC¥fa' o f stab ilily n. C<y!ta1{>$Cilla tof . mllkin ll it d esira ble for Ihe ~ompkte oscilla tor WIlli' to be enclo. In l!CllCral the stabilily of ICriq rnode oo<.eep gystal dr ive lo w.:tal oscilla to rs.o of B.itehina .quircd even wi!Jl ItOQd crys tals . T his p ro bkm has \cd in COfTIl'nCIcial w mmunica lion s pr3l:tK:e to th e evo lvemen t of c:umplex frequeo~y 'lnthcsiscn whiclt de rive lllel.lh transmitter lIfId receiver a pp1ieabon. an d in many easel the m echanic:al COllllruclIOn of . A IIA ty belter lhan I p. In bo.-& requirement o f FOR manyand receivers mor major liable l1hed theama.. In pra ctice.I.c 1e". o..i lla to. High Sp.Ls lln apprcc:iable elfcet upon the .lId Colplttl filII'" Q . of as lin le ..Glli4e.... Pi=<: Miller T P ower O ~ l p ~ t >'!"'biliIY <oJ 10 p. the modem a mateur can n o Ion "" rq.f.el upon IICrics mode <>Oci llators. I. bridac olciUat..leri. a ~Ulbil i ly o r lhe ord~r or "*50 pa ns per million. ulC of thlo need for high ltab ility there h. ""wer d ra wn r"" nl it. T h_ "' h .es o f metal o xide lC1T1irondudo r fockl effect tran . should run al low f'Ow Cf" 1c\"C1s and t he min imum am oun t of r..e .mpruved.p.p. To 2(1 Me/.-.1. In the fUlu re. lability dC"Vica. lie Panlld-mode OIeinato..f.1 !lCnsi livily 1<> temperature chan. ICC 1). The selection of parallel Or seri el mode l\. lIgai n in e ither par a llcl Of IlC1'ie$ mo de. Modera La To lO MC/1 l Sp. a lthough without O VCllS corolillcrab le ~ il noeded to . of Itab ility now demanded..i.t n A ( MOSf'ET) Iho uld enable stab le osc ilbotors 10 be d""ill "e" witllou t o vens. ctr<:uitl llfe paraUd mode types (Pier".be .t overtOlle Tunina Freq lleQl. 1 ~ . Miller u. Miller an d ColpillS.0 .p. or tllll<>d circuits No tuoinS Switeh. tho Butler and wbat ill termed the Robert Dollar.verap h. '" . .h.~ '.lIfdlns or o ther ~omideratioDl. hl&h .uk OtriUatOfClr1:Illto O _. Kcyin l of ~..u imfl"l"lanl &II the circu it used. d uelan ce ma kes il (ka ...1. 1e 11.il o bla' nable wilh bo1l Meach. Q UMtZ o.IS 100 cis.f.ard qllll.lal m..Iab llity and o u tput. frol}) • ~1Il'1c hi&h ~lllb ility crystal ill a tcmpelllturc l ta ble o ven. o rro oghly Ibc: &ame order o f precilion II' heplnit a watda co rrect to within half a second per _ k . t<ol O .. • <:.y ra l\j _ AoJj UOlment Oyola1 .."ra UI = 8 "" m lGI c:ryUa1 conditIon•. tdIi.ma ted a t cilhc:r Ihc fundam tal f~IIt'DCY an " t hCll m ullip lied IIp l1S "ea :uary Or en altem alively il ma y he fo rced to resonate III an . n. StAblll. o utpu ls.m. th e 1lWlim um potsible stability fro m far lesl cOfllplc1 anarllemenU.

How tbm cao tho mat cn juItifJ tho IIIC or tblt term1 In tho ca.ref C&II cooll'Ol the t CfllpcnfUre at 1"hiclI !hi. bstantially above or bdoort' thil licurc.a PCriodically by \V)'Inll !he ~tal load ca pacilaDCe by a trimmer .. A crystal Utl ended for UIl! In 4lI OVCII would have an a pprecia ble lemperat~ coetTklcn t a l room temperatl.. •• The d~ of tbc freqUCO()' dlaoll'C durinll a acinl ~ dt:pcndc:n l upon a number 0( fKt on iocludin. it p<.biebIcu of a aT_ t eee for th e same freq ueDC)'.. 0 M OIl amaleun know that KI'ioIWr o\'Crdlivilllt a Cryllal (fot uampIo by cxc:cssivc power d ilSipa tion or feed bac k in tile OICillaIor Slap) em resu ll In permanent damage or evco failun: of tile a')'S lal. Bolh 1" .y 1oIR8tJ0CICd by tellIpI:mUI'e c:bu1I'CI. prod\OCl: apprccu. In llWI y I. " H.. Dew Cl)'lW cullo-AT aDd BT-wcre iDl rod 1llDlld resulting ID a llW'.ater.17. TyPical!y.wer dlannell flOW' used.. be kept es Ic w lIS poss ible . the temper&tllR o W!! ..an it... low r""'lualC)' c:ryIIaIl--aJ~ thicler --.. l1wI for bmi ted dcputura rn:xn the a pa ~rat~ the -. tion of lhe all with l'apCIo. &:&II be Ma km catha' -...UCII thlI freq uency varIaIion loo k the Iorm or dilC:llltojumpl retner Ulan a l leady drift. .tCIice..t. Some CWV'8I remain Yo<Ty fl.:iel:1t is 'If«<'{ low iodco:t.:th tile -. and ' till lata'" tho e loi:trodcl 'tJft'll p lat ed d. If*lhIaIl1 d«:r-. nuivUl..... Thill at U Mc!s & chan ltC of o nly S'C WOIlld prodUt. above 6 Mc/s or 10. lbc AT.&pe 0( this cu rve CI.. ~a11 have been int rod uced wlth miDiature aDd cub-miJliatute bolden (HC06/U Illd n- ..:!•• Y<Ut ~ luffCTCd C"alltlOrll... hoI-runnin.. Q")'IIa1a '*tft mainly of 1M X atod Y ews (!he trpc iI .>Miblc 10 ~ocp cryslal drive 1ow.. ajp:. drtve and lempera tu re.. oAm prd"c. llle -. pu of a parabola alXl.... but as ltv: lanpcn!1InI 1nOYa .-t Cl')'Il&l bc:Dornes m ller fracile ud the aT<U1 .t . frcqwmcy{ ICfnper&ture cu rve and cOIlIid... rr. 10 be cleaned f""'l uen tly. «rc.C a driA of the order of . ble fn:q ucncy <lrirl e very time the crystal OKilialor II lurned on..: more proae to IUda d&rna&e tlwI tl'to!c 0( "'&Iler f~ 0( tho _ a&t.ol.apia.wotrary to Pll9UJ.UDfonunatdy thia iI by DO n-na tbc cue. AT-alt Cl')'ltals have a ra tller more compleli. LD raa. and.. ) fl"Olll DCPti" 10 ~(jve..idi. 0I. widely a pprecia1ed th. • . SiJIl:e the lem perature o f a (:ryItal will a lso be rUled.. n.. U. tere.<a.jlDt !he sUlae &0 tha I the tilameDt did D ala.ent of around 90 1*"' per million pel" ' Co drifl .f.. AT.-u per million peT -C .1 II..II.. 'tbc ImlJlCra lll1ll a.-t . conwnoa pnctice 10 lrim OUI M>CIl dlan..hen ".. 10 llepll¥e. lI. th e drive level ill hl. v.lIIt ahOl&1d l'III1 a t low polO« 1c'idI. aDd iI UUII more 0C0Zl0lDi0:&l of quanz.) . With a lo:mpcralun: oocftk. Cl)'IIal and are then rd'CInId..I ""'""" Foo' the ck:v'Do " f tcmpcn. H O\to'e¥el'. n ot be RPI'lkd .ICr}'MaII an: IOlnCtimes rd'enllI1 10 AI .D rrom l7'C 1 7O'C. ltv: OKlIbIor It. ~ Allow temperat u re !be c:ryuaI bu _a oqp. .iIt overdrivill ..hJ.'l to the opl Dl and c) e...llDCt ma1..i" ~ . Such chan.11."ies with th e cry_till 0 anollO ad. be cleaned wllh C&l'botI Iclrad1loridcl o r prerer&b1y with II little lOaM' . Ml>dcra ova-drivinll C&I1 alIO res ult ill limall pcl1TW>CIIl le dlanJCIIn crystal freq_ y.ape1l occ:un.f.f ....!h lti. FeM' t bm!: reuom. aDd theD bcyoIlcI • a'itkal lanpentlU'Cl beIiIu 10 mr. " ". . 1bo AT<Ut cryslal II about lWo-thlrds the l. RIlCaIIl'y hof. BfO lClIlJlC'&Iure c:oeffic::ical " ~ from 1Ift\ictl II misht be JuPJlO'lld t1w dlcr -oWd be complctd..ayual arta had appra. AI dlil tempent\ll'e lOme c:ooftlclont cun'Cf PUll from positi . abo ut thml limell thai or X<U t cl')'l1all..lI be bfoullht a bout b y onl~ sl.ked red UCIioD of I~u lll drift. Fl• . introduco:1.u bcbcf. Later tbc pppcd hokkr w.tt !be curve fo rms the .ommooly IIIiIld ill am:tttur pr.OSC I LLATO R T O PI C S . .-' -. Crysta... TIle maIlllftclu.1 hence uu..l~.:lml of the YU)' pof'Ulu X<UI _ 0( thc crder of ± 13 .es occur princi pal ly dur in.lredly OQ lhe Cl)'ItaL The beat modem bolden lire lalled apins\.-uminl tbat !be com:cc d. the AT. Vey low aystal driw i ~ po$IIbIe with Inn'lttlora.ri.lionI Ullanpcfa1lIR. a t~ of 20 pam pet mi. ..'&U-'C. ot It Is Ie-.mous1y jeom thil l. leu u pemlve types ' uch lIS pbcnQh c n:sin Of Qer&mic holders with a moblureoexcludln. a val".. equipmalt" wilh tho nan<. )'CU-.lliol:l CID be obtained for a tempct :u urc var1atio. At the critical ICIIlpUatU. 1(b) shOWI a f&mlly oll\lCh CWYeL II will be noted that all lbcIo CUl'VeI puI Ihrou&II fD'O a l rnotO OC' .li<Jn and bo tb ltv: dectrodell aM Ibc: ctyItab had..Jte nri:aricJQ li kely 10 be ~ in &maIcur practice.~" (. by o vm1rivi.. Il&b ilily dratltllhould.as oommo o praclice 1 cono~ • 60 rnA fwe bulb in .. othcn have IUbowltiA.e. the ooefficIont ~ increUrI&Ir ncpU¥C.. f-o r this. plates mounted borUonl~I..uy IhiI iI made but for a')'!tal.. al mu ch \ow n Icveb IhaIl th lKClikel y 10 produce actual damage may never - tho:lcN cause e~""""i ve riile In cry~ tal tempcrul ure w. 10 I'aa zero Oft!' a IimiIod f'I.I illiended feM' uM: in t:r')'IUI _ it iI ~ U 'C.F.a. ..YI ... usu. t Cf'J'IIal milla l Iuove a ~ wcfficicnl 0( 40 parts per mlUioa H OC { rom th o apc:ll but lhil ma y incn:oox 10 around 100 paru per million 5O'C from lbe apelt.petal.round. rea11y su ila ble io the IDMt rircorom dimal ic cond itillr'll.dy by mec:bacical Ol'do::tricallhock. tho Amtl po int (2rc).ally more lItabte than the BT-cut" .:\lablc fl'Ul U<:llC)' driR with van..1l could.. n:ason cr)'II&.en.b. tllodC!t'll h. mutual COflduet. moisture wllh meW CllSCS and aW4/mclll l ICala o r w1lh evacuated lin. thoulh tbcy Ibould. to . _ 1bc any ho kJen IDMl by IIl'I&ttun eonmtecl of two .2 k. cryM&b u p 1 about 0 61ok.. an: AT. iI.lIlJ'!:.. applicatiom.. " COInpODeDu &rid VlLIvet.: 0( BToClIl a}'IWI tho frequcacy/lcmpcratllTe C\II"I'ClI ara ill !be form of a ~Ia : ICC Pi&. tho early liCo---mainly in the li m. 10 COlIlIIltf'Cia.o.-effir. 1tI the Ih lnie:s it ..oo:6if. '-.t.Illbt VlU'latlMl IQ the anale of cu t.b IbouId DOC be rnounteod close 10 ...."triW aUII)...: kvell an... Cryruh EMly II.ble chanpl ID the tJ1. M . thAn BT-a.: adhen::d to.. psket at the jo in an: o.-t aydaIo Imd 10 be ~ IhOft Kti.so _.. (. Quartz a)'Ra1I. _low r~UalQ' gyata" an: UIIIlIltable fur _ ill mobile equ ipmenl.eia!ll 0( ltv: top plate pm vidin . A Iyp ltal BT. in both ltammiltinl aIId.-l.aI'J Riant ~ o pen holden SlJ rfered badly frum eloctrode o .Jctennined by lhe oncn.r... en ~lopes. Omenii)'.

p losgcd in p lace of the co il and the meter readinl no ted .. be driven harder th&D pla ted typal . 1:"'.als tend to oscilla te mainly at the CClll re or '" part icub. (fer 14 MoJoIo 1l ·1 H <I' /10... _...c wbcJJ • "lu ted f ay... Pill (iD..hon-circuitinl of cry. e vetl of the lame cut. Most c ryllalJ. ..l . IllCh crystals should ha ve the cerrece loodina cap". . fl • • I .. fr' ~ft ... ...) ". • • _ 1..<at .lel. 'M 0-l11 .. The ourput fre quency r>l' a M iller oscilla tor is Ufoectal by the setting or the anode tuned d ll:lliL In the O. Meta l ClL~ where used ~ no l ClXlMCled to either eieerroce..... 0'13 8 r..cine drift. '1.activi ly iI ~.._ 11M .....1') and 2-11·1-9 respec ti vcly . In.....".:ulge in joed of from about 4' )"1 2" parts per mill ion .." .-. _n '"_u-r-.. "J 1... . octlv. P--.....I_ oI cs. A number of d HYerml holden lind pin dimcn$ioos are used : soc Table 2. .) ' ~ ft. it ill pointe<1 out th&t with Colp itlSand M . '"la . . _ 11 _ _ " Inl . MU mad er D Cl')'stab r= d<:signe<t 10 llt work into a 101tLd capacitanc:e--iDcludin g the d yn...hned to result in less a./0 r io..fttr>ft" •• 101: H c/... ..I. 1c _ . This variatioD ma y wel l de termine the: su ita bility o f 1I crySUtl f OT usc ill plll1icu1ar cireui!s.. tt>I.arne as llull wilh the: co il Inserted .l or win:<! in pual..>. alw l. "'"'If . ~ ~o. v .. s. ca__ to _. compared wi th Dltlal holden. " ... not<:S that diJiicullles can Ilris. I. r u• • I• • 10'" . I~ ca pac:l· tlLQl.'lal GulJ~.) D'~ (in.... __ '-'" _ th.r1y witb ue Miller circuil . .u:itanee T<:pra4'llte<1 by \be: Miller etfect--(lf 30 1'1'.n 0·437 0-248 • l lA T? / I.)' varlo.101. " ~ oo . The . riel mo de. SoII.. .talA nn l in actual UIe i.tion for eac h 1 p F c ll. _h......Io.. that t he readinK is abou l th e . 1 _ .. ac-w u - H 0 6/U K " ...)' capacitaDce acro~ the cryslal shO\l ld be kept low.._ _u.'" .+'"u ~~ •• l U I ' ~" •• . iderahle variation belween d ifferen t eryll!lk.n. if only one CI)'SIa l is beina lested.. O·4'U O '~ H (ill.. c:ryst..uible wilh lTIlUly O>Ipitts_typc arid-dip o... W.. 0·200 0·192 . ~. J I Mo/'o) _ 14·1 M<I' \1 111 MC/e ". thougb many Cryslall can be usal . l a/ G~UJ.I. J' ) L> . _ of W &'vP'... r Ih . . . LI 10 " 1 _ it ·1M<I••l th .." II IJU "'" .. recommended. 1 ... n w cryoa lo. h. n ..... ..._ I c. J O-:lO l'Sc/. oodCI.. W4T1l1l.. and whcre lite capacitaneo beeoroes IU IC h may be ad vi$llble to U!'e thc Pierce cin:uit and _witch eadI side of the cryl.ral is substituted tor tbe older ~p-moWlted type .... 5171 o f tile quartz plale.. st ra y switclt capaeitanU appcan. IftJl I. .. XI .ll: becomel a problem .. . c a ll _.Spea licaliono T... Typ ical A:T t (th lckne n lheaJ) cryatab in tended fo r UIe -eu wit h _ 30 p F loo d capacilance have a frequeD<. With the tUDin g apac:itance lIet to min imum Ihe cr}'$ta l i...IIer.. The eo rreopondin l fiJlllrt:l for A:T l (tltlrd -eu overtone) and BT-eu l (thie"""" ohear) crys ta ls a re 0-8..cillalol'll. Ihe pl. )Hl Iro. A limple test 10 provide some illdiCiltioll of c:ryst.I.'" _ .o.ta l H old... The ease with which a <:I"y$tal can be made 10 osc illate ill lermed its •• activity" and can be meMUrro qUlUltila(lve]y by m." MeJ. _..u 0-. co . wh ile the ab5aKe of Ihe ga p Increases the cled rical coupling bclWeell crystal and Qmlil. co QST.. "' cconll ..1ivc.Ih . O v _.. between I Mel_ and IS Me/s ere intended primarily fot lUll in potrall c1 raonant mocilla IO. .1 in lum .. . OwtllC8 in load Qpaatanee chanll" the output f~uency Ilightly. Clystnh in gapped holders can amcral1. . Sim:e h. The h igber Iha reading the: more active the cryotal . .. C 0 S"acioa r. Dl~ '00..lI"l . ..l&1 uo it. ~ ..lrumentl devdope<! for this p ur pose C. Cr yrtdJ Acetvlty There is co n. _ _. CI.. • • .Ilere Ihll errecr of such capacitance is iru:reucd by the Mill« cffoct..il$ may ha"" p lat ed clc<.." _ l J'5 " 010 1 f ...amic ca p. . d>ol:k.. ti~factorily ill the . d l.z vo 6J 6 lOp' •Der..1_.' _ c.... evacuated type which are ' cl.._ be<wee.....r.... So I • (CO. OD"_ ...~ specitlcauon No. IICl'OIIS each cry.. I Tyr c IOXJ I-T 243 A M A TE U R R AD iO TECHN IQUE S HC III/ V) of aU·d&u.) "" ...ltodc& with wire supports to tnecnve par" lIIc crysta l.... ..a ~ UOJI..... here scvcral $wi « ystals arc nlled . ~ _ f l.tcd CfY'itai is usuaUy mo re ll<... H . In I.. The C' }'...i.. . Strict ly _peak in g.. 10:4 0lIi l:j. houk! hodl_ . ... . .. . modern Ull..s If.ho.. TA BLE 1 Cry. _ _ I'" . Varyln ll the IOO ~ f 1.".._ " U co.1..• Test Set 193.

. 11 . ' .. • .. » _ fZUA"'L _ _ _ _ : .. 21" U...._ ...S"'~ Q H T+ f :l!V • ~e-"'" " N ' " 5~ 'h .."'_ _ rl ...-1.. 2 50. ..' I .. ••_ .. _~J. . . I l.. ..._ ...-r.... _ _ .... 5 .. r. )$ .-r---'.----.. " r1 . O UTI'IIT LIM • I . --. II _I ' _ I l· IU.....H § " '0 0 ~ " A" . . .L--l. I . _ .."~ ~ .... ..1! ·S V ~. _ _ ' .. ... •••' -_ _ ..1..... _ _• ..uu " I . 2N7~ . I- +f).OSCILLATOR TOP'ICS '" ... .. ... . <10 _ I do __ .l---::[~ :~i--'~·'" L. _ _ ' • . 7." 8 ._ .-.---_ .... .. n o" .. ' " " " I U ..-10_ ..... I1 OUTP UT .... >DO' .e---. . .._ _ .. .. TM _ __ "' "• ci "" . .. ~w lu... ._ ' . _--.. _ _ .. ' • • "'_ 1 . .r..l (1. " ~ ~ ~ _n . . _ .. " • ""'Ull I NlO t ......c 221'" 8~O . ...----=:::C: ~_ • .... . _(PUTI'\. / _ .. ...c .... • •• • . I~ ).. .. ... .

0 If raJrly small ditcrrte lIers ~ required.. lhis . ty.b.. ralC OD each band. an pllrt iclllal ly IUil. I . 11UI&C roulh dlcc~s No. .··· . . l III H e. WIll 1M modlfied PIerce (with CI)'SLll c:onnccIc<1 between arid and screen-.10 _ 101 co .' _ . . 11 . _ _ I ~ 'Lo. is. 'The mOl'! ClXNIIOOty . ~ "'.I U ) Mlftlo._ n.. p ullin . (ran_lllers &lIlCe lL'Iahk: outpu t un be o bta ined on bod> odd and o:ven twmonic:l 10 . M YC been rr-.1. _loll. il must be admittC'd !bat kduIiq. . . A pha-oe lock d n:uil b ba. trend to u. ' ft <>00 " ' _ If.. QlpaQWlCe will abo ' boW the 'I'f'ro~ imalc or the c:r)'Slal .o. ofI'-. ft .....nd and dectrGll coupkd to the 4Ilode tin:uit).. ... ti l... .b..y.I. » H e" II Me..111 J-I H e' • ••... .. He fouod • dira:r.ion on • ..mOllI. _ ... .. lAme drift in tmm oC kcls aD tach band : rood re-td aauaq: adllptabIc 1 u. f"O""U amplifier di RlCl). . . for pm(es&ioNl . . ~ evIU .O~ 11o we!. .~l . lC~ S y"d ._ f"nQ 0yJHL 1-..tend to bo::ome ~ycly fDClCe compkJI...rcuill....... n:lali'fdy low freq UCllC)' '0' ..:M>W_ or tIM waI.uh care I(' awoid birdies " In tIw oul pul ...hC1erod)'TlCd by • h iiheT frequ=q cr)"It&kontro lled oscll lor... pl1. plcot ("'Tn of frequ ency Iyntheoil it lhe ~"'YP" ¥. la tor Il&bility...r. O ' OO1 5 0 ~ " o.....c:ncy !lYI'lhniza" whid! .lI OUlpu t rrcq ucncial are di nx:tly dcri~ from D..q~nIDd with ee basic tech niques... rrtquet'lC)' lynth.Itua1 cond...... 1• . with the variable:ote:illalM tuned 10. hi&hl1 sIable ~ osQUalor (with the ~w In a tempcnI_ controlled oval) at.. ~ form 01 I)'llIbe&iKt Is to \IX a Unp. wil h ~bl....J ~ . dindl: and bdc:rod)'Dl! tho: outpuI I " p rooluor uablc: outputs in sma ll diJ<=t~ Slept ..1 ".. Th_ "'"' of to u ~ only Yell' bUI C&fI pro vide useful inrorlnal ion. So It iI 0...'" J NI'OI AHAT I:U It RADIO T I!CHNU1UES .. wbo once Mill. UM<i.... w!.lC'o""'" _111.. Iroy '" .4 _ _ ' ·f _ _ _ h o or-IM OC". eenenJ._ _ _ U h M r------r=J:~~~-TcO~.... /.. 11 fteW'r tolVQ • pnJblenI without «eatiq: II:ll mon:. G_r..... Ou. . l he IIiCd and Colpltu Cll'Cllila pnlvidc • " man: harmotllc outpUt ttIatI tblI modil'kd Pieroc. In IOfTlC of m.. III1d results in a 1 freq u.lt>".. Harmonic guler. .J:' -:-lr-r.. only by th~ addilio .. blo tor use iD wmpa." -/ C ~.f. clo'cull ... _ _rnu7_... 'i"._ ... . . 1e hi AA-sl.. ""'_· _ '.h ..... h . .1 the Ilrai JlUfo rward '0'. 'IV)' low fl1lllllmCY aDd Ibm to rnu llipl. pft(ly fonnidablt Iotal. . IIn.. .. W2LC11 IUqaU Ilwu with h~~ ~ .. If... ... rdatiwlI ltip bccwcal the IIU.. bo ut the alI:'h hanooltic: (or about fourth hatmonie i tho! olcil b tor II m:juimllo dl ivor ...'£io.._ . -n U Ilm&lo:ur ~ hu RIOpo:llC'd lbe whok! ~ or osQI. 10 vuio\g Coma <:tf ._ . r~ thiI application. ... in effc:d.J c:ompIe~ity and tbt need to d'OOIe c:r}St&I aDd IW>llb1c otdIlalor fl'\'Qumcies .. ~ .f. II pml _ ... '""'l. '" _ . .. Alternatively• • nwnt>cr of gyUak may be ..." Thoup this be . -l _ .~ of IhI! YaIvc and lbc .... ily &riel itf't:Il stability .o.• ..)fl\plr ....-.ate· loded 1 Ihe h iahly I la b le<:ryslal li P'll1.~ + .... lbc tritrt (see bclow) ... 17.abili ly QUalU OKllLatot ... ._ _ II __ no. W Ithou1 aoilI&aU Ihe_r WIth Ilcmard SbIo.... Sdmce is aMYS wrona.0:S7.'.. IIlltJl I"eIlden will a1rady be wei . pect rum gt'nCllltor 1 \mvitably raJrly wmrlCJ... .. ct· " L _ OOUpLin IL 10 tho twmonieally tuned anode circuil). clw¥tcriV:icI lUKe both rncl llMon Ql/l Ntl COilliDuousIy. . -r 7·nu .o. ..cn.dUlllly in<. '4.. Probibly tbe "n. itl1etl'OlAliol:t ~ 0EI 1ator 10 fill In the tap.< ically Ihc same Iype or 1JaDp" meal U!IIecI for many )'tan for automaho: fRQuatq <:Ontrol M . new II:nn to scee..-d c:in:uil. " . . W 2F hS liflllbt I4nnlap 0( hetel'Oll~ «dIe'll as : same IWlin.. .. . _ .. ::-.-d.h perha ps kq rompliC:UN than the lype whall .i~l-..llor. I L1 ""'_ioot°... 1 Commcrda l l)"llMlS of coMidcnab1e Ql. Heterodyne-tyT'C v.. aood 0 kcyin . ~ · l . .c a " .r...OO!l _ _ ..... ~ been produoed. an tho! Colpitu (with e1ernu o ur in popularity fur 1IOITIC)'eVa... . ItiD Dot I particukrly simple I)'pe of d evice.. • variable .t:===== ==:: v _ ... T1'oeIe ad'iantaaes add up 1 0. lhou.. inalc fRqllmq' .. . . .0. e.....

Vl " n: D IOIlV 1011 RFC '00' ow " '" " "'-" '0 tl. Sl&ta D o ug De Maw. drn.to ..al. des pite the: high Q of lhe crys tal. DjIL" for "'II <ryotol oocl ll... u ~.. in an L-C OIdllator.Ol th. The usual fo rm (Fla.. • • ...." ' 0' lownoise sidebandl and low-ha rmo nic output) in csc lltutcrs.. ~ rl .OI " T'J 'OOK 'T.D be .211 •. oHd-s1&1e un il wit h MPF I02 vxo followed by 2N4123 and 2N2 102 bu ffer am pl. " goa] ehll!leteristics or the lra.. 1975. 20. 0·01 " ~ ) L. Dl2lR po inl!i out lhal wnventiooal crystal OM:illaton.. is a cry<tal osc illator lltTalIgemenl in whic h Ihe cl')"5"'l not on ly forms the f~­ urocy-rontrol devK:c but .na reactance In series or paral lel with II ..e output lind su ppress harmonics.<l ly all higher harrnonlcs an: sut>stanti. .. <7 Inr o.. 10.f..I"• • _. Th .ll[J be achieved. prompted in par1 by a QST tLrticle by W3BWK.. " 'ithou l any substa ntia l sacri fioeof stability bu t at fairly low OUlpu l : Fig.. . ma inly beca use of the large. are slill ~ery ooi~y and produce IDIIny spurio us signals.. represen ting a shirt of up 1 0 about 30Il u /a at 146 Mc/s. . . It October.. Mo t'll l'llOlltltlyamateur interestin variable crylItai osdlIaton bu been revived. CIUl be shined elUl<:lly the same «te:nt : Ihree of his crystals provide 300 ke ls sh ifia.. 20 Is claimed 10 prov ide two signifICant advant ages . 10 <1. b. . He no tes that no two cryalal.r to ban d-Ium t the noi. 1?72) in an arti<:k (. Ihe no ise bandwi dt h i's limi lC IO less tha n <! ]00 H . 17 Imoo-. Iow_.I" a . ~ . pl'n.nlhalur which provides useful infonnatio n o n VlIO design for the v.e.onlc O~lf> ~.h. pu lled" byilIeIudi. I~ch .. in QST (May. "'.lM lltunted with a rail.>uIb the lI abilily fal1l as thl: degree of pullins ill incn&Ied.."d lo _ ...O SCILL ATO R TOPIC S '" REc..n<roIll"S. Fla . <Ip ". with the frcq ueocr sbift rontroUed by a split_stator variable ca pacitor."'" .. S..~~-" ~O.ai and ~ dulacteristiCll of the cell and ....h_l'fo ..boo II 1 0w-PllSS til tc..J lly suppressed ( for example IlOdB down ro r the !bird barmonic of a 4 MHz fundamenl.. """._. Fo r a lonll lime the main use of thlt hall b«:n for the uirnminl of frequency calibraton 1 zeee beat with Droitwicli or WWV.es solid control ever abo ut 12 kels.1. 0 Bulthe teclmique halla. EI« / r<m. upon the meclwlil. m..~ = ~I 0 ·00\ 2. E + par ticularly these used fOl: freq uency synthesize rs o r fo r freq""ncy conversion (10 l ¥(l id r«iproca l mixing) is an important wllsideralion in modem eq uipment design.. attentio n 10 all idea from U lrich Rohde. ) II ILu lon a been lUliu:d that II cry .. ~_ . f ~. 19) bas & series lDdU(. .. yxO-tll. lo.paci lOr.. lll<. ..mi'llOr in the eircu't. <'r ol p~r l " h plrtl .lOr. ContUlU ousl y varlable Iliift.. Wl CER.... one about 260 " A well designed "'"0 il a poor man'a synthc:sizer.toI nol onl...t .'lOlor . 1 / ..C ~sign. Low-noS Cryrt<ll Ol elllolGr H ~t& '" '" -4~Z .1 ... 1bc stabi lily depettdilO II ~nsIderable «tent..~ '" ... .. In tb is <XlIlOOCIion. secor. " 1 b ~ I .. Low-"ol.. U . Fir&t. ~ven o r nominal ly the same types an d style. operator. " . c "". This ope rat es at nbovt 6·1 Me/s and typical ly he u:hie.Ifo b«:n U3Cd fo r frequency variation: lICIl Fia. 0Id 1l 0 1 • . up 10 the OI:der of one part in 300 l. including a .. . POCIr Mon".1..loll " S " hl....lor I" which Ih. fr . The: amlllgcmclli of Fig... DJ2L RfW2. m. TIle impo rtance of achiev jna:high speclnt l purity u...tal Q.... ¢7 rH ~.. Gian M oc:La. rn Hi s" op.f!en. (0 ) Il: . llSWX .

_ "·i. Yorlcrb. illl tha I a very hi&h dqn:c Or YOIIllJC otab iliza· tiOl'l-rot u.. He reports driR &l very low .. <l._ .~= .KI1I1_ L I . 24 . iIo la...tho<le-rol lower connecti on.. "..: '.l esctnerce (the CarP" G ounel eircuit .at cd with aystaI conuol "IDOna the u:dul hints ba thl... This is wh y ""... The l N9 14 I. . o ~ m._ll.. !l'C . Ood/Nlor for ' " folk R_ ... OIcillator runed clrcuits .. o f th e ce-ax Inslde the mn ed cll\....I the VlIlve end...Ul bolil )' a...-II.t. a FET.... sooe i • Tlm. " .......-.._. It 8'lCS 'llllilhoul A ti re lhaf the unil IIUI5l be """lllClftned and very ri pd. .1lf I. les l IOn lhb IUbjecl is worth emphaslzin. " ..C 1D no appliulK>M.. lie finds llul lhe a. ..ll mosl pa. .. .... _.....J"." tho: basic VIlO ~.i04. T .._--_... ..apacilor brings il firmly into IleM n:MInance et the c.' 2~ ...ys degrade. W IC:" • •H • ....iI«cu rlalOd tlC~.... wiOr ~ 0( IO-C&1Jcd hiJ/Htatlilit1 ~tor d mlil-.uoci. I..l las o r the aetu... hoo ld lbo be cvefuUy llOlatCll M A typical ill' lStr&lK>n o f bow Uti.-1.ided IJW: SIJdI preca utioN are ta ken.4 M el.. T he ci reult !l oho wn in F ig.traMio&l....hcn comparcd wilb fundamcnWoI)1lC! a')'WI h...u' un J'AI'C'" the &I'l'&tI&emenl .. . He linds Ih....... USOlI .. . Ille {unlD. C&II be achieved il l howD 10 Fj ~ 24 . _ _ . q uotalion from. )..tmple by fcodin. • 1...ICI oI\ea provj"k n:n>afbble swinl:" in frequency .. c" noJ 0SC1l.ICT ran. . +l H <1. rod mauiona lhat it hal also beeo IlIOd by G1VUO 1 COIto0 .r...l t _ _ ..In.v It•• a .• 0I 1he ordet' of 1000 pam per m illltXI.l rare on the hl&Jler frequency bwtdl and ..u:ticc lhis rireJ firU ti. Th il oKillator co~"'" a 100 ke/l letPncn t of U>e 3'~ Me/. ClEillatlKl... . preserued s1wuld he colllt4!lt.... ~ui .ith a kell i. ~fuI "llChorin.-' I U Mel. _ ' _ . ho do not M Ye a fJ'lXlUUiC)' meier 1""lIa hle.. '..S... r~unM.lbhtn.. .. rep . to ru n al abo. the Iowet turns of lbe inductor "'._ Foa·U... _ ..lo.G&Cy . -. the mor e At ilfactOl")'. band i1h a co il . G 1XGP workw ... ... it. • aaadard. _ I · I _ .. but in.elher with CIIl: 10 IOlderwmplclely the ou ler obeaH'1 of the eo-u lI..u M ...li ghtly" hOI po inl with rc:ference to the tW>Cd cimlil the Ioadln.c: r.h ote by other flloC1on thai Ihdr min imi1&tlon 11 pri me impor1&llt:C ID lhe deYdopmml of II1CllJII for lm provin. _ • •*'. Atlholllh it 1 000 I'Uba" He & Colpi Ua ~latot ...tmcn t to oelllCt the part of Ihe hand rcq ired--eo~erinl lhe fu ll 3'~ M ~II band a1wa. ... G SCY K.a.. p ic and '*14 foun d to utend min by I S kef' III .. I _ _ 4 .. and t he roedbacl ill c:um rolllld by adjuWnenI of the '''I' o n lhe indicator.... Pnl.d iU a d. usin. but if Ihi~ ~. lndil:atlnl tilt need fo r a e111U A llOlallnl ._ . ll._ _ w.. few w mflOllcn tl and o tTe rs slmr1ie ily .'Ily work t:e. /I Bill Pocl. ShulIlin. the ".e JQOd resuIIa _!1m combined wilh salisraet Of)' med1&nkaI and thermal &sip but will prow IIfC _U . ...... _ cqU&1ly UDSoItisiloCtOI'Y II these aspects are~ . in ~il )' a Ha n ley Ioince 1hc: 4 -TpFcapKil.h0\efl !Iannonio: and ma kes il easy to F t l oinl ror lhose . The o u lpul . tho:: f~ ltability of .t..........J..>r is p roYiditll MWion only. 11.. QJl be puUcd O¥C:t muc:h tban th is...-. fo lktwi n. t ~3 cryscah tend 10 IPw poor rcrl<>ftn&QI.1"lon wItkIt kKS' the twcd c:imli l QOITlplctcl... and 6nd1 tbil il u c:ellent eve n ..iokrat>k: .. th the lap.onc t ho:y ICIld 10 kl5e Ihc: sol id l...••I .. lllln...Lc. t hrou..-.l cimtit M . hu Mat usin• • n ~ M ~I' tunable a:seilla tor ( AI ' 22) for 14. PIT _11_'--._ c:..he llf'l'CI" end 1rq>rnfflC lns )6 l e. ._ltJIM</o' _ _ .e wbicIt C&lI be produced by the combined elTeet 0( Indue:tane:e and capaQlaoce var iati <>ll with temperat.ttJ typa USIl. /IoI._-.'Ilit un il Is a dvlled to ..ndlOridlh. 21 . co llmd loll II at ._ _ . h & leut • two zena t diode unnp:ment_il a .'s a l 146 M . ed from "'1Im'lI 0( heat ue UIUoIII..1is!ACt. hifta of m ore I/Utrl tOO ken anlscldom required In a hurry..a.. Overtone ~ opcrued u thrir flllldammc.. ~ l-C OKIIIcttOl'll IflWCIII" today bas ~ &!moll: embl..." to .... This cil"t'Uil t.. Ays"il . rreQlJaK)' .. Thil is based OG a CoI l'itl.'t. _ _ • n.. works ~ .. bl.hown in 22. Freq~ 01 this o rde r a re 116 ·n..e com pared wi th . ' Q IKO I' . l l:uti'lI I I the lowoot rosition.. GSCY K.reo: with 1 2·2 pF Ji-" Fi. .. fI\llY be rat Iter 10'" IUld stnce th... .~ 2N 3lI191ilr...... .-.. T" h ~ ~n.lUI ""l.... • Ol. .-er1 a P)'c Wl$m ill$tcr 10 tunable opo!r:tlion .. this ill Tadily fou nd by wnncl.. • . «OfIOm Y.tinI WUr«: 10 fJOWld to lind 1<h4(uro-ptcYolti/4!:C ""'11 cu~) a nd then d..'" AMA T EUR RAD iO TECHN I Q UE S o. by W4AM N. Iac. in pr. I It _ s _ .. _ _ . .all of The whkh will p. the .. nile (lr ""rety (in 1""'1junctiun FlIT p ies are not Noily blo wn " p l... . -. is . " ~ . T1Icl e lwl... f .. 1 h.1$o kDdl itlelr _ II to thil a pprocw:h)...

in f. 1 '" ...o.. t2 An r- ---. _ _0# "'. TIle complele v. T.lJy Ihe -am.----' '. v o -e...-. a considera ble imp rovement can often be ub\ainCl1. <_n.. I'AO d iscu ~_ this t«tmiq u~ o f temperature COn1f'Cllsa..t ""..lIy isolated by p laci ng the T uned circui t in its o ..f.. T loo eo ft e _m... Where tllllCd circulra are bui lt in the main un it... .mperOlur. D'ffe.-' " T ' la. LO'lffll .150 p. jm ::.. C l . Cl... _ . ' In...1 "'1 00 . . l'lICilor in a h ieh-e C" lpnts osci lla to r has been described by W4JWV (Qst) for lUI a... 1. V. ollaftOOo fo e.. E"d For those . By pmviding l"".. ."/d (July."tIon The use uf oellativOotempcnLlurc-eocfficien t ropacitors to OOmpeJl.l changes. 30 ~ 1 V . dl"ect en a 2~49-4029 kefs eseruetee (Fig...'.. . CJ.trts per million per de~ centigra de. partly beca use drift .. • • ole . I<>w as 18 cis per huur wing this techn ique.. Z V. " ' i~ . & I . U. .. uie more proneil bo:..... e r~~ tly came across IJl i1utance . d n:u it . 17 p' d ill b. W~VVD has reported dr ift rItu~ Ill. "art icu lar ly where a unit r uns fai rly war m. n COtnpat trnefll..'1tion from two l intilar value furo capa~ilon..me lenatl. 10 uperimellt wiLh cirewlI hue ar e severa l more.ilJa to r h. le fn r temperature d rift in oscilla to r circuits for \ll receivers amI v.lesiiPI with • v~ry h il{h ·C Co lpitt s..as a diff Cfefltial CA pacitor 10 provide di lT~rin g dc. " C1.. I"4inTcd loll_er to ref\cct IIc>II and lined with 6b~10l.ductlve c hanlfC'... ::Lb" "'!>-~~-_:j_---t-. dl n p ' IN 7SO).-flom med lWl ical vilmuioD :LIld . OU T PUT O. Compen. hen: attock waves from the ltClio n of a stra iiht Mone key JIfllr the v.. 26 sho""'l Ihe fi ~l c•. t ~ft • .! 'l." TIlls....0Ct ( NPO~ <.-. u .. were apparently sufficient to cause • wobble Olt the note . fint (Fi ll_ 21) COmes frOOIl WlFRQ Via. toclm l~lX'. 196 1) wider the litle " Ultra-stable H igh... ~ e.:.." ... Tltis h.. WC'I a a lha. o m th.O.. u~uaI ly d ue to a comhlna tion of venous capac itive an d ir._ 1_ . .ent ApprOd"''''' to rho So..SI... . .and C .~ 0 am ~-.OSCiLLATOR TOPICS '" ::r---r--t~1 "" '" OUTPUT r-----------.I Xl l\ . . )1. t. ' i.HN '.. _ m _ _.. of U 1• • .' p '" "• •r~ . <0 """" If _ 1_ 0 • ••• 1Ho 1. ..i milu support than to a ttempt to inpro_e Ihe rigidity of the vr». t 50 V .b.umrs to mcd ' iUllcaJ instab ility. ~ica.· " + ssc v " '" ~.. Althou gh it is seldom possi ble 10 lChicve ab so lulely en~t cempensanon.r.d the l«hniq ue Is de scribed in Ih~ Radio Co mm Ul!/rario/J Ifwulbpok llnd elsewhe re.AK!I • . .. .::. 1. O O p~ I)' ". bu t us ill g a single d ifferenlia.. 1VI .l..a... this can tie lh. 25).O . shuwUllJ ill. ..: lion a.1 M .0 Di ll "..r.o. 5 0 ·00 5 '" ' OO pJl" - . T..Ot LI. l 00 pf' tri. h. & il. CI .It _ .... - T _ . '0 aa c a aapc f (N 750) I 7 t~r 6 A U6 .<!I Ihcrm&l insulation . llft.. I I ~~~I~". _ I WU... 0<11 e•• <.I S H el...1.. _ of _ .• ' In... ~ . f .mve rslon ~alor from the W 4JWV ."'· 0 zr pl' l qI I --. . £ /cc rrp/Jla W. lor_aM .. 12 t N POII ft.--r--r<"Td-" " '00 pF pI' am _. 11 )oJ H e... one an N rc tem perature cocflicient type an d the other an N1SO type ... f. in efJtIct... it ls uften easier to overcome sucll troubles by II rubber or s.. CJ ills pos~dblc to ad j ust the degree of eompens:uion p ro vkied by C4 whleh is an ~2 pF ceramic tapQCito r witll a ncpllve lelJ1peratu re ~oemciCfl t or ..rees o f ron. tA U" it. .o..F.mme". A Qa" p <l'l<. • • e<l U .1~CI'''/J (Ma rcil 1964).f...em. W4JWY " • . 11. .. . ..&5 beco me fnir ly popular In recenl ycaJs. ho wiih..." CATHOO£ I'OI.u the bad feature tha t the marc immWlC you ma ke it to ""temal d tclrica..»followet 1 0 rec ece Ioo din!l On the 1W\cd.:. p ' pcns. Fill.r-. eJlciter...I ...

"." ~ :'11 I Ilo ~n REGULATE D I$ O Y e4 C.....~ n" • • ' ' 7011 .. dr ulilUl. (lhoua!l could.... ~..... •. . tranunincr \reYicwed In QST A Ui\1S1 1% 11-..... ~ I. U l.) Y .. inu lar \0 the F ran kl n : i.. _ ..:' IOO p F . . blln<1. _ - The mala m&iIldy whidl t.. '" CO ". ' " --. ' . The I:..... "'" '"" $I OOpF " . lMY .." . TM desilll lh own i.IXJ ·. h .iONl ((I thc pIltienl"l tempeTll- '.I• • ._ O_ .. n . • T ..Uit ....... .. " 11... l U.Urrc:n1 equipment S\lffn1 iJ .29 .._...1i11 adapt ed lTWIy applicalioJll. _--_ _ ~ _ . 11. .. is pcl'TIIrl bihty hilled frl'>m 5-6 Me'.. * . ()... . _ .... P." M " ..er .....S LI 1'1J ""'10 l_ H.....T .. of course.) < ". would I Pf'C&l" ' " be wonb ditvdopinJ. . 1.. .10" J ':l' '. "'• • It is d.C . be adapted fOf Cllpacilan e<: tun in.'. - "" ee '" I ·U • ·. .Ol ' _ 01 •• _ ._ p • • od ~ I ' r. _ .. Anocher cirtuit Wt has &I lracled im~ r=tly P 1M ~ cia. . Th . . bUI il coukI ~ .. an uperimenlal alTaI>lfCIMnl for 3·~ Me' ... .. '0lf''' o r .)... Radosl...hie oYC:t I much wider freq uency ratlll" than the: ~unod tirl.. f. . T o.... l'ro....... _ . t'" H J.-d. • buffer &ml'hf.om ..IItl1odo-coupled L-C oscillator is d ~ ill Sootian 3 nn "r _lvcn .. ." a diwue propon.. .. . 011 _ • • ••01 d. It.. a1u.l"...imed 10 poweu lhe ad\"anlqe or remamina -. IOO p F .. ._ ... ' . .. h•• f lIod.l . .... <. . &t~I. rnlc . The circuil ahown in Fi. A H A TI! UIt RA D i O T E CHN IClIU I S .... the Clapp..b..'" '0 ~ .1 ~l.'C~ _iII. ." ' ..... 10 ._ l..._... .. ..."'Slcr!lHtry O....or.tl lillk .... Co!piru" 1_ tl" )01 dctaibed in RadJo aNJ TrlnUiM ..._ ' ." Tr". -.. • •• . 2S i~ I~I u.pon Ihe oooslrUClioo o r ue co iltl1an..l --.l.. .. -~ . - v r. J. .~ " ~} W. " . F r-t0-0< ~ ro:r ' • .. e .n1 1n lOme rcopa:tl i.. see H I. "'" ". .. '" •• O 'il'06J1' SILYIA IIIU . •. "" I..r .ou...._..I.. I TV ' IIa.. 'c'.xd In 1M Central El«1ronla 200V I. J.--.. "' flDG.. 1 I AfC -. I n <0' ~ .. ...d _ . .." "..:: .. N outpllllJ low it shoukI be rollowed by a elaJi A pmlode buffer/ISOlator._m ... I'w . ~ O U1 P UT _ ". T .. ro r example. scillllior Is leu depwdell l ".)1 ...... l«:OIld doub le triod e (I 2AU71 arTall&OO calhodt foLloM1" (<<diD.oon o ... ..d lIGtaorl 6.s...n... e ... n . .. >C... ' 1...w.... .s. ~: . ~. my u. . . w_l _l U ..C1/I .._ .woru em t1lc l 'S Me!...... d _... The OIcill... .

• •1 cu. -ely low im pedan<:<: lind unly very loo. In deed ..... ~ . un. Ma ny l 'IlI\S.. _ _ _ ._ I a v .'•.I Iu:n:. ". or by tappiJli C...ynlhcl ~ lock " v.... say ..s red into a 6A H6 amplific:r.t the uni l. D«:ausc o r the low level o r o ulpu l l he lio ds lha. _ III..~i slor is conncded aero..b. .. O ne M'CT<: l .. l' I.O SCiLLATOR TOPICS '" + 1:lV a_aK 9 1pF 3-:1 l1 iii. He writ es : .l III llle A Fl 14 o r AF II ' .-It.oo tinu o uslywillloul interfer iJli w illl lhe recei ver . wh ich appears u a Ill._ Gi l.. . M ).h•••..:17. .If ca lOOOpF C5 . On incrC"&Sinlt the tunilli COIlpacilllflCll: 10 I O.GlS ' u Hu A UJ'O taJ n 6 + 201 pF " n OK DIOO l " aoI • • to<I .r---..SpaciliveJy. TI>c: d oo. un be kep t runni lll c:.Command iCrlCS " j components ror !he lurung componenlS (LI .._ _ . U. e l.o : s _illl few hU l p roblems-have a bi g future pr ovided tha I Cllre is taken on circuit design.Ch«kina wilh lhe US tv". L-C. 1963) I .... Th e Ot.(X)O p F (_ Fia. when bui ll ill a llc. . 0 A IOsdul lelte r o n l hi. two ... Sa _ co r-r-T-r-T--~' . b. The a ul pul . . II T<: lati. m llh ' b... U h O A )U 41 Z ~ _ • • 1>0. bm des. ~ AIlC' _ ...(uitl....LIISistors are sm. Im . .. 11 1 . by 6 1Q.. I oeeded a l ·S Mels v.. _<"::-------... A boul two yean " 0 .s lha l the o~ lIalOr lfan. meIe r action of 0. is a ' rood d<>loC o f semicondllClOl'S..oublu . tha i a transis tor with I CUloOfl o f several hundred megacycles co uld aive poorer sta bility than.. nina: th e BBC tran~istori zcd ra dio microphone. Th• • •1. pteSCnp lion . 10 ~lerodyne 4 X1 kel l u . 33 sJ~ lhe lwo-$""&'C.y HIJIldbook 01 ~mi~/M Ci. Ihul lh i. r-T"-r""'~"---. an O CI 70: ' ThCT<: is little doub t lh al transistor v.1 ' 1>•• hoi ..... .. pv ncot ""Ita .. CI . lhe same m ult could be oblllincd by l:." (400 p F liu:d phn 100 p F tunin.. ac:rording 10 W3J1IR.. a.. ) bu l the nOli w..C. h•• u. \ O ool "'"om lto h...f.o. which has an <ncilla to r at about 20 Me/s.imJit which in lhe o riJi ll. ) o f IIMUt 100 Me/s . _ n ...lb le _ cured . .lc . II h. . allO. freq uellC)" bu rble o n Ihe lil nld.. I• • I•• ~ .. S'm. l<arUmlti er.-W-~ -I~'" H oopl lu <111.. Thi.I H Il·. _ k 10. whil:h o lfer pt'OOlise of real progreu in t he field o r m blc rrequency go:mralwn. ••m >'" _nlth ..h. .. U~ lI& mai nly ex _ARCS (. H owever.!a .>is 10 make I 6 in.. i. C4 lUK1 ("' . subjec t comes from 0 3COI . as in the W31HR cireuit• . F ig.. ~I <)r UlleiUll-lors len d lO ~ufTer (film .Ul-d <>wn AR CS <. C2) IIlld <....r I ~ •... pool and wo bbly .1wh ich C. I belie ve The troub le iI d ue t o random v:uiatioo of rrarutnor o utput capacitance ralher than var ial io n of ph.. M ..r. -. .~ I lo on ' 11_JS..f.. To support h is IIrgwneni W llH R o ffen (CQ Seplem ber .1'eeoed bo lt.•• _01 _"~l. Wl..I I•• ~ cl " " " .'..I Y rrom sources o f hl:ll. by 6 in. nd co uld probably be nlplllQC(\ b y l uch l}' pe.j Ir. F8 ND in RDJ io-REF praises this c irCu il. ... -J__-J__ ' "ppM ~+ . c .-. .l llao. . Jl<Ilenlio..Itp ul is red 1 I h ilh·aain "'2 (6A C7) atIlp~ fier. ..pp inJ the tl1U1l isT d own lhe co il inslead of redllCing the Of LC .. 1 _ _. Tile o ria inal type 2N 384 . I. ... 0 11 to H Mcll LOd used Ilfl <>C170 in a C Dlpill S ci rCuit with a bout SOO pF tunint ~i l".1_ 1 . _ 1 . . He uses IWO OCl1 l lnnJislo rs wilh oUl Illy s ignifK:lW l eh &ngel in com.. <. ~T 111111 vlU:illb le WdUCl&flCC was D'lOR' ecevenient.. Use of a ll'IlllSislor Willi as high II cu t-off frcqucllC)' as po ssible. aN....o. the trOt..ircuil is free from suc:h I. bu t W3JIIR cla im. I rca litt<! 1"'-1 Ille lank c iT<:u il impedance was wr~.b. 10 mipimlze phase shift . I found .. lh ou&h he prclen \&nil a 9 vo ll rllhet 111111 a 12 vcn l upp ly.lIl be plal:cd well I . f G J C QJ' n• .aIl-siMJUJ P' ''''P lypes Wilh a eUI_o lf freq uenq (f... form of iMlab ilily.lll provides I 4'9 10 6-1 Mels " ulrUl for 111 .r..r--. u. as is somel: mes Sla ted. el y cu u pled lu the lun ed elrc uillhru u gh lh e II.a$e sh ift. ere.IO£o. il not necess ary..

. A1tboudl W1DF IUum' that certarn important pnK tieal aspectsorv. indicat ing. nt<)l<.I~ ... & &..wllt.. . high power p in II SdB l)'pieRl lit 200 0. r---------------------. bilitr will depend o n the ri.~' I ..cs U o. '"1. I O'O~ I u an D. .. p f oIt _ 1'1'>1. o aci ll • • ~ . low feedbaclr..up pu1od : Icss t han SO ell with a s.. ! I :. .(Jn(luetance 0( abou t ~ micromhos.)• .. the o scilll.~ +6· ' V =1" +.f.Illy useru' for manyotber semiconductor eq uipmcnl. I• • th. . perfo rmanee .. C t . the ou tpu t from the v.ular ly on the Induclor .... ~...:t~ ~ . with 0 ·2 in.' wh ile ho t.. lOr clreuil...:--OOpP -::.. hol. II wiU be no ted tha t the buie osc illator is ba-t OQ the Seiler form of Co lpilll ...~ part icu"-r MOSFET tt. • _ <aft lI. .. and P'lI rtN. . WZYM llales : " Bo... I AU Ihne sources con firm II C& Itt" ." I .. lIICd in the lilt" circuit.I:! i imo almos l a ll IlSplICU or Irequeney $Iabilizati on ..ause the MOS lransiotor by ilsclf will not provide Ta:ti~ pte current.. and lkJi~" Df Va"~ O~rlll<lr"" 1-6-..O. .. "".. This oscill. and th us a male u' requi't.. A t<'ctlnique which out pllt conditiOllS Of! l he freq uency.. .F . C1.: -~ j ~ " -: -r-~. II t .. .~ I" •• 1 .CI that in IlJ11IlCUr opt' rllho n one i' internlcd pr lma " ly un . .. .cllla r 4'4 1'H The tw<Ht qe llegalive feedbad am plifier which fo Uows ind llClo r eOMi_led of I lur n.~ •'. one could rdt'f 10 the boolr. _. 0 064 in.uI 30 e/s in two hoon.01.5). ~ IZ~ . and R I pro vides II o fT. " ftl . Rnd tha t the internal ert er o f val Vll heat are e less impo rtlUtl thlln that o f lhe ~..... Part I.ipa!cJ. ors o f rouilhly thi... <In. il mo wn In Fip. OOn " octo<I . bou t 200 el' ""ith an 8·9 Mels uni t.1 Wt D'·.---~:~_____________________ _J heU racllinl the tank circuit (a nd he~ in Irami~l" r eircuit< fl. ~ .002 4 7OpF L J n ': 390 n . .. AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUE S IGf£T VfO The i~~.seoond warllt. t~ ' . I 1 . He emphaant' Ihcrmzl c hanges (which Q.ln o f . • • 1 _ d . Tho _ <aP . .i _ ' • • m •• • 04 w lOh 1\ U . An lOFEr . very lin l...Tipt " by WI DF in QST. a u ilab ilily of rairly Iow-oost llingle and dua l .. n the effeeu o f d rallllht'S.. 2'65 In.:con". ft ••• Lt..). .. • Mc/s).tor is del.o..u'. an d allowed 10 eOnl. bout plu. of W IDF menli ons some >'ery practical poinl s.o.s-:ribcd by W2YM in QST (December..r wire. _ _ Il llt 41' II _ .m..blll t .o.hiliry i~ Often (If r~ rRmount importance. W2Y"! in relat ively ~·horf-tc"" ' lability. 2 N3241 ~ ""'"" lelld to d iffe r fro m t h<nc of ot her . A\ wly sillCC indU<. Oodl/<Jtof" StabUl I)' Some o r the co nclusions reecbed in the 6 n t of • &l'rics (" V.. . ny ot her v.. o ne . d l...ally publish~ in 1939 (bUI probably 1.t. P~" "' . ... d• • • _' .f. dtamt:ler .quct'lC)' drift of IotsJ Ih. . Septem ber 1966) ail undt'fline the impol'Uu1Ce o( tempe .f. Tb . a. o r the inclusion of tile d iode in the sate d.... lft S i:-. se~n pa rts!m illion/ 'C eOfnptlml tributes considerably 10 the frequtncy stability of the wilh . I)'pe CllII "" round in the 1 with . t ~ U p f ..ble wilb It therm ion ic vet-e. "TM. lhe " .adi" communicatio ll5 services "'here long_lerm u.:tIt>C frequ<:neY rll. was . A.1 _" parlicular for m " f ooil wa< fo und 10 have II temperalure si licc n d iode i.ftcl II J().. tor by mitklnll po S$iblc It degree of au tomatic bias consisted of a si lica forlll"r with The wire wull nd In grooves comparable to tha t o btain..p. . po wer) . inde pendemly of the act ual C) C5 <>Ki 1l. Cllf'llciULtlcc {O'2 pF ~ imum). J7 <:I of WJYM'. r aMicu. "'..i lcd ioves lipt ion. pol.in .igncd I" minimize the efTce:t of changes in diametc... dio<k conCCJt:ll'ocN. •.. ..5 5 Me/' vers ion. . . . \lllriab le frequcrK:Y oscilla tor .... Induc tors are euncemcd.Rct : thi~ " aM. I ~' IO~ I OUT ~ur quot es "" me performance tilures . _ I• • Z . 1. erc. ro und 35 p. since we a re seldom conoemc:d with ~tayinl Of! pmj-e ly t he s. ' is' lit S . . than an hour at fhe mos t. .... a nd . r---O'OO'-----'. Pow.... I I". of 1 V 0 by H.>1 .ture O<l the ro mponents." )ol . Thi..v '" . . of the tu ned ~ircui l an d the nururniZllt ion of the clIcet.~ ~2~ . Stabil ity. . 1966) i lhill circuit. worth eonsiderinlt.ciUators and/or butTer amplilio:n.lI be kep t IlIw since the entire si7. • noise fador of 4dll at 200 Me" and a forward ll'lln$<. ~ ·Itomas ori~n. hi'" .ale 10 l mlphas ises tho alU'U(lous of ollch dcvi<..rcu. u. loldhcr with lhe rqula ted powe r supply (whictl would 01 cou~ be cQ\I... V. ol_ ... cnclosoed and d i.. f.:i>- " ". 111m llP~e i '\Il. > ---------.t i. )7 and 38. :It.f. con"""ienl means of &<Ij. lCO RT • •to. 4 Me/ l.. CJ. ~". (or moll fo rms o f wind inll.Recap and I'mlll...e. I" • .. 10 1 wo .r. • 2N32J l beyond qUC1lioo the tr npona nee o f Ihe Q and tc:mperaturc char · lleterislics of the lank ei~u i l. ~ in lhc frcqucll(:y de lerm ininl lan k eire uil of.....rc Uck inK in t he literature. ..o..1'1' I II I Ionll OUI o f prin t) ""hoch pl'CKnt<:d euremdy detll...idity ~urplul tnIlrkel.. _ p ." an imprllVllment of live i..' .. In 10 fill' lIS nce-eom pensared cs...

OICilll."0 believes IbIll we lmd 10 judsc the sui tability of " penI(Idl: valve for oscilbtor ap llli(:lliiool! by its tnm !lCOn" d.lu"''''ir J)~$iKII.J uct. W6KEV IDeI into lhe ques tion of why chang el in heatcr a ~.TIE D VXO ".. ". ba. 1 9 ' ~ .JT\plificatioo to reduce Milkr el!"eet• ...blc minimum c:apa citance..nod Va riabh: crysla l os. Ihis il a ImUer of ctlaoacs in cat hode: interface resistance / / wtlich II very IICl\lIitiVll to lanperahm: : he oon. n. " o r ex. I nlllgcmenta I n: actually leu It..m Ihat by 0 ·005 adding an unbypasscd resiaor in scriCll with the interfa ce II MH ..f. T ha nh to L..u p. On tank ci~itl. . To ac hieve opl imum cond ilions fo r frcquen~'Y pulling.f."'cr." lie Ilnds Iha t loilvcr· mlca-moulded (" pOl tage Slamp ") ftJ<ed cap acito" better than the dip ped Iype. Some of his ow n equipment h. traaseondUlCtal1oCe which i. Noble <hnws that a useful dcgrlX' of cry<tal I'ullinll . imu lalc inductors can provid e greater freq uency ~h i rl"... Thi s is ca pa blc o r providing II theorct ical freq uency pulling of about 7 . ..tal..o.all be I'to~idcd by capac itance alonc pro\'ided t h"l certain <k' ilPl raclOn arC ta ken lnto account. +10V frequency mel.. 40). lie ure '" lilely III require the u<c of d. are .hould be kcpl ruMine cOIlIInUOllSJy.I cireuit uses " hilh-mu IriO<k. Williams. . and he find. of I.. 19).:'I '" I cce I·S. 29 Ma " h...) kH z...sI Ihina lhal ' hould be cxpected of I. BRS2S769.. fre.. we lU'e able 10 include a circu it wh ich ap pears some poin. lie also menliollS W I oontrary to popular belief zero-cocflicicnt ceramic capacitOI'l used in . Ho .*.~u.l ~... H" . not usuall y published : hi! proor the importance of heater var iat ions (IIh(lWft vcry clearly ia Dr 1lwxnas's book) .. lPid 1e1lk (10 K ohJnl) dfected I wo rth while Imp rovement . id..f. .l the cryst. " C . . Clllhode 20S mH poillOnina ). liT!: 3N l ~o t :+OoOM no sudden l . G rid current can be delOCled by • voltqe drop deacribcd but m". ' UllllC"ling the u-'" of a 2 by 140 pI' ganged ca pecuoe. since the iron hu " rat her poor tempcnlture coefficient.f. tie i. uch i". a partl war m an d dry . h nt .---.. W1DF P.".D1ed • desiill for • heterodyne type v...al air-spaced VlIriablc G1pacito "." Among the points he makes I..s.yC c" "..... ilchinllUrICi... I.. WSf) 11C !t~s that the lemllCrnture characterlstlc$ of componcnll of nominally the same Iype differ a pp= iably and recommendl ha t eyelillll lhc tuned circuit eompanenlS or an oacillator : typically tbrell e)'l:les between HO°F and O"}'in fiyc minute eyeles. and gives good valve life since lhe". true buffer.t nfthese have been aimed primarily at thc 1~1l& ICrOSI the buffer erid resistor when chocked with IIl nllll itter v.h ift w. .. and noted Ihat • 6U8A wu eomiderably bellet than the ear lier 6UB.etical tllrltCt.. ha." is the Ia. • I • ..l.. I'F is suggesled as a more .i l:n ouch a lo w min imum is unlilely III he "".th 7 M Hz AT-cut crystals.mple. Sy~ tenlS usiog inductors and active circuits t il ..rme<! t.ers an d tbe v. f•• d V"dtdr Otclllator load.'" "" . .in& dctInite poIitivc or ." He all<! found differences between val-.l rreq""... as in I'ill.voIUlge etrecli II wu foun d tha t " higher aIlOde YQltlgC (105 vo lts ) an d • 10. norrNI l en A o penti.1 upera te' where the . d.men t elemcn ts tend to be unsta ble un. I'I:lil tanoe the ehlnge becomes ba l ignificant. WID F gya : .mH in \DC.. OUTPu!' HT+10 3 V REGUlJt. lml l"lli"SLl lhat . 0 0 v...y tri l11 minlt of ca lihra'o"... W2NXS belicvCli th&t frequency IICnsilive unita-includ ins recei... o lder types of cTY"al migh l be wo rth .. <:ry. a" ab''''::.IC• n=al 61llln: of merit.. BirTlIlns ha m.ta ndard crystals: ~ibly .."'d "a r i~ hlc capac ilance load ing : cryst~I " pulling" by ca pac ita""e wl" nc is Wi""Uy c.. worse than equivalent coils witl\out slup. F rank \V. The Vlllve Ihook! abo operlte dose to iI. He stl'e$$C$ Illal "pin in either power Of YoU... even with careful dc.hile.e ra pid ly (Ihat i.." .lblc tha n th .lope o r its reac tance \..I'e lbar.ed aoJ ... t 'N::rul l'ull inS of a co'}'<ta l by ~nryi 118 the ca pacitive l"'''linll i< til IlC r"und in Uc' ilU1ing fo r the highest poss tbre m~~i mum/m i n im u m cap acita nce ratio. of which lhe pentcde section forms the bu ffer (Fig. been running fnT 2\) yean .I l'O"'.. WI DF state.ever.lI ily a<:hi~. The key t o oblaining the wi<Jc. e""Q Ihi. LoIllhK _ho uld tbeoretically be of the order of only) pI'.' .. tllat this keeps the frequen cy ilCllSit ive ". the Trclnlln. '" )9 pP . ~ . rela tively shallo w. ith both il\du..n f . OUtput \IOl~ prod uce l uch Ial"ie frequenc y dr ifts... . I K ohm I'CSistor . O~II" ~ ~fi .. '" . CdP"d IOl'l • • He . Ihat I lull-tun0e4 coil. Ihe m:n imunl becomes 70 p" .~ mtio of 10 and ..and this is achieve d by llSinI only ."s illlluo:tan~ or .. po im W ilholll beina dri 'IUI ioto pid A nu mber of I table IransiSlOr oscillalOr circuit.e_Vll ive YOIlmC1er. and "'here on ly limited nu llinll ranlle is needed .O S CILLATOR TOPI C S 16' e ~' :t . which for 1110&1 cimlil. but OUs in faa does not Wl'l5tit\l. minimum of 7 pF. buffer lIhould hl \ll: very low YOItago: I... a S to 7 kll . 41.m.me: eXJ\Cri.no:e.oll "'"uld be "'Cd tha t have pl:ltcd area s L lI'tr Ihan twice lhe diametcr of ...o. and 'II practice this req uires Ih~ lowe.f.«. men tat ion with some of Ihc large.o . 7. Fo r an AT-cut' M H/.l Invo lves the irid-U>-tcJttn I'C*'.. He also pain\-' ~ ~70k HC-O OUI I p in that runnins valves withou t anode currents QlUIICI ttle Inle rfllCC resi. drift _ pensatm.o..tors.. IlII d the balic Vllrillble OId Ualor IISCI the triode section of I. l nd not subjeeled 10 normal lur n off "'hC'n nu l 15 0 K '2.'. qucney charactcri.e boen eurrem.. 6UllA (F ig. l tab ility bl ¥<: been raiocd in lhe to ha ye r<:al pro mise fo r bo th transmitters and rcccl~crs b ut corrapondenoe columnI of (}ST.:illalOl1 (yxO$) ~C'1 er~lly u<e ery.. U gyM. .. tMce to inc"". I'Tfiu' " ably because the 6U8A was dcsJg:wd for co ntro lled hut..:t~!ll. allbo uch in praCl i~ ~ tl lz Is a mOT!: real istic tigu re . 6U8A . ith seril. . 'd. in Jookina for ways to red~ hut<!r. A$ part of this series... With /I C.p liYC eodficiroll.. •• T . .

.f_ pe ntode...Electro.. ' 11_. llrId vnIc1I fully enclosed will be lusceptible 10 thl:rml>J currents all(! d lllugh il . Published clrl:u ilJ :.J ~50 .~ plu l 10 els per dellKC Ceutillrude . nallr>oise rarlc sulfen.'61 OU T ~ U T AMATEUR IlADIO TE CHNIQU ES ' ·W I'" er ""n -w (a ) '0 ~ ~ C) lOOp!' ~.r. T he varues l ...cilla to r (Fil_ 33) is based on llle rnue kno wn VIIlve oscillalor develo ped in 1940 by TO_ O. can sometimes n:.. K . Seiler. wou ld bc preferable. . The elfoct <. Brian Rrad.I\llI". . wonh pOi. InCl"ellSing C2 reduces a mplit ude wHhml! \-a)' much elrca on frequency. L. whereas fOI high-C ap plications the Vad.lions (a ) Vac kal a nd ( b ) Seiler o. valvo: equipment has a re pr oducible heali" l cyc:1e eac h timo it il sw itched on. with IUI'PresiOl J:lid eonnecred to eMss is. for • iii&!> BRS2. The circu il ~ lhe traDsistor terminals ""unled wilh very Iar~ lum ps of f.." ..ture drifl . Th e VVC ap prOllC!l.S7 6'} wrote : " I ha.11 to 10 Mell .rtll Top. • t . the usc nf the mOre CWloma ry voltaIC vari3blc diodes (V VC). higharad e doob le-hcarl"... . Cla pp (" F rcq.. and mechanical ly l Ia ble.. an d lhat alXUflTe temperatu re co mpen. With C l and C2 polystyrene and C3 ~ jl~ ­ mit. degree of .Cd box. 1 96~) .nLiI1jl ou t lhal the or illinal Vackar eircui l was inlended l p«:ifoCil lly for h igh·C lu ninl!.cilla lOl1i whik Fi. t _ _.<larly important.sla ten..-. 43 shows tl>c basic CQll6guMl.Qlt. a nd preren bly h iJh . O. and lhe pro tolype will stay zero bcilt with a Cl)'5lal r~ucllCY stan.:llI1 prove "r ~'l" .it.. ll lbould be: no ted tha t a 6ft> would lod a y tIC regarded a. which still h. moul ded mica eapaci ton for rft'd bact ~ircuits. h at been us ine a novel form of volt.. .. ori ginal ly .illilliOf\ iI CQT1trolled by C2.<. ~ UUC Sl llhlll wherr Inw-C lun ing is required the Seiler may pro ~ a better aru .. alL ho ugb o rton effecllw:..:ei~r o n wh ich I am do iRIl some: design worl<. mc:nrai wor k o n p baoe-Iac k.". ThTI'C lpCl:imc.l TR2). The Cl has lhe feat ure o f o utp ut varying with fr('Q\IoII r>CY an lnl. many IX'ssib le applicoltion . WM described fo r t he firlt time: in Tulr ~ .bient tem pc:ratuR . u"n' ''e ca pacitor.loop teclmiq ues. II.ld (-feb ruary. 44 sh<.l istor u buffers do not l ive as high.. s:J ~.. . lossy diodes may prod lJC(l con duct ion d illon lo o a ni! noiiC Inje crlon at hiah freque ncy when .ven COvel' 2-6-2-$ Mel.... Many Vacka r circu it" incl u.. .OIpa..er of the Hart ley or Clal'P form.TlCy stab le LC osca. ".tio n or this I.".u lt in pro blcmi ar isilll from thc: ir 1 0". Vo't " • • C-v-ollMl O rcUkrlor Tn the Wl1nC " f co<per. origillol. "The circuit arose from • search for . . b tlh-Q induc tor.CJ.I/f!r' " The weJl-lric<l W3JIIR " < ynlht"lic rock " 1r:lllSillor o. ha w. fo r eK&Jflple lllo yeo b. o tile output lerm.. oscillato r il <lcterminc:<l ma inly by a. ~ •• 0..tability reoi'lo n l ueh a.< of OC I70 were tried willi tile valu es sllown and all p~ a Ijmll~r perfo rma"l:C.S a n: sen.a.. Th i..'· A«:ord in g 1 J.ross th e luned cir'l.. wllcreu the tcmp:ralu n: o f the W mponent l in t he !rllm ilt o. he filKb It wo rk. 1954) il. This tcchniqlJC u... 42) Which is • 111l Mil lor "enion of the V&Ckar-Colfli us (T esta) circuit sta bility . hi&h bility chafll(.or.0<> ..Ii"" liS • wdl_ deloiifKd v~ ll. G 31llK 11lggnli l b e usc of ..-0 nat ure . and may be more noticeable in (fan siota r oscillat ors tha n with V. ...>wJ lhe original Sci"'r valve "<Ci llat. electron wupk:d os.•. W8PK (Ialc i W2EB).- eco " a-sc '" . t o be u'led fo r a di rcct-co n YCnion rccei""'r.I..n Lcndcd for use at mJ .. . lhis wuJd be ilU provffi by making ('J mixed mica an d ceram IC.cern 10 he C'ilt.sO t hat si.. Soll (W. how t he uSC or II low C tuned circu it. ~ . wilh C va lue. Augu sl. (:apse ilon r01 supply leads. F or good <tability tile amplilude should be limiled 10 a few hWldn: d millivolls.UVCI. . an unsu itable valve for th is appl i<:alioll and a h igh-slope r.ar may provo:beller. II "..agc contr" Ucd oscilliitor whieh does not invol"". 113 bas been IUUCl ted by 03BIK. since. as far '" we are Awan:..tics utend o ver a llInina range (If 1·8 :1 w ml'an:d with 2-S:I f(lr the " tel (194S) Vachl !>OC illato r. U ar c al..."C eeoe rome wor\( 00 a high stabil ity osc illator circu it (Fig .&jc. with fec:d· throup. o f t be order of 1000 I'F . T he amplilude of osc. hn -oKJ de types (c.1_'.llcmpe.o.. bt-avy PUi e Im lal enclQl... G W3JN A.cs wha l is clrcaiw:!y a voftsgo-ronlrollcd va ria. Y eh r or S..lil1j: tile transistor ven iou by BM. IN I. c W OCl 10 ~ .) ln QliT N__ . to .hich . .dMd for how."lCmcnl .. . _ '" I" w In <toolt v..cilW.lly de'ICribed in Qsr as a " low-C. ~lIy willi buffer am plifier$.... 0 latnn " PnK: lin '..S2S769. d" diffil. O W3JNA is using a lechni'luc which ap pea red in Wlrt-/~" W. F ie... It mU ll be noted lha l l ll LC """ Uato r circui ..i tive 10 lemperal"'" v~ r i~lionl of lhe tuned eircuit .dlan<.blc rcrcld in ductaD«.>f l<:mpcra ture upo n the indllCtOf il p lU1ic1.0<> ••• ! v.

....'t hdcs~ lhe tw. a nd most imf'!'rtan t the c:l .:r o.) can be aeh in ed using 11 o.. \'C ltand .." ..IOf coYCrinc ~lO-l ' lJ Mc '! and IJSi... " ..._ _ •• '" h .. _b ~". a.~. . Wllh a " a riatiOfl or O·S Me.. 1 " a. 'ke-: M ~ ~ f:i. The 19M article: dc1a'ibcd t wide-J"&IIiIC' " Obbuh.. With modem tra~sistol'! opc:l1I..:o.. ~ I· } ' " . Oocl/lo to ro Ahhll. thcrdon:. GWJJNA reports lha l l hc wavcshllJ'C i. ntl O. ." G WlJ N .at lhe: ri&hl·h.. ..._ ." __. __) T ' CO ~_ 4 .._o _ ·I ~. ." . on lhe same to ro id : lhcn..•• • " _ ... ~ n.... . ~..h "'.r wou nd so as 1 lI'1 a l'elLoooably tarat= co uplinl with · 0 out thc need fo r . lie abo noled th.... . in IfTI.ldl." _ .hil nc-..... po lo mini " toroid. _ ... ashift in the e[""ti >e ind UO:lllnce fl. "' H.ent i....Mx (..nt ru l _olts! rrequeney 11w b verr linea r... '. _ ~...... _ _ _ _ ..". depcndinll o n lhe mutual indueIIIICe M .14 "101> .. . . t.. . "' LC • . published. ~ ... sinu l ..1Io1e lTlC:diumo.' ±~~' ~. 11. nc.w •• ....o m d. IIticny IhI: oscUblo r luned circui t b cl05l:Iy coupled ttl a d ri>en .I ..1 amp lifier. "" ncnoll) units..'a II t oout 10 Mc!s It .n perlectly WlI:U be bifila. In I96S be lIOlN W\'Ctai ad't1. IfU J......liffe..... ~ 1-<. T _ - .. lie leels lba l ~t h air con:d w ill il mi. Cry " ... " hj«t 1<> c..."Ift" b.... ( ? fo X IS')) ) wllh LI AILl lum . i...~'-. ..lion al 28 Me/••hOtl1<i be no problem ... ~ illdUClanoc n.. ..ld)' _ IIaIo'C hcMd «hoed all IOu olIn'! in CCInIlCClIOO wilh rally oriJinai idea•." ">' f •• J_ ..-. . . .~ II)' muns or " Iurn~ cancel lalio n": Fill..~ ... _ ..u l UnilS MC mo re rel. . bUI the wo rx th e 1111· certai nty o f thc centn: frcqllC ncy. mooJuIatlon. • < ooce . ... wi « _ I. in .. qo as 1949. w 1 _ '_ _ ...-arillbk Clpacilano: in f l'Cqueno:. Ll n I IJ . _ _ n. . ... C . _ .. . VVC diode for a ny pa rt icular ra nlle or swing..~ t.s possible 10 draw . .... r- .~. .and entia or lhe IWO windinp o f lhe mutual iooUl:hna: o. Tho higher the coupling the bette r tbe linea rily a nd the greater lhe ra nge..u'o". ~... ·.DI thra: OC17'O ~ ( >CIC AI......" • _ _ . . II doa not. tn r or Ihe pair) .. .:o. _ . " " . _ _ '''. . ..... 4S. . . (»..~ ... _ . bu t e~pcrimcn til a rc nce<ied to lindjusl how the linea rity compa res with ...... _ 0-- ..1d as Ion. here ~ is t he rraction or the lotal em iuer current carr fcd by llle rig ht· hand transi._ ~ .--"-... and I SllSJIC'CC t hai tl105{ peq>Ic juM do noc bel~ it ~_ com_ m thai \I/lfonlUll.n tami.. r h" (>f the .JlUlC$ IlIat eceruc from ..rl 'h~n lhe {lid . '. n os . .ht he po"jb~ to uw: Ihe lcehn ique lIJI lO 28 Me '" Ken Joh Jl$On contlmK t llatt hc origi Mi ideo.. T ioo ' CO Nola Ih.... .O S C I LLATO R TOPIC S '" ." hle Jnd k-_ .a plol "r r~uency ' f Tl UI volt s W llh • rulct! Fo r lhe indU(to r he used (>I!C o r t he ~II . .01 ' ..rry ..gests that it rnilb t be ~ for II W>ltaF-tunod radIOreailo'Cl opcnlitll O\ct the . .. R :"0 . . . rrwUer irthere is an appreciable capacitance between them an d they o. 1<>.. t hc~ b " bulfm:d Olllpu t.. ferrite ecR ........ttIC: ranlOe or varialion olIuinabic .." .. ... . 4 1.. ...i.46).. _ ... .. . " H[ P80: ~ . ~h mod em cr}'l..._ ..ucht Oft .l ..... . lie commen" thoIt t~ idea . ._ Of. 11"_ ho ."--~ .. h 'C contexl..... eoam . C bl _ ... llo . 1 _ 1I ... .. . .u W. ~ . I .-irtually the _ voltaae swin.•.1l~r than . .. -..1 I-J-+ -!-. _" Cl .. •'" . LI 10 _ _ _. indin..... ..."" _ ..... "IIl he Hu ns ra tio .~ t ion f. ioof " ii Ol urns of 24.·t~ ~la l "l aiC i. 0u1.. T t _.. ...:o.-l-.......... _. . 1It><><l....

"' M l>o.110'1 """n. yo u I>1 U.. I\ ul...]s. lIinB fur " " r~ cu e in d".. H" indICa!.als_ ¥cllI. .irc\l ILIm '. I'H '! ... p"'''i<lc:s Mable 50 kc:/s p. d .. W8~EGZ ..e h_ra... "... vx o . thaI for minimum thermal d rifl the iIlPllly YOl~~ shNld bl: kept ""'hen ..:i'e .lUCNI .50. n Iy n'hct lc <I""" t .n . els ....j . c... d i... ...hieh "..-11 V.. l.. O us Ge rke.. 71h lind 9th h. be llcllicYai. ~han llC In 1'""".. . <l_ _ . ' uld be dMnC'n 10 " IiI Ihe (l$t~lI"{If freq ucncy bu . "'111)' ... l!-a' ~e L t>lJl ..p i"ll f .·11 .·u...-abole IV C"~ le AT .~I . '~ ..! DT... I"...! .I ( . . 1 in .01ve111 ""Ii bu n g I.....de .. .... .. .. .al io" s hOtJ ld N ..o""".1•• ialioos em.e... ~ .J"..l'U ~ . Ihe r. III" I'"Dt".ay t"':"u 'e i"a d i. . !"Xili c. Irim mer rcsona ~.. I.1\0.oviok. \\-hcn 3 ny... .= d ••". . been f....1 1'1-10 pate m fOT vari~bk frcq UC' llC ~ erysl ~l OoSCiH al.. imaldv.")' 'I''' " :1 . '. ihl.. willi Iundamentuls .ry muo.Jcm cq ui.... ~ 11)' t WO fl«<l oil'<er-mic.11 ""11'TItalO his""r ...'ry'I"I• • ....... o... s h 1"l'JCr pt(.e...he harmon~ f'C'IlUlC'ociesl. he don" " ''' h aotdcr-sealbctders . : ... ...ptimom v" lllC's Of C ha....l (Or it iII res ull in a frcq u".. ~ "'<1" o0li '. ..= .i .. m which he c laim. .. 7 _e. alcn's .m."' '~ .lI lOf arTan~ • lDCIlU can be <I. H . ." III n ." h ldl-Q luned cil'Clli' muot toe uscO I.1 '"~ sim llM ...>.ne rooI s u'l4Ib k f.....1'1"....... .. t-TI4 t -t )'P" .e. Mn...n. .. Tr.i"h'~ - . ('urn "1Y'I' 1I1. osciJl. ~ I'l0'O rcrnot ininll: .... btll c.l ll) eonsidelN .. li l e "......n: e". _ ....nl (O a ~pllric>us mode. ~.·line-f.. hC'y nm be ~ for f'h.cquornq. . il1 ha s a hillhc. f .. "h.equmey Sm1lonite. Iab le ' W Of'ICr.. i~ h I.. O>C'rH>nC' Cf). u " " . n appreciably .. i~ IlC"Cf'IIIy ~ n.."" ~" . """ 'Y. all h<lu ~h .un.. TIlio is ..".icn l II " equl"IIIe1l1 l'l:SI$'an« a"pI) " " I) al the ~ frcqum<:y al'ltl ...I lnanoi. 0-.~ •• I . ("". H H l JOo .. fronsmill(n. 32 p Uf" w.\1 <1 u. . knl of 'he "" I ~ ca .he dc!..><lOlarti nl: c ha .""' ..place . " " . ~ ••• . r~...a N" '0 fra~ I ''''''j: l _ G t llt ... U C.. ..~ u Su.. .c mode' .." n llC . 1:-'''''' .. " nd no .. MI.: h ... fllo<J "f!X' nlal." ..cq ue..l h...S osc illal..he "' )~lal '1he...:l...c·I )'rc '"1)"••1 " ni.lW un ••a hle.: l(Or .. "HI U N aM _ qoort- I ..lull . and '" ... i"Il Itl" ~' ' ''Ul'' a f'lCrman"m shi f! il\ f.")'.o I in • • Iu~-Iuned coil formcr. of u!' 10 !>O kc/s Oil 7 Me!s . K'n"'l"'''''' Ju.. he: d ir«1 equ ".d 'nil '..~. .he CT}. r:•• ... in '.... ~Ih ... nl~ ~ of u$inCFET tkvicn 3.rial inn tlul n .. h IllUlkr.! .a.... .iIl dlflCf f{lf "I'Cl<ll io" 011 'he f"n.1 I ' mish' """i 'e . 1'1''7-44. c d LlC 10 I"'rt id"" I. ' Y I'<' ~ I'y.. hen at'lOw ~ . .al (If OIher h3rmon~ oukn .... .h .. A f"rther O c umple is .rf ."'1"".own In Fi.. .ive· n:. . 31'1""'" in I/all/ R<ld. AMATEUR RADIO TE C H N IQUES 4 " O. 1' 011 . C'Il.h. ..j..iSlics ..._ ..twn bel" .1 n" ..c "..."'.. " _ '11· .'J IolH£ .' .. iYcly _--enuaI IK60U suaats 2~ 706.. rc .be .....~.<J lila• •". r I n. so.. T he inaaoint "'" 01 mi~ in u. ... 49 whe re IW F t. 402J 7)......·ide " ."'"Ie1 frc q llen~y v:l. WId_ _ VXO.c<l~ . an..iQ . hy l l rm N tlwll..n 1M POS"I'''~''''''''lan"e ".ue "N'fo... foT SOU'U-c OUI>Je<l' f£T OICmo tor One oI t"" ad . . ~l ~bilil)" of crys lu l...n.. his h:l:l the a"vunl a w " r f'Cn CCI cryST"llIne c <I n ...e-~ r)· 0l"0n ' 0 0 '''' '1<:'' "r """...'. it 'n.i"l( se.xilall•.J. n l indiC: led in a nllm ber 01 e~ampln in Ihil Sel. .'C"CS o f q . C:l ." lu ninl _ hi_"'" """y .. . (In 7 Me/s : see h I.a:1 f ...:IC'r1stic:s 10 prov>dehne "'" ~libf1l. r...l"cn...>oo......... r" OWtlOne ' ) """ M i ..ly wuot."'" fm.... dl"ccllwl) .r ".. 2S )66 2. .....luc (ul ualb "bout :!OO p F)..... lhal ... dyne v. .1'" " Cf\'~IMb ... s od...'" htad In Ilk 1hl< ..n lholn ~l MH I M .. (.....he ""'l<'I.. A " "'.... iM•_ _ _ ' • ' _ IN'" . . K 6nU ( H"m /(<1<1'-..cy " nick .".nih I....~ . """ usi n" 7 Me!. frcquen<a (Tr<.. "..III''' "n" unirOfill siz". f'Il"~ ula .." . "'*.~r:>] "il\-uil~ o n... h ie I<lr re. '" " c<1 pos Slhle d n"" levc1~ ""'lIjM... . Q .. ~ 's m.. U.rlhtln"". il U k 40 10"" of No .... ' '''''>I1l1"""JaJ . lUeu '..abk) II is popibll: 10 ..h ..1 "ku n.1 eryS'a l~ Of\C.:I)·.'te .. l'lo''''' f.".:illa'on u~ i nl funda men lal .c'..IC) . "". l V<l< r--r-.~u... .'a1 Mt h illll .....•• jvc 1I".l> tlI"'Y... hele..ound CNI .r.... hif..1Uy . 11}10 j rep"lI s ItChicvln..u"" l.. Of n " J)" cms: .1 toe rr~ . _ ..... )' n'1j 1" "u' . levels may l>C'o:O.... bk Cllpol· titan lboWd PR'knb/y tuw 51f11iSh..... ~ . "'" r"" nccs """""10.11 .. "'~d '~~ ...~" . Tni.... """.le . ." le..ria rn< >nancc lin. Ouan z c.- .If 4 ~ Mil ... C1 . 11'" in "n~ I<:WI a\f«.. h il.... slIlble ." ""n" .-.. " ·."11 ". although the ''011".F>d (u~~ .r U ltun lheor mo. .! kt....o-e·. .f.r----------· . qucocy " ". . 'To UIoC III' ' . vafi.. po lenlially.1...1 " rc. n. llt o rdtr of 10 pr. ) r.. ully. u ..II1il~l ... ~ll1) "f'Cno 'e in .. )'sl..be posiliYc-'C3"' 3~ nlUok ".n U"..... fl It .ll ll.11:.o.'c.... 1 for a I i. K6111J t'.Ii . 2~121 'J. ..'. d. win. .Jd car.tion .I<k!in... r ' ~P« an: rda ..as be .Ts a rc uSC<J as I $Ou." Ll • • • r ' ..b. r...". AT M-'" ... .....' Mk an: dnicncd fOf" ... mode..... e<l""nc...-4 10 f a OfIC"I':St ioo..' .'y adap. Sach Ctu~C'1CrisIlCS as lol'> 'l(lCralu"..""II.. . will " ft"n be or ... "". l y vulne. h • • • 0-••_ 0 .._ ". -. .a capacllon o f " ppm".it. " " II "II".- o --. rur rl\.cc -cou plal 3IfTllntcrnctlt which is . hod~"t'kd oscilL:aI"'. . "'" """ .a I .A ft . .. Old 1"n..m>osl a ny of l hC' Cilah lishcd v.nl: wit h a b lb.. he hi~ """r ""'er of r~u" ""y .

. llCllOllive ~inl in put swiu..".:il"Cllit wivcn in the Dote abo~) . 1and l'l'posile to l hlll of the Ilroundcd~ thode It.": I nduJl ri" J an d Olle veniofl . itl is that un like mod ~lUldard double.L ''''' O$C ILU.! .. • ~ 5° ..balanced mixers th= is no reqlliremo:n t fOl" pll-\h-J>UII dr. I%4).. bder odynea) of t he two inpUI lienaIa and even order harmo nics 0[ th e input and carr iel li llnala ..nce 1IOIlr<:a.. thf... M.ith ba la l} inll potentiometer..hoch dimil\lllc:. The siml''''r dn llb k:-trlocle .<l aJ . f~tur<. 01 at Iea$t grt3tly a ltenu. . 10 11 LOA D "5 un ~'" OUTPuT U Ufi .. s.. II .ouy... nel laIn .. needed one o r other o f lhe capaciton coWd be a trirnmcr. "'I"•• A no vel oolJ..noeod O1 i~ er usillll two-<::rol.. 0. l "_'1ah ol . 1 - .istor.' suaeMed by G)JOO.K" ... '1 ~ S IGNAL I 5OJJ(lQ F ILHR .: funda· mental frequcn c".31 a recent co ntribu tio n by L. ..5) . • OSl.006l :r Tr.oin. inee Ilin o f the lIl"0 undcd'lITit. Sol ila mod ified Colpit ts used 10 ob tain two IlIOn: or leu baIanc:ed in puts 10 a miKJ .Ive .. b". .Dh.. 11 ill Claimed that Ih is o fTen lIdvlLll l>ta. ta tel i~ equ. Oei sler In the £J~lr""ks " Delillner " ClI. E. ' '1.C/.... .O S CILLATOR TOPICS HT" SOY ... The circu it can be th nullhl of n a pai r o f grou n<kd· CllthClde amp lifl". ri$i"ll demand fo r baIanoed fTllUr Clra. . T .. .t 03JOO r.'SUl-bank frequnK: y syn· thesizer by WJQLV ( QST..! alllpltlie. Fill.tor S "I.. hOllk! be . .et over the popular dic>de qu:r. lellviol the inPUt an d the hf... ~~ HT+ 250Y TENI .itb bases and em illen C<OIIoCOnnectetl ..g a lNo'on<04 I• • """ .. 10rs in parallel.. The con~nlional baIiuJood m i1er eliminates tile os.t"!l<'S dr iven .d p.". ~ .i co uplet. ..ds. /...'ling valYQ was described back in Oct ober 1960 by H . TI1e two lranmlon (2N I30J ill the o rillillll1) h a~ oolla: . in that no lpeci~ l t ran..wltch ea on one trl1n<i..!lr«: t fecd through rrom inf>\lt tQ outPUt call ccc w thro \.! . An ad vantage o f the.. ~ c-or ~ B AN D. " GNA.Jse ( thf.n parallel h I' a pair Qf lf ounded·llrlt..tJ11o .ILt.s l ince t...:rll u tcrn al mi_inl. 52.. lubsequ:ntly turned up in a a.hile the other rema... .. _• • m to\I o ~ 1. leaving a much cleaner OIltput. . " . see Fill...e ci"".NPUT r o~ . About ... . T o pn:y.get. .:illal o l and the in pul si lllllll f~umcy ue r:ancdl ed o ut.:cd inp"' la fo r balanced miller " ~ hall ' . of UVOO""".tet'Odyne p rod uo.0t' f"r 80J0ncood """en An oscilla tor which can p rovi60: balanl. u m ...l$.. " " " " • .. bu t no rWl<1amen lal o. . ds ~ per cen t to1cfancc eorn ponents ~---r--""-....... 1966)... A po$rtive IOUlI lnPUtlllDll1.~ I . l1Ie circu it of a no\od double-balanooed miller u. Hi........ 0·' '-~ II-l 'I .. ..".cbooi. a nd the c Jimpler double-triode venoion uocd by W 3QLV il shown in Fig. hows t!le more elegant venio n usinll two pen tudes s uc h u the 6AU6 complete .\TOA UN ITS hl l HA OUTPUT O$C IU...TO!\ " w ..ve-.. bolb rooeption am! transm issio n means tha t then: i$ ..'-e for correct o peration .'cruon does nc r p rov ide l uc h 1l0 0d IUI'!ll'CSloiQn Qf It. the OIltpUI cumpri_ UIl llCT and lower aidebanols (Ihal i. In a dOllblc-ba\..:iUato r frequency from the o utput. . oull"'t pu. pe••_ . u marty of the unw anted OUlpuI loignals as pouib le.....o.11 s hielded.. Doce moo.. 600 mV oo<:iILilor lienal lhould be uaed fo r a 60 mV ClI rrle r l il(fUll.. the input c ircu its IUld Ihe crysIoI oscilla tor ..! tra nsisto rs (somewha l ak in 10 Ihe . zero at the input freq u cnc~...fl'rmer II required! a nd trutl thue II tome lJlIi n instead nf beina inheTellUy .PASS ... c ircwt IhLII I«1Td 10 baye poaaibilt tic& for frequency oo ub lilll' · cornet y balanced.d 1m ..ate . A TO ~ " -~"' 'Jj:t )'p ~ L.lllh arid-an ud e capaQ~ but il can be more conven ient ly fash ione d wiLh a . PUT Fl.... us ing a doubk:-lriodc:. .ulcod minr both the local os.om""ncn~ The arcuil functio lll best when d riYCll rro m low impeda.-- H ..hc1 on lbe oUler tra nsistor b UI llll'liD p rod uces a poroit. McA lcer in EftC/rtm. • ... T N t...".. "''hen 0scH1o.illl o rr. If aa:unte balane:e . cin:u it of Fi l . wit h commo n aOO<le tNt. inal e d Ollblc triode ~lh-e .: (17 October.

.. Of the FET Vacksr of Fii .1•• • 0 .....y oscillatOr! ..M a rk II version o r .ho de· velcped :r.I~I It is t>cooming widely m:t>lIllilCd that I\cld e ll"tct device. JO .... 1••1'1. fo... h..... o f the Va~k'H lind Seiler oocillalo rs u$in~ M PF I02 F ET. r V. the d rlfl "' ilh the FIT was only about ~ kels (fo r this lest 1M lempera ture of lhe:utlle r co mpo""nl.:r oscillalOr for a . " " " " . AMA TE U R RADIO T E CHNIQ U E S FE. 1968) .4 + IJ V N o' \... iller bipola r lronl islun.'. • .ch II. _ 1. the spread of f ET charaeterisli<. fl. ' This lIUC'llio n abo recetves Cilreru l eueeucn by A. N o . c... I I..11 ""' run OU T Put 1'.duO. I"nll o r all the . bilu.k •• 0 • • "1 .1r In the boo k FIT Appllcml.."" fcrrcd to adja~DI component. in d ose prOl\(mity. . mplifier.. it also iudiC3 tCl lhllt the F ET ha... or pos~ibly CY<:II adju~ted to p rovide equ al and 0ll l'O'1Ic dri ft eha raelen . _ .:.. 1'5 1( t:· ZENER '"m ..i ntl lhe opcmtina point ..... 1 llfid cal'!lll:ilorl~s~tor comh. I'" ) • . . .lm OflCrIIlina. l Oon t 1" . T he orrall gcmcrll thn! I"CS<'mb lca the so-caJled thennlon.< ".• • L. . I ha 'o"li c""'" b uill.. Some o.Vrate tempela lul'tl compcn\Slion more d iffl u ll rcr the bil'Olnr.c. L..• • 11.... !H. tM I field-elTect dc vkcs al e or par· ticular value fo r var iot ble freq uency OOl.. It will be 00 IM lhot the uSll. ' .. The second oom"a ri~on docs Do t aive <lnil' such II swoeping adv"mage 10 Ihe r ET bUI slill sllo.11 1. ~7) wllh cqull lly encouraging m ull. I. and "'I'o m ~nl husiulk:ally on t he r<:sulls ad>icvcd. < ... WIDTr. Ku". _ I....'...tl o f adv ice on ho""his can bc don e..... Lcroc• • W6WQC ln a n in rolllllll ive article •• A uro-lemperature. k Cl» .. tic to Ihat o r the IW'C<! e. and FETa hKv" c~l n:mcly low power di... n umbo: of uiCful (cilIum whell used as variab le or r fixed frcqueno...o .. a re moun'.nKtiOll is Dmitted a nd 11 SOu "". lbtlors nxc i""d .. - M PF10 2 . .ful lmprovemcnt. <..al"" circ uits. appe.:s.rt5 o ff ." ~f" '" 0 "" _ II V . WIDTY. lOOp ' dite<:1 «Iui ... GOmflCMo1kd JI'ET VfO" (73 M(Jj{azi1U'.B{2 N 120 2 2N69 7 ~"..1 c:a n be S up to provide VIrtu ally zero tempc raH'rc el ~O'41 •• "'ll ....o. Altetna ti""ly a Ihctm. Su pport for the vi".... f i T V .o. The tcmJlCralu rc Siab ility o f the tuned ~~ n..". k.'/ I ". Bolh bipolars .a ns o f OUlput but thi.""" ~ "< ..to . an.. I<:.. .: M PF10 2 " ".ot:.. r. G3POM "'j. '" .icUlum n "".~ Thit shows how the temperature ooelfu:lcot o r a JF ET o-<cill.or can be adj ll ~tcd by va.. _ ~ ""iF ra " rw . 'IT GK iII • • or f • • . can be a mplirlCd to a useful level in the two-Slagc bipolar .. poinl o f all ind "idual H oT.. • • 11..."-5c" bmt y f£T V<>d<.. il is nCCCSlU)' for ma~. been de"..f ..fbulJA.. ha..<C o f v. _ lStnr u~ lI\!1ead. ~ . ... even when tlle!lc . nFQ'.rcuil.O .. .. ..:al intended to ta ke adl'anla ge o f Ihis uniqllo F~T prope rty o f zero d. T o. c..f...(. Dccall. e + I' V ' co effident ove r a limitcd tem pera ture range. teet 00 dilf"e rena:. powerful " ' rPOfI fro m Pcle' Manin.. " ... ll-st.."" " " """" £ .. . lO W . He also includ es a pnlCli...niJilily ~a". . " " " " loopf o. . . N • . .. . ith rising tcmp'cralu re whereat the bipolar SU. a bil'Obo r u nit driftC<! a bou t $0 ke/I wberca.. _ Jim Fi. f.. ~6 he 1II )'S " il far su rpasses any v.. lie lIlen lried a co mpa rabl e Sd l~ :urana:cmcn l Wig. oscillators. Th. <lnfl . apart rrorn II Y<:ry shgh! . .omflSrisons between Ihe slability of L C .. and ClIn be used in II.Ib a llOSinv<: drif laud then lurM over.T ... see Fi g.... tra nsL lo r or Va~uu llJ lube" wilh only a ' I kell ch oge " 'hcD t u pply volls were va ried frum n to 9 yolllI." bed 10 RaJio Comn"". .. r-------··" L~ .r... a nd nn oo liceab l<e chiII' or dnn: "'hen keyed .m . de velo ped }-5 to 4-0 Mel' versions .s A .. This FET Q5CillittQr prC>Yid~ only a few mic ro.. . U ..'.~lor or ot her temperature ocnsili\'ll l'CSiSIOr mighl be Uucrled in the source lead to provide a p recise tem pcra!l lre co rrection.cma1ofl have . W4W Q C )S H . pouibly maki ng aQ. h. ipa'ion 10 lha t lill ie heat is tr. the Ft.. . =et>es thermll <Xjuilibrium an d Ihuuld . . rtte l\'Cr .:illat O" It 100 Mels for r ETs nnd bipola". .. be quite l Ia ble wilh in 1010 I ~ ~nds... degradation in the o ulpu l a m"lit u<!e stabj\jly he coul d de.1 dy drift lo.. .mr HwoJh.. CrJPIlM . . Over Ih~ tempera tu re N1ntt<> ~(H OO· C. M PF 10 6 .. U .." ~ o-c r f . ..ompared wil h the: 10 to I S minulc~ o r &0 wilh thermion ic valves. aud W6WQ c prOV Ides a t ood de.. was held stcu<ly).!"um bc:nctll to fintlthc 0t'liLn \. Uil itself II thu s Ihe ma in lim ita tio n on the ' Itabi lity o f the . _111 01 J'IT • . ~ Ia .>I>A.. .~ lit . ~ber . u . .

." I I . 10 per eem cha lls e in sUrpl y resu lts In shift o f 8 e ll . (straigtlt. this circuit.rnmer " (Ox ley De velop" (6) All vari ab le ca paci tors Ihould be c:ffeo. (U ) Kee p lea ds . the RF-26 type capacit<... I.-. 60.) for interconn ectio ns In tile <»cillator ta nk circ:uit.. erage . arb!lo ll" du rlnttt he " malle i tesl "). d ily adj ut ted wh ile nel!ll T i~e feed back r nain ralns low harmo nic cement.... 1 C 2 5.e.. use the:sa me ci rcu ils.f.. lEHfR s..1.t or the r ..o the lIrlot 60 ilCCOI1ds..!... 0 (8) C I C3 lind C 6 sho uld be s il ~ re<l · m ica lype.OSCILLATOR T OPI C S '" 2= ri.'iso lali ns am p lifier is ene nti al. • ".m.-- j I GJKIM lao <l 700 f>F.. uppliel must be very wettsta bnlze d. .tive ly c lt:. .--. bill ferrite co res mu. An iro n dU'1 eore f".r. are I:Ive n by OJ PDM a.. _ e . fell: Manin noICS I ~ poin ts to wlltch . H owever. • .p. CUrmT ts in Cl.. Rl a nd f ET source) sho uld hS\'e s inSle eoJmOlOn e.to".1"".. ~ incroili ble. f" r . C6.II.ha nll:lll ILJpects lhe uni t : b ut at lea' l the: Fl::::T m. (l) use e strong 00" (ditast c r be tll:r).timum er ro r ever ~oo kc/l bond.-t ± 2. " .. C4. Ara l diT ~ 10 surrounding l o lid objects (this red u~ " . ..\lnll screws of (. C 3. the sa in is rc.-. (2) Ux a n FET l'lll""r than I nlve . il. or . -_ _ II _ _ aI cal . 1 SW. 112) rower . _m 4 i . as G 3PD M pUIS It.lIt l It JI _ I . (!) Suoogly rcc:orrunen d tho: p:o uinc V"".).-. _ " .. inlt II 2N3 819 [unction FET irl co nj unction with bipol ar buffer/isolation in a genuine Vacb .---.1Mhin.. me nl ..te res isto r ehoutd be l\ 2-Wllll solid carbo n T 1 ype fo r minimum heatin g and low inductance. (9) Ttl<: tt. (7) Adju.f.. pass capaci lo rs sho uld be lil>e rally used to preven t unw ant ed feedOOck lIl"ng the l upp ly rail " (13) OI<..c llat es.. Tloo • •otv. law wben luning SOD kell in.~ .6K 2 N3794 0.R • ..av j.>n: (s till lvaila ble new Q Jec kso n Type VIOl ) provide a n a lm ost perl'eo. this type o f pcrfQrmance eI..f.ie o utput and drin due to in te . loU M <j. .1 ""du.....'I of pre' .. " OJ PD M is planning to try I n lO FEr 10 see if this miih t resu lt In eve n lowe r .1000 p..t be 'V<>llled.1 0.lin&-f~uency) l.h ..-------. po int..o ncd preflmlbly in an ultrasonic: ba th (G l PD M ..H. 'The: SQ-aIIk:d aJ.lt i$ a bout l Pilrts in 10'l W hile possibly no bod y co uld rwuantee that such fanw tic: pcrt'ormallQC i. (I I) Circu its u. 60 whe re G l PD M hIS I:Omp. th is 5hoold be an air-spaced tri mmer : th is l ilows ad j"" t· ment Qr feed back 10 lhat ci n:uit j usl . . lkt~ Ui of pe rl'o rmance . Ca pacily is 6· ~ p F .. C f. .. h1ft or 6 ell. ... hOM..---. T+ ~ n Ail fl. A wa rm-up drift of m ~Is (caused by the Pl~un:e c:apaclll ncc: cha ngin g I S tbe F ET warms up) i.-."4 . • • w l. I I ' '0 • ai . trusn. 2Op~ C3 '.. rm-UP d rift.. I nd are e ven chea pe r. a lwa y..kl r ~il'\:ui t . cahbruuon. ws arc roc I tun inll range of 2 : 1 and are llOIuseful for normal l ma ll:u r US<l. a foed baclr pa ir. 12 kc l' " withou t a ny Ct>dginJ. goi ng to prove rep rod ucible. an d d isc eeramfc by.~kl'il ioch an e nd rc:su ll P<'SSibie.f. (10 ) Use o f a bulfer.. with C I /(04 + C6) ..t thi.. 8a to 6·38 Mc ls is. lhey a re rTKIre sill blc. A lQ'Ner COS I dev ice il Oxley's " Th ermo Tr imm er" with II more res tricted (b ut usually a deq ua le) tel1l(l<'ral urc ra n..ide th e fET llp pea r to inc realC dnf! . (4) Use a higlHiual ity va riable: "" paci tQr." l~t:iJ II I: 2N3619 0 II 0.c.I. t. T he I ' pelint' Iis led lbove sltow t ha i to a chie. 1 1 0...--.."'" freq uency: "" /Iag e J IiJ/Ji/(ry -<withoUI zener d iod e).nll harmoo.-~... . C<om • • r1_ • • 1 • • __ at aha •.ooo pam per mi llion ..tred the d rift of his FloT ~... last Iolllff......7 I :non I '.__ • • "' INU' U ..G .-. (Thi s u''''l11y mea nS usinll c ne of th e li.·.) (14) Ce ramic con fo rmers are p referred (u am p le • Ekc"o~lqwJ TO ·5C.t i<'" of h~Tmonic: .7K i I 1--4 • I I <l'1'f l W Il K .<l.illato r compone nts a round The tuned c ircu it (l . (5) To red uce the hea tine d feo.I.:tricl t aDd mo. rea lly doeI ma ke a diffe mK:C'). reIUrns 10 wilh in 10 C.... .r cin:uit covering ~.. re~I<JbI/iI)'-llner . to 6 Mcii ). The I lllbility he: ach ieved u. W. rcd.0" ~ .. QOO lllAN$(fIVf. W ith . . 70 p. ..lOK . RI . (""2. and U511: sTlff wi ~ (16 o r 18 i.n om ina l capac itance is 2 · ~ pF wilh lem pe ra t ure ~'t:Ie mcient ~ar iable from + 1000 1 ...ow al 0 1.01 ' uon :t :. inS a d iode from tllIte to ear lh fo r reeulicariI'D Qut.0 10 _ 6 l PPrQKima Tely. in D ilio<l tc the warm -up drift d<l and 10001:· term siabil ity considot:rtd a bo ve. Jro/e lI_ i/r-ma....lta ble temperature compensation can be p rovlded by mea nS o f a " Te mpa lr. 11IIiDst IMI of I f200 tra rosoeh -e r... a nd t~ rter ± 2 c!s pe r 30 miomes_ tb.e. " GJI' DM .t1.ln· siderablc care mllSl be ta ke n In the: elc. fiT 1 .. Sc>mc idea of t he: degree of lm pro ' -e rncnt wh k h such I u nit l'l:JlA:$Cntl over currem Sla nd ard' Ii ind ica ted in I'lil. ilila t<:l v. witch ioll o ff for 12 hou rs.

". been describe d by 1"'0 Ita lian ell. The report sn..rer CMraelerislic of the MOSf'ET.on 1(1 d rifl by Ihe cireuit rt.. e 1M tnm.. Whether in pra ctice thh "'_ sutts in a .riab le oscillalur : an ollli inc i\ . fairly q'N . he CircUli works wilh"ul allY moddicat ion u around 4H kc 's. 1_ • .i!I. ...r.. of this type can be readily = dcd. in addition 1<> the I .s. ha. sq" are-"'l!ve o utput whcu powered r---. Con trol'''' o. " " Ul'lrod uce a moat $Iable ..g.. this ca n he remedied by ino.--.. it i. With a 2O-volt 0 powef eouree. .u pplr..~ u .c.h each sta~ drivcn from II ta p OD the emilie.11 0 " d l.inte rs (Col li a nd TOnlu ". Bnd fed hack 1 ~a !e 1.m.• ... vollnJe " ta ken from the d rain.• but \'Uri ltioD rrom O'S 1 1·2 volU should eeveume effect. .. d •.f. ..i/iClint impro"" ment DIUU be ler. I<) o thers to dCl:ide.o22~ '" C3 £'1_ . l'lo indica linn l' j ho'en or the oOlpu t vollace.. bUI f iy. crystal blJt . Th e.c... slabilizalion nnd the impcdaua: of tho synchroniring drive 5Ouru: !lh<:>uld no t exceed 1000 ohms .nn. oU'put is about 2 vcre r. ariati""..l. He has used Ih is arnnaemcnl 1 obta in 3· ] Mel..~ ·+14SV '01 ~ t • • ' '' M ." I.I. Slcl~" AMAT EUR R ADI O T E C H NI Q UE S . .i . transistorized lod::ed-osdllaloT (r«l\l~l>C)' divider which ha l • nwoller of U. 'J • . The IlaliaM sUllF"l t h~l while the former keeps the ou tput r. I : 6 and l : 7..idal . tor sho uld have good h. to a 1000 ohms load .. --"' OUTPUT I "~ 2~ op r " . AI lower ftcq uencies.rca$cd cryslal nct..'ide. .e..s.. lile limilalinn is virlua lly lha. SUs ~l tha t this i..oIC<lr..s a clamp. cir. '''Nu_ Iou w ith 0 "' u h .. C).. n r..oid31.ng ~....... oIl. A hl~h" l lbility Cry.ll! • lempcT alu.tti) in Electroni c ~JI!fn (19 July.lly de$cribed by J'(:ler Suller.. when the on ly ava ilable cry.. lea>'.' b l. inu. 03J0 0 . diode is cennecsed (1 t. Divide. it "o uld seem fn"blc to inco rpor le lhis e. .h b l '" . 62...a. S'l'o. . of lhe pre view. ' ll ~~esled tha t the OUlPUI may 1101 be pcrfC<. d ~u .T Vack ar oscmaioe. 2N 384 . ..e.--""t-:-:----. illu.. Ic\. draws euecncn to. re"dhack. impk . hQUo'''''n.I. ' ..ys tem th us pro. ~I ~ . a . For relillblo performance. bet leT l han ± S per cent al freq uency ratios o r 1 : 2."'" "' '" :": ~ OUTPUT +I2 V cs l20 p ~ 2· 2 ~ The divider. TroIlJir«N' " '"'I"ener DI¥/der Barry Priestley. ".lro f0UJl4 1 work..'uy "tree Ii"" . The .la l w..c:c.. The circuit Iw5 d. "".<. 1969). cha racterk tlco. u..a <a • • o. wilh ocalod ccmeeeeet values and a 21'1 2369 Il'llmiSlor.:---.c . n 80 Me!_ drive.c cllarlclerishc of aoom IWO pa n ..1· "'" · ll& a free _vee ~ L-r'_... cuit i. O.cm"tor.n:as ing the "lIlue lOr C.-el col'll'ltant fnr d.c.. wi. rabto.yily. o rigina.wave rath er Iha n a .u 0 6·2 Mcls : he hu ... .... pro portional to Ihe output f. 6 1(a). with synchronid nll d rive app liW between bas and earth.. . from S to I S .. 11 010" Ol . Ihoug h co mpo nent >"Iues wou ld h"\ll" to he o ptimized . ~I lb). 1I1fT1e fo rm of a . because 0( ino.r... hU I .e I free In provide' . \\ hik lherc is perh aps slillllnly limited dcmll1ld(all hO\lgh an inun<ing one) for "')llal oS<.. eo:n gal e I amj e~..c..\ ly .f. 11M: circuit lICU running oscill ator..-oUlpUl dual -ga lC M O Sf l::. but becomes a good d"" l mo re ail ~a l (as doca sup ply vollage) al ratlot of I : S. rK\lcnt ial.. I : ) and 1 : 4 o ver a wide s upp ly voltage ra nge. 11 m us t be nole<J th at whe n 11M: correct aY l>Chronizin$ drive it not applied.. nd dafn ofll d ual. sta liC. i$ only ocg h ~ble COI\lrihm.." 10 the 1l1UI lcut: f ig. • .= • Low. fo r t be division by four t of . '''' .. vi.-' .. nf lhe Cf)"$tal il!\Clt).inc-wave signal. Any good sneon r. Op limum input is given as 0-7 volts r.plitude. .. f~dbaek . sYO'ern in a >l 0. thc IIIIer keep' lhe (lIlIPUI wa"er"nn .. n gale 2. T" o bla in muimum l Iab ility from an oscillator.. wn.. 00< 111. tv p .e.ho w" in F ig. loo p it desil'llble. 1 he compollCnl yalue<! an: " ptimizcd fo r II IG--M c.h Ihecryslal lx.o"" Ihal lhe loc k-in ban dwidlh i.~na tor circ uils in which l h". in spite Dr lhe "Iuarc· l~ w trall . Th is co mPTi"" a modifocd Piel'<% mcilla lo r clre uit wi.. in 10' per 4e8""" Cen l'IlrAdc. 6l provides a cryst al " cloc k ~ p ro vidinH abo ul 1 " ult nI' SOIl kC/.lH I oscillat or.isa of II gro unded ·bMe lIscilialor.•. pte MOS rET... ilh a similar fipm: p"T volt chanse in . H .m . wilh IIClligible harmonic co nlcnt . s'lpply .f.e.. 1 ) . 61( 0 ).. ~ . bo th d...al Of'S should be fed o r .i Q . igr. . "m"tor " Ideally prod uct detecto rs and diooo-quad balallCCtl modul.ilched "" th II square. outwr '" " '"acc a 2 N2219 . Such I 1 'C'C hniqlle mish .. ~hown in F i. and ...t 0.. ..

Thill is.II':. see Fig.:. 1969. '''' h• • "." ..le {)¥.. ~IT~~J. ln. ..... ... Fig. u. cl lI i m~d a' heinli: suilab lc for c ryslals fro m 1. e.2R O circll it dil... TAHI. T a bl" 2 shows thc elf"" l on C2 if the resonan t Ireq ue ncy rs a t its . l' f1ICtical tesl1 showed thi$ to be simple an d slroigh Lforw ard wilh no ad justment and no "or/ie$ abO<J l sclf-exciled osci lla tion.. " Fe . The IwO lra n. sccn . F2RG has develo ped a venalile ".al 1O\I fCC' i. 64. ~ Un. helps to reduce ~ain altellnalio n with i ncrea.h"ltl . ' .-.E 2. ~l blc to mod ify the conventional Colpitls circuits so lhol lhe crys lal OKiJlates o n a l'Qluired o. u.ill blc Wlpu t o n 144 Me!1 from a n 3 Me/$. The Ii". Wi lh I'lIt-o fT freQucllCl n o f lhe order of 500 Mcls.I•• J n 011 IDn. nus de vice " as buill by 0 8BCO..o~':.... The circ "it will then be del"ll<' r3tive at From Darry lind Kay Pri cll lcy (G 3JGO. operalinj lhem nn lheir funda men tal I»' r~ lte l rcsonlll'lOl: "". 1IlF i. an d so it is more convenie nt t o alter Cl to adj ust the excita ucn..ilr 1110. . lhe 1 geomeTric mean o f the fundamen tal a nd (SOly) thi rd o see.j ucocy ~ll y' '''' "h "h "' % .. II looks like lhe familia rtntel. n < .. l.:'. will eesun in cvertcae oscilla tion.. . ba lteTy I nd cry51al should bel enc losed iQ a mell l bo~.... a pprco...l. .. CrYllO'I Ol~mator There h~ ' e been mnny cireui lS for transis lo r crysl~ 1 oscitlunrs lhal do no t require t uned circuits. A n llmbe.OSCILLATOR TOPIC S '" r-r.. 8 No\'<:mbcr.. ponlna . is bla sically similD 10 a Perce o.Dd 1.'G3XIW) comes cmcrlle<l .-erto ne.f.. t. in the orillina l circulI ere D SY39. tooe.. The o""iltalur . then lhe combi na lion loo ks like a coil at lhe funda mental blll a som ewhat reduced <:apa<. ·1he geo metric mean of ftc qucnci""" "nd b is y"{abl . p."t~ "r -4 tllm s • u ••• "".t"~e 0.. .nlirc uni l lnclud in... an d provided there i.C2 re>OnallCe as percenta ge o f " w kin g fm.ll.lnc.'Z ~"..".. .20 Mcj.." 1 . o f "a r'3 1iol\!J were a ttempt ed and lhe mod ified "cRion shown herewith Compa ri'lOQ wilh lhe . This means Illal t here a rc mo re Ij)lIlious ootpu l$ than ir tho QlCiUalor werc o pcralCd as an ove rlooe lIuit.m:~ tn:I.. "" lion o f F.: a re a num ber o f d~tall d iffe rence<.'mulliplicr wdl kno wn as a valve circui l .. circuil.. sisn~ l lOurcc pro"idin . i. by da mping lite uyslal o n illl fllnda men tal or u n_ "Inled lower o~rtO<1Cll.r---r. F2 RG stresses thaI 10 a~oid SPllriOUS OUlp uts l he e. C2 values depend on keepinR t be eorreet reso na nt frequency.l..nce al lbe Ihird i O\<:rlOIl':freq uency. 7Hy' 28-6% 84·~ ~ flcquencie•. T hil circ uit stems fro m Roberl Dilli" n in f:1#'1 "... .. . 66.k d U. 100 TIU 10" m " ..ith lhe fu n4a men l.. 2N914 or simila r dev ice. Th e L.ncreasc.". _ p l.. BSY38 but Ihe.tor instead of dow n 10 ca nh. ...~jnll (ffilllency.. 1-1 "' d iD "" • . ideal" ~a\ue (gwmclrie mean of wamed and nea rest unwa nted frcqucnc":sl. a nd the usc of a aimp lc !inlll e tllm OlllPllt loop al the ean hy e nd o f U . Calp ltu Ove.h u Do "" U I ~ ...(. bUI il mighl be won h Ill~ti· ". Colpl tb O vcrt<M1C Oocillalor only by D 1'35 ~oh m~rcu ry cell.~~:'~ or.l Colpitts arrangemen t. d .omc lhe common dilTlCUlLy tha t such osc illalo R tend to be mo n:: Lricky 10 " dj llS l compa red .00 Effe<:tive vlIllIe o f C2 relali\'<: to ac tual "alue L.r. . . "" ' ~ In .'.rystal lo Ihe ho I end alIne induo." ••l uD by . l n d ~ ../r rrronir Dr sl/{n (l Feb ru" ry. ThD COUPl ln! IJ . b ut eeot he r has bttn pU I forwDrd by ul l l"li~n ellll'lIccr In the" IdCM for Dtsi~n " . . bo " '' 'n "'D •• "'..ably in relll m inil ihe o. T he F Ihol I her~ on:: lwo e miuer bi. 1968). cr>"tal b lllfid e ni 1 use II as a minio(ransmitl~r o''l:r a d i. '" OU TPUT the Iundamental bu t regeneralive at UIC overtone fttq ueilCY .. to r..u m shows lltal lhe. :IS no "' oil IIn k.l ll{~.h .~~: J":: ..h. ~ . I . by lhe C1'Y"lal lookinll lnlo lite blLSC of TR2. co uld be replaceo. but wilh a n emiller followe r which . ...tln ll u a sim ple local oscill alor for a 144 Mels converter o r u lhoe Ul rt o r a 144 Mcls nansmittc:r. ". il is act stated.. '.h:'I::. mos l no licc. lhe in pul imped. 11 • ••• . IIDw. FET '« M<:fl S. lise<! by F2RO fo r such purpooses u 144 Mels n:ceiVl:l" adjU$tmcn l and for testinJ aerial p:l!le rm.11I"1'" a form of ov~rton~ oscillator wh ich appean to ow:n.. It i.> . 6~ the ad d iLi on o f L to the co nvcolional circu it resuits in the tullC(j cin: lIit C2 L If Ihis i$ reson ated 3.--r-. Th~ lalter conl... 0 ta noc o r 2·5 Iun ).l br 2N1Oll .tlid ent gain...

1_ .. ... . uf cl«lw n. o o<lII o_ " I .. .J1. and IhUl faril itatillr: l'CllIOle <:ontrot. Edoon... .. rhi.-.""... an i.... Ol IV tll W •• •• • d ' g d.1l1ed afCmaD)'..emcrn .-1. it may he fOlUld lha l lhe noW ~idc:hlr>ds :>.1'>cn a llc: pcinl m ro mod ify :>.. P. .al ~ll. 0..n an y oll1'>c 0Incn..as lhe: DJRR nn: uil .lIor for • «III'~"ct in a mobile ri~ with . 1."1 • short Ialalh of wire in fO the (Q-IAial socket. . poinl~ OVI 11\101 .. . 0 1.... it il..-ol . ~ t D.... 100 pf fP. .lIn COOV'efIi".:illa lor rollowed by IW BF2U ~IaJCI (triplerlJ.eloJ''''1 menli u ned In lU I hnub). p ubli. ..aI 111M lime of pr~tica l impo rl811«: n' llinly in the field o f llIi.~~ .' N . Kducin.?:. 1.f.ed lX:R mk..:i~.. :. . COllU'pt . a .. aDd .' 11' H el .~ rxo rf>' r.4) or l OX.u. Wl lter S<. i 1" f "'. T. ..-c r«t:ive.. ". _ .er Iimll M ." libralOI __ the SUtlOD 1 IT1ClfecoaOU1l: . '" ". from U .10 rnA meI« in lbe + 9 ¥OIl . t Ill..It." . _ tlr.~ " ""' 1. nin. m~y " e n toe unfamil.. ".....f" ""lIllro " Ill inaculllBly 1:(IlOO Ill' apinsl ' he a pl'l'rcnl limimllon of O'II:illah... 10 flw.. _ 111•••• •f .' IUhslJlnlially Iowcr 'han fur 7r11Cr dioda. voIlage re...blem.. H ... "'" ~ .<11 . _ I or L.. ' . ' •• C ry ol" O K I/Ioto. ~ "... : =~. 10 wtlicb IIUI osall alWlIliI)' be._ w l. 2·2 ' . ~ p" .$ well kno"'o lhal lhe ..7 •• ... F£T ~d)' Iol:fOI& the pilll or the (r)YlII1socker. 1.. boca applied fll'llltlI iC' UDit Ill " low fl<. O Th is unil ha a sweep o r ± 20 kc ~ al l J6 Mell a nd h intmded for use with I~ ha" ... ~'2 _ "'" _ _ . 1 . ol 9 Meli . appeal'll in Ihe r:n.._ .mpltflcr\.'" 2 N3 619 "' H A Ta u" RADIO TEC:HNIQU I! S ...W.II.... .... 1. ~ . ". OJ9ZR . 10.:Ire: JOOd. IraMftI~ f.. T1Us VUl. lbc o llM'riadudor. opmIl ion . ' 0. J'OOC 1. rillnl<>rI b y W.....:illator none il . _ewyoul _ e l _ OJ:lUI • •_ H _ _ d .. !lAdconsi~uor21 tumI 01 21 " "'. "nlla. the .. dl'Clp& from J rnA to 2 IDA. The ~~PI uf oscillalar noi"..nly be . Ed.. Ja n M _NlXd. the valuc. mltln" by c~ Irac1... __ _ ~ .e... No 2. . Ua nllmill « for c.. Top 1 t . . ..hidl I'l'O'I"fd '<:r)' mudl eeue.U ". 11 bar.. Arloll'>« applklliioa is to 11K II U • •'np stale Ioc...e . . .Wlc. . .m..lu. OJt:l1l ' ...f101)· 200 ell ror ± ~' I OO kc" . ~tfoon. :. nPJIP VH F C _Io.: . U ...ti~1Cd VXO deicn.." ..:hreucr . . '" 0 .ar 10 mHny rc3dc" (il I..e.. 1..HJ. dl. only j UlI 'lIllltuly _ than f" r '" «XI m W >'C'IIC't" d .n ...$'Ii ..:.. .. I.. LA'A K . lJu..~ . r.hcd in 1953. 'hen lii'lll ~l...nals. 1 . by K . Ma y 19691 .••.11 10.j 1:.." wrote : " It . FT2. ""' q..0 impro \'C d lha l they no l" nltCr repre""nt I rcnl " ".uw.u lalOB iI '1" ile prad ical...1 UI • . ilhi" vacllllm lUbes te l • lo.' .nll ChOlrllClerislicl o f recetve rs hoI'c: been . f../40kels.~I. Nni niolOl "rc: •. !loU a u!lCful InlrooJ uclion I.-enoon..c:::.. _ .'rowI .. '.) < ..~. • • ......Iin. tncorpor._ . reIOllalea a l lho <:r)1w frequm<:)'."..houJh 11M ~)'WI of Ihc QtCillator b DOl' crilital.1d bc:vc:ry " <:leIn " .mecc r.fU4 <rIpI.. . Mc.~ ..:~..~_.... low.-J formct atw:l 41 pF Iud ceramic:.m.~ QU5in.....~ . desirable 10 e1lCfoM.. 1'1 The..d.'l (:lySlal (HC\. 2O---3O ell f... ~"". ft .hlb l.I. Ii""'" . .. l oUo ll " </0 1... (Vnl 1."J. ..~ O.. Ll ~ 11 C ..m.. < willlin ... of .. and tune C1 for mallilnum .t:>. T ". il in • ~ ea-o 10 mtuce ~ ndUtion... X IYl . I I Is lunod by lhe 2-12 pl' capacitor C2 to lhe 1 metn:: baD. .l raooJum emiu .11 i..:IOrs a noJ lhe cor ""r><mdin. Almosl aDy crystal _ to wort sa tisfactori ly in lhis d rrui l arran. Ah.d...."". II II cbinable 10 wirv fhe p ie aad IIOIUU: leads oJ lbe To let up lhe caJibral or conned .U .'" .. ' "onl • ~.... " lid cono. ~ r . 0:. Wt<ire .nlJ . 0. as.ound IU I in .&nil ~I lbe tJUI of L1 unn' 1 cum:nl M madin."".. . I.-. J. place the .".b-millialurel..f. i. ±20.. -0 . lie wmmmll : " TI\t cMq>lion .r Md $illnal " na r. hiPQ btul lntCl'JlOlC'd.'. : A soph..002 ~ 6 -eo-.hird MTTnOftic:..W. I""d repllali"".'Wtt Irms.:. "' . hic k &R inaeucd 10 2S turns on. comprilela 2N J107 -. II " - 0. G D ' . 1 _ =~-:.lh a 45'4711. • " _ .00.-.ma ll vollalle....1!: 1M priu .WOUlld on a' in. LI . k_ . ."'1""'"1 1 l hat Ih e lul'l*Y voI'aa:e . _ . '""" _ n o. VU('u"".m .... • OId/r"t..... thc ad)llCCnl cllllllnel pc.. I cz. AWl4in fonner.. .. .... W.. ·1 u . ....ode .l.r ic is slUI IU t lhe gopacilo l C ll. . Timrnan . 1lCl: il 1i"""'1 shon term driflof 10 <:/1 In IS minulCIror ± 20 kc "l." 1 ' _ _.luriat: CIecII'OlU(: h._. Tbc: .._ " '. a nd c unrlll waste.. ' oJ _ . or a. ...:: _Io ..••• _ 141 H </ . ..0 " "''' ' ' of 18 s..11101" n in 1-1 10..1U • • '" 9C ~ 'lll01l ..:. 14 Me.1..". My . p"in ll o ut tha t even . U .

m. This is IlIOIher reHOli wily .. In h.... n.mately lillQrfy .. Ra4 if red btlO Illc miltcr ~ thai the nceivec .ID..1ges a nd theee will be tIld. Wa lter SCh.. ... 0.---::i---fj-..t be 1!J1:nOd that. rden'ed IU a ba.m. . Jr. ._ C". nniill: .. reject ion of spocil\c dis=:. ~.... ~n 01 /"lICICIoen for profCHKInai purposes an: &!rudy LJJJr. .:t tr...lTicr .1."..roduco:d ~ _ _ .r. .nw.d represents tile Delt-bu l-onc hu rdle .f.. IOUrhly 6d U ru.. noise pt1l$Cnt in t hc IMQllalor lpeclru m .I IO Jr. w l\iel'o ill II. Edsoo poiIlts OUI that in 10m:: ci n:umsunocs il may be btIlt1" 10 amtnIta OIdllations a. ..!l'l hi&b-C? l Ulled Qmrita.• . .• varicl:r r..inbly hi. nd 7t h .acJr..m . oscillator noISe fallt olf YeT)' rapidly indeed a nd lhaoc: eIT ecI.none when used in c onju nc rkm . f hu w i• • h .\H$IoI JTTl:1l .. in amateur pn<:I n • . lID thil dooI lIOI a ~r 10 be wha l i. The = i!. I b ee ..m. YOllall"'" a loo all' lct the OpeTaUoo of OK'illalon .tor. H pointe<:l o ut thaI *ttilc . a nd v.:t rity in hereol in a o. F<:<:<1b.. k-. 1'X.10f1.I--..... .. oip>iflClnt problem Rn.h.a: ha oe a~ noise ou tpul ee ue sip! ADd ilmte frcqtltnciel. believes thaI !he noise ~led _ilh w. a l ahoul Jd Hl octa\"C' of /(Ql.felTed 10 a I c il bandwid th . c itanee tip..ized lllat lllCl puri ly :1$ of IOlIIe frnJ ucncy IYIllhesizers now uKd io co mmen:ial pnctice waI insulficiatl 10 PRYmI intcrfc:nonoc 10 adja ocot channels : see F ill.hel rot bipolu tnmJIlon !han foc tbcrmionoc valves. b. ng.. oo Jl1\lll lceh n iqucs.:ialn "....silkbllnd fr cqucncy).tl _ f . idlh el l c iS..c lpul'ioln frequmcio:t better than lOOdB . av .oe DIIC . i. (5) T ypical lKllM: p<>"""s for tM OIcil1atot retatiYe Ie !be Ci rrioil' a l an cm illCf" CU ~I 01 I rnA a re J..-illa lor OUlpu l is hardly Ukdy to $pR3d 10 the siPlllI frequellq'. Simila rly if lhe Ullnl ' 0 mi nc i y.aYl 0penl le os h'e h lIS t heir llflh "y <.. lhe OLllpu t ma y IpPUr liable a nd apparCR lly dea n.f.. Jo nes. T tl.. 71.. has co rrapondine s pread of OUlflIJ l il will be am {llifled In lhe ma in tl'llR'\IIlln er Sl.II d ldo:bandt) produced by a 5 Mcll ~ Inm ister osal_ lito!" usiD& I of lnnsiIlon . Ccruicly. diffe r .. hilc f. mod ulalinl lhe colkd. has measured the lI()~ (un. tigrlaI a loo pide I very lou d one..d IIld Ihm a ll eatuala I/lIm bel'ore app\ialioa to tM mi«r In acllieYe!he 1'CCl\I1~:larnJ'lO speclnom. .... Both cna ble c l')'1Iti ls 10 osc iliRlC in lrd . TbiI il COI1Ir:lf)' 10 wha l OI\C wou ld Upa:1 if it _ re assun iN th a t lh c no rse . w .als.. hloMlCR in e· (21 A.- .. prac:lkc a ppr«iable 10C31os. ICOflleS rre m ll>c American JA N e t)"llal Iili .illator noise iI DOl usually reprdcd . W6AJF .boul OIICi1lato!" IlOI$C: and jn ter..... for eumple In micrDW1l'll:l OIClllatorl WlII:d in p.. onea rd'ernd 10 10 lerms eI apcctraI linea as det«1ed _ a spec:uwn anal...buG depiction Ia)'l'l .+ + -+-. 10.any lipillcan l jlueT eauso:s lhe receiYel' 1 respoDd 10 loud...l.or. •. U II w 11. oscilla to r cin. '" J I-. The croer."'f--....nJr. the: noite aidebandl ocrioully I'ell rid lhe ch oke of l. . '.uuestcd Ihloltllc eaci~r fA a lra rwniller needed TOulhIY the . II . ~~...atla1of sp-m oul ovet a baDd of f~ ill thl: 1)'pc of wr.- "'f-. Ian a ls 0 ctose 1 Ille d<:altcd ligna! freq""ncy.. A1an Ju bb..1n.:"u ino:rcasc as lhe e:arrier power incte:ucs.m IR DOisier by 6dH lMn field e!T. 51h . 01 no _ . III rnkrowave ro... litlhlly.. G lPMR finds tha i 1M DOOse Pi""ft' rdllivoc 10 tIw: carrier . UN . RK VVUl INTfR. G 3DY re pnned on two osc illator clrCIIII.+ + +:=••= = =I NC IlSlll' _ 1AN 0.ion. 11 is no t W CORlllloOnJy rca lilCd Iha t noise Cl. but ... II mu.. 72 stcms fro m a n aniele in 'J (J une .t . 71 ha ve pro ycd s uuable in a nu mbe l o f di ff"re nt lIw:ill~IOti. evert th Ollg!l chccJr.ci~ IN Icx:oLI oaciIlator may in f..I onl y bcconx: a pparenl when tTyinr to l'lll:dve a . in In ad~ dllnncl. i.-. power asci lla lon . G lPMR..RING _TA..r.od lr.f..ot II mlw 1UncIlO r" \IlI lidac tc>riIy ""Ih a t leut '19 per cen t o f surplus t-T24~ c rySl<lls In 1M 5 10 II Mcls I<1n~. <n>:nooc CI')'1lIa1 O'\CillatOl c ifcwrs for use wilh lran~slon ma y be kai on. .llOr..J..(..r.... F ie...c /s from lhe c:arrier .uw:: propoll ion 01 tlte f.jth cmillcr r.ll t lhe W IlleS shown In Fig..1--. True o ve rton e crysla l.' 11_ . '" _ .. ~s1 y e~ link flUbllcity has been liven in IIIII!Cur lue lOl' U'" 10 tile Circuit recommended by t wo IIWII ( rysliis li l'lll-' : _ Fir.-c.. . noise flUl ofT n::la livocly .lj.in1 . (<41) A t..GIl with 0 . 111 YXw o f the importl~ of Idjacenl channe pe rformatXe of recei~ a.. of e«iUal~ OUtpu t aDd KkaMty ud with d=Uso! off~ and iohereal aoise of lbe Q/1"C ~ ~ deYJ... Pwity ~ wi !l'l iD:::r-. Edson ahowl lhal the OUlput ~ from aa . G 2N H noce<I Ih.." s h" wn In F IK.. •.:iIa. . 1O lim itiAc \NbIc rmwtiY itZ.n de .ood oscilli lon.if"IC d fo r Woe wilh lruc oycnonc c~t.. idintl lbil nee d folr an y laf' on the roll .. _ 1 1 . II is lrue l llull on mOlll OIciII.-.w ' i• . ftOise OUIpUI repaents a form 01 jillCf" bt the olCiUi..petIIeler od >1le ~~ . 1 _m I. Althou gh the circuil Co d~ .f. Al h. re quite sma ll. Thil .f ..me ~ signal 10 noise rat io ~ as 1M d )'IWDie n nge of t he ~--PUI a l about I ll\:lB ". < _1 ••1 •• • " ~ j . ar'P'oo.i . .o.oe voll..) by Fnr.ill have _ (Ihoupll\UCb tcduocd ) raponsc to IIia:Dala _ a l':IJl ~ ~ 1 tbe qnad of -=il1ator DOise 0 'The purity of !be outpUt ( lhal is I"" ~ wil b wbktI IKiI1ator OUIput caD be c:onfioed 10 a Iinale freqUCM)'1 is This poinl WllS made a l th a 1?67 l EE confCTCIKO 011 fn:q ualC)' generatio n wllere It W empm.uj.l .. Imos! a l.. ilkbaDds ere by nlOdula lw ll of lhe t:t nier d ue 10 mi~iog o f Illc .uor applitatioDs 1M elfo.. hleh he hR S bee n try inlt in 144 Mc ls l ea r.dlh lills circuit...y.. (l ) T he: low frequency nobe performance or 1M t ra nsislor oppears 10 ha "" p rac ha lly DO mrinJ on the h..i"c appean 1 he 0 ca l*d by tha cyc:k: Of c:ollClctor-t..1 CO CJOO. C10 0' ..70.O..ioo 1 l oJjloa:nt mannel.":Ie a nd ca rrie r by llle non. pt"oyilkd by mea ns o f • ca r-~­ . which in t W'll modulatellbc ca rrin" frrq. aDd 12SdB ( Of 1. fa lls otfa t lboul 6d B/OCIavoc... 1 OD the m kllllitU<lD or e lect ricalligna ls wh ich may he: am p lillod and !le1 1ed . I_ ly. ".... 73.... b ut in some cases.N Otc/l"1oto<"f llY: laIc Uuic ~ G2. This applies p rimll rily to valoe 0SIel\t.e.. an LrD<les..line. or n lues l'eCc>mmen ded by lhe: Ilrm ..-ita make .jB tOl I .-+------.ill . lion from r>dson (wrilten before the era or lrailsistOl' osdUl lon). (l ) Conln!)' 10 tb e quot.UWniuen II KemS wort h puum l on record lo m e o f hIS litIdingll...OSC ILLAT OR TOPI C S (fl V) • WU!C fI.

. " •• ~ - ~f t :!:~ .....cilla tor to provide a helerodyne o utp ut on 2. Th is Is based 011 the use IIr any of the UIUllI dual·p lc M OSfET dc vioces w d! Ks t hc JN I40.cJo _ _ .tc. ~I.. .. :MI ._ ." " " ' I . 76) u~n. '.. ...:lt. Ihe UyJllIl osci llalt>r... . .... OlDY reeom- _ 11I._cf.1. 71 ... win tend to p rovide I~aler o utpu t. ice is "orkine . r. . .. 40602.ing a IS Mela erySla l (slllll lU$ HC6 Iypu ) on il$ \lIb lI~rto"" 10 fo rm the Ic>eaI oscillator wur<:e for • 144 Me' . l"lm hu a 3·5 Mels v. and he 1Ua&ests lhal the CQ:l lap is OOt real ly wo rth tile trouble .Mets.. Y " O $ ' IT o.. lie ..AMATEUR RADiO TE CHNIQUES .. . _ . I----<> Gl N H . T I·~ . .. fOlloo this tip well wonh while... see Fig. . ~ . For use 10 abou l 90 MCf$. 131 o. .p ... wit h on ly Olle lta lc . He wa s a ble to me• •urc unwan ted mi xer pr<X!.ri bN by Sand ro Fcdcncl. X . lI. co nvener. ... o r the vxo fo r v.. I .. on~ J ' .... W tAJ f.. frtQllC ncy.. n . crt llne modes. unit.... "'.. ..... Baud.h ....-Y. a 2N106 t. .. should be a l 1e. 24 Me/slo fo nn a DlOrc efficient b....... I :E0 •OI . 40604 c lC..odm l!ton."ta M OS'ET Horm c""c OKlllc to ' 0"" of 100 lRdlrlonal eM la l OsctlJMol'I wlUo. oOen kn()Wll 'os ~ Jo~s oKillator. 'I ... :MI". for v. ... .'" ul..y...hr....inll the d ilfe n:Dal belW«TI succeO$ amd fo. WII ... .o.. JN 141...h hal remained popular <m:r man y decades has bc:cn the twin.e. To a<:llicve maximum OUlput from In overtone ar~ Kemen l .. CbciUatcur Jo nes a lran $tilor " (RaJ~R£F.c....... +" . . /0 . ""Y.. wi.{.. ......A ~ -ce V (No .. I. I\lm). ou Amplifier Ian t. the .. ..... replaced by equivalent m.1c ..'" f'-r '"' ' 1~ .. ~~Uy. L I. " wli t.tra nmed c ircu ih arc fill ed II.. '" _ _'-. / . are uaudl)' senab le.~ Of the two arr.el.cntly brg adblndcd to permit unwa ntcd mlAcr pn....{: . •• . O l BY it u..f..Ill. lboo IIlher U I bamonIC mu ltiplier. 15.. (lain-bandwidth product ) o f 900 the Mcf~. . To ~I "«cf.1 (>u l""t on 140 Mef$ G 311Y fnuod it w:cc»ary 10 use:ll ua. . G311Y prefe" the JAN circuit a s it resul ts Ia • 1DOn: eompad saae. . n~tlor CU be used (wit b.. 1""tf" m umce a IranslStOT ·' . in .. In effect mend . _ f ... o.... We fec i co nslra ined 10 add a ... I'.. 19 11).. fk<:e no""r..tor circuit!.h. hc avoids all fll:Queney multiplien a nti the ru mtiDl man o f unwa nted ffCQucr.o.... mix er vr......... lnd iht " ... .IC t .....I..e ehoke betwee n .nee mcnt.o.....F.. and 27-930 "l eis cry.0 _. . 24 M e/ _ So.o. been ducri bed b y 0. O I CP J.... I. o r. DlIlII..n v. A " mini-v.. .I. I' " L. III a L min l a mp lilUclcs. ~ .. a mpl ifier tF ig.. . I""_ t ....re-. a n d ful l) co nfinns lhat e~lr1I precaulio ns will u... _ _1Il. IIIIC secuon o f the de.. for IoU Me/I Some differences of opinion I re ('I~""lorinl on th..I _S . .. In Ihis . _ ' ._. H ev. ..1 five l imes tl>l:: workio... a n~ arn.nd pass filt cr OUI""t 10 t he unit. Wi th lhe Ire Dd to _ rds li na\e-cbanJlCl opcnttion one o f Ihc$e tccl1niques m l1$1 surely enlClIC IiOOD as Ihe dominant mode. . IJ . TheIc: ean l lEn eithe r be left permanen tly in elmu!.. I re suffIC... the re coul d he spu n o .1... t his is in llne with that fo r opti mu..Q _ • • ~ T . once the opt imum value is found for (ri tical Iransi. 10 ". He Iw... _ . po t values of 'O K ohms and lOOK ullIn . 74...f. ... of the biasiDJ POint. m inl : if lhe tllln smiltc r e lreuit. .f.oul d he t o obtain 24 Mell outp ut. +1 "" /' (.il11ll. ~ is thus suitab le for use with nnny 144 Mell tra nsmitkTl.. rad~'tion unleu u. Fil.. ~ ~--. ... ' .. d UIII-aale n i s a Dd .. JTl. . " 0 01....O.. ...<I polcmlom:tcn fo r careful oc selt itl.n1Ufo r with ao F. fo r t44 Me/. All up-to-date lClaptallon of Lllis circuit hI . . . ually be nceded . . • ..doets to l'II:i5 tllrougb."4l o.." lS . • ~ lt c:r '" eo ..r.. t • •• .." ' I . LI /Cl . for •• i~en device. lil t" in RuJltJ RMJrlI usinl . . hu been upenmcnl inc with rolAer· v. '.. rev<:~ su pp ly p olat iticl) b ut a devi~ wit1l hilh F.ntly .tllgelTlC'nts.. 11. One o f lhe many po$slble usel of thi~ aI11ln Ccmcnt ". !IlI..... partklllarJy in ecaceclion wilb oscilblor ci rnaits : ol'lc:n .. applications.. (. n T ho J A N C "'1aIo t . I. Ihis approach II c!<SCnlllll.lcIo ."qu i ~meot _ 12Y .1 . _ M ... S<> he bud l a 24 Me/s l u band. from lUI 8 o r 6 "l eIs cry. o pe ra tion . triode osciUatorfdOllblcr nITaJlP mellt.f • • i ._ •• ~.

lor ' 4.h _ .. _ _ _ ..010 kc/s output an d ca n pull this with 1000 .f.o..."'. ~." w i'" . Man y amaleu n mi. a oI'C. ~ ... Me'" '1. circuil (Fi. xx'" TlS34 •• '" '" "mo "".o ..I..red to serue fo r bs than lhis-in which cue a sin...lf. _-.. '00 ' '".'i al 22 and 26 Me/•. T.. IlHf . i • l OOk --" . tllis is in line with G SCPJ '. Certainly we would reecmmcoo lhat anyonc building the U HF mini-v.-_I--J.. --. lIIbility at kast to 14.._ p n-. with .. the IWO Inductors should be lightly co upled (biAla. . I r-. and ' he main Il'lLlUmillel o.ll<' bandpass am pliJler of 1""lype.Io _ Id "- ..\4 r---... how the cry~tal aut .. 1I n T .- ". 1. The .. uIfI<:o:. nT .hl be prepl. f1. he ..... " .. . .-10<0 _ •• lIl _ . _7S... The o Ulpu l is low (I mW into SO ohms} .ive~ both wive a nd transistor d rcu ilS and also indicale .. o. e Thi...0 1 lwo-s t. winding) . I ~ I ¥J .-I~ _.f.... rcdl. loct. ' . . . -• • VllO • • • 1' ...OSCILLATOR TOPI C S m xx. C w-J" ' " " . ) .. I • .. ~ be pulled to form 11 vxo..3dO bandwidlh 10 be I Melli. T his pro vcd cx~mely effe. '" I~ ..100._ Ioao.. acn>ss the ban d. ". . L Tl S. u 000111' _1 _... For vxo o peration. seriously eonsiders usin. . Th e ltanda rd valve circuli could be also read ily adapted for F ET rrperation.=tivc._ ---.-ay 1fI·« IIn. no -1---" " no .I.. Using a 467 kef' ceystel. ean prov ide out put on the fun<. c (0) -.007 I«:/s.-. : o.... m . l the a bilily to lunc the v.ln .d_ rio"<.. I .. 17) wil" Ff243 type crysfal.. -- 3N14 0 "'" L__ • ••• J 1~ illijl'OSe(l thi s bl:tween lhe ou tpu l of his miMI-V. virtually aU tbe po wer amplification al lhal fT1Xlueno.1'h i •• ~ . 10 • . . . . polky of keeping PO_I leveli eJrtrcmely low to 144 Me'" and th en pro vidin. ' 0.) .lOB po inl.. .:y. .tor. lJ fr.foO..-Cit----o 2~ M Ho .. '" r-. lhe two Jlalt"ll he fO\loo lhe .. ...1 .. &nII' VXO DTlT U notes the pu rity cr cuiput of the Butl r Oielll.11. .. Tl S34 " .. ~' _.!amenlal or 3rd o r 5th overto nes . 1101 1'1" ' .. . n .hain. Usln. on. Input 1201o ."'.jng aU unwanlCd OUlptl wilhoul in lUIy ._ f -e: .. · I" 1'1<10 10.ur" - j UoI. k sta&C would probably ... he ob tains 14..

. G3 BY ..ilI."fIT alld lhen reopen the Pte lor IN: next OOWII ..L-i--t< <. into I..... LI... . II v.in pw:s tiIIlq periods 01 ..""Iied the sy$lellliO a mix«.o.. foUo... .ul l r~ . on fhe olher hand it mU3t not be100 fasl lo follow dow drill.u.f. r...ia lhill is &mr.. In pnctioc: tbe ..ro 10 about " M M M M me.. and rcdl.. W ... o~ tho eertect freq llCfK:)' 100 far .. H. migq>honyor any r~ freqllenq ..o.:~ '".)' then bc:ai.n be 16 e!s fot a>l . 0-4 --.ry 10 arran. The S)'Sfml II lhUlIK>t ac:un: fot . zetO lhe oo. 01 the timinl pubcscan be lalen frolD a d'&Iw freq~ mc1a"1..... rf lhe pte-oPaI 01" limin. l ot IUlIUlI diIOo:Ie across lhe 'I J .4 fo.-N by the .. II ... _ ~. or lholcoOlrOlled """llIlor . froquellC)' " coo low. muunum rare of dnn 01 only aboo. .u IlYe «l Co'" "'?'S aDd so 0l1..0 :f ...11 .o. .....-. wbnl the p iC dar-! I"C' 10 xr<) the fin.o... . U Il1U. Tl\io.~ I 't l "O r----~.KId it iD the form of &II QlcrDIIl.... few cycles re' weond and provldm.. . Tbcsc limina: pWsa an: used 10 opal aDd d ooe lhe pIC or • 1400 TTL de~ for the prcdcll:nnlncd p :rio<b..'..D.. • .o .1 ~... dMdcr ct\UQ (it coWd..... . lhen $10m! III a 1414 D-t)'P<l bnlablc devioe.. foma 01 o. thin jU&l .... lhe . ita n make ..llato r OUlpul.. . _ •• . Thit . -_ .. VI" .w which ... ne d . Sp. bll.rill ind icate a :zero.r. _ ~ ' 1. Tbese ll~'.. MID"'f.. loeb 10 the nc.:an he made sutrlc:iecllly amaIl when IlICd in reaiVff appbcat..l wa y and whidllbcn luIOmalic:a!l. dQIe t be d oO. . 1oll.P: I .-bout lhe riahl Icn&tr. reriods AnI aaaly_1ODOlId then tile IIICIemeDW dqlo bclwcea lbll SllIbiliad frcquenels . ' .. sina: only a few m~nds &R ~ to IIOR tho ooun fet outpUl. 1 . of . f.to iDlnaie.. '-0 04 toe • 1_ .... COU1lt l'nJlains ltorcd In lhe counlel'..£. .o. .IPlS 8 10 U the outplll alllUs p in is ......--...".o.m. _ _ .. ...rn.tenn mbolil. p .. l'rom . ..L:i~ Jia<Ws. o t l y S. and It-eatlCf at about 2jO cia per quat1cr of an bour..... ~ bad.leI .ll..."" .lrcmdy shan. .2" outplll (pUl 1) of the 74 191 -. . Jo. ..".. tabiliza con"'l:lU" flW-runni llJ v. tbe tlllliD:& dOodc bqins to fan. DOf'lIWIy <kriwd from a slablc a')'$lal (lIOI1.. can he ma...e.r prcn....k 1(0 lUOO quil e oolTllally· only when the ooolrOI blub oelUCS to tUrtI will ~ frequencY creep lo warcll l hc nearest Ioc:klna po inl aDd eee nay the re.uat 0( l ~ of snail predelermir>ed il"QCmCfttal IoICJ"1 . be bued (Oil maiDI freq llePC)'... lbe lyMan depend!! Oil a lia:'oUlI si... l)uriJ!a lbe time the p ic .~. II do ne by rntA<li o f Ihree ~ Ina:u dn1a:s (type 14 12 1) lIS tol ~ . the" M M " '..m!ld 74121 which duds lhe MI" or "O .fuun Of aidt:b&nds.' ::..... periods ctO be c:r. .. '••1.. The rcsuI~ or this d>el:k .. .. S. ill Tttltnk'tU TOf'k1 d W".. was d6eribNI. the 7474 1nft"l">IJfY: irnniatiau:1y the third n U l .. = •• _ . for d.11. .O.::s ran... •• noise O!I the ooc..-" rtrt... ill 10 7 M..1 " • • N1 ' OKS . 0 . If most . ' _ (__ 1.. len:...e. Co . ~ .bouI 1900 c/I d urinl l hc lim boll..C(ladri fl or aboll l $OIl Qi iD baIf an bow' 10 a f~ cis ~ pc:rioch or4S ".. 1.. .. .. _ I _ 1 ...J ......I M appean &I !he COIlDkl' out~ Ihil ia takm to indicate l llat the freq~ b too hiab. tunina cifeIo/I aDd the '1... ' and IIle vol. .. . FO<' eumplc G4<:O M bu ~"lly ..l'l illo be uoed rrequc:ncy compensation (i. .1 14 121 Inuen. f oO. roncrol wad in oonjunetion wil h an FR 400 ~ and nd~ tbf tou.! drill: from s-ildkla LO 01111 60 cis ('"til . dc:vi 5lX! by Kla. f req UCll/. equal ly poDUIbI<: to \I!loe 1M 2' oulpUl ( pin 61 in wtlid:I C&!le zero output is obuined fordiptaO tohnd M1 Mfocdi. n d oel not introduce spuriolll prodUCb or f.lmosf zc.... ~..... ~ crossowa:. fhe other hand i1 aflu Yo)' tho! fulloerin& Itmiaa puiocI • .. V..ont .r.0 ...... ThUll sim ply ac hlo:ved siocc foc <1i&Ita 0 to 1 the ... a f~ t t l hish or low .aIOl" .1 . is DOt so slow lhal durinl ally <:orTCd ioo period IbI . TIle pte ~ doocoI . lbe ."j.'s mmuk)...nl 1117) a nd at lnlaed considenblc inlerat.104 . moderately Iood 001: >'al' lood indeed . •.'" rr AMAT EUR RADIO TECHNIQU ES Til.. limplc: ~ req~ syn ..ils 4101..uM 10 penwl and hold in..D&I'4 to i. PAOKS"'.... lu 1Ina1 djpt. It should be appn:ciated thai thi.riWoDI d ue 10 lraMi mts m tile supply voItqe lhat 0. M I M gaLUhta IN: ~ ~ ~ capacitor C 10 tqia 10 00 aft"octina the . A l«hn iqlle ClPIlblc of stabilizin. In practice !be exact f~lICnC)' or the cryIl&I is o f DO ~ictI ~ provided I"-! the divide dla. ."...--nd tbe val ue Ibat wil ctUSC thl:counIa" 10 _ a 01" ..(file ran~ oltheconlrol 'iOllll. . 0UtJlUI tb ....: lhat lhe \<anodor control o r lhe d . _ . I « ~ K _ 0 . . 1f iI D«ll:I:SI.11I ID t he bask d .To O ~lr. but. t o mil: the appIicatioa. bulh . .o.H I e. oscillator whkh can be tuned ma nually in the lISUI.. " .hart and tentlo stability.01 do:>cl DOt ~ for r. This dipt ia lbcn ehcdcd to _ If II ia IJQler than or b!l <han 8 (or 4)... bility of this OICiJa tor is of COW'le l i"'J'OlUllt iD lktmnini".. ' . the 0 son into IN: lTICnIClrY aDd !he Q output bo:omf:I. zero... If t he w tPUI or lbc counca.. .-..j...' . wtlcn thc pte eloRt lhe !inal diJj l or the . ror .. from the eou ntn into lori. •• • ha. opetl a 14191 binary counlCr CO\III15 the ~ hom l he .. . wilhou1 l he II:tbilurr hit ruci'ta drifts . .• . ... c..

nt ro ' to> n . . I ~ 1 " . .£ -«: • A .. duction al low oollirol .\ib~ ...: .. • ' ...tor circuit will be n~ e4 10 d imiflilk con .. n ~. < "' ~ " l.. "". <1110 """ w. cr-ro'" • •<111 ••0 _.'" of W6G FC to stlrt at higher freq ucncic:o.:. l lOl. ...n . . S II ""2'51' r. lhe .. TIle bellcr the basic ~ J . 1.. .<all..t . .n. nn .j U rs Or ... in a IUt"Vl:)' article in Ham Radio l1u1y.a of integra ted ~its.~. W6G XN . U \:ce...1. . '.... ' I..· '-." " I ' "'. an d driftslow when connected 100 ..oll .. Alan ~orth. .'f~ ' t..... GJ GUD notes that most 8. h..-1 """ -+I *y I .h. . _ iti'' ~--1.."'''' . : .' LOI clo d .. with his in_ in v. repo rts good results witb l be arnnll'lment shown in Fl. 110 sh " ws one po5......l .1 . ~ d • • hl.""..!I suitable fo r USC wit h TrL logic.oo ..lr e p<.:f.. I..." ... ~ ~ O "" ~ .. .. ~ I o . U .r. >0"" . "..m ~'lell"'nted rell bo lh locei'llng and lran ..· r-t-r-r-r-r-r-s..Mi ible..... 0 Many . •• C' ' .. + .nsemeul."...tn..h wit h the = i. 83..""" o_r " ~ .n. I_ m • • l n... .... :1.··.~ e ncy _ _ -. ' .m.. -t[. r .n. A . . _ .... I ii m m.In ... and was Included by Hank Ol:... T 'hi. IC C' p1a' Cladu Tbcrc is 11 JOOd dl.t. r lCOj> . . .' t in CI}'Slai o.u rully ..o. ... . .. n .. ..'.<olta~: Fir. .0. a MOAC T '•• o.. 0 .. < "rp _. 1.. GlGUD.roto.. . . .llo ns Stf7" O O ~ " 1_ Ill.1 •• II...j.. ~ .- reo rwooI_ .-.'Nleun It art with a I M els crystal ."". 0I>I11I1n..' 190 :fJ...tlo "cl0ck5 " us.:: '-'_j.. l..".h. " '" .lll of . Tho.. of . d rifU lli. uch Ihill with the ClIpac itor no mina lly III + 2·S '«lll~ lhe d.• . 1on • . : "'.-' ~01 1J ) a lwo-vanw._ " .~. tod ' N • •/.". .t or oonnOded 10 . timo co nstant can be.'. ...ll ing a!'Plicl.. r . _to. .u..'''' " . G lGU D ... 030UD.OSC ILLAT OR T OPICS r-. lbe 1 nI'Cr Ihi.e.to<>.... _ hn"'_ I _ r "". t h .. Tltls hIlS worke d well with C!}'lliats from about 1 10 II Me!.Inler.1----_.o. 0 11 lhe subject of osc illatOR for ca librators and co unters. -<t. TTL 1 1. oct'" t'••.~ .n ll i ~ .". stanlal 8 Mels. .r ... . but re:alls the ad"'. . The ba sic s)'Slcm h a~ heen . ~. 1969) II. ~ ')' . . .. ri i 'ie''' ~ ..-_ .. tho !HIlt 0 .. .~ribcd taler in Ihi... " f ..en...... 3M a 1 CMOS V CI1I. l f. alc.lions .~ .. .I.~ I ... 0 . · ~h :~. ~ri K l i"n ~ o n 1l e basic lheme . .. . ~v... using the SN74OllN. S"" liun ._Oft' I.: 1M ohm/ JOllll " F lime oons lant $ho uld be .

.•• as..ued as a n detector.l.. '"' "' u. «>o ...hlc to PAOWSJ'. PAOKSB avoid l the ~ o f a scPf. ~~ eo ~..w ouo l.. Un lillhe loop is locked. Th e v. fro m high 10 low frcq llelll. the 100. ..cd the negati~ fced bllCk <lo ps the I•..l o u • •1. Oftel ' wl". il wnrk.J ~ .. ..' " • .H . . Afth ~rt"ne (an ll i tema li~e overtone circllit. Th e folJowinll hints slmrlify adj ust mcnt: tbe ostillMo n are nrc-tune d usio.. Mfh ." -~ 1 .. dClectOr. 111741 introd uced an ot her o ne : I Y01Lall""'CQnt rolkd 45 Mi ll. hll. bct.. . V.. Y'~" l r» "" 2V sec ~..~" of userct idc:u end c.O . oscillator. Kl aas SfllllUi-'1re n. . . PAOKSB. dlX" PAO SL' ( E/~Cfro"... The \I..f... The /!1iJ.'" . n" 41-' mo . 1t3 anrl Cl stabilize the loop. e"'~l IT 110 .. Mar c h.... The T ltA 120 pro vides th e ph"".tem. ponds 10 lbe volta ge 00 pin ~ o r the T8A I 20 when the loop '" nOflock ed .'" Co/Mol VOlI I1" C. both sh u uld tben require no further ad j ustment.houl the usual miser ere. . .rcuil$ 10 hi. uil di agram i..'Y OSCilla tion/ b ut when synch m ni.c.. As soon as il is SCI. "' . Wilh a supply volta(tll o f l 2 votu. b Iho wn in t-i" 86).ll<'>J (rom rome yea~ or e~perimenlat ion by PAOKSH inlO a " ngc o( exoue circu its .00. k. ~~'" .o. d.• • o.. b uilding up from J I" 10 volts.. bu l thi.-< H. ~ 1 .. _ _ . .. drtve.._ 'AootS lh p h.. p.l OSI... ffi c n2 10P '"' ~U f1.. . well and has pro\'oo rep roducible. the difference (req ""ocy of the e..O.8S..Yshould prooucc II con tro l volfa8Cal the OulJl\lt ' o r the 74 1.. a.~ ·? 'i o ~ lf>w .F. ~ >... the 20.and crysllll rcrc"...o. l "' H . lh is IXlmpo. I' slnn.~ 1J'" ".. . If tbe varia tion II r. number c r amateurs n ow usinll the .ul. "" .tc .nce ~UJalor.' .!..000 oh m 1'01 is adj ustcd so lhat l lider vo\la~ IXlrr e....~ indi cated by . sho wn in Fill. o:scill. . . ' <0 coMl. A 741 "p-a mp am plifio the control voltage by 10 tinJt:< before deliver ing thi s 10 Ihe ' -aricap in the v.. When lhe system Is in b..: -'r ...o..f. "..c.o<I l.4 til H MH •. :md V.~ .an nehud eq uIpr n ent to co ntin "" " I'lly-lUnable. coe rro tled hy the 3 to ro-vou control lin<: t tt tune betwee n 444 an d 4~ ' 1 MID.1 . . On 4. credit..s filter 10 select t he req uired sllU'al will be neede d...~ ~ ~': . with the v.r !lIthe o ut put of the 741.n m ~ . Ji' . .•v ro [.I. Io".t1' fol lowe d by a bandp.o .o. .. proces s fIT(l<l uces many frcqllllncics bu t the phase dClecto r acts o nly on the di lTc renco: co mponen t (4' 4 to S·I MJIl): this works o n ly if the d iffcrc nce rreq~ is some 10 l ~ lower tha n the orig inal freq llllDCies : i [ Ihis IS nOI the C31e a le pa ra te mi.. een the v....m.C . . lunlnl lhe v. " . . signa l i5mtsed in the TBA 120 with 1 40 MH L sian al fro m the c.'~ +' ~Y + Vl -. (T RII wh ich """" a n 8 MH.. .1 when the cevce is .n• • ~ . . IV/.~.. aboul 6 volts should Ihe n appea. ~ '" f ffi ~ .. ~'" 0.c ..o..tc . ccnnec u ~ on the TBA l 20 (no te lbe oa T8A I205 c:lInno l be wed In Ihis milliner): " in ~ is 1I0 rn' Il1y intended fo r ampl ilude con lrol of af o utp .QM. D kk Rollcma in Rcfl~NI~.. is des illncd to co nve rt 144 M il l ch. .. J. Volta l" o n p in 8 ihould be a bout ha lf the l Upply volta".. a J.- _ ~ . IOl tha i can bo: pba se.in. .kcd 10 a 4-4 10 S-I MH~ v.c.000 oh m pre~et tl adj usted un til oscilla tion j usl Slllr1J.:. posiliW! re<:<JbHck aroUlld the 74\ resutu In low-freq ue". .IOY AMATEUR RADIO T eCHNIQU eS O\ICRTO N~ CII~ST... TR2 is we v. The cin. - '" ".c. This pntt icula r arran gement has res.u= "• 0 ~'~ ~ • ..la lc mixer hy usln. ea ..c.. crysta l on it.F.. . is affocted by the d ..... y e o •. PAO KSB P/l<IJ~ocl<ed V. .

..l.I.. •·7 ..... 1 olbc:"....1 nk o incolllOrnl(:S " ".c ur .e.m IS foUl en<>lflIh 1 Ir.t.. iW r".. hI" Ih. equ il'fll'"l' l 01 tlw tnplcr or a hoIne-mack receiwor.....Incomin..n... 0.wM ca ~ tt.m .ignal and LlllOl\ on . raC lo'r . Qlf'aCilu r hch. n syncm.....0... 81) .alor t bal Icqu irCll no Trimm ine or l unin.o ..oo the d .. d....l l4ll i~ " rr. The CA....e.._ OodI.I Yol' II"'l.. (6) Citiun·.. pouiblc easily and chea ply 10 n per iml. i. .· -·-. 0 .... II .a.h I" IS..~ .0.h. otherwise thr " .·.uil.. '" . lallOl'l i:I possible try mod".'Oft IW. il11out rte a". ~jlh l lY SO t hai it O!iCi llalCS o n 1M I" nd"men"..t of aystal.. '" + ' ~V .1 " '. _ ...CZ ' . " "'\lWh l"~ " hit f" r for"" " f f.~ .r.. iNc lo . w bere lhe: r" ndamr..1 Ireq uency a l h ...ob~ tor o _ wno: <'Kllta· lion in t he low • •h. IlIat 0f'IC CDI'I .. r..e Ire Iocol dC'lCmlincd C_pcTifncn.. 1 is r'C'l"iraj lhe val"e 0 1 RFC I fa raiso!d [0 abo ut 100 loll or replaced by a 1000 ohm resistor ... . in lhe i. Oft ~lr-rroq.. 10 ~ o n Ireq uencies mudt lo ..~..~oidtd C'('D If . (9 ) \\'hen """" in a lranwnitt« tbr p. ra nI'". 1""~ 1CI1 in II nuut· type ." l" ~ -cco.. J .T·inI'Ll I oramp and hal" Wty h iWh " ' 1'111 im""d"". 0 . rn" .l .r ~ be leu IIw1 .' f""'l ucocy the llnipli fOCf/1imi let >4<l pl>o (WM ilk '" 1oo0p "...o...ol..~.. ft IIwt it.h r. but tll~ . Jlc u 'fTl hcr . 01IXUI.. he ral .ml'k .O SCILLATOR TOPICS ." .. . 19 61.. 2 .ll.nl irely plK'l ical. ta n k ria. 10 11 ~1 ..'u...... IXII'ltrol • .. mine " .. ...ncy .e.en~n l/lo'>wI'l in F il ' n ..-.. 1'1. dt. rCl"~ n " \\I llh a I M il l crY' lal the oUlpu t fru m . " " P • • • _ ~ "" " " _ f-- . (4 ) The OK illal on """'Id he ""l'1I ~ 10 fIn''tCl'I1 the llt'PW" llro."". 1'117.laune ~lIher lbe cl)'llal osallalor or lhe .. nd 46 MHz USIn' th IS Iype of Cry'Stal.coIom.·. "ill. cn~ k hlI\'C a I" ndammu l fl'ftluency of a ho ul 9 MH z . A. ILlnd 27 M H. ... cl lo:qurocy ..' m IIIC <'f"i~ in ~ 1 u ranMcmrn l p !iIl(·Ip. A l"al'lp of I to I'S MH z. tanlr. '0. liP'll'" up 10 . 1. (10) t.I~ le MOS rTT •• lhe act ive dn'U.1tI\II1: such • I'di..o. """ "'_ ' Iao _ . '" ..".. eorr«l«l toy mod" yina the ".1 da t. 0.t Ih ll" pin J as sho wn in Fi¥.. T()I'TW.m to lhe ~ .24l cry.e. itl\ miuor-t)'re .-.m r....Il . brp:r or _ I ter il ~n be '" •/6:-' 6 ..f.. r.a.• allboo..... IIn.. ao re ~Id lot u tero that roo harmooil:s of the . vr...hown ' I should be . si~ 1s t. t.. _ -... vU1 uall y lhe: only ponihle spwii are IhOSo(' loca led alonssidt the wanlt:<l .cen Ih \'lIrial'.i_ b of the 1)1'1: 10 fa mi liar ... (all (WI the silllal freq.o. v._ _1.. a u"'" by any form of o J'l)le ... tho: ima ~ fn:qucrq .. a nd il i• • 1 I"""'.. for ..". .a a nd lhe .my r iwlc on t'O'&ft su pplies ('IC).. k Hl can be u~cd w ilh a di~i d i lllt fn( w. 30'S Il l . h differ.hoc r lIr olher chantte" or detnil. (WI UloOrUI in l'\l l yo1l31Jft rOf the d .l~ be cncr~ .. clKd lmlly up 10a bou l lO Mitl.lnd icap 10 toNtr\I(tQn " kcir 10 obu . 1+1 HH ~I_ trlp l•• _0<1 . "h.. 'a i. CMOS Hflff _"'" p urr In 11" ". nd . SOon'" s...alue o f the lun inl "f'II~~ I(lr in the d . (7) J'ha_lock loop oscillators or till.. in. hIJfkt .. " r 2 " which C~ I I rcnd ily be o btaine d by " ' illlt " " IP"1 pill 2 " f I C~ .1 1Iy III using C MOS IlIlIie. T hc W' le". "'.. " tion P<-'inlS arc Ib. H •.... ...1 an then be led d i"~C1 ly Imo a Ja paono.. Hadia. Ihc<. hoo k! rout r'f O' C • h. r.0.requt~ mod". (I) ( \..d1 the ba .b~ 10 modirf il .t au...tlue oI l~ 12 p F «IU pli n....... -nxi. __ I _ U .· h01.. con~..m<:y an (3) F rcqueuey • • rillliQl! of tho: v._ _ 1... J "n~. Ih. tot .. or A sirrlpk O"~noce osc ..'l~ Iock in.... prod UClnJ a Vff)' .• .~ ly '1"1. t ma"i"""""'.okm Irom tbe cou pl.. or Kliahhoukh"...~n .Uld 01 receeeo..ill "'" function Q'ilic.. the o ..al. li lbou gb III til..c.-_.mcd by l G ." . _ ~_ • • • AOIIl•• • • • _ _ ... wdl a «II>dil ion ca n be o~ •• rha~ mod u· In.. (11) In a wd l-sawoc:d p.... ny v.. ~9. tt :f.._ 100 • ::rl"C1 :: '1.. --_·.a th... n luc n. cirCui t... "Oid sud! spuriil (S) Ir UWd in a roceivcT. ta lly.! i:I nol n:ally nn:dN for I ~ MH z OJ""I'1Ition a llhoudl il would pmnil fC'p.tll belwem ·U ...ihly IIIH t.". . "" r. .e..cd dta nlll:l l<:kc..bc••ll 4S MII~ kIl: of the: ordc:r of 100 10 200 mV but thl.. r._. ... . type alloW a '01 . in a ->' lill ie a m l' lil'k. i ~ht limrs Ihil frequency.e.1 Po . The arran. . ' ''' 1 "'lh c. The .l I M lheir ftrth _lone : il i' th " .. i" n lIf thil lisdul ~ ". paced at .h I p ""' I• • ..0 . the:conUoi Jytll. Stabiliz ation poi fl (~ ~ hll"l 30 II I a pll . .. !' AOKS " d('K:ri bct the 1~I""t ..od uci blc fi..... sc o .' d i~l ll on or 2" IC~ 1('040 20) and i. be t... is dearty m. ..L.. 1OPC.a1ion. Ih "'.o.1. an: 00f Ji.. linL on tM u: . !l't.lrm of lbe p_l. ab ut 3'81 I ll ..1. "..R I QST ... ...(.l ut e 'Ilf'llh lc "r grving highly l ali.0.. . l .. i:I inherenl ly ... Of I'\'r~ 1:...t ion . III The rnA I 20 funct ion.. 140£ M I ll. ( II) Oul...o. in tne r a ."nt M n l ll ~' ".erut ror suett a pplicalions as ~.w..o.n I""'! ~u hl from tlli. nc r the loop is ""'Ltd . 9 18 • ~ ~ .-1 . ""lIi..'0:<1 d .01 •" . 1.l. it b the cb.. =en. ""'II: sta bili. .m pl ifio:r t t-. o. nd Ihit m . is SO bip thaI lbe Il JIY l ~ IhlouJh the: rnatl.ta bl. . _ 11'1 H OI 11'1 ...o."·I·_ _m.

... ~ Ih ..e : H I{. " r '''''''0.. ...1 c" n la' l ...r.. " sc. h" u ld n"l i" ler'". .• Rd k-cli.. I I I I I lJU.h inlt Ih" 'cl· p"i " l . . .. '" '''' ! orn~ Ih• . T....' ~hool~ an d lcm pc' a l" '" cycli ng : IOU lillk rcsu\{< in a lo nl: wa rm-u p lillie. a heal "" . ~I "" an " . .'1.. the hcal or "r T R ~." T.k.~ in "...~.'" AMA TE UR RADIO TfC HNIQU£ S r---.." h o m s ul'lll i".• hr "''''l! ' ' dent. 1 d". ~ I~gr 10)' lhe on ·{lli" " p-a111 I' 11 -1' Whe" Ih. h" h"...'n" o l 1"" ".~ eo OOI1 " . ...1' .1CI."" .. u .I .110 "' 31" "·"I. <J~ d 11) he 1>\'110 ~' m p l c :" . t.1 .. 11' . . · d ' n " t .'n In _ . Q" >to'"" c Fup · fl op <0' C DoIOlJ po n ' pj. ~ II". ~ I :l'J l l . I>I.. .o e ll"' '' ''1 lIr T Il.... 0 c... " ." .. ilh I in. .y " "I I"J11 I". a n"..e ".. ~.. U' . ~ " slop" in Ihe lhe.. I'. p.dl ..u " rc " .1 .. a. N" ti. ~"... .. N~"' "'O' '" " . ''''0. "-'"I a Fa. n i~h l I..•• elf·e \p iJI " " I '~'y ... jul..... k"" sidd". .. . -d~ .. "u . . ".. '·'... 1""'0:<1 "fT ...o~.. ai. .. ..11 Ihe f... ."'. 'r is " ". ' ' om pcraIUl'C " V<..illll ·· ' <'<l u i. .. ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ l.~ r"-"Q llenq.' ..----.1i. ~ 0 . G l S[ K fllun<l lh a l ><.. d". y" .<: .mJ. f-" .ic" P'" " ..r. '" M"ssirnc> C"ri na l. " I' II><: Itn ""S!<1.'M o r til " u ) . " gn 41 ' 0 IMegr oro...' in' I'l l G JS[ I( II..1l' ''I ".""cr" lill k sili".S " n:: Ic. ".n 1 su . h 1 h" ..·1 .lL-. Pr op o r !... ~h <'1.'u "'.a ! ur~ i~ h. All ~' II Il I'.1 " 'II' "e.. '0' ' .e> cu ." d u lly ll w ld" " 'd In 111c mcl"l " " ing <If Iho C')'~ I 'l l uni l i He ll'.. .".n.co u n. .. r C.. "".." ..." I"m p<"r. .. Ill. Ih" .·" 'io:o" d " cl"'" ha' " n i "lo~ .k "1." 1 . ... '" '" "r' . n '.mh i "e~ 1 'I'( ."e " .cr d".lo..~ " " . 1111 re.. m . ' 0 provide a . I ~ 1 .. a nd Ihe . ' . o' ' M CI1o s F orm o' ~h~" .. J J . LOll" " " "' Will.d u n ~ r"" o"-cr . "ltl J". . .a lu. _ •• Ib ._ _.-. c.111.. wild"" o " a I' Jl1x. .' . -•••• " _. .~"""J "". ... r""hno ma lie 1. .· f""hly be s<-. ~nl'l"" r . . i"" fo .1 .:"". I I I I _ :0"" •''''' 0 ' l C •• ~ ..1 10 111 " . '·" .I... ~~ T I'-" C MM ~ 'co a.."'".. ' ~ .'Io ".. '"~ . ....1s. I". ll. 54 Sa. "vo'" .~ ~ .. lem"" ..lcs.. c(lI' ..... I I cooon " .1 ' n'. lI1' IX> f1 ~ n1 11\..11 '1 "r lhe scnwr i. '0"." to."' f ~ ' I .I. I .d ""I)' cnmf\.. or In ... lle' l .C<.. . . ma l r•. or p\a~ l i<: room ins ulali"n " hoJ' er "... ..... 16M C r .""' . I he . ha /t1: ". ..' illah " '''ln l)' l i.I .d .ic...Ioo r J>A'lSr " U /'·rt..1I1IrC . " 0 -:J..l .. " illl Ihe l)'pc " " "1\"" 1 .'c r....~~~l "C "" .... tc<:cl"'" '' " h"" Ihe '~'SI"m ii u....." ."" "".. ...I 'i lt~ r"d .. I ( ('0' c. "f fr~Q '''' I '''Y ' YII I"""'is. .ic in b"llo .._.u• • «= <>I . Too m uch 11<:'11'" I'0wer lea d... ~ . ~ly " Wr 111 0 I1lcl al . l 3·!SIIUI (a 1 0·' COolO.. I h~ Ihe d l ~ . . . . he 1...' lI ). 1 C o .l 00 '''. h . "" ~ . The w. t... h~" " '''' I 1'" " ".i-. .... bllI . CO T .. No I.. •• •'d4 •• i 1>4.d with a I" . T he Ih"........ hencc.r..g ' ~l or J OulPul of . : .m . h" .=.." " . n . lh" power : ih va lue dope""...h.L n '\ I! hll. . '01 '. ly Ih" c.n~ 00"''' "-' -0.. re~ . h " I"'~I IO . 1 h' iml't "" c 110" 110"".~ ~.lI.. r" I" . .I . .l"m ....i . ."" 1 II' 1 1 " ..' " Icn . . . . " 'RlI"Ir."cn ll a re nl(l" nl"d .. ...."c " WOlin" " " . .mal conl~C l in o rdc r '" Il\ i " in... «II .... i. ' ..... ir"I'k .o" 'I""a lu I''' c.I " R(. "I" <1..'W il " r H g.o n.n.... . al> cT}'"ml Ill<'m''''IUI . ('O r ~ " ..k L .1S I' ''' ha ~ b een u . III . I l .."" ! of Ina l ~ Ild error All 111" l" " n \ ha v" III he in sood Ih.. ' h" h". Ihefll1 ll1 ... hal 'I " ..d 1 ·' "". IOR I. ao l""'~~ ' !-II 11• .nSl "1' a nd " " " ."""" .i ."l h"c ~ lOOp...h. II .. R I .. . J):lc blte~ ..... n .01. 1 i...""or of ~ -J " "" .Ia l Ca n.. d . I S-l'.110 h. 1'0. _ . 1< 56'. • . .....'. . h. Ii.. .. \. .. .. . : 22. yno l " Ou ...•• • 'O I I I Toe• • .~ '.. lrill!'. ~ " "d.o! ' e) ....h II".~n"'" 1 ~ li de '" n 0 . '00 -~ "r" . .. wilh III<: dev.. T I ".." In a .. 19 7M l lli.... fr.'~ I" .n CoolO". 1.. 1''''1'. 1 " u PI.oo nc .. 11 ". 's a\"' " 1 C l lh" "p-a ll'l' ..I" "' ."'1 I tl.~ . .~~ ...In 1lt'(.....h . . . . Ah em. f... ..'!> .I11\ d y.. " \ 10..c~u la li "J sy. "r I".U e'') M~1 II' . ' ~ ' ......~ i\ m" r..' Roa d . ..l i...--... (i . "hieh .il:u is "' rai~ llI r"'" a.h•• • 1 I1HI . h i.."1(.Ia L...< ._... " "..y " "Y~ " '" " 'n .d r" i. a Cf:n~ i " am... .r . . . l illltle eh il' .lk .~ Er c".1 " "' I II.h. ..Il '" ~O. .I.<.1 N ir o r ~ N 1 7 1 1 I" .....-I L t======:h:= . u ol {." ...o 'c ~ ra •• .. ~ " I '" Iu af . Th" "k" "r paJCIlI1) .1'.0' .. noise a rid . u n Ihe eu rrc nl ' lIp plv "uh "JlC and I he h"'''l'''' pawc ..r .I"" " • •e e<l m prc>mi..U.n J .a l"tl ." . 0 '11..1 ."""I..h.1 m"" I.e ". .".

". b On . . ." <omp....Ub T II I ~L. .·p· n " " .. .J~ ' ..• . n (41 c...~. '." . . .h.m Hc elu cry. ~ ceo . . . I" ....0 .J P . BCI. • .m"" d .. .. Hit un ~ • • . . ~ I '0 .• • 1.J IlC106 . '" (1·000 """ ' 1 0 ' 1· between lempcl31U re ~la ~II I .. . nO N C r lM. g _n_g .. "'_ ••• •• ..IIlenn pow .-. .> " e. . ..-----' ~ ".. ".' ~b W g. p . h.I b' " MC' .. . ~M. .' .. GlSE: K. . ~.• • • n . d.j l t1lf11 do . 10 Ihose or hich s unUHCr.llao Df Till S. . 7.0 • • • .g. " "" ee ..2J..Li" .· _-. -. ""'7" I ~ r. p ."". I _ I ~V re ' II.. y and warm-lip linl<' ( 15 20 ' min. h . ""2 ' o'~ v 0 ' ( .. . LM I " 1 I..1> mg"".. l ~ ""'·"'" (.OSC IL LATOR T O PI C S '" 1'1 · 8 . .' ~ <. ..."a.p'. "o ".... . '. ~ pa .nm". . " .~..e- . h •••n'..I• •• p o.~d _ In l ' 1.... . " ~ ... (FJ: '" r. He also rcpon~ 1hal Ihe ltl<'rm<'lla' had ~i ve" a .. .> N llI I .. ~I I• _ " ~' J '" L __________________ _ . h""n" '... H C 16. ~... m " • • d b. "" """" P .. ... d ' ...n 1 . • '" .r ullt 1lE: Ul. . .-. l'. W ll 1 ' o <I.U . g n " 0 ••1 " T ill ...t acccuru of itself d uri".. Df • ••• • 1..)... "" f l ...... ' . m ond m«h""" 4 ' ~ " "" ... lO". ('OO r t"bl ~ op rauon ill IClllr. ~ "'" :>m. Tr"' P U I . • • t h• • _ movntl n .p ~ In. _ 1112 l . . . ". ~ 'ga _ _" ' Old ••• d <0... . . .' ' • ••.. C. p'.' '''CO nn .." e from below r. ..

SECTION

F I V E

Transmitter Topics
domest ic televi sion ro:;ci~:' The suhje el of lcle~ision inlerference: (TV I) continues tu dominate IIIC ' ho ugh Ul , and aetivilies, o f numy lllT\lIleurs. One scm"" IM t those \lpe~t in,: in peak. tclevi.ion hoon< do so with a lill ie of lh e trepidalio n of w:Lrtime " underground" radio operators. con'llU\IJy glandn, over t he liOOlllder for lhe tir1t sign lIf a erll;~int: cerecrcr vlln, the rin ging of a telephone, or t he M3n -chilHn il knodc: . I th dOll', lLJly lIf which ma y fore_had ow a s udd en cessalion or ;'\<;'\iv;lies. Al1rni lltdl)', so me of \lS ha ve virtu a lly licked (~ hope) the pwhlem by the simple (1) expedient <If moving QTH 10 Wil hiu ,i~hl of ~ main television lra """iller ; Ihe '" i, in rael $I i11 IlCthing li"e a really otronll. tek vision , ijUla l 10 .»lll k those remlliniJlijha rmo n i"" . Then again the alm<.osl unive rsa l adoptio n by 'c""'i.i on rlX:Civcr matlufaclu ren In.-oxenl yem s " f the I:t REMA =ommcndc<.l intermedia te f"'Quencics o f 38·U Mel ' sou nd a nd :l4'6~ Me(s visiorl ca rr ie r h., ;really reduced interference from iJ. breakthrough . But for Ihuw: am a teur, ill lbe rernilillill8 le levi.iOIl rrillge = S, Ihe problem is slill a lOUgh nne Ihat kCl:f'S m;m y a n opela tOr o ul olf h i, shae" d ur ing yiewin g houlS- TIle most ~ucccssrul methods of . ackling a ma leur TV I a n: now well esta b lished lind can be fOOlld in any o f the lIIua l hWldbook .. But a frcoh ou tloo k iA a lways welc:ome. We ClIm e acroI1in 111. 1: Tra"UN'IIon., "" Radk> I:uqut" cy 11Jl~'/~'~IJC~ (M"y . ' J9~ I)---a COilCnt summary of ' he mo,t impo....... nt pno.;autiolUl to be taken in the d Cllln of in ter ference-rree r.r. powe r &cncra tillg equlp"",nl. This li.l was dr. ..n u~ by E. W. CbRplin wh o, as Ch ief of Ihe La bor:r.tory Division o f the: Am<:rican FCC, ha.~ been respo nsible for laekl inll in lerference pl ob le"" in hundred . of varied. 1ypc5 of eq uipmen t. Du flo l USC tK.lWcr a really in Cll~ of lhat eeeded. (Thill ~h"u ld, b ut ,.,Id",n docs. go wilhout ""'yinll in amal eur praclice ; we mi ~hl add lh al an 3mplifICT ,dlinll a long ....<:11 wilh in its d ... ign rnlints is likely to pr od oce rar less harmonic ou tp ul than o ne in wh ",h e.e ry Sllilc is hard dr ivcn-' compa re l\\ldi o hi_fi pra ct ~.) The uru_""'lIr~ uSC or h igh. tra lUC<>nd ucta nce (hillh .10 ",,) vaIn", .hUllld be avoided M lile"" .e nd Ie::> cau se SJltlri<IUS emission ~. (Amal e ur rill" \. h",1td n, of course, often U'le , fuch ,"3lves s" nu kl be ca refully chock ed fu r pa ras ilics-) The 1JrU'IC:CO."'l')' usc o f ' '(llvn hll~ i ng muc h ben e r h.f. ch3racle,,"~ Ihan req uimJ m ould be a < 'Oiokd. crhi.• i. a ra lher surpri. inll viewpuin. since one wou ld e~pect a valvc wilh JC>OJ ". h. r. Char:aclcrililiCS In be pa rt icularly ' ta ble on h.r.). Bcwa re o r the o ld co nct:pt nf "one.point" ea rlhing which m.v.y be sa li, rlll:lo ry for d .c. b ut which results in long lu ds ar>d pllllr bYP"- ing and sp uri" o. fre<jUCney responses, ,,-' (Thi, a lw nUly make some o f u' th ink a b ll.) In ",,,,,,nina, COll"itlcr both lhe m;l.JJlC lic an d electric fields eld .-al1yIhc m"re dijflC\lll ); h cree n ing 11IC II'\IlgrtClic M i. gctlC prefe,obl~' usc ..""rdl staJl."" o r screc:ning (c.ll. flul tank ci!'Cui l~ in a ""ree""d eomparlllle lll within . he ma,n eucloSU!'l!); avo id openi np or pUll' and C<>vcr an y n«;CUllry ,..,,,\ ;1 n& ('pen i"&.' wilh nle, h ; u >c p len ly " r sere..... ' 0 0tl
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0;1'141 ... the gri d n( • • • h e and - a ll boillll W<: ll - I, h OUt L ",.., 1l.....1 .rom 1M alK'de CiKuit . Du l I1ll lu.rc . bl",u .nyln",; .., sim;ole .s 11115 and so ror D quite a few
'I W'l'"C"~"

peal in put ,-ul l. 1llt C'luAI to lho: anode mure "rten. h.,·( in l ~ <>l1 ""r c OlIl)l'l;lina rhe , rid " roil/hI duwn III eh a, a nd r~ onl tile iiJl131 ,n, .. the C;ll k:<lc (the ~",u",led ;rid <If .. ' n'erlcd .. ampl;. l J liell. II .. ~ l'lIlinl .,>,ell more dca, that the " new 10<>1.: •• " o;> lkn tbe , illlil OM lIfld t!wl UlIl"C " r m ...11" If)' to plod lilt classic ~"nr'll~ra , i,'n Ue m..s1I11l a 1 of 01 a lo nl .. l ood (lle Wt de, ices. R~' n,_ t , ,",ufldnl-ViJ a",phr"'R noro nn = " mrncnd.Iloo ..' u ..b. or ".II.f....... n h 'ft. bu l the ir UKfu~ C'Illendt far b<:)"lId tt... '>'! r..kh, 1\l1mllledJ)". the lTou ndc:d-Ilrid. power " "mp hocr "" ,.,n<>l Q ., I, be: lnCd (or A3 ..nee oome n f lhe: dri\ e power appc-,;"u in the: O\ltpu t (i rt\li t" IJ\&kin. il im",,,_ .. bk ro lI\t"dulale 100 peT «ti l- BUI an ilpplCilljon Iha t is «l u"ll )' ~illuRt'k to AI . A) ilDoJ ,,3<0 orc:n..n i. IlInr ...., ,n e llelte",. U ampJ,focn, or f ~ ~ duublen. ,......, dur In a CQ .nidl: by W6 ,\JF published N,,\'CIIl....... 1957. ....... "'1: milch ""her l1kful infOf'lnil liurt he ~ .."s l he Inl'\ll impc:dilr.ce and InnSOJlldIllCt&nCC 0( popular , ,,he t)l'<" ,,>cd In It.-I. Imea lS (Incl...J,D, tAG7 90 ohrm. I \.lXlO r ,. .; 6 " 6 266 oIlm , . )7j() LLo.: 616 192 o lum., ,~ r oo. ; 6 1«0 IH <>tu",; 7000 . ... : II} 267 ohIm, )7~

)ea" u_ow "",,,y enlinC'C n and' .n r. cDlhuiiallJ hllve blurt"" the j,'lle by ",m<:lilTlCll la kin ~ the Out put tro m llJe c'llhU<le h ilI clllho<lc.r" lIuwer H' ., pla,e rel llrn - amfhller which has an ap nl,CU " a•• ," \;" .II.r. pm.." . " Illpltlkr i you do n" l
mon<!
lI' lI1~ a ,·.' I I,,~c l a nd,

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r .. ,) c oup led with the will'lliu& thaI 100<1 t",ull, wero nu l It kel~ to be ..c h lc~c:d ....ilh !I071. These fi,u rcJ ~fet to ..a l\ cs ope r:llec1 wilh scrocn a nd control Jrid. ItrlIp pcd to chalsis. 0"" fe.:1lu~ o f " ." st.~ in an e1("itcr ill tha I • lo w impcd.o.roce "U lpUI (In eaeJl bl.nd ean be din:ctly fce:l either int O the IinllO Ihe ,.... ,' a ~ or 10 the Cil1.hodc 01 me fo llo\O-. int staac: this a voi<.!s the d ua l hith·Z. Iow-Z out putl tclluirN in many ~\'<"I'\llonai desians. f ... -'• .now. a pnetlcal 6ehcr dnip by S M'AQW wild> oncntpor41ca ma n, of W6AJ F . idaq aDd wIUl:tt _ do:sm bc:d ill the: AmI. 19J91ssuc o f QTC.joumal mthe Swc<los'l lOcic:ty. It " _ four 6AG7s and ~ outpul on ) '!. 7. 14 and 21 Mc/I.. tbe 7 IJld 14 McIs doublcn opo;n.t~ ...ith the ao;m:n and (;Dnlrol plds SU'ilppcd 1OfC\llI:r. while: IJ\ the: fin!: 11.I1'" and the 21 Mc{1 Iriplcr a posit ive vollJoiC k COCH_IN t" the ~.
H llVUalj lJn, Teuodott We: "'e~ interCIIN to tee i.tl CQ &Il llI1lCle: by WSOSl . "'" bridfC "",,1n.iI, lnl tctrodoes, at • ~rn.1ar nn:uit ..... bcoca t-.I.t 0 )"" " noc buie e ireuil is _ r.,rty wdllDown : _F/l- 5. , This is. btidcceireuu which ...hen balanc:cd .-iU dka iYd, 1So01al<' the h.&II IlDpcdaDec arid Cll'<'U ,t from P"'il;..., f«4bad d ..., '" ,nd-Io-aoodc a nd Sln.y Ql'Kioanocs.. lhis is lrue whc:ol the rat io of NC : C I is equal to the n1tio of,no. lo-MOOe capac itance ; Jlid.IO<OIlh"de upaatUla: ( i.e.• NC/CI - C••aJCI· k). . fn """'1 obr'" C I is fuled bUI W50 SL m"k cs lhe pot.... {and lhi. hu bocn coolirmedl 0 lllat il is oflen muc h ca,icr" and "'feT 1 ;;adju., t lhe: circult b~ ma ~i n~ C I v"';;lble (.I>o.'ut '<X.J pF mU lmum).

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PI",ln. SCI, . ",'dl M <Ht. ,n Y....... rho: lo w ...",1 (II<' sOII,lu, 11l)71 ~ ~~ .." 1) 1'<' nllW ov~r 30 l'~a" old) had . for yem. , ;1 1 '111,,1 J,i" cn ,.. It ,d l "t her ' H'" of med.u m rc:>,," C I 1 1 ;l 1 ",,,il\ i,,~ v" lv,,", r,,, n" rm.~ 1 h,f. "'ock

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r"." "INI In a lmosl a ll 'M'Wlll in !,

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TRAN SMITT E R TO P IC S
Quency, an d its abi lity to provi de full o u tput lit low h.!. a re features. Mo re t~nlly the 6146H and the 'rra t have come alon g wllh inc~;ncd power. Rut modern .. high peoeaece " (high ClIth<>tk em i.'I5ion) \'lIlv,," require some care in use. as more lhan one am at eu r h41d isco\'Crcd too late, RC..t HI'''' Ti/u " llllo;\$ so me ways to en, ure long evity fo r 61461. Th ese ioo...... : c hed t beater , oIt.aK lit lhe ~ al vc soc kera; provide adequat e \'Cnlilation; "" do no t ha ve ,hiny , hieldi1l3 Iwfaces 10 pos itio ned that tMy rd le.:t w r back into the villve: use c ircuilto wllh 1oWQ! possible resisl"flOC in grid llnd screen eircuilto; include 0Ya'load pr<>1«tion in a node an d screen circuits ; check tha t the: , &node docs not cha oge col our at full load ; red uce h.l . o r iosert a saccn res istor fu r lun ing under no -load oondi tio nl j do DOl ovcrlo.1d valvco d uringtuninjl up : use odOQUOIte Bri G (!rivc (too 1I\t1c "'ri~e Qfl cause high an ode d i55ipa tioa ); usc llc.\jb1e lead cOM CCl ionl to anode caps to a~oi d slrai n ; aod finally keep ....ith ln l he mllnUraC1urcr'$ ra tini!l. It used to be:: lhe proud,,"t boa", o f most a ma teu rs that they could l e I away wilh abo, ul doubling ma kers' ralinp (p •••( even lhe 807 seems 10 IIand 1.000 ~olts for c.w. if an ode dJS1ipati oll it kellll l.lW) b ul it looks U lho ugh we j ust ca MOI itt away with il on thc:sc ~r ,..bes,

.n all ra~ti~e

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ope" the filter o;:l.p;\Citorll arc c ha rled to Iho no-lo:td fiJUre : whCII the key is dep~ this highcr voltage u applred momentarily to lbe powe r a mph llcr. UniCOI some eJfCdi,~ " la, " ill a ppli ed t o ' his .fa~ the radiated p ower will be considerabl y lIiihet a t the ccmmcocerocnt of each keyiol pu lse, droppina sharply 10 its ncemat load . Th .. leo dl to produce k eyin (l. " thwnp," detraet io8 ftom the readability or One-knob A.M. MoblH Tr _ /'-ar the s!ina\! and calK i" , WIIlC«1oIal'}' frequency sprea d . II The tISC of a single v.f.o. fur nan.miuion a nd rc<:cption is call be cu red by illC'l'«li na the tim e-constant (If The I"," filler to wha t would ot herwisc p rod uce cxccssi\'Cly .. sofl •• by now well fa voumd am ong ~ .•.b. ,,"thudll\l$.. BUi thcre is, ot eoerse, DO reason why lite llIImc p rtnciple should DOt be keyinl . Ap art from, an d possibly morc im p<J{1 am th. n the Tbu mp, I pplied to a.m. sel-UpS. Tn DL-(}TC (Ma~h, 1%2) DHYN clcscribCll I compaet 3·j Mc/s " Ein ltnop f " mo bile rig wlticlt is tha t such co od itioP! ten d to p roduce sharp s pikts of usa a n EF80 e.e.o. as a basi ~ Tor the lransmitte r mixer.type spurio us em iuion which may eeecr a t al mo st any frcqUl:ncy. Th is is bttaUiC ma ny pow er arnplir,en which . ll: per (oc:t1y IS9 $ l e /s ~l.llb lc a t norm.1l an ode and ECI'lI I U SO [fit "Creen grid volla~ s uffer from I14 ll ER "l l ll R JloOO/J&OO ""lr""Kil lation anMo r poor.utie oscillalion wilen lhooc Jltllntlia k 2055 ~ ' /I a re irn::reased . T o OI'eTWlJlC CRVSU L th is fau lt (wh ich il un.... difficult 10 identify Wilholll a n o¢ llol LU eeec EC li 81 T U~E EFaO Ko pel it n nCCC''il ry eilher 10 IlUFFER Rl / Tx Mt l ER en~ ure lhlll Ihe 5tllgc i5 com~O 95 / p lo:lely I ta b le unde r all the 53 95 . e/ . 1595 _do voIlaKe conditions whieh elIn CllY U ·L 1; ar ise d urin l opera lio n or a lter_ natively to unpruve the vollage e. Put <If .... P UY N M a" H_ ~ "'1 .-1 ... . ,,,,,. 1 , haw r.<oI>· . . .a .. . ......... I_ . rt .....@ . ". ~ m. ll w l ,. ~ d h. _ ., .h• •1.". @ tOI.-QTC). -,,"D. tc,uIa tioti o f the h.t, power supply. The sim plest melhod o f u e iter and a lso fu r the receiver InclIl o scillalor : tratl5lT>iner improving regulalion i5 to c h:l.n ge to a ct\Ote-inpul ripp le and rCC1'iver bolh ""'ing llulnm l liCll lly IUDc<l 10 lhe _ liller. e ilher hy (I\c inco rpo ration of " s\\ inainll ch oke o r . channel. F i, . 6 .h "lV~ mOre c k ar ly than word s how th il is mOre simp ly by o m i. .;on of the reservor r ca pacitor . It is worl h oo( inK lhut rur A I o pcralioo , JOO!l voltalf' rqulalion -.:lIievod. (""rtiC\j lar ly ur the lICrccn po;ttelltial) Iii oncn mere impotlaDt o.." l-bo,,,1 SIOrll. tha n elim ina ti"l eVl:ry trace of rip ple. Ofle o r the Iew desil!ll' rutu,inK tile log ical eombtnauon Occa.iOllnlly, when using an h.r. supply lbat il on ly lightly loaded unok1 key_u\,> cundiliu n ~ an d is mdueti\'Cly smoo l of a lew-power 144 Me!, and 1·8 Mclll Ir3nsmiUer is lhal hcdl produced by G lEOn ro r Th..m-AF.I. It is ill a size iuitab le il is pouible for " rinllinlt " (l hat iI, a i1Crlc$ (If d l mpoa for fixed or mobile opera tio n. Three of the four valves a rc o<ciU. t;OM) 10 la ke pl.eo ID the ilmo olh;ng cholre wheft the u,e d {In oo th baml. but with N nd-cha~ing withou t a ny key i. p rCllled. a od th is ca n . d vCItely Iffoct tho keyinl ,wi l~hinl o f ~.h. r. cire uitl . Thil is a<:hieve<l by incor po ra lin& char4 "1er;'tla. dual·rreq uellCy IIJludc eirc ui ts no t unli ke lhe a rrllngemcnt used in I .m./f.m. broad~asl r.."i\<Cn . Fig. 7 sbows the Ih lrd .lage wh ich opera lel .... a rreqUl:nc:y do ublet on v.e.r. IUId as bI.llTer amplifie, on 1'8 Mc./ wit.... ul a ny switch ing. The s lra n. m itt or ill de5CTibcd in lhe RSG B Huu m 1'< (SCpT ember,

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K.ylor Thump oDd Inudl>/ljty With" convenrtonal ca pacitor-Inpu t riJ'>l'>1c liller a nd a K~rate powe r pack for tbe final .laKe , h.t. vultqca unde r no-loa d COnd itiOM are likely to be jO pcr tent or 10 above thOle a islina a l normal lead . Th y~ with Ihe key contaClS

,

.

AMAT liUIt It A D I O TECHNIQU . S

e-,ord ~ Grtd ft'/o , 1
Undu oonn:ll COndilioM.1hc ad .... r key IlaI purdy U all ~ $. ilcll and has 00 beilrini 0tI lhe Rd.-led Ilcna b. 1bal Ihls is not alwa)"S lNe ..as .....-l lOIN )Un qo u GlVA ... bm il WU DOlicfd lhal dial appeared 0I1 1hr ...,.1 . bmc\<cr a ccrtIin bu& key was -=d. Th~ .-as Amott «nainly due 10 - contKt tIoutIR • _hid! CIJ'I abo C&5i1y oceur in some rdays aad which produtta • sharp apike of r:a<Lacion . , the coOlmeucemcnl of .-::h Ir.eyin. po,lbc-in I bul lr.cy """'1, only on the dot .. nu. e-n o/'lcn be am.f by c..dlll adj ltSlmclll of Ihe key (pUIitu.1arly by inc:Ju,u n. d.m l'ill' <WI lbe <Sot U tpfin&)10 !hal no bounoc "'" U"- or .1 Io:mlll '-";:/y by iDcn:alIm, the I ~ I ol lhe 111 !iller so lllal the 6n{ M l9\l<e· is C'OOlPle1td bl.fon: the lranuniner output riKt. Rd.a,.. uocd ,n ktyi0l cin:u; IS mUSl be oIlhe hi&h ipml Iype. Thi. has not a lwa)'5 bo:o:n apprec ..'«! nftl by proI_ sional desil:ncT'l, ..,01 muc:b t'f the wartime Mone would ha w eoun ded hcller .,;'hoU I the _ re 0101 cllppinl illl~ d um! by ~"r. milO)' inSlllllaliOllS. Tbt dol Q lh (Of too<! m. n....l 9 ;01 is of rhe: order of Ollly )0 millis«onds or 10 ; t hus c:lipl' llla Cln begin to be troubbome (pa tlicul. rly wilh an OJlCflIIOr who , bu d)' ten dl In dip hi, d OlI) I( the conllct delio, uc=1\ . btlUl '''''' millllCCOfldl , In order lO ecnaerve Ihe lire o r • 1l0<)<1 h i ~ h srecd rel. y II i, .d ~illl ble to key . 1 II poin l " f reJ' li~e:r hi~h irnped...-.cc and also low ~0110je:: fu r uMm ple b y lin an d sc: rccn ttT kcyintt o r 10 ld cont ro l a. ~alY'Ol ke)'CT. Va.I ~e keycl'Sheve much 10 rommend men. pl\rlicu la rly the "" se wilh wh ich la g c har ac lcr islic. can be contr o lled. NOle Illat whn I keyed sll ge in wh ich l h c rom~("l lVundinl or b Uilt. charac le rislics has been Ich iu ed I. (" lInwed by I sua:ession or cia.. C freq ueney mu h iplicn Ind amp lificfl . lhe: ke yin.. puL will te ud 1<'1 be """T _ pcncd . nd "",y cavse d ick, . This is one o f 1M fOT u. ina: .. 'IC<J~ " kcyinr. of P>Q~ tIWl one &tqe. Whe~ a lranWli UCf is used a lso for l...-.de m<>ll"~led le\etlbolly aDd. u yin. is in I n early .uacj ' final .....pinl o f !he ..a'td'orm all. sometimes be oh~,netJ by """ kinl ..... u f t he ind UCt ive dfceu of lhe modubtiun tra ",fo rmer, Bul U lrcme care is neoNcd bcl:a1lW or lhe ftr)' hish . ,' hap Ind UCed IICI'OIS lhe lra Mfonnrr by lhe sudden dl.anE" III CWTttlI- WIlu ,.es which CllU reach as hip I ..... 10 len I,mes the applied e.e. FOI' lJlil te:lIOIl most opera lOrl pre fer 10 play life IJId lhon-arClllllbe IraDSfOl'~ wirwlint-

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is ~Y due 10 the nm1. d uMa key_up pcr iod l. 10 .pply s ulf>eient ncpl M: ¥OII IJe 10 CUI off c:ompletely !be I!><>de CllfI"mt and so e liminate !he M .r-acer Mli l'l"'b which 0CC\lr if the ..::recn feed is simpl)' bruhn. Fil. 9 U1ow1 I combLrle<1 n..Ive keycr and d.m per valve Il'nTIE"IfIC"lI fo r ICl'CCll keyillJ w l\ich <lues not n:quire H ad ditlo.... 1 source or I\O'J3.U~ volt.ce. Kuth the bias voltaIC for !be kcycr valve . od lhe nept,ve bludUlll volt.:l&e for the ""rem or the r.r. po wer n l, e arc derived frol1\ the r.r. dri ve. Th e Krft'll suppl y f", the d . ~alyc pa sses Ihro u,h I d ro ppina resi stOl' lIJld a ~oha"" re\lu latof tube. Wh ~n lhe . cy is open the clampe r ~a l vc cond ucl' al'lc! lhe volla~ acrou lhe re gu lalor lu bll dr o p, below iI' clllingui shin , \'1lllai e. t hus rcmo >in8 tll4 polil i~c ~"Itl\le and Tcplad~ n Ihro ugh the high ....lue rc.ti. tor wilh • n cgat ive bloc:klDi voltage. TlIc kC)'i lll cha.rac leristio;, will he dClernllntd by the cap.aciIOr-reslSlor IlClwork ill lhe clam pe, ~a l Ye grid drcuit and . lso by I h~ slighl dela y in i"n i7a lion Qf Ihe v a rube .
BnoJI-u. K.yln,.S, rt .... TI>ol ilme basi<: idea lurns up in DL-Q TC (TOx n HB 9QO 1 prov ide a , imple HK Iystem willi r«ei..... mUI",, : see 0 F iJ,. 10. A n<'plM! supply cor about Z(l..lO volli is ~uirnl, but thIS C1lll o fl en be nblli ~ fr,>m the Innsrnill er bioi... The IlCOO. tube can he a.omall NESI, NO. d~, for ",,~ cut1"ClIIS b<"Iow 2 m A. and .n VR lube fl;)( I . ule. CUlTeIIIS. Wilh the k<'}' up fhe CU=nllhroush andlhe 10K is sufflcien l to k>WCf" lhe vollaae o n !be anode or VI be low the llrilr.inl vol...,.. or 1M neoo : when down. VI i1 !:used b;Idt IDd the neun IInket. pt>ni"l .....ltIIC on h' lhe v.r.c, SCfttO. with an adj ""tablc lO\,It in, vc' It. lIC applioed to

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Scr.... 1(.,.,. Screen &lid k(yin. is DOl as popular as it mi&hl be. Thil

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We IIaYC !be foeli", 1....1 MlmC ,,;arc ..... y be needed wilh this a rranlClflCllt if .... i ll' a nd dlCl-, are 1 be a voidcd .li r.cc 0 subsequent d ... C Slaca in the transrn.u c r ca n W ipe!> up the ""a".,rorm and re-in trodutt d icks• • nd If lhe p•• . ha, Ippm;qble stmdm, ganen t lhere will be no,~ ra d i:l1ion . I'rovidcd a U thew poin ts a rc kepi ,n 10'...... ~~r. ,ucb a n arran~( 00Il1d pro"" I ,,,,ry Oonvcnicllt opcrali nl aid .
O•.:IIkrl.... 1(' 7'"1 For ) cu S, whe .......-er lhl 'ubjec t lOr U ",;U"lUT Ir.<'}' inl c rop pe4 u p. the lIoc k all, wer o f lhe pund It, h;l. "''Cn .. Don' t : ' Tile di lflc olty Js Ihe fr eqL>C'lCy 111Ir. ' h~ l ' ''CUtl whe n a ' ·a lve Ron into a nd out o f <>o<;, II ..li",, : ,hil uppe... on :l keyed '1 i.na l nt a ll 1IllpleA ~ rll fu n ll o r " click" wh i< h ca nll<>l be dill1 in.1l(oJ by DCUllvenli llf1a l la, f,ller. Nc~e "ht< las. lhCle he ve a lway. been .orne amaleu~ woo ha .e be<' n o ut p '<l q ua ltl7 IiJtfl'.h wllh a ke )ed ~.lI;o' ol ab le 1<.> Uhc inc lOlion o f a la, c ooke capMo!e o f withst.:>no.Im, h' l h peak voh a,et in the p.... ano.:k c,rcu it is one doo.ll' fu• rreud n a Ihe t urn,", ... n " c locks ") .

the receoee,

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TRAN SMIT T ER T O P ICS

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300 o hnu co ils wor ks wlil. thou 8lt o ne with 870 o hm coil' woul d not work . G 3GN M uoeta ~ 250 ohm le~hone lype relay- the srna!l lypc with &COi l d iameter of • III . " lI villll j dot speeds up 10 well o ver 35 w.p.m . wilh 1.....0 ullmarked and un known Ira n'li'lto l'S. G] N IV also UO($ a PO f'cla.y W JOO ilh ohm o.c. wi" din&,!. G 3R WL with IW O C 71 Irnnl i'lIOn usa O
T R " N S~ I TT E R

d ick flit ......u•• k co no .._ d_l . ln, .bo " . ..n .01

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cb• •• I• •• 0 • • 0 .... be .. ""o ' b.... , of

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Then came the r<:-<:mergel\co: "f St:lluellcc keying wilh n riou.. meth '>ds••impl" and ~"mJ.' I"" , of turning On the anal otllac a m"ment ufter the " ""Illal" r and turn ing it o lT a momenl heful"C ; u",i llator l eying once agnin heen.me ""pecll1.l>le. Incidentally, if you use a litrlight key One of the simplest way! or ob laining oequence ley ing i. to use the b>u;k co nta cts to ley the osc.ttator and the fronL cont""t . to key the p.a.-Ihe time IlIken to traverse Ihe liP "'ill automlltically produce Ihe n:qu ired de lay. F ig. 11 sh~ one uf the man y pOil., ible wa)'ll in which thi. can be dune. A ru:w cin:uil rur ()<jCillllLor keying W3!. described by W6N RW in CQ, February. 1959. The cin:uil is Shll.... ll ill r ia. 12 fro nt .... hich it will he _n Ihat V IA forma a cc eventiorwl o-eillatur whilt: the effeet of VI B i~ 10 pl~ a ~ariable rtti.tan« between the Catl Ode of VIA atl d ea rth. Thj~ U l due 10 the Chlni" of input rcIlistance of a ifl'und~ llJid amplifier which OCCanl ....ith Ima ll ch anges o r biM. VI B In fact function. IU a lrounded &ri am plif>er iw lutoc staae. d allhoullh the ~in illow o",ino: 10 the low value of the anode mistor. The keyina cons tanta will be det ermined by the I'aloea of th" Ihree co mpo nents in Ihe arid circuit o f VIB.
EI~VO<l I"

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Koy.

Tho ugh" e1-bul' " (ducs Ih" cred it for c" ininS this Ie"" belong 10 OZ7RO who d id "" mlJt;h 10 popu larize I""'n in Europe?) have now been u o..nd (Of mlllly )'ell"-. il""l! is ltill a alel dy ,trCll m of new de, ign... Some:,,( these aR' co mplexunit awilh up 10 abcul 20 tra n. i. tmalllld usilll ""mpu ter to:o.: ho;qu<:'!l. hu t sU'llri.i naly l oad r<!Iuli. <OlIn be ll<:hicvnl with qu; te . imple d"",ian•• One the mu.t ,1"'1f'"I&r cl-bull *'illll' pu blislll'd in T,c~"lrQI Tuple, was undoubtedly the t"'OotnMlMOr ZI.2AMW keyer : Fil . 13. AllhOOlsh Ihe o ri;ina l dcsian d id not speciry Ihe Iype of rellY. ITUltly Rluler1 repor led lha l lillie " r " " difficulty had been ClIpenenccd in ~ell in. Ihe k" y 10 work u.i na an Olrted I nd junk bo~ R'lar.' and eonyooe ICCnlcd very IlItilaC\l with lcow lt. . G30R. I report, t!wl l • GPO type }OOO d"" b\epolt: clla " lIeO'"r rda y with 200 (I(

II G PO Iype 600 rcl~y wilh 1"' 0 6llOoh m co il. eOIO"",t <:<l ill pa rallel (f",1ob add ing). I" tlll CUrrelll (rum 9 volt ball"ry aboul 35 mA. He 51...,...,.. Ihe impo rLance of ha ,ing Ihe le" sion o r the h,.,.~ co nla.;u corr«1 10 a~hicve 10<">1.1 symbol lenlltlto. Inciden tally the cin:u il d....win ~ pun led so llie; th is ronYCtItitJl'\ ind it:aln Ihar o ne pai r o ( eom ac ts i' o pen. thc olher ~ "' hen Ihc l elay is IInencfgU<:<I_

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An o thcl VCT)' aimplc un il which W publime d Crii inally ai in DL-Q TC i. shown III Fia. 14. Later ZS4M O reported in 1WdI...ZS ItlrIlC mhlll' mod ,flCalions aud refinements to thi, unil. l Ie 10>. ru urt<l t!l;lt interehan l inll tho pos ilio n of the IK anoJ 2K olvns po tentiomet"n ,ivcs & bett"r ranac o r spcc4 adju1tmen l, and also Iha t a 5 K olum porcuuceretee ca n be adlkt..laCTOliiS the 400 ohm relay windi na; to pro vldc a wei~.ht . ing COIIlrol. A !SWi tch acros, 1 leadl to thll trart5lT1 ut..,r M plovides a tu ne-up IwitCh (Al.....ays needed ..... itl't cl. kc)cl'3). ZS4M O also poin ls OUI tllar llle o riginal d iaRram sho wcd •• dots ~ 10 lhe left b ut ad vi'IC' the . landlO rd prac tice nf m:t.klnj Ihis the ~ " MI't ~ ContaCI . All of wh ich it""" 10 prove IhIIl there lire .till plenty o r amalc un aro und wOO lil " baild inl ll"ar •• . and arc lhen pro:palCd 10 adjuSi component dct . il~ an " ....alae. " nli l they tel prc:cI'ICly 1M re.ult. they ....a"'.

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AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUES

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lIClI."tO!J 1 both 1M In wmillC'f 0
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wilh o ul .. _ itch or rday. AD do::1ronie T·R I witdJ pet. rniu full brea k·in work ine OIl e.w. a nd ia abo . boon 10 lhe: u.b. enlhusilw and thMl: UJina \'Oice-orlef1IIN o:hante0'<t1' 5)'5tmtl.

T'-e Aut...Fi,e Willi ''' PC rc:o... d~ .,-. ,bb" in m;on)' oho.:h, it i. wonh n:rnnnng r~om C Q, W! O r-. ~ mplc mrlhod {l'~ Ill} o f ,m nl: .-ne C'It>n I t a " re-= Ofo!ed CO . "to-M'T>d« Of r".r l, ." nt !l;,,~l ll..., , ~ hcf r.I ~ .....,·, (' II;'" . (\Uk! be. a """ r,'tm (Of lh e •• IfY O'lM I f<lOl i1i ...... r). The Innslonneo- is • stan dard a .f. out pu t I)l'" u.o:d w, lh tile Iow. impedan<:o: ....' nd ' n' . con na;;trc! In the: rcc:nrdc:r', h I. LS. SQl;lelS; wll.\c: t he rdoIy ~"' Id rrd~h ly be: " f lhe hi~ l)'pc, "n«d 1\<"1 he: unduly oorn\lUIfI:. Al......1 I ny l~ of IIOekniurn o r o the r rflrm <'Of dt<>d. lea ,l\cr wu ld be " oed. OIlC trick

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m;adc <:.1.1)' by the treat cha nllll ' I ahla (lroVidc<I o n m.ul)' ' apc dec ks ~ 10 r~ J N C'k III cutler dou~ 0' ha lf-speed "'&I,,,, elC'Cu<>n 1C k. ),. .. hllve • • r~ f, om . he ~mrJc 10 ihc " hra co m" ,,:• . -rhe e re.." t mcwm In h e. 15 is W4UWN K 3K M O ', ,,,,n 'fI" flf ," ' <lI d (u<>uri,c (from 7J M D8"ri"" J une. 19ft21 II ,,"'. .. tw in UK . '<k ' ....'i N7. l lAn . IlAU7 II ' " a ll ..... id 1< he: . uj' ahlc:l. H..inll)', > IS :I ~"' ·,ootli ,..alla" .. ; VI " i. i h mil~' l<l "",... id" 1I ro ugh ly squar~. Wi ' " o uC pul. . T" " o nly •• r ,,,~ " . componC1lt II the hi&h

V .,

unpWJ IlCC l ~OOO o " m 0 . i b"'~l h'ah••ptt<l n"Lty pu llina in a t i OOo t ) mA o lt ~ o n",...at l~ lind a n ,,1eo;t, onio:: ..,mi.,.olmna tie key (a o to d oll . onl y) bOI G lOI T ",nd~ a lona lh" e irc;o il " r one: wb..h h., Ioa~ do."\e1o f'td (Fill. Ifi ) a nd whictJ IIi. ". nu tro uble:. H~ wtotes• •• Thoe p,add k- '~llbly o"ly need be mounted on the Opt'. mi nll t.obl.:, the "'5t can be buill intu the trolnsmiu C'f."

TIle bil lie priD;ip le behiDd _ of tlM: deIipI p u ~ 10 d.:l.te is 10 eonnecl a low irnped;lnce . ",..al foeder iu the !JSUlIl m:l.nnet to the tnmmittrr ..I\ilc a pu1 llellX'llDeCliOll I' made Ic th e roeeiver via ;t p rolCCli"f: valve sw itch wbidl Slops .ny ;tpprm,able r.r. JKl"'el' f rom ~llhe r«lI:iytr : sec Fie. 19, The ,wileh illlelC UIUlUy C'Ofnprises • sharp ctJl-o/f .....lve . ml n. ed to lhal wbe n lhe r.f. powct' from lbe lansnliller is .pplied to its UDtuocd iDpol cirQjit. Jrid fl<r\In.Dd by mcans or .lrid-bia' rem tnr this . ppl ies o;x:n:l5iden blt: bW to the vah-e. flXlueiDI the anode curreat practica lly to ~ : t.h us >,,:rr lillie P"""CI" .ppc.an. ill 1M output a rro lt ... llOeh 11 co oplcd ro the f«lei>oer. w hen the t nonsmiU Cf is off the .....Ivc fllllClioos ~ amp li6cr pass;nll incomio. "'1VI1, to the receb er; lhe trau omiuC'f o ut po t stace lhen p resen t, • hi&b irDpcd.occ to me K .ial focdcT IiO th m: need be lill ie lou of ,ian.l. So fa r so ROOd. bot in pnctice Ihcrt: an: - .1dil&ulllcs ~ be ." ' l:nX>me: if the",. is 10 be no dqrlUbtion of the tnCOmIng sognals. no blond spou ...,;I no riU; 0( \.. I , ~ irnoolation break dmon (rorn «CCUive r.C vo llajlQ ; the . T· R .va lve .may be pr""" to paras.tic. ~lIolion prodoci nl opUnoU5 !lJ1IfI h. nr ther" may be nO\5C rad...t;on (rom lhe . power amplifM:!" du ri"ll kcy-u p ~Vndi l;"n5 bocaw;e 01 t:lt<X5Sive stand.n, ""r....." . A nolhcr impor1an l m. ll .. that a T· R , ...Iv~ biot>ed Ih.. way win tend 10 llC"Cf. tc h:tnnon ics and can thus be the ea use 0( TVl . I t is. Imponant-thO\lih nOI alwa ys eas y_ lo h:t\ C cor.e-:Ily rna l~ hed im peda nces co 1M transmill el":ul d T· R ,np ul. Various arrallgCllle m , are 5......WIl in FiV'. 2().22.

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V.. l n lin . .. .. for 144 MHz \ 1,. W. 1'00h« ar y. G4 1'UU , poinls o ur uunure s<>r~II'lrid ~ ircu l I or a balanc ed push-pull valve anlplir",r & hoold n" l unbalance th e ampbncr in any ",oy . W hil e ;l ~O oh m l"\':\i<lu,

0 .5

VRIOS!30 QU 0I20

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ill the screen ccenectton to th e va l.-t, Wilh a r'Il" I'd r u sc ' e<:n s lIpply. is usua lly a U lhat is rcqu i,..,d , .l " y hy. f"I"' ~lI p""i IOI eo nllOCled d Irec tly 10 Ihe scrce n.grid Can ~a uv: in mllu m•.., ~ nd re sult ill ., e ll illll· u P difT...ulli e<, AILe"'ali vdr, /I ~urn:<:t1y de"i!-ne d ch ol e should he c"n n,,~ I <:<.I l>et",,,,, n th e '1'01'<1' and all y by· pass cllplI~it"r. G 4f U LJ 10 " , hu ill a IIl1mbe r IIf lineur al1lt'l ir."" lIs in, OQV06/40 a nd Q Q V03 /1O va lv". "nd find. l he d ,. u il e a rra ngel1le n l , huw n in ri~. 17 Ie> he sali,fIICI" ry , It ea lls for a s la b;1 !,~d , " rccn Sl'flt'l)' ~ nd ~ I" w. imp eda ",'e bia s 5upp ly tso a ll"w,n~ the cal hixic I" be firmly IlfO" n' lcdl, E,l muml f{a m m , O K.\ I!ZiG SIiCS , wntcs : .. W ilh lil1ea, a mp lif",rs I he 'e i. nm l11 (1c h freedom of ~ h o ice o r lh" e1<'C' :,-,,1c V"IIHIl"'., T I\ en sure 0t',iI11 11 111 lil1e.uilY of lhe QQ \ 06/40 It '-""Ilme s 7 ~O '1'(\1 o n tlte a nod e, z s c voll. 15

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1 h. be w. 144 MH .)....1 Ihe Sl ~ l>iliTcd llCl(al. . ng /I I:!ll-wan • linea r ' using Ih i:< valve rlea..' " <oul.. M..' how l hi~ bas been u.". . '''''''' ' ...rt..". " " • • u . . INPIJT COIL ~[ . 1 ..'. :0 . " I . ~ SlIGO o h .) : . LOW p....«her·lyl'" ""ooe I. ! r.. ~ 1S0 ..._ • • • mool"..': Dlod . ....ils o r a .. <0<0" ' [ . VE2AUB/WS. .. ..oj g..rt 1 1..R Swllc!. "" tha I t be 3<1 dil i"" or II lo". lUN$ IoI IT TE Il.ulo. to .. It.h • • It• •• I. Hc finds Ih31 !hi l lype ur switc h has Ihc (ollowi"!.. 23 shows lhe ba.ill deliver n ma. .t ... K=lIy. fo. . . "~.. 1•• •h <.vl _ I be oml.~ poso:ible 10 sq ueeze more o ul of il....I " .. lIf . .....'lnll1ges. '"''"'VH '... ~.gram lind Fi" 24 llho"."' • • ~ . . . OIJ" q~ I ··I I "'~ · "' Q • • h o w. I "hln... it II broad oond . h.li.. . . G 1f V V ·. Whe n a g."':. .L T '010I1. ..<om"'udod b. . . (H.m •••• 1T· rt ' w ''... ... . While il i. n . ~ h _ Ioft ' C CI . bali a low 11Ut'rlion loss " r leM than one d b in uie b. H ill• • ' ''' 1ft ~ i ~ I •• •"1. DIU V%. .. ' across lhe d iodes "o\lld hell' and .. . K T-+. ... 1"'pM.reu " ("1 Wil h Z ener d iodes onl y Is nOl cnsy 10 ~djus l . d currenr!l. lange... ... .1"". h l.•• T. 0 . 1O.:lS OV 3000~f ~ .~ Iypoc or T·R sWHeb offerinl! a num ber or adll. I. .." . biOI .• " A rnui"l( sc r"" n su pply ...n<lalo ry. . I c " 0 RECEJVEIl.t ' 6·3V ' A J• • . ". r.U '" 6~ C ' C 150 / 250 v HH· arc i'! ''0 ~ r3 l. II 1>00 110 I " M ' <l1..oll of Ih" valve ne eds 10 be 'l riclly 1'1 (l>O g l. .I .'" _ . lagel!... (.•.....l ( a linear llmrliflCr ".••• LO W-l "n g Rfe 100p F '" . .. "J~" . .. DI • • ~ 1• o••• m. tfl" I- 0 ..id · bias Ilttd 5 In ee adjusl<..'" d.. _ 10.~ I ..pilSS filter becomes "" ....10. ""letl.._I WO~ _rOJCiJ%. HlliH ... Id <~ .. . .vc C~l" l .. Ihe QQV06l40 ". o f (. " 1\"" .. I. T .. on.. Inc (lreTali" " Ihen i"". w. .n FILT ER AE RIAL ' 50r 3OOn •• f'inlllly. ''0 30 0 0 pF li D. 11... rt d• •• . " '" 0 11 11••• ."'. ilahly he. h. . th o .r..cd by VE2AUH for l o me ume .. . . o. of ."..... high lsolalion of FEfDER -'l ECEIVEIl.01..ll.pM . .. rt-..Hl in ler""'I .. imum "ued o ulrul of 74 wutl•. ....) ... .O I}" 200V RECi IV[R F' I .. Mike HU~CiI.al o" \\fIo """." . far r.·<\ on Ihc "" ' '''' 'l-l:ri<....It ..'" 00·1 ' f' '0 = O.. ....""1 radi"'I.h 1 u h h ..... ion i. ••' 0" '''' or .. _ .. <Ou o <h Pen. Im . _ ... un likely 10 be beller Ihn" .. ' IJrely a ..>oJ-qua lily l. h"rnlOllic ~lI rrrcs.upp l.. . senl lit del.. ' . c. """ . T h• •• 1.. .:. nl h nCll r o pcral. ~ . It< h lM o til. ~. .. oilenl in ope rat ion.... 11.t 1 ~ II ("1 w for nn id le ~n()ite current of 40 m.. il sho uld he oh. I"~ .. . 1_ 100 Sof>... o ..... .. < ~ il o.ie circuit d l. I or h~ v .erll ~<I tha t with ~ ~ il11rl ~ ""I rul <.~p o . f l." ...ilh .... 1. ...phn~.i rcuil. Sa • • n . a P<llcntioo lCl<. ' c. T· rt .111<1 11. '" OS CI L L A TO R TOP ICS CO. . I.. .' '0 . Fill. 1t. r .. 1 '.._ . hi d> lh eo .. ... hia5 e.. I• • • n y . ...~h .~ I . .T1o4 n ln .. I". ~ t.. .I". be fairly h i~h .. I. " l circu il is used . ml .... ".od ... "" 'A I .n_ . ll..Z OUTPUT TO EARTH OR ... . < .... 1O. ~UT I f l • .1. ..... <.W . . . Lo w lmpo don <. ... bl o• • dJ .G e LINE lOOItJl IlIG '0" 'M n F."".. . T. . . us vnfuc "'" .... eh.. ."n linear (0 l"' .

.lhe p. 19M ) dt1. 24 .... He adds that break-in i.nl lime.ai ls arc . T he 1N2071 i....T ion or reed rel.. R'" 0. lire ou t of . ornnl_ ' 1_ .omilti ng.l'n (or " sw«p hi""" " as they lire termed). . fll ... b ut their eu~nl ratins i.p. is possible wilh the usc: o f linlle pole double throw reed relllys..fl1\Onic g= tin" in the diodes.llt.. SUl: h ' alves have to bc capable of high peak aJrrem_ . rtielc be coQlulled for I detailed description of thio ap plic..b.IO between transmiller . ! .h. once a.""...t.b.! .. the bias polarities must of co urse be l't'verscd.mi llinll bi"" shoo ld be in lbe rqion of 3SO vola . m ost valua ble chl racteristic fur ••S.".:ZS...iven of two V.. on the line I. lhe best in.llTT£ R ..'"' . n lOning at 3$0 WRIIs p.--...up position .. applied he ha. but il is recommended that the oriK l . telulc sln a lillie more dillkully In .. N" vembcr{De<::cmbe" 1964) c:o.pled for eitbet b1ocled-crid or cathode keying anll reqmres on ly I 12 volt (or up 10 22 volls (or the hil. i~ bulb lcrnpera ture. nately 11toet'e llf'lIOIDe ~g" Most British types are del.aio provided thaI I~ I IC used on • SO-Ohm ro. stage il not bia. witc h.t.-~ '" r AMAT EUR RADIO TECHNIIilIU E S design$ for ker ed aerial rd aya dc"Clopcd by VE3AU a. c-eo I '" . r l ft... Elecuo.an a<JeqwlIC for tran'lnlilte rs hiving OU pul ~rs of up to 200 waUa and T fccdinl SO 10 " ohm co-uial liDe. bled from rh n scurce to bias the switch fo.IUld CllR really kn uck over lUIodc cu nCllt meters at relatively low h. fn>m rca. o-cor "'... .r. --. drawn 011 such vI IV el fo.\e add healer volta iC . lIowe"er. IlS maio d.t'."ailable with 63 volt boaters).v" than valves dcsiK""'" for tbe oonawner or cotcr· tainment field.". ""'W: '0' BI.2 }1' 0<00I ' j . (}Sr poinl~ "\It Ihal the limitation of tltis type of vlth~ fur u . Unfortu.over switch or relay.. pro bably the besl valves avai labJo: arc thOM: inlended flK usc: in Ihe line outpul ". and I nep. For iruu~ lhe PU OO has a 27 "01 1 heater. I IU..~ . loboukl be aboU T 30 voll. Ih.u vol' aac to obta in maximum isolation. by making use of the 1il volll which appear l be key lernlina ls of his tran.NSI... appliCllt iotlS. e>. '"' I RttEtvER T ~ ~~2 1/ 8. far as operating elljoymenr is =mcd. (If T VI from t be .. liD needs lin aerial cha n~. Sylvani.u ing six or the mou popu lllr Ame:rican line-<JU tl"Jt v"..ho"..-=Oi'--r-< = i 0-001 Th.!. ~ heater chain.vel . Amateun ha . 111<: vaha covered In Ihe Sylvsnia repo rt include fou r designed for blaek... 100 i..'e comp lele iool..voiding d ipped dOls at ~ hiRh krying l pecdS.... r AllhouGh t he p rofesaiorW U«ifJIC ' ha s a fairly wide cho ice of power amplifie. d vD nlaa" is that it reQui~ a fa irly high bi. U . the reo::.he questioo Ind ehan~-o"er relays have to be ahle 10 foll" w the keying witno" t d ipping on dotS-II requit ement wdl beyond the u p' bil.il:"Cd for 0'3 amp. and v. IUJlTIt EO \oCJlU N Q ~. .::hinlj: the = iV<:r. Iprcds l1U pply at ..I' n." ..0.~ _'2" ' It~~ :.. Ih" ct ner simplifl«l design has no valw:s but Ihi. vahu dcsilillCd ..II ....1. The reccivin. 0<06 I "~ . Mur ph)' in S y/Wl"io lrrJurrriol N~wr.p. simple to make and adj USl.u line mat Is wdl mat ched. ~ . bown il not the only puuible one. of television rccci\lCt1.. sock-lJul .·1l ~n""G . ted by The COrn:n t flowing io the p.m.... O.. cr.::. alway. millers. provided Ihat the a... and tend to h3. bc<:n unable \0 detect a ny I T.. .)'lI. l\'e. . Fil... I%S) review of t he Swan 3$0 lran=lver whICh II IC S two 611 F5.t I pplklliOl\1 Ih""" lend 1 be ra the e mor e 0 eJlpeU$. one . low.. fairly low. and lbiJ is m .._t • • .U .milter in the Itcy-up position. 'P' . I . L~-.....'ICd to cur-err in the key. ~"~ nrANI"".. .-:'-'/ull T·R SwlCCII One of Ihe snags with man y elcec ron ic T·R swilclle:9 occu rs when all"'l1ptinll tu u"" them with a transmilte r in which. It .un:rs <k! no t norma lly publish data showinG oj>Cl'at ing co ndilions fo.. i..-. . To acb lC. At the p.. at power Ie~LJ up to 700 watts.m TI' l~ t pvt 1'. Oncoflhe VE3AU circuits UIClI a 6AQS cont lol v.. R«d ~lay..lll""t keyin. • $llioorl power d iode wilh a puk invcroo vollag<: ra liol o f 600 V<. dllficu ll to prevent The noise ~ne .1 have prepared It useful repcrt (by W. the ...l mplified circuit can be . use ill trall.00'. ho¥n how VE2AUB obtain$ t he bi. recepnon. T. Jr the diodClo are revencd..<.~tmcn t he hal ever mado . Jlut wilh the correct bill. bot one di ode muM alwlYS he ir>eluded in lbe P"Silioll CR. Anot her prob lem IS ..~ ly quick Illllle and break &Cl ion. bout 30 rnA . _ up 10 SOd b. VE2A Ua point" oUI that The IlrrallgaTlCllt . Some remllrks on this lIUbjcct weee noted in the Q~\T (~ptember. 1lIe blocked-lPid kcytng cireuit is 1hown in in.Tie& of the usua ltypc of aerial relay..s. d..llLl'1d tke tnm. Fig. For break·in operancn nnnultl swnch. bi.n4 capable of operation up to 40 w.. <.ll. Fewer diodes cou ld be used.: one for lran... o.-. .e.1100 raxi. EVQl with no billll the swilch It ill p ro tect.l .ti . f . lboUI I rnA i.IWiTeb requin:s I positive blal tor ~plion.w. ~ ~ ..~nd·while television having anode . but under IheK w oditlOllS VE2AUR9/W5 fiow that il pr0d uces some TV! d ue to hi\.l lines (though !K'fIIC are alw .pecifically for h. 11 D io<l. Tltc .l. miller lank d l1:u. Lo .. A. of ineomlJllI Sillnal! by lhe In n. lheir use in rI.. In OST (JlIly. Fl• .. Secc>n dly. . manufacl.. it .

\'~ I V' \'1:2 \. . a. due 10 the larae neck dillnlrtet of shadow-mas k..al 6JR(. " " a..80 15O '" "G' 6G J5 6HFS • Ono ~-. ...l:2 Vb V V ' 00 ' 00 -V' " " " " " ..-0" -cce .f.uth d~ En> .u. ." ~ . 7 .ioo ... . hl <h t ho <hot..a>e Wilh lowe r peak c urrent g1p. 1iJ1::6 b.F..ct 17-5 I' EI' watll wall_ 42 -5 42 ·5 5S0 An Dd r Efficl. >t1I ll ~ r".... "..-n <U""". usina the ty pical p.. 3 Cla ss AUt Operntice (ICAS) 30 M c/ .' w "t-" . apph catio ll$ . ). In dUll ARI for !. $Cp. ' " .lrctlU .. b. " ''''' .. ¥ '. tu bes.. mpl lfl..tJun G' .c a 9-pin OO"iIr ur bao<:.. " '.. 3 0 ·76 0 4) O-H2 . 067 t 2U SH 3S 0 42·S 17·5 234 350 46 '8 4 1·5 43 ·0 4!'5 zz 1)-$ OPl IIII~'" '" 18 3 189 366 )H '" 430 4 3-1 aa ao aa OOtldhlo. peaIl: envelope pawn. .uulput o f """'" S~ waUs Cl\1I be achieved .. 41am. 4 . ." ror p".ed temperature Il1easurinl e<:l uipmcnt. 4 • • • • •• •1 ' 0. 4 'am .w:.. T hc 6JM6 has a 12· pin b. The OST ".."'alll) i~ lho: til. II L4. all~ . '''' b l>rh c: (wi d) .... ~" ' 00 .• ~ tdev i. U... Vb V. and 60U di ffcr o nly in Ihal the C om>tr tw. T.. . 1o . 7-"5 .. .'" ao -" '''' "'''' ... ...... " c: 0""r31..".nits • " 15 " '" '" '. a tin&..CT1tly ~Ioped =" fur the pro bable The Ii. ion IIpl'licatio r". sho wn in F ill. I 6 . Care mint . Th e 6J06 is d~igllCd sr«iClClllly for 1".. for cx.omPilllyinll ta ble Ih~ th e Sr l"ani. 0 • ..-"cs (Conl.. .00 . 4 1nl d t I• • 4 1 m •• do . lc mpora ry oV\'r lood s 2QO..11. V~ I T. 2-99 I ·7S . o n . I ~I rnA " ' 00 -" '00 300 -" "" SOO " EO .... T he o rilPlI».I .. The 6J E6 Iond 6H F5 were d~iflW C col o ur le kvir.. 00 -" '00 '' 00 lO -" -" '" SOO ao JOO -" 200 .au"C of the: vcry ~'"Y ou l-of·feSOMnce anode upper Cn UClK)' limit of :q operation an biued o n 7S per con I of the inp ul 5CIC -re..".. Au cv<:o mo re powrnul n lve (40-"' lll Ol <Ii.o~ coo SOO so . ·rc:q.l ~ Jives full detail s o r the co nditions under which th e ln~ . and ..oo ( ICAS ) 30 Me/s R....t t Ul dllc:iency of 41 per cent. 1- '" .:t bilitin. ..' . (Inlcrm illcn t Commcrcial and Amilteur Scl'vice) condiliom for t he valves: Ihis l ati na is nomllIlly 15 per cellI hi.oll'lldc r.slp..onam frequcnq.1 the 6 Hn a 12-p in base .. . so so R.. a 9-rin no vllr bv.. I . form in.. '0 " .nt 144 Me/s opera tion. ""'~. ~iltR 3 1 ...a " " 3' 30 2' . '" ''0 '".'y ond ." than the . ~ 16 U..... 41 II 'n. " _ 04 . S .. "M 14-9 12·5 232 222 IH 17-2 13-7 20·0 '"' 0.)O Mq lulu of Un n~~~ ~ . The .dru l p· CIrcui l ra cy .b.'...\node diWpilliun "'L' _ ured by l'OI.' f j" V .h .C eur icd 01. t I• .- -ocs. Nute Ih. ..'e tcmpalllUTe$.. 1lIa1 the va lvn can be np:: ratc d wil h o.I". " .:1rute pin conIkd. bot h /la.f6 ...al l&.. 26.uotao1 .lp. i~ un officiall y fill ed a l up 10 116 waUs inp ut in c10L$S C provid iol an ou tput of 77 wans ~.l.. 1 . ". '" ''"" ""t "" ao " '" et "" " " " '" " "" 69 5 67 <.OJ us "" -" '00 SOO ""' .F.. . ... ~r 0. Us ' d""~ <...0 r.2 7 763 6~~ 202 '"' '"' e-ra C·75 ' M<'.. p1a.• .I _ .. liao . "EO ""' "G ' 60" 6HF5 "06 • Orod a<S. " '"ss " " OJ 20 aa ss III ss .ons C beam..'" ...""..ncy (M etl) """"'" so'''' '" '''' '''' fA ao ' 3 ..... . . .l~• ..." " 0 " " " 50 ' 0 .. opera tcrs will be intere'5lcd to note lllat I numhcr ur t hc"C ( hu t noc the 6HF $) s hOUld prow wi tab le tor ellicM.. J " 0 . m 3' AnO<lc P()lvcr .. "~ i<.""" 20 di.watl types intended primari ly for eolour television m:c ivcn whi<:h.<J .·3()..t.dissipations (continuous ralinl:l of about 17 ".I.bly mon: tIwl WO vol ts on the a n~ is sU(Utnlcd by :I nu mber of desillU.. bel. ~r II U . .UI'C$ itlfra·.... _ . R. ~UllllC311:d Ie"..l.. . hOW't~r be la ken with anode d issipa . ~ .> ldinll be' lI1DUr. view of the Swa n )50 pOiHlS OUI lha l care mmt be laken in 1WLinil up. ~ a rc ~ .. LI .' 62·7 (.' h ' .... at 30 Me/.tt ~ rnA rnA di!. A single 6HF5.ens 0·76 O g4 Ano<lc: Input P D..N.o< V .. ~ ro rnA <u. .. I I. ...~ipal ion..l <0" """ ' ....amplc.c..hich co uld tead 10 e xec"'.te5.OM Lo" wat ts . aNl tWIJ larger 2..' 4 S.. need ap preciably more deflect ion power at 1001I lil1Cllrit y..9 .J " " .... rnA' .n uOUI Commc rdBJ Service) ... T~.." .. .1 69 '3 2·U 2·72 30 " zz " . f ' l .ffi<1o":1. " 0 .

tioM 10 be adjuued M) tNl t lbeft il . 29." ~ N ~ '" ' 132 2N .. •• _ M IX ER AMPLl F"lER .form of OSCl. Q..JOI lUld 6diclte . My . I"C 1 ranain JUbstan tia U u~ under key up 0 y and 10:. O<$e •• biucd in ~ondua M Il. in ooc:l llation.:lcx:t to elimi naJ.n.ondilK>1\S. Pro&KUon CIrculi y' D ~n " ~ O~ E.. ld."..O"I the r. bi&h p. The gralit dows ..... fl • . He write' : . Wilb !he key up the d... _ _ II _ .g ~"'i: . (21.ith 1M I N)4A diode . . i.io (jJ O>fl SO) . .4A is in lhe ofl' '' t:ondi lioD. " on""".. t.1\iI. 0 lochnical qui~ q UC!ll i"n..~ the arid leU t>i. M\X:b IM ...I clamp valw bul has two lIiIad~ : ( II . 1llc adj ul. W!'Iell lllii is Ihc cue. Sept ernbn.. '" m _ . d TA l is capable of hand lin.lId ".20A in hi' 70 Mel. M .rem currenls or tile ."" iIlcruxs .lliques lurn "'~ . _ _. to iamasc: buI th e Q lhock bia.lhe ~ e t i. n. and 110 CItI).... Harlord .. . and opens oi l I mAo bu t 1hr1c paramelen wi ll vary. 1 ~..tllbk cat bode bas CODlI'Ol (lUI mabln t he: c:ond.. .'es info rma lio n on a circu it he lM' t o protect the QQ V01. . u""'_ft I ~n _I2V t N9 1 6 _OOV0 3 .. o ve•• 11 dlanSC in bias condition$.me teeh.." " H U ll -.. ..... .Ir'" 2.01 _ 10..11'1 O. 1'. ....n: . !he I r'IlJ.lI lhc O l VPF arT&QIICftIICf\ two tnlDIislon an Iaed ill a billable a ~ t "'. yea n block.nanacmcnl.. f: of lhe p.. It". A.... /... ebll'lilwcs tl'Ic notma.. .a.. '.)' down o. J [ :' .5 .ue. ~ tnm.. . to 1ft h . . ItADIO TECHNIQUIS 6SK7 7. nn.o rked directly by the ll"ioJ HT'" • •• . c:oraaI-' dn~e dfUS' rday ralls out.I). ' til Diode. Ot>c: <.Ih a bu ill-In bld... rcstoriDa r~ 1 its 0 normlIl ... c:ireuil i. .islon QIl be 1O>oOCI.ltc: eireui lS to be ~ tr olled o ver a t in l1le line...'-t indi. ari<>u.. WaUH T _ . hId! Cl... depend in.A... P... of TRI .. 11 dn elopment or the relay cla mp circ uli where a rtla y rs . 1 I 'S m A. Witb the key d ept e:I. 1e "'.. Ol VPF ai. .. rc duo... a-. The uhilnale trmsmilll" con tro l I ll.1f. I L. ... wu 1 wo rk 01. Thi.e.. .11. Trldu . dooc$. . p. 2OA...n -k bdow lhe 'till"" nee ded 10 . ".IblioDtall 0CleLIf wbco 'ltJOI"itinI lIeU the pul l-fn curftftI (i. coaaisted of 1M in a WB2CCM artic:1c . dju \lc<l .-:illaliOIl.. on the V. RIa.'ICII" as tbe: /lc:att of the idea.. l<I i ~ .. l ' 1"'-' tIM: .ece and. WITal! throu&h lhe relay 120 mA ill l he G3 VPF on.. .b pulb iD 011 1·2 lIlA.11 whal w. pl ovided thai TRI has rairl.. whir:h al klWC>d scpar. l.. AMAT IUIl.a.. CUTCIIl.. . ."... portable transmitter... u P.. and this puts C4 in p. _ 2 N11 '" 32 .c the . . b llek bo . how two separale rela Y' ean be enet. _ .• • ZlI. fe. 1. / • -• ~ C .. in . l%j ) thawln. .i tdlI. InaeniOll11lle of dioUea. Tbe anJ'H. tt>own in FjJ... .. . l1y or toaetllel' oYer a &in.>r lhe most popula r of Ihe .. . lime increua.. d". lhe: aY'll'm .. . . Iuc. 'lows the ... >OJ'" -.

0'" " " " " ... In ~ .. modiflw r trcuit.. . .'C for l~sl in il and udju~l jng receive rs and • •• EtUlO "" ~~.te <>Uli'll!.)r of 6l4f.i..l .. events.. lion to a circuit do dge deliCrihcd in S S/j PYi"cipl".. Dlod.. 31 is int: nded to increase oscillator stab ility by red ucing " pulling " On a v.. . The diod e WlIS an IStJ l hu t an OA 200 wou ld pro ba bly be j ust as good (in fact anylhing wilh a good rever.. e usdul w d l'ive a I<>w-<:osl V M O S (·F!' power atHplir. 1964). T he TIL i.. dr ioer alld key. I h. is shown in riil. by the succeed ing stag es.W. d owb l. 11.• CIC .. .""r" A. the life of OU lput va lves (pa rt icularly " sweep tube .. BR S26039 states MOl> c. 32 shows 8 bas ically similar jdea. lineas II fW"thcr pra:aut.p '"ll. • •w .. laled as ah nul 0·0) waus fro m 12 voli•.o." '" Il i~ nOI inten ded here to attempt to go into any detail of ju st bow WB2CCM uses the se lind similar tr icks in his co nt rol unit. resistanCll \I ith a 6146 shoul d be limited 10 under 30.... stemming initially fro m a l" o rwcgianscouting manual. of .. 70 '" "" "" Fir . F ig.lo n 01 H • • lh ~ ... wit h gri<J em ission to prn ve whelher drift Is red uced .f. ml" d. dl"".e.ed in u melul bo (e. WW vo ltallC silicon diodes are used in ccniunc ncn with a 24 volt ener~­ iog transforme r an d relays rated at 12_24 volts d.. has d rawn a ((.ln.c. u. . 0. p o . H .. • •• ..ilks ~ Ininia lure t ra" " niUor for Df''' Iox-huru .ly'lnne 7 I 341'). These are both bused o n co nvenliona l crys lal d iode!!. and red uces rcncctc d loading d focts from t be later slages. Th e arrange' Illclll mighl a bo pm. l-5 MM. '"''' 0 " '"0 • • '0 ' t • • • p u . The IImplifler in lhe bo ok uses the high power 4CX l oooA but there seems no reasou why lhc idea should not be a pplied to other lower power vefvcs : for instance G 3JGO POlnls out tbal the d.\ Cirelli!. lo r a.1 " "'''.u " 'io_ _ of.3·~ y. H. " Tr o o sm ln e r" A miniature keyed 3'~ M Hz . he states. bUI which also pro .. . llob llily Darry Priestley.. (SN 7400) fU llcl. Th e circu it.'J O '" '" ..." " '0'" . A s the corresponding resiMar is much lar ger in some rigs.. F ig. po wer ampli· ncr n.f..b . I.G ra w lIill. t. C amp lifier. p o ••• 0. Two ideas . Ano''''''.11. unu srmncr " which cnn be H an . 30 sho ws the bas is of the device. that he auuffiC!I t hat in the arrangement shown the diode functio ns as II steady lo lLd en the v.o". Mln l" w.o. "I ""..10' l o . T1~ -"" 3. Pr<I.. by Pa ppc nfus. . were sub mitted to IT by IVQf Glyn ReI'S (BRS 26(39) after air-tcsting by G3 PKW.• lInd endo. T his ca n be ' useful in SIIfeguardinl! a nd exlending valve life in linear amplifiers ha ving subs tan tial u. . 11..c .t. Possible applications will occur to rea ders.'.ma.. althoui\h he has not a p. wilh a 2N3053 hipo lar lra" . . 00 Ind wd.. " pwllin• . llU rrEll J I • • UJIOJ' 'KOm _.. ~. fro m a no n· stab ilized l u pp ly. He colu\cct..TRANSMITTER TOPI CS . has proved highly sllCCeS$ful and improves the cmcieney of the buffer stage 8S a low power cla..nlCn nas .. " 1---.. Edo. "' J~al> FI. b ut Fig . using diodes. diM .. C.G .mall p-c. •• n. ..~n ". 33... fflcl _ of . GlJOO ha s trie d us ing a diode in the gr id circ uit of hi~ SIHOI linear with no s nail". .." . l"ul•. resistance be tween grid lind ca rt h (for eJUlmp le 10 fllcililate the lnccr pcrano n of au tomatic level eonrrol). M. r. used 3~ :1 ~iium l SOU I"\.. Hruene lind Schoenil<c (M<.c. 00 ..g.s Ihe $CTOCn grid of the buffer valve to the sta bilized h. allsuu.s as os cillato r.c resistance)... Tma l powe r eon' lImplin" is . " " .... . 6 146 57U t un ER 50 00 f ir. G3JG O...000 oh ms.. m .l " ". lOOK . The unil c<l n ~ put un a ..er 10 pro vide ral her "".. 34 shows hi. " ) co uld be significant ly increased . "" " t S n1~ OO " . .. a l ... F ig. e r C... ..on: the an od e is run at ntlls imum h..

p0ssibility of IlKrcasut ll TV SJp. in lOIDCeatSOOalpaa n' tct-t op acnal ma y IJII(I'f'O¥C ma lltll due 10 Icsspjd-v p of fundamcllill Oil rocdcr: noccb 6IIcn f5lubl or brid&ed..hal Ihcy an: ~ 10 ~ whc:a ill ~it)' ~blc: to be: the -=!UlI1 lIOisa of manipulalinlllhc kcy ' Ir ansmll tod ODe PQiDt lolwuld be ~ Then: is DOthinJ.f. {lll 1~('Ithc' "-nd the rnuumum Rand TV_V ..f.ccciYCl Ia. d. on c . h.J. 7.. abGuC fiDdm& throl ODe is Cl..1anoe I nd l ym llWlry to ...w .f.n . TV :ac~l.!r 0ll.. pid-up 011 o.l pl'llc lia: d ltrCl\ from Ih. pos5ibil ily ofphuiol -our inle rference (set below ). and l hal .I<.:h ma y be: u. .". Iln<J tr-.. . ioIG llowu 1\a1. p~fel1fbly "... ~ OUler co-a. ProW. daa B n.: • bonu. TV I is IlOC a probIern rbll always rapoIIlb. lu med OUI b To revie ... "" TV .bl. U lid .i ll \. nu m b« of fad Dn .hich lhe re are o Rcfl !lith Oland lnll .. v..l ac:rillll. lhe lXHIX n bk foo .h... ...to 0{ TV' m m:ld .lTUa c( vertICally pobrizcd lV and "'oe wnal . empirical perI'IUmCC • ollcll e¥«Y btt :IS ADd while lbe ~ pro(euioGal be ill • bcna" posiDoa. Some ~ .... • 10 . alon...1.J!«"IS DI r.tio 1 ~b1)' lowe r thaD ~ R would be loIcn. in p rkti<..nl .I ln ~ D (}&v)I.nic:uWly or Ia4k 1lCl.'e. 1 the Tv fl'l'<l umcics would be very much IUlller thlll il . liP on tile screen..c tkat lransialOf p. At lhe otlKr C1t~ ...6..f...ell co>aed 1/1 R4tJio C~ H~ l..un..~<l luw ' n dial ioD on polana.... On<:r: \Oe<:ame a. .Vlm (or <:4OdR " above PlW mocrovoll pcr met~) on Band I ..."U': Ibis 1liiy be mallet or recollUtllll' pt'l:IbJcrm of tI'Oft-lIloouL uion. ~y loop. cn tr:n Ihe IYCnIJC tdeviUon d1a.t1y IPaI\:beol IDd balatlOl:d Ie ". un d Ihump. hl luns on TV a Dd 1ra nsmi llt r aeriaI< .gnaJ!intcrfcrcno: ' ilio must be cx<:ce<lcd it the TV Ihiddint of ItIRsmlller (~ lhiddinl. "*: 10 upocl lhc a pple an.. • 9. It m u • ...of dJc:rti yc 611crinl 0( al l cmcrginl lcads. 'Ibis ii . a l.-orb."I : 1<art in drn<n . ':'C'l1. if . "'My bo ll " .... Nnt.l . Sy J lr lllJ """ ".~ 1 lll eK dc_n us"ally I n~"I'e.tl.. \'a lue of I'l'O'J aena l b..nt 10 luI'e been u!l<kr-estllnBlcd lPOSSlbly bccaux t::U~1l T V ac na. Iho ugh.. .round.. Ioc:h. ..".rea." k1b. 1ft thm doin& DOthia. ~. What l . i ~nion 10 ' loCI .. 10 ciesla lIld _ his filler compooc ot ><a.lidcnbly more noticeablcllhan &17 I 3 Mel. "':R.. aenal III .UcrtlUl lor in TV rco:drr . _ M unbool&QOCld comm on mode elfoclI) and Ikl M nlll he n""ntlc....: val ue of physical brilllIC<1..f.ri'l ia by fitlinl . In !'Ionll Amenc. This n _ Ihil.. 3160 !"V. pi-oc:twort ~ ~ mlO ~ _ 1ChOCI hno-or belief" ar. ~.<by loop and lhe ~1 1io1l1 r. 1 io ~ . the: a ma teur In the . ? "dUlllln...n fn nl><: a """" ' pJctum .. Ooe .. of ll>\ll pasa f."Pled tha i 1 0)' 1i J. bcc1Cl' tbaa."".1 ~ of ha rmonk n. (particularly uoun d th e 4'4 Me.:er belw«n c...n . Af3in.a lion fro m the OUlCl scrccm of o>u fco:de n -.. •.. ohm balallCC'<1 aeria l focJc r.arc to be comr lelcl)' clea r or ""lIefll.'J\...n .l.tucs. llho.:t .. dI ode:$.l1 i. III TV ._ oft co haw: bid wa wd'onna thaI amenle ClOCCUi..lO&Ily " In fI"CI1C': . th i. l>c vicol iodudc: poansitic ..D I po-L nctworlr. M .I... lIlke ... But here I.. mesh _ all bavrca. filter (1'0 ~ J&A and many publisbed ~l . .lInUirla: I q ueeti O!l 0{ tubilrl}' 0( tho p . .). lIIIC o f ICl'lICGCd VI'lIa and m ultiple filters . . 'I<>rnC oIller mcc han .lh pid".illl Fa raday IoCftlCn or Fan ula y co-axloop be llllfto 1 .. ."n T V P(lJ~\l~ wilen l<lk . JlefliItmt compb....alioo o f lOCI TV ehanne'.umoaia.l.-pass ha enee dots D« NOC! r. o r so (rom lha ~ioion earne r freq ueDC)' II C\lD.di : nllte <1ilTe~no. til:r j '"' ""y .II SOrb of odd IQI. iPl!ucllC:e of f1!CIH"'" I . .nl of " key cl . (dick filte n a nd bell"'. alwa Y' . w...nGu.' nlf:rfemJa: n.m .M:e beI"'O:fl o:omponc:nts a n<J ~hle kb (olhe.. u.&C' of the or tnoIO~ ~Oon {~I. IlOleh liltcn fl lu'" or 0C:pllrlf1iofl (Inverse I<I~ .sml..en o floo. Jalioo. of f.ll e r I llhe e nd of II ..n~ de:.d iat in n II imponanl and I oomplc(a ClIft II likely 10 come only from 111eI\Iion 10 I coru. R~. under III coodlllODl of dm. k. . ~ollall<' rellu!uI. 1ft. .n. . tnII.1l )..u liar_it" H~r(J/icHr: II'oe sa<a. IId loodc and ICnICII voillp.•.~ f.. American ..I~ ~ a nd TV ..b le. pa1a&pl due to basiIl& his dfOC't$ 011 the: rni5rakm pranisc throe his fOlllCkn I I . nd oI lier ."m l · be ndi l d rc-h.. do'Ic 10 cdp o( ~ ­ iRlCf'C"l lea w: plenty 01 Sp. a llDOlllll)' poIo!a. Ibe irnporlallOll of pick·up lo by and ..ISlllJ TV!.I.. u r 3Ol). IiqIc su-in&l.wi. m uc ll e<llier 10 Cu lt T VI for sOl e b:uwl$ (o rc~en tome pam n B..ansmillcr cnclowrc ' lvold < o:rOW<linl components al hiah r.:t~. llllCl _ mOlh. ybodJ. . nu T VI.. pki..r.ca.h.I ""..me (OMII' d IntcrferellCC'Ih an n.phna. bn:aklhror..oupl ml. c le ...ltl"'u'IY " th. ' n Ihe UK . l...:=n had pcrlco. IICl1izoolal ly pol arized ltatwniltio. rou&b ly be .. pe. ma im filler . <HI T V amlllsJlvr. .ho. I la rmoniken "I I ch o ice ofacriaJ IO a. co-u tup./'.. "'lckballd ftnite lnftSformct$ or double F. T -aerials "'.""aJ Md ~ r. lta l han data C. remindrr tb. . . tem lIlu re prurte to .h " ..kk. 10 Ihe flu t. ....lled .l IIIOJe tb:ui l boul one-bUlldmlth P of lhe: T V si~l ".I".. ilOn and OIher fil let' ""ml"llncnl. il is rea lized thal lh il lilt IS far fr om nlla ulll~.l &trad a p ictu re...iq~ N ol e Jnftuen cc o( .than ror dccoup hRI caflll<. "'-11 nllk:C III lhe ll~h t " Il. flO"ihrJil y of roIocatioll ofaerilb. 1I. . fo r t~ uneapxleJ .l...ard of ~led tnllImillcr ~ _bout it..r~rnlCn a nd b<llu n.o rtlll<:>ok in .n ~ ~uidancc fro m A. D ifficu lly d d.k . Iowy fem te hlluo .II.• • n...:""nca n pubhCillton..llSC o h o-called 8Cl .~"". Thnl ...Il ltr1kc doom .hQiQUC$.. and . '<IO:h ikY1lCClI III lhe d o ublc-far.m .lizin l..:.{ : R eeo(lllizc Ihal in diffICult cues it is UIUlU. ~ ~ ~ IIuItk--.gnal. aeriIol S)'IIerD lPay be (a UK! of n'1 0 0 ~ .. tblo ~JOCIiorl of IilPl&b odla IhIIl . be ....- pcrbapi. (subJl'"t -. p .. RnJltCi"..lio by bel ". It II wonn ren ltmt>t rin g lhat Ihe p. dwlads. ~ IM I ma ny lV aerial.1... ltalUformcr or pi 1IJ1cntqr:: ~. of 60dB oomparal wlth his fnn~1U'ea wl ~..Ihe fo reseea ble future.r. R.u."..DOlln a dw n. 1000d . _ n:-1Chcd !hen: mI)' through. u bkd y u aayooc eIx to punue an ~ ~.llldcviskon r«:ei'-. .f./It.uum iue r . £X.n r this (r"". I " lIllIJiUllcrferencc n.. \lK-only ~h allnel I American TV lIorizontal poI arirolion .". hi$b-pass. Illlleu w..T)..llht bmcfil.p on f«du ./iIw.l. nts o f fernie nan. malady that Q....k l.l&I]II. A TVI Chad.t"'" l!-Ih . Thu I .. K C')'lnl ' h' l h power Ira .l. I I leal! ltIl"V (rio jte lfeU.. ~oo4dbrI t-. lhe hillier fn:>qtoencict. =o~izc diffe~ncC'l bc:1W«lI Arnen u m lln<1l:uropc. m.• rideo OJ . To ~-XW lIOfTE t. purdy t~ 'PPfOKII... fo...isfq..upPm~ dcr. ..o n AM A T EU R ItAD I O TECHNI QU E S n. the p ~nl sn ue ucn. (fur e~amplc positivc video mooulauon "r 4OS·l tne . 10 lIa'". ."~ ~ pltl'l'dl/t>ll 1t1w: traps. 1tl colour re<:eflio n." . to.rnpon" nl _ blll..:c.' " it is 1 .. • n<1 ~. IrlC1er Of dOl&I apmu. rnay be iU hlllllllS say l 00d D (1'\'). rea.lter (note dew: lopmml of . Bel::a... ..lIy I.dt ate .... mronaot... l iplo l . or <»ll~I"ICI)' of rod lKlll l dfoca of ra<m-Iioca.l y.aI..tMiiotitnr of /wrmt>nia : uSC o f clftdelll IIcriaI lu ninlllma lcltiol o nil.itor 1)110. mi ~ht I ppur to be or lhe o rde r or SOd B al the! more cri tiClll beat fl'aj ucncin.. UIC ." •..II f rcq UCflda. b.... a ccilio.f.lboorpti~ lih ers ) or ban<! pUS filler(e.u"n :Good builc mlcfl'l3l1on a l C:C I R ligurl:5.(.... th o . 2."'l I~ema. ocwo:omcr or okkima. K~ / __ . . \ide lr.dvlIl l..h ..t llllllVC modu lat ion.. 4. voltqe rqu lalion...r 100 .. """'Pill: < l .lltemi"ll mulllini fro m In Interrer in& cartie r II about I Mc/. tur.o. _ II . $«".. noI1n ll di trcn:noar '" c:apow.. hIe I" ~Ie.u ~ (ro m si.nals of UJIdc.). colo ur is conrrncd to .>&h I I i... p1cnt7 cl ~ to ICIQIfll lCnICII. e fl\cicnl dcw-no. Half" I". .Cli a lld stray coupliD&t nauns. of thr IhII'nbcr of nriablcs.b...acts and The field 1~ of loca1 lckvisXla SIgnals nries ~)'.. wi re a nd ol~r multi-band dcIi&ns. Do aall down_ d lcek UII on 'I VI.1 Sllt'l'ly line can ca\ISC maint YCIllll1C ~_ rialionl tlklt ma.)' cuily hR. bl'a l. we ba~e atte mp ted to liel . MitlJIrlin".

bUI.h.hich separates outlhc v..I. :J$. 1I0t even aD ab5o rp ti".. r w ith . ". low_v alue ca paci tOR ca n be fa bricated by ma rkin.1 .-c! . _. O pAcita. The final word has not bocn written. from rear..nLe o f boanb per sq u.ts willla ul insisting On these .hann el protection (but remember tha t the Americans a rc no t concerned with the tough Chan""l I problem). 1 techn ique which could playa sillDifican t ro le in lhe improvet ment of ftlte. by means of a n effective cross-ever Iilter .-< · T. 1968 1.v_ 1. .h. In other wo rds. Now.. 125 ~n " .. ene rllYto go to lhe aerial: Fi g.. S t1ld 6 po lc lilters to Ih l.... stop band .f. with OOnItruetion ftl dctails o r a n:presentativc 4-pole IIlter. the be.f.~:-l. F or trall1miuer powen 0( UDde )00 wattt p. ho hu ever been d isappointed with the rew lu o f finin l a low-pus filte r... ou t the roquiml area of co pper.. ot . wol" ... " fil..~y.f. llPIal. ~ . an d then matches t he v. TV . the worst is probabl y ov er in the UK -but see elsewbere in this Srxtion .. ..... power to ll'3Ch the aerial elemen ~ 1llc Collins ell.~~ ~" y..o n.f. due to tile loca l .. al they .en .ificatio n. an d probably never will be.. Ca rro1l-do=rvD to be n=ad in itl clltill't y by a nyone . _ 1 0-0 ... been dou btl . wltll " (Wte.clad Tellon bnlIrds are rccornmcn dcd .~ if> ... In pllleti<:e &Orne 16 f1ltcT11 lulve br:en OOl1ltl'1JCll>d. inc~y. much the Ame way &I the a udio high-fidclity CDlhu! w t lin lon. tra nsmiuer..t ma kes . and In!l freq lfencies to bis woofer. . I.. itlting lolld a n r comprise a pa ir of 2 W ll 100 o hm rcshto l'1 in pa rallel. h rar .. a nd rnmtlr of tile or der 4' .•ms: Recognize that thi. . filte r CIon hope to c ure TVI if the ha rmonics ca n leak o ut alon.ind t. adequately w elded.0> " .. ..h.f. wIIcn:as simila r lllten bllw on mic.uoQabl y lIat linll.~.f. ethe r t ile hi... are reported to haw: performed Slltidactori ly wit" tntueeivers of 100 .. One Iinl l po int c mefllCS vividly rrom thil l rticle : 00 lowpaos liller . co ppc r. . Thilarr roacll resul~ in cm~ low co mpued with Olhet" TVI fillcn o f co mpa ra ble poWCl'_hand ling C1pa _ bilitic1.. the inlCroormoct inll .. with aJl emerlliDe leads adequa lcly filtered . Vicwers are seldom anti-amateur at the outset. W. wilh bot h o Ulc r and . th~ ha". directed h iah er frequent:iC5 to his tweeter. 1 from the sta nd point o f all-r.1 <.. The co ppoe . ( bl ll• • _ . or p roced ure for Y'J '" Iro oble. riglllS "or engag illl in mutual recriminations.. u rfaoe:s no l o nly provide Iow. . .. gencTal ! po:. Public rellJ/iOl/s.lCUlRCC capacito rs a nd inten. TR AN SMITTER TOPICS 0. and is likely to be h~ly reactive a t _ a t Ieut o f the barmonic f""lucnci"". '" . The h igh-p. e Prlrtc. provi n..r1.. wllh .n be formed fro m . 12. n' ou tpu t.Ilion . fo r ttlo dltcr ca.:ompkte clear bill of health . to allow the absorptive low_ pass filter 10 do its job properly . t... For muJ m um pooNCr-l\londli ns.. . earK:elthe filter inp utll'tl<:tanee'.tlout the v. wtreo " an d tbe lCI"eeninlJ '~ a ll fo rmed by winll doubleclad copper prinled circ:uit boa rd. or For many yean it has bocn taken ro r granted that o ne 0( lite most impo rtan t means o f red ucing harm onic rad iaOnn II the m ultI-sect ion low-pasa lilter.o.f..h.. .. lea ving the bJ... 3. The a u thOll I Uun! thai it is possi ble to increase rathe r tlutn to IUPfll"CU ha" uollies .f. IOUIU an d loa ded into .. An effective no tcll "''1 be p ul in ror e pan icula r channel b)' u~ i n ll one o r more IIeli . a n dfc. IhlS pa rad o.s filter inserted between the aerial and the T V recei~r is tile usual technique to reduce the l wampinll or II TV receiver by DD h. Q/'balld:s).a re.. ith con ventional L C Iiltcn. _I ". Thll aniclc. O p . But wilh single-sta ndard u. N o-.. KOUVU... Co) " y. Allcnuation o f I 6-po1c filler is p""n u better than 40dlJ throu..:: boeQ llubli$1>c\I which. pa llls other than tile aeria l feeder... .4 Circuli 8 0rlrd f lit erJ The. <If .ere o pera ted-none had adequate Ihleldinlll filterillg.l is beca use luch lilteN are designed 1 be doven from a pun:ly l'C1i$li".0. The tronsmitt cr R U tallCea t thc1c hannon ic1ma y pa rtiall y.... _ oq u a r a l" . tha . thatl to achieve ~ o.lIy the co n\'C nloonallow-pass filler1l do ll<>' always work u well u u p«ted allf>Cat'l in a n a n ick ~ I'NO Collins Radio m eineeflln QSTCNnvember.can ellul""n tl440 t4 C/o). H owever In so me l.l lO. when inserted in a C<Hl ~ial aerial lransmission linc.._ .:olll>flCl.. ilt·pole unit . subject.Il. harmonic..r fCIIultt : the tIMd co. the v..I.. o f jus l . on Ihl. A valuabl e eo ntribUl inn to the belter undemandin.al a ncnt ua tioa flllli es h thnc fIltC" an: alwa)'! (or e~m o nenl being nchievN in ptllCl iee. even in a COl"R<:lly sel up filter $)'1lem. .f from tile h. 3S( b). III a Ch. In o the r word s.AbIoepl i ~ F Uter fo r TV Ha nnOllQ ·· by Rich aod WcinJcich.s.are loeb. Orhtr merhlJni. 1 . . . H(a).ICl ion.. AbJ""plive Filler Approach 10 TVI In"". CllCrllY 10 aD idling l'C5i! tivc load where it can do no harm. Many designs ha.b .. 4. <If _~ fi l'.h.n be fully effoctlve unlelS the ~ic t~llSmi Uer i..o.0<)<1 ori..\ par tial Ct1r(l a l Jeil5I111lowl sornt lICtivlly.0 if they feel tha t nOlhing is being done abou t complaints.....h.!Ies thil may not be entirely effC(:li".. ODe is tho "IOSIY" rerri le filter which cousiltt of j U t ! a few turns o f ec-ax feeder woun d on a ferri te toroidal co referri te normally Inlended only for applicati olll belo . '_uIMtor owe•• ..tive ".p:aci Or1l. OT e. IfWlla ted boa od. Ye t..f.. T he PO!! Office lias dcwlo pcd IOvcral lllten designed to reduce the amount o f signal fellChinl a TV IIel yla the outer cab le. ca n be detcrmirKd usinll a feSl coi l and .. lmllar board.. They IUuest thaI this can bo done ill N Oedlln... I l10ul d virtually SlOp an y v. tra lU<:CiVCll o r fnur ditreren. a nd thus perm il v.. rid-dip meter ~ l ub1oquroU y. li.. 0 taI$ti~ tcrmina t... t is quile likely not to include the cau. "". i auumin. Buicallf . 4& t4 </< .I'. I ..h l. I I .." righ ts ' Illd so has the amateu r-bu t bene t slill if both can pursue tbeir inte re.. with p roper loy-oul. urf'a= boDdold toge ther 10 form a double ICI'CCn. " No adjust- usin. but the more read ily availa ble d o ubl<>-clad li bn>-1l1 .l oel"l.p..h.5e absorp tive ruten make use of a cors~ll'1. reaching the TV set in soma other manne r. 'lOdB. and R .h ing the acrial d e men ts. ". about 2 Mc!" so tha t it fOlll\! a loss vbalun.. 212 ..apaQton may iii"' lill ie a Uen tua tion a t u.If·shielded bolt" o r inlernal sereea.J CUT .but ca n rap idly become ..e. the ty pical lf aOlmillcr ou tpu l Impedance tend! to be resosti"' only a t lhe ou tput frequency..f.fil <If..h. The outet bolt .. Fi lte n using pnoted-boarll e&pocilORI are etreetlvt illio t ile u. soc Fig. h tllwll'til.holly. Try to keep' ~ller1l On a oo-npe rat ive bRsis. Coble" R. with some modes all<tpower levels. ~.lineen believe that tile so lution to lhis ~ unha ppy ch apte r in lllterioll ·· is to use lit ten which ao:hieve lillcrtJll by a b1orptioo of the har mo llie eocfiY ralhe r than by a Ue mpt ml to rellect these hanno olCII N ek into the trallimilter...... The QST a rtic le p resen ts dc3ign fo rm ul"" ror 2.annel 2 fril13C al'llD . 0104 1Ori_ r1.1 . inally.-tuned lr l p sections. M u. '~ IDLING ~. Thc vocwer has hi...l..

II is absolute ly c:iI'Il:Dlial thai suc h un il' should be so constructed as to be safe liver lbe ir lifetimes. OleO. It ~l>ao. wl.a: r....J 4_ . 8reakthroto. remind.. o f a bou t 8·5 an) on all «-translslo r-rad io ferrite rod aerial o f 8 mm . ''''''a .. Some o f lhe$C wide ban d dl...:vil.....a.l..:UIC$ hb 0. who.. 1<01.:hauis...l ld be SIr=<! lh a l the h. Usio g 11 FX2249co re. p... 03XOI relays in f<. f •• _ . . amplifier.NO :. )... - .c>r:1l INN[ 1l CONOUCTO Il TO !oCRlEN a ND COY~ R "'1 M lM'£ 1 AM A TE UR RA D I O TE C H N I Q U E S 8lfll.f.._ol . 0 3XOl has also ltied a modif'tcd. dl ..J . 011 .~ . l...•.ges o f TV set.au tio ns.tlc 1'1 _ . _ ' " .rid a nd ca thode current ill 6146 p." . dea d certain._ . 1. _ h. with a 500 p I" eef5ll1ie by_pass capacitor to the valve c:alhodc tenninal (n ot to eh il\Sis).. broa..:h probl em . requirinll the USC onl y a n ."at li NGLE NR ..... potentials..eRUN .l:. it i... ' 1 M I NSVI..t I'lXeiven aDd spcoch ampli6cn CI.39. so that rect iflcatio n docs nol lah p laQ:.c.S. ." lERIAL l n. ..... ina d vita ble 10 put ho mcbuilt maiM filleD into a ther peo ple'. AIao Oo . "III my expe rience. 111": inle nded rcr those situa tions where lhe d . --. fl h<H A mains filler can be most effoctiw in reducilr.oIved in ac hieving thls....~ es good the fnraday doub le loop a t h. a. 1 1'1 <1 . a nd in no way d eleterio L15 to Ihe valve'. Fig . llnd cannot he u>eol in . iwlatin. bi..." ~ S OlORT LfNGTtt ~tRR llE '. " a n:as . allerilill I TV leI Ilanll lhc mains lea d....... 38) con"st$ 0( 3 ) d ouble lurns o r 22 $. ~ • •uo' ho •• " h. S"lId. l1. n . h i&h. .. 010. W1ZOI ill QST (July.11 1·8 Ml.:g'll"\! to an y mai ns filters (CS{:«ilIUy u y loaned to Olher viewers) . ) $wltd! : Fi..:ir<:uit. and somt:ti mcs fa irly COnt9ICI switchin... r M . Ihau &h it mii1:ht ' M rro..) p . . I.4 oJ. . " lao I lnl . . flttin.. f1...a.m ."II NG "...p. comin g Ihro ullh the co-u fceder ... witb l oad construction and componen ts of adequate e.1 . thus lnd ical in... 36 s how. the device can readil y be tried o n a ny TV r«o: ivcr. or " 5tCU Rf .y of dcal injl with fllDd. ter pl \l$ It! fO rml D vcttme rer "l. Tho G J X O .. . 1 Oflia: engi nee rs rfCORlmead.._ J.." he writcs. is in.. w .. Tbc sillgle lurn laop ma de ou t o f co-ax . W 110ss l. llM: maim c hoke (Fig. I«hniq"" whk h also effectivcly l.:r filter is one of l hc e l\ca pcst fomu o f filler 10 ma ke Up." .e.fi lillr ""lUnd IB ns(ormc rs On Ierrttc beads.. . fnn. " •. 4 fl . .. functi o n.. With S I d OloCd lbe . 31.4 0 ' _ " '0 .l from a filter (ailure o r shoclc.'"... an d fo rmmll a l'a radaysclU:lI . 1 0 r'a"".. Th e " lossy balUD ~ will nat meet all I b<l lu..v..Q atill give trouble.OOIl in the a udio Ita. T ol ." Hill Ma ubcwl .. is l:"lI ing lntc lhe T V r«civet a la n.:rO~S the R2 raisto r in t he cathndc l. "... Tile ' X O version co m prl. " . . ~ I ". 111 "" ' .1 m. be slrased in rl.." ••• (SIZt ROD 1 .. This prevenu gr id :uld e&thod e being a l d iffCl'l:nt d .d<..... 1bc double loop n:<. filler made up in a l iD boll and mounted illSide t he TV llel as _ r as possible 10 the pain t when: the mai ns cable dlsappul'S bno the l.. TVt . M l1uinll a co-ax p lUI y and SacU l on the in""t a nd ou l"" t leadS.4O. r..f . on-atf " (s.l..... J.:h<>ke in the grid of Ihe o ffendi n. OJSYC ~ .f..&cs jwa D Imgle-Ium OOtIplinll t rMn!'fa rm er using a sh ort scrap of ferril e rOO : see F ig.. . Note the use o f 1100 volt a.. Ma n)' tra nsrnitter dcslllll' usc a silille milliammeter to IllC'1wre va rio us parameters. . .l.a usc of lega. He I'\lQIIlI a .. I..40 " .. ' as a l ains t 6 to I Od ~ of dou ble Fa rad a y co-ax loops.. llETWU" { INNtR .lle r<..p.. i5 oneo ( the Okksl dadga In tac kling tBnomiller harmonic ra dia lioll. 47 st 1" _ tloIo .d on. fo l•••• la l lI. . simp le. the mo~t effective w.W..In.o/o<.ei-.. '. H .a blc allcnuatio n o f lhe req u ired TV signa ls. winding length l .....".filters eo m prlMl jllSt a 47 K resistor o r d . a nd double Fa rada y loo ps. as no SImple M""e.> rtnlIlio n 011 the do uble Farada y loop to: hn ique which some Po . I..ll wool<! requ ire cope e trcalvcly with 1'8 Me:s r J .in.. etc. a nd which in h is own usc proYed highly elfoctivc ill.:. .rio '11 . slICh ' 0fIIl: JO or mo re lum s in o rder to mellll a rc t l:<lu ired.. all cil'CUmslunc~ ..ils.lope a . 1'«01. ..rca. the basic del .. " .-warkilli ""'pa<:' tOlll• One poi.... tiS thai stray roctifIca...:an be acllievcd w. 1 <w a ... co vered wire c lO8l:WOUDd (10. imple bul dfccl ivc am: advocated in vari Oll1 ed itio ns of the Radio HturdboaIc : lee F ia:. O~ . O~ .. hamel unless you really un<knlaod a nd fo llow all SAfe ty p ro:.'cs inlrodUOC' l:Onside..la . h sho u ld not be t hou ~htt hDl ferri te tra nsfor me rs a nd lony rerri te haluns a rc tin a/ter_lil'/! 1<. ".1rncn llll h.. fo r exa mple. I... IIOlvin... a To p Band T VI p rob lem. 1_... d iameter. 1968) n:parh On a paTlkularly sim ple amltlJCmcnl be U!ltlS 10 mcuure .. l.... f.f. ." __ d_ mM. n..... _ _ Cloa h. 0 3JOO turs musllrcd a loss of o nly a bo ut Id S 10 Me..ler.> Ill" better k nown h igh pas.. A."f ""o't •• I ....Dl must al way.. Jk.0 . co 01 _ _ . .-t . 01 1.. . SOI.'mora1conso:q~ rcaullin.. Ihe n uter screen of lhe ca ble.. tra nsfu rmer. (b ) I..f. it'.

-REF.Gq. " " IJ.\' o n a sinlle variablc-vollagl'K". R 'I J. 10 p ractice. ilh _ to "".."'1' I ". wbich has pro~ its value on commernal cqulpmen15 A. drive II a pplic<l lo lhe p. GJ FR B. Solj~ _ Sc"".*j'=i:lI:':~:~~'2: . but eonsiden. d..t . m b. n G '" _ m it/ ••• .d. c~l. Fo r a BA102 th e permanelll + I~V fl • . bcrore mc:asurinll p _a_ grid d rive. b ut the relllllinillg components (a t d .n&O-Qvet lOUie switch breilk s the h. wilCh off h . "che<! _ _ 0&1 ' . the IOpF Irlnuncr which lIovcml the c1eglCC of delu nin.. r_1Q S5 ...-atinS.. "'on/torlnr 0....ed II an r. H ~'" 52 ~ -~ "I' u . . I'QltmeleT when the bin Is n:mo~ frQIlI the rrid. volt _ meier: if the basic meter mD~1 is more serultlve tban I rnA.. Un der such condit ion.o. . 42. volUiae. "'''1 ~ T .l. lloc value: Qi bui lt·in grid volt lTlllte rs fo r thQ ~. Witb the va luCil al~ by RI . h. Imter read. . lllld Ihe elimilla llo n o f po "".4 4 .r.r.- 'The abi litr to " c1etaeh " the lin. lor a nd !he deo. nAO . f SA D SURRcoll t luit a 250-volt liM can be U.. This U!1!$ c hangc-ovcr switches to PUI a differc nti.l .A "' . rclatively high eo llector-to-cmillcr brcak dQWn-vollllF rariDp (BY.. and a s pr ing-b iase d doublc--polc eh.I G':.f.. .J comb ination. " -" lor 12" ~ 0'.. 1968) hs ! I neat I rrangement allowin g either tnnsmltter o r l'«lCiver frequcoey 10 be d etached fro m Ihe no mina l freq uency a lld delUDed by u p 10 a bout S kc/s atld yel ".. Du=>s. • • ----.turned 10 DOminal ll l he f1i<. WOLRW indicates vancus adva.f.ileT. thil i:s Ilno the r ii rnple methcd.TRANSMITTER TOPICS . in perm.~ rt. 2 walt d rop p ina resi~tor an d 12 VOll zene r of adeq uale PO""" . bul c learly ot her vl luet couJd give ony requ "..f.. . A fu n het idea used in tbis exclrer b h is mc tbCKl Qf p. OJFRB is a firm believer .. . ".<acto'" H "''''''1 '" $1 ... D. R2 6·8 K o h. sho uld be applied 10 thc p..''C 26 i.. ~ ' . J K o hm. 6 146 ~o I- <:um:DI. In Ham RDtJItJ (Sep tem ber. . (Rmli. il il ~tler to I dd tile « Ita IwitebiD8 Deeded to m um i l to m aximum &CTI. drive voltage r.. H ••u _ ... grid driv'Cvo ltllgc mo nit oring.. o""d for 11ipplyillJ the llClwork..":. R '24·7 K o hm and P S K oh m..le v. 41 tbc DQTma l grid-currenl meter is .s. it is essential tha I no b.o:::::~~r.iunetioo wilh a JOO voll s upply an d provi din' l\ rcllUlated 200-\'Olt 5CrtlelI l upply when r ..l tO C3k:ulale this to l ive • ~ r.. Clomp The inereu in l a vaila b ility o r tramiston b&vIn.ll~tallCC diode : ICC ril. rlll>c:r than r. derccror .M_ .. al the on.. ") Is . IhQWn the useful dio de aUellua h) r used by Ph il HClTVo"OOd. . circ uit of the v.ct o r I:rid Dr .. du rin !> mcuUT\'flle"n ts... It is then possible 10 eq uale dri ve with bi. _ _" " •• m odo..s G rant . itlvilY wllm . of a tra QSOl:ivet 'SO lhat Iran_ ion Ind recep lion ClUl be 011 ~illhlly di fferent f«:q ucPeioes is a f<:atu".I.d.l.1vo ila I. possible. . o nly) ClIIl be in any convenient position. R2.-u . Uina virtu ally d iftc:l 1witehio 8 o f the SCRlCO to ea rth potenl la l. If the &rid c ur ren t meter is lhuniW 10 pater lhan I rnA Ls. F oc a 12 volt con lrol line .. wiu:hed to eeeeme an f. H _.b. If a bi[lh vol tlllC liD<: i. the grid forms the" d iooe anode" <If lhe r.radlJa11y o penill ' the way to new appheatiollS for so lid · state Iw itchiolf.f. 1..~ ~ "0 . n. k of a swi tch. m" voltaIC shoul d be +' vo llS. SJ!telTlS. vol tage available . WOLRW. 200 rnA anOOc cu rre n t ~ m A ~rld c:umll l.olaltO o f such a ayslem eompare4 with the more convenlicmal valoe clamp arI'lUIlCJIlCIIt.o.m IG. in case the user has fo rgolfen to .c.f.. ..-~ ' • •0.. circuit u a I4rciUlird.. l l. Rl is chosen 10 l iVll lhe IPIlropria te fult-scate-deflecrten o f the meter. cap&eitor should all bo moun ted close to the lun in.. descri bed a screen cla mp Iyslern intended l or IUC In coo. virlUaUyto zero in t he absrnoe o f d rive.d.s . au.t...Cd by a 12 volt zene r d iod e since llny varia tion of thi~ VOl tsllC will ca use a freq ucOC)" variat ion o f thoe v. Voharer On PI.~':GJ.nscelv.. f1 H .. .r. on .:ouplio. lhis s hool d he Slabllil. 1968). 'The VVe. C. a nd the poten tiometer P Ihoold a lluw an "-"CU rsiOfi of from a bo ut ~ to 9 vohl .m. tM cathode current o f the: !lISC. F SA D.. rs .".=. • • •n " . droppin.5ed in con ju nctio n with a 4 7 K ohm.:~~lb=:=:'. .'. .c. Deudoed Tunlnr on T. With 51 Qpc:n the: me ter p1\1$ RI imliclltes lhe VQlllae deve loped by Ihe pid drive aaooa RJ . No vember.e. . • 1 n... OJfR B noles lha t it is a good l(\e.. the 10 o hm resi.. and kJ Ihe I mA r. m. suit llble va lues wou l<l be RI 4-' K o hm.. As IohQWIIlD Hg.I. the two divide r nelw orh fo r co n trollin8 the VVC will depend on the d iode a nd th.os . D• •• d>. so mu ch the bel le r. in hillate st trallS istQrized u ._ .

'" 5Cllt:tI AMATEU R Il A D I O TECHNIQUE S 2 N34 40 ~21( 4.-. 1 . . Such types as 61>QS 6QBS . Ideal fo r a 3·S Me. 6. . 1 assure equ al or ncar equal I" . If higbc r vottallC hearer transl"o rmcrs.. l>oug D eMaw. Output VaIn..t fo r blindS 14 Me!... and heal arisin .r. flocause of the heater cu rren t ralinit (2-~-amp fo r each 6K D6 l.tter fat: linear ICrvM:e. ho wever. .cilllalOweh adj.'S linear wilh inpu t and OU lput pi--nclworb are given in lhe Jalluary. 47.. in Ike abscocc of d rive: a IIOCful featu re. anode ~ireui t of each valve (o r allemal ivdy being able 10 switch I . T . Ingle meie r Into ClOCb anode cin:uit). QTC (June...1. hould be no te<! lh. .el".. FiS. Anode lempenllures above ~.d. types.e. " f l. in :<erie. be operated lit leTll!X'falures well below the W ' C usua lly ~l'CClrlCd by lhe ma nufactu re"." of 2SO volts.. Colour television. . 191\9 issue er Ihe Ikl gian CQIQSO jou.led by arranging for individual a!!juslmentA of billS to eilCh va. so pI' • • ". In pa rticular.u:.i.I.. The ~ll voltliioC aUlomatN. .ible. He stales thalt"" silico1l2N3440s have a rated llV •... he dail1l$ tbat II I those tested showed a Irue figure of at least SOO va lIS an d cou ld be used reasoo.". . in futory-buill rigl usin. u olo .. the a mmsellK'o t describe d by W OLR W . . rho ugh l he lDfo nnali.. d . opention.106. Th e IWO I N914 diodes prmee t Ihe transislors fro m R'~rse breakdow n al the emlncr-base juflC1 ion.. wh~h he says can cuilyoccur Wilh valves ill compact t..... The dillgram mak es tke prindple cleM..0.-io pu t lilleilr..nce on t he qucst iOfl of para lkl o peration willwllr \loins specially 5Clec. 1 I'" 0001 6006 ' Ia. .. . Wl CER indicalC's Ihal if lhi~ is done l he dyna mic t rk k "r lhe valves will usu.and uses a 2S·2 volt.. a dJ y'''~'' Key elld Fill•• A l ey dkk fillci not invol> -ing an iro n-<::orcd ( hoke an d witable fo t ClI thode. Th e refen. Ihe . . pDtenllllal l !lc: anode of lhe driver $fate ..y. grid.sUy be within 10 per cen t up to ma l. if l'O". 44... bililia t ha ler chokes are advisable... Jt ~ of courx eut.nsmillen: not hwving elfectr..n . Ill' provides u!\C'ful guida..90 series relUlalor valve is deri ved by rectify.. the ot her 2N 3440 is co n ne<:lcd II 10 eminer fo l OWl:r wllich PUll on to t ile screen .r. W ICER. (3 fact whi ch 'ho uld he borne ill mind whell 611illl rq>!aocrncllt.lrarnclers with these V3. Env. C.46 t thoulth il .D. drive put ..f. . from the po wer nUnNllly dissipa ted in • clamp valve and vollllgc d ropping rcJilUlr.11.. To f. '"~ Un_r AmplJfl. Furt her he slr~ 'he po inll hiu bu lb and aDOde temperalures are uSUillly lhe limiting p. conneetin.. Thil problem ca n be mioim.oo ao d marched val'<el... 6lQ6 and lhe . T While the tnmsiston can be T. .. eTIImplifier._...b. 4~ . Tbe fK l th l the ~11 potentia l iI almo'lt in<Jcpendenl of scroeo ~n t is a rU" ~ " beoelit. . . . d~l. Europooll PU05 and PUOO. para llel-connected. 1%8) from i an Hem by VUU N io Thr / Ild/OJI Rmfio Am4lrur : F i(l.$05 with ils 40 volt.e coo ling. mo re Iltan o ne valve In the power ampli fier).. .. ""rago amO lellT will not norma lly be able to do tlii.~ Screen Refutation DJ3WlI in ll L. ..tfDoCll l!.II.. !lsge5 with aboul SOO volll h. of lhe 1'. 43 allo".llnd thaI some type of forced air cooIill~ will be advi.. Some delails of the hilth-power Iinc. tllble value t he . 19611 ) describes iI method of regulilting o~r a wide.. Witb no r. 0 Whlle the trammitlcr manufacturer ca ll ha ndp ick and grade his va lves befn«: pult inl them into h~ equ ipments. l OO-walt d. (QST.keyed p. 6JS6. w..lDlll by ON~J I : Fig.."" 2N34 40 El90 ~. whereas Ilrict ly spukinll the ratin g sho uld equal or exceed that or the sup ply voI lllge (in this case 300 volts)... 6GES... I neplive volta gc 00 the Iowu 2N3440 t" mSisIOr.. the 10"1:1" 2N 3440 il s" itdv:<J on. ha~ been shown definitely to <IIoften valve life. . 6KD6....1~...cru"-gri d po tet: ial of a 6D05 po. upwards. ..:s if a nlllJl imum valve life 11 10 be atta ined.. 1968) exa mines t he fa cton invo lved ill IlI..ma: u > 'oltaee fo r lin El. 0'3 amp he. 6 Lf6.• • UlQS a"'f'l' _ _ T __...r-.a.f.. . Wlt. wilh itt rcq uimnent fo r linc-oUlpul VlLlves eapa blc of prav idina: blah peak curre nt.\Cribed by WI C ER ca n llc !\li heit' d from the . ha l p ro"'Od ooe of the ma in provide ".W .4).lve in ord er to ma"h lhe 1I n-sigll31currents ... d-stulrill' . SiliCON lllQOIE . 2'8 amp hea ler Iransforme r..l.1..c.. a poten tial al"""t euctly cqllivlllc:nt co tbe value ellistins lit t he junctioa of tbe low.af dc. J uly. the peesence of r.~ I little of the r. . of powcr arnplilicr valves for l..wattage 91 K an d 220 K volta~ divider.ally d rop...:lopc:bulbs sho uld. it is possible 10 use lhe European r L. implil\cd cin:u il of HH... il re--publiahl:d in RQl/o-Ekc' ro"ks (Ap ril.dju. ~ I .. bT DnWI . he sdv OC1I les fining individual low<ost melen in t h...." app lie' equally 10 lower power stap. ble in con fined sp.t ". arc ••'atlnble. Fig.t.mum signal OUl put. four 6KD 6 va l\'C'I in a arouflded- Un.ably s" rely. WI CE R put his heaters..... ..I""""'- t<aftI. lhe "' C:<:n virt ually to ea rt b.. . drive. CU ll in! il off . cia ble dcl\clctlon power .<ttia l that t hey should be of the receo t high brea kdown volta ge type. and appm.

.'c~ ia n ra d io a nd TV i n l crrc~~e in~"' l ig. L1 1.~O £2. 'M"" . d ..". ' 101M li..". VALVES OpcratioD.. "n '.TRANSMITTER TOPIC S '" 101h- ~I 1iOt.<I I bnpllfi " _ II "'_ .. " C I'.1 rC<:CI'liun..IM>uI £ 1.. ell..1.• .. ft•.-. fi h (.. Lt ' ftd to. u.s tl«ll~ to prcvcr n" sho r l-<:i r.O<I.u..nl S. ~ S<>IUl: IO l n dlS'~nl .. <:ry..!..II.. as lh i\ ca n C~ II<' f" l... [(lninM... a l Ihe receive r is a l lr. " W_I _ • 7-1.. _ w • • ko . H.u iOllS. hn Ma rli " !'l acd i..ln ly L1 11 U •... 11 • •• •• I • • nlt IUlClI tel .rliol\ Ita '" rcun o Ilis <'"<I uip""..... ._ cJ i. . au••l . -." . 144 "nJ 412 M H. ra ld . 48(n)} InCOfl'._.. L AlA II( • • d of 1 ~ . inJk..d fi l_ a u .. ra nf. ' " . a gcd him 10 lry lhl: u«' " r ll~ ml·. o blem comple tely . LA ltAX found thai Ih is .... n • • b " I1 If . .o ra l.. i~n .../ e:.1 . ma de up on a small p it ee of primed cirCUli boa rd I"inll I"w·.. '. ./" ..1_.. 144 MHa Soncl_.... ecco unrc red II pro b lem or . " . lo we r Iha n.1 100 " -llib OulI' tll t 1l Iln 144 M H ~ ~. " uro . th e tota l p rice.w .1" •• 1 101... n t . d1. .... e li. "'l rompo>nem. ft.(ll a l d ll pa" . " 1". lU&lOns..1 1\tC<1"" I" 1'C " ir«leJ "i rtu~ lly ~lfa illh t ~ I a hou. .~. of. Circuit L1l jl'l ' LItO L2... d • ••II •• (b) a.. (e.j·r cjlx l f.. l.k.io ns his bellm a l1tc" rI. I. of p.d l.. a~ r(lllo .n y . grid curren t 30 rnA . ' nl '. where TV re«plio n nlay s ome limes be o n rln/uw. ill lhe case o f in te rference from 70..ltQr) .d . I cire uil (f"ig. p. C l '4-1O p ' " I II .. . e " ... .-hc.. l he No".1 Oft" upp •••• d 1o C111 " O N'J " (.. OTH( II.. n r . he ~d ll pad . ni>.nl (Kcn . a " . I n. "alB...1 <:a hbr. " " "1/ " "'" '" so .. a . somcli mc....t... ..h C:1 ..1 _ ' 1 .' " PL 505 '" ~ 'f' " "1/ eco .. " 1 b.. MH o h." in Ille UK.._.. Ho b..bl.n."i lin ~" o r me signa l ~. a node current 2SO rnA . anode poICnlilll 4SO vo lls.. n8 '1 I~". .ed hi. "' a' .·cr.top Fill .. d_l.h.1 1.1 0 _1 ~ r"I " . .. Iwu lll be lI~cd f" r a llSnJn\:nl (e_~.'. 48. 144 MHz 144-2Hlll z 1+l '5M ll z " ~I . .1' fillels lllllt4 10 144 M H l and InSI ~ I k:d in lhe neillhh"ur'. For s uc h I r~l... TV' A s lnb l.:ie~ h i ~hcr lha n. . The usc u f ball . . ion o f the l:ketrv tl .. . LASA K .13pJ ". . The Pl~OS has been IlIpencde4 by tile I'LSO? w hich i$ read ily ava ilable fro m loa l delil. <If _1..I._. ~ _-..... . ' 01 .. wl.r--j ~I~ OTHU w... . T h• • • .... being nOI mo re th an :.. p ." b. i ~ n " l~ hl~"lelC\1 Ihe TV receiver an d Noel ...w 1. A ... 1 C I . Th e tillcr W a ligned as .I IO he rc.I. D6 1 _ ' lea'IB. 1'" . . ..ood TR 70 10 dfi vinllQQ EOlI/41J f1 ..' ulplIl. His . re hi.I.a".d.... I od far ' wOft':'... impl ."dl".........l l dClIIils arc s iycn u . Ira n.n" "I <>r . cu. · 1· -~ ~.h<-rl work ill l ..-1_ I.V re TV I . nl.'C2 ~'or 144· 146 I\Ub Iiltl'l' 144 Mll z 14S Mll z l46 MHl For 144-1+ H i M Il> lUI... . i ~llId i ng cable (""lIfla:l"l"'.-01••• • _ ' I• ..) IlH AI••• ao.. ...o n~ llly good : u n a rlidc in Ekr'trl" r (No I I.. q_ol. B".. ry u ak" lIltolb l SilPlal ttCBCral or . lha l of lh • • male llr u a "_ n ille r._ • d""'''' I. 1'178) cnCOll..Ihe restVrla lll .I_ 7-5".. TV feN er : Fill.

hetw""n L1-2. (2 ) If . Ite shew n in n y...1t1. lran.l. c TV/ fl/llIr Fra llt Harr. .t i5 " ''' lI1lCd that lhese a'e of sla l"JlInlt ypc. FlIlar NOl all wlid...' .lanillS up the ~ i ~ nll l Is ttl plI'1S the o ulput Ih r".u.. M...~ dc<crihed a s..0 1.t. ~.. ..wo'n o n ellrri..... G3Xll.chain bdse. " . to USc 11 mull iplicr-..·nteh ure : II) Keep lh ~ d rIVe 10 c:l<:h Jt.. C3 '3 pF :L4 4t. C l 33 p F : I . .l . . The main lX'.i. R Fe 31 enam .. Alignmenl WIlS carried om u~ illil a n eescrc uon ftl..Rd Ind_ . u. eliminat e unwanted feedlh". L8 (c ) tc ) ~ -. Ll l 31 : a nd L I2 51.. SImI' " ' " MHE S""d"". "' '" II-. T he lron. . . ~3 ] p F: "r h. ou' • • <."~1I bamJpu•• filleR a l v. . .. l-'I:.' '' n. Spa"i"."" I". fo und lhal his T V re<.~h II ". a l len.... and m.l. L9 '0 Ll2 (all 20 . K . a l O p ~ . L10 31.I4{ MH l bUI .·e"" "'"~CS hel. L5---6 .l "n I' ET. M H • •• _ Lo ... ~() . u ~h and/o t fe..2 8 I.. • . fot luned circ uits : L 1 Bt.• "Iid"... An altcrnauve melhod "f .... ID -" 1..•_linned w <'Opper nn "It in. \' (. ) bipolar dC'lig can procl. ._ . T his pm.n" TVI fru m his 2~ M II~ lr3Mmissio ns : nut .. (1 Il h. T he tri mm"..inl wi ll help: if 'I flCr30iSlS fit one f".. C5 1 0 p F :L6 2 1 I . Mars." imum po wer ha ndlin..I-<. -e -.. " • . rc" .n~ number of lar ge " " (0' II link over cold end of L1.nn(ll be expa. nls 10 .)~ . urprisinll since hil28 Mill. ". .. (June. bel.. beam is onl y a few f<>.1I ..."'" llO ' 2. . He Wi v"" lhe followinW detail. fTer his lindillill hal co nwn lional mul li·slage spikcs. .. Z L2AJ W.f.a l': n. and alth oull h ' I e bcuer 10 minimi . miller ' . purl/ I« MH I f re" u m/tl l' In BrMk _i. l.ulfe".' 1~ t'~ H I . 1979)..... diameler "' jlh turns spa ced 10 avoid touchinll): L9 5i l.l ~ p F.. K.\VIde t h e lype nf ultimate rej«t illn pos sible at h.: t away fram the T V -"I J ' rt. 1\1 ~ I "' '' l... ' ) Jl ~ l ~ f l $. T hil .:dhack . .lIiIU provides } -n walts o utput from an . Bq n d· R~JK f L5 2 I t .. . I.. "~"'" ' •• '00 •• " 0 1.llle j\l~ t enough 10 dr ive Ihe ""~ 1 stalle. provid.m collect o r to ear th . .r.. AMATEUR RADIO TEC HNIQUES ". ml ll... 1o".ll.hkh "~.. lillCS a 144 MH . u.. o nably ".. clea n " sill'131(a ll spu .... " dtl d... O<:l ail. h.l ran". .b. i.c 11 ns . lth doub '.f.l~ . 1lI.~ v<:r " as . wilh dOll"Ic-' ur'>ed c ircu i" : Fig.. "..a JJ p F:U 4 I . " aly""r with SO MJl 2 swee p)... ".. "j bipolar .le<1 10 " .1ir ·r 3is . put iL He '" co nvinced lllat lhc lll>5wc( i!.. :r und er_ru n !N ~64 1 (l 2-watl ca pstan lyfIC).lny in' lahility is fo und in l he driver or o utpu l ' 1l11lC$ a 10 pF Cllt'llcitor from bnse 10 lhe nearest Cll rth "".mpl ~ t>nnd p. aI O p F : L1 2 1 I . .u< !iller """. lhese In lhe c.nd"<hvo<. . l ' Jl ...e . Th o . and no <t ilticullies were e~rerienced. L3--4 .flll llll cnua tion to .. Note lhal ZL2AJ W docs not specify Ihe v~ ria!>le:--u>rcd inducto rs htl! .lcs .. ou. D J ~K II. Screenln..~ hirer.. lire ddCri!lc{l as Tr o nso r .on.o. IJ'UW'S " ~na l ~ over ~ he han d of about 14o.. lule 144 M l iz trausmitterl can be eomiokrcd free fro m <pur.'QlIency me ier. ' .. 011 fern Ie bead.m . b1ln d " " <D n it ".. "l p~ h i1i ly Is pUI III al>u UI 15 watl •.. cou p '.. ! l I AJW'...1 0 11 pr inted induc t".lftO ' I T . " .. this Can involve maj"r modi lieali< IM In pac ka ged equ ipmen t.arly <tallC'l of Ihe lr3nsmiuet'. . . . 1 I Dro.. . ho uld be I in. 49.. purii " utside th. U In. '/ _2. to b l......h. " -hen viewed o n 11 spectr um .

_ .T It AN SMITTEIt T OPI C S '" o<Clllahlr p lus d iode p ha'C-nlodu hu o r. n.ca ker.n overcom.Il • • . OIlC in t he cen lre . modu· lation." c~ l to".. hi ~hll"'t. square co il !CIn. m ill er<) an d lhe inle rfere nl"e clelln:d up eo mpletely..._ .. ..--1-"--. lIy . .._ .s fOI 110 l he 8 Me l. lochnique fo r 1I 1rrow-ba nd o pera tion described 1 by P.. C I .... .m. Lynch. ) Pilrlieu la rly as connrucrfce and a lignmen t "He stra illh l.. ~2 . The p ... lO&e lher w ilh L2. In pracll<:e. II) insen inl a IIClwort.. = HT + ~ " I . ' re ~.<k o"' ln..1Ill1<... GlllW._. 1968) p ro" des II furl hcr melhood of ~01lvert i n 8 a 144 Me.. of Uw'" .m .m... IlI . single' .m. . II.!. i... a re mo unled in a I l in... . n U. Ia nda rd TCmed ic..!:r..2. usually a produced direclly by reac la nce modu la!io" " f lhe . FHl.. (U Xll lhen rru. modula tor . . r .. _ . r.. . 'l 0 "'"1 1 10' Into a triple.. _ j.l0 r.il\.. ' 3. . . rs. L. .' .. T h«e were rreluned 1 0 18·1 M H~ lind ele<.. _ ' ir.lin ror m..s u.. The modula lo r component..de a silllllll simila r to r. f.m. T he lectm iq uc mighl " m Vl. _ . ZUTAJ co nven ed the Uf'l:ln ~1 M . "'".. T he vol tap: 0 11 the co llector of t he fina l audio a mplifi.f---1. G 1 HCG~ .l • • -. In e treet.. ' III .. of )I) I.:O . Th ~ k.: equally cfl"QCI ivc on o ther rn.·"nd"'I'''. <. .'" u I."...lte r '44 '5 PII• •• M odula to r.. oj""l i" n 11111' in e..". 1. po tenl ial.. . 11..'OCr.e <I"le' hnoid : Fi. and p.l--'-_ K 2M ul ' I ~ l i "" .. u I .. l he devialion is proport iona l t o modulal ion a mp liN de mu !tipiicd by t he modulation rrequellCy.. t Uuc-'b th.·uh lhe o utpu t l'ke " 10 l h~ ~f)'S 11i1 " ".. The CllPKilive d ivider 10 drive r.linear rea ctan ce mO<l ula llon of oectlletc rs...ow: point.'1 0.~lily (G )X II is ah. p. Zl4TAJ in B'fak .fII 11Ie p hase modulato r.« TVI f.. e rle" in Ihe T V e. bo lh o f wh ich h..m.""ill.ot o ne could nol hope fur a simple r llms nlCmenl thfl tha.nl bu l noM of lhe m eomplc ldy eured the in lerfe re."". can be c onverted to Lm. n "" ..- 4. lhe o lher in Ih. U UfI __ j.. 1+1 H <I' " ~II '" .....---! ~ . bool the ce ntre o f its eopacltance range.i al TV reederpTlldu'C<I . lf! ( Dco.CII "'"" 1" H o/.. There i. S. G2H(.1 a!Tecting the actu al o K iII.le ul' . Sl. T he resisto r.tal'l i. u in.! obla lned by va ry ing the pha....st. as mentiollcd a~. _ Fa rad ay in TV reeoe r.1 act s ll' by-pa>. l1le addilion~1 . H""". H " . tlutl w(lh dev iation is proport ional to modulatio n am. ...•••. Itl I.w" .m. . Pl .n O<"w. _ " .~ T".m . lh . va rious .. 5 1. 'M' He.. of (nle". which p uis Ihe BA W2 I I . .. u. .m. ..op. Fig.'Cm be r. In this lhe vo ltage is a bout 8 volts.~ ' p ..I Id _ .....'4 .... u I'orollel tu nw rejector .. coi l with the IId vanl.' ..n<ls (wit h lhe possil:>i lily of hn v i n ~ m"te tha n o ne filler co n nected In series 10 cover sc'OC""t M n. .. on the BA l02 luning d iode .. .1 20 miles from Ihe T V rra n.. &<>d ...-..••1 0_ .I a ma h"urs.'s IransmUter r..t shown in Fi g.il..<...lP.. b y tI In .o. 10 plov.. Sykcs. .i" "n J in. T wo sem icoaduclor pha...l. . signal~ lha l ste In from non.ae~ pr't!lCedj.~ . the OI in dis tin ctio n is Iha l f. h n O .. Ortn~ of flequency respo nse. fo r .:lri<:..e in t he lunc<l ci rcu il o r one o f the .m ."".Hw_H. 1 a ""inl o f zero d ... TIle u ru a l di:n inetion IIIlIde be lween r.C I) pTllvides the necessary ta il.. ( or Me{f An r. whe reas p.m.-&e thalthe a ud io is fed in . capa cito r e<>mbinlilio n (R I .. forwa rd ...th a ll at lenuati on of 6dfl per octave with iDc".10 ...cq uen l d riVl..'me im pm """.l.lcalho 1I • 1• • ....."'" t'9"I .. frequeDC)'.. . to 24 Mc:/ s. o " ina inte resl in p hase moduJ:u ion _ bu l a lso not a lillie confu'io n be lween freq uency and pbas. inciple ' 0 provide a n ad d-on 8 M ef~ crysu l ~ n lcll lla/f~der. An important lldvllnt aae o r pha se modub t ion is tlla t lhere is much less c hance o f prod llCinl so me: o f t ile ra ther roush r. ... .. IoI Wllft «-o'er _ .&lur ..it . on. " _ 0 .".. ~~ " . "" .d 1 " 0 p ro vide t he SUnd.n l thcl lou invol~ in lhe ph. i..na b aa. ... The re Wn no I{"" o f p iclu re q. I. I_ 'M.ial f«de . Ala'l. w.et o f lhe n is!l ng Ira ll$miUer ' See k 1. _. modulato n are described . -1 • of 100 • .. B... in the a ud io fre quc rn:y amp lificr Sla.. ub!.t . .ful .1 f . b. o . whc~u with p. . plitu de.(Nt .. " .i'. <If llie ~"a.: d~ K<'S .. a id b.' I~ .

down durin. SomI: Pw: ntObilo unilS contai n a UThe .o . IKin.:itano..illy oat) the tip g( the ioebc.m. inlIc diode l )"Ileln$ " Iha l lhe ""'y .. ""c 2' 2nF 1 • ri o...etl ove r the ran~ lSllO-J600 ki ll the on ly luni . for QRP lhi.. the OUlf'IIl 10 Ihe ' Me /1 Cl')'1<la l socket o f the main InlP omill er..i slo f b\:tween b..o .... LI &. tbt p.. Ille itlcidt-noe or TVI to n.f. While Band.~ . • ...d .leplioll.. inlS J.. "'. TV boIln on ... o f the main InuumillCT \'l:r)' ha rd for b.. .m.op.1tA. with ~ de le<... ~.. La aDd L2 an rach IS tumI 20 I . _ _ U ...w... TIle OU lpu t f rOOI an ~UlKtor whieb 0 C:DIl be r:rytta l-<:ontro lkd...hle com po n" " " a nd io bit. G8CB..J 10 100 vollo ncptivc and puohcd hard . clcaIt with by the 1ll1\.: become ~naly w..annl RqU irN.m..tto r. "rovide..:n un rre qtlCllC fa r T'CmOYr<J from lhe TV "coal . rsro.. an... S4) dClilr"c d 10 be placed in front o f a n niuinll ll. IV and V arc Ins lilel1 to be arr«tcd by IlartllOllir n dilllk>tt from h.Ih 10 to 20 fir: ~ricsc 3p aci lo r a rranged In It.- "'" ~ . Aoo lid.... should nol be fO'~lIcn : be p«fen 10 lhink 01 P-lII.U Ll . -J'Iov..*"'• . . IranvnlllCn. Iy iI. t .- .at IidebUd with the ca._ .".. modula lor lhan In lhe G 2HOO IIn Un CCmcnl .t 02 . close ..lisfac:lory... ~"ntrol io lhe v. from eilher II 6 or 8 MC/H rYSllll OKill. i. PIO T ECH N IQ U I! S (...1 the workin...' al>.. It "'"' been .l .a.o.e. in Mand....>fltinuiDl at • hiP level. .. OUl pu l <I T R4 il abo ul 1 00 mW. ss. irIp"t shoukl be iocteaK'd 10 ((l() mW. of TV ~i~ have incfC<l!lCd -'0 that 10 cI05C doIoa d llhll l TV houn II beI:ootirllJ II k-.. a b.....l<:scrihcd by S'ellrricd 11 01..oIut.)~ and en". or e llrirr ""'.. oft .. " . Sfl) for l' S MH ~ c.Of more botods) or 11 in a 1\IftJ\in& ""re _'it b his nciahboun who Dl\r n resort 10 taetla ot her than rcponi". /n-.'s a o f ~ n:om...U. . JI is pouiblc _i lh lheoc II...~'.. f la. with e. 001 Tunc-cl TO J ~ Me'" in . -..' ~- <-< . e-.w.1)' " boul I 01 2 volt. .o .-.c<l u n a bipol..n'leT1ioll osci lbtor. p rovidc. o On u... ~~. . lcd 10 Ihe . rig.l-'IO-1 \III! or u tt. br . ~ VO 31 a hoUI I jI) mA Il rlHl$ l1 s<'mc 1' 5 . IwinS a cron the luned clrcu il ma).11oscillator prvvidea a «>lIvenieDI rmans of IIdjustill a the dri~e tn t he m ultip lier " hai a.. p m.lly l'C ~S pI" Or j(j p F \la ri ~b lc. _. Robjotln~. 2 or (he main board .. .• .llioH N .\O'dy c:birp a nd clic k free .\/(: the .h bc:fICt 0 Itw:l Dunne! I (AS Me/I ) of Dmd I..r.• which ~. MHI T. 0... unit.~. by muM of c:ircuihl ria blc c. ha"".lid 1.r < han ~ l". a fec hn l IIIaI the: <>ffiQa1 IUlUsIQ ani rc.ncoo .... ltS 'Del When us. vxc or . With II roo" '" """on' pf l ~ J . despile lhe illCrc.~ ..eJ a nllle r IlMX'C romplc ~ pt ...... unitllo dri"." _ . D KlfrN tOI.... The hou..Ilblc 10 lI..8.. F .y (G Re HZ has II QQ V06-4OA biase. loge1her with Their lunin.. tion. _ ...m. is connc.• .~p1ibJc 10 hiah r. IV ~ V. He Nants lhat ir\$ICH oInuMn.s aDd leu sa tisfactory •• s.. v.. "hkh ""'" a"'llil".. T'he a rnnlCmtnl sho wn will prod uce fuJI kpl <leviatio n o n 144 Mel.~ .r01l po lnto J ....... DX Cap.~ . . He U.web CalC the ll.ria bl<! rc. The Icvel mcle r is perha!" an optiONllluxury.lbouId be ICI'OCned ICfIU'IT dy.. ::-w~ _ LI LIS _ r-:. 001 ..ith ""nE 6 10 7 ~IU or dtWc ).Z _ that lhe di llinoctioa br l_ O p.. o r aud i... The dqrcc o f improVCf\leUl in the !tr itish TV1 ~tuatioll ill m::enl yea rs ts !eM t han mi&hl haw: hem upcdcd..l!Nr eoftoe"lCd (i f only b)I c1o.. . ~ .. re-illSIened 90'" OUI of phase (01' COUfW.h - . Colr-ital'll.l~ '" "r.. the other sNcbud is pmenl).qui n:<l rn:quencr ~ ra n.J... Ilidtlot ..." ~ ~- ~' r- ~..0Ik J and III Cl. 0 .el . GS CDZ... .tyOl•• ..l()<! d ocl rortk I\IIlUlI diodcs. kc:yinl n u r tlal.. owl TV' I"" lunrd of a f. .. .tilm . tOlCther with .. arc muo..m.m.n lJ. in Ra4i<l.. h b~<! d iode inlO condll. ta le IrM1Smiu c-rU-' ll. 4. mc:ir nl 10 run the ~ . . for telrvioion no..F... ~ ..o.... Whi le Ihit i.. the fln l multiplier Is d e]ibc .-~. ..~ . l1icu lty by usinS 1. The h y . the in lCrfmtnc:e 10 the Post Ofr. Th is an typi<:u.here . modem n rcceivel'1 ha-.ldy ehosc ll!O allow the BAI02 la'IC proPOnion of the capacilall«' a ct\)U Itw:.:illa lU.w.na '0 be a vailable by j u~t rc!TlOvinl the lIutl io inpul 1 the: un il.. The 2-1 pF Irrmmu In the c rysJ." ~ t~.. _::C . d. m ll U .R£ F (N r 111 970).~ . :sOo:nrm how il Is pnt. eoo hn u. _Wa .. with . un it (1"1. . .."0 ~ L . 1 9' ~ 1 .. from a not e by G . Ma ny CUC$ 01 TVJ ."0.. or c. jcw-v etuevarill hlc CllP... ""i nt of the fina l Slilte (T RS) iI ad iull . Channell 20 1 68. aDd f..0 d indct.. .!.1 c(lnrwxleU .n R th i!.d. .. f- r-t- - f - _f _. eoi . II. bu t .. bou t SOO mW o f audio .' rcq ul.t.. IIUI DOt .1..\l" " .". o n .2 " a i ls input .j .:lUc~e ~ A number of circui". lll'l'ol>Icm "ith .:.. AMA. v .o.T E U R It . C... '.~Cjr(lf co nnected 10 . ~ . by the ' 00 ohm ..2. So ~. . f.f fiel<k.r.. " .f. T.<: dlooJc voIla.i&h rll"dc1lf."n. rJ ~ :(f ~ .ability ca n be mu<b irn~ by rcac jyllll lhc sipah as iidrbotnd.'" -.b r .. is.

.. how.7• ... .. in co nlra" to harmonic rad ialion ... 1\I . I I I 3f1· !! I 3 7..' "'e•• :l.. b""n lhe viewe" 10 lho: me<li um--signal and rrlnge areo. J Fe' ro " .'::1i .... "'ht('y• 1" . InRly it ii_ the SilWilion t~ndl< to be re"eBCd. 1) . n" .. " .."'" . hnye llrowTl u <cd to equating ' lrong TV ."·n·" . 21 10 611 (C ltanne l\ 3~ 10 J~ ' are nut If... .lIe m iniOn the monochrome picture (on e o n en had 10 l ook at WlClutlered sky IUlIeS to dele..l ." . I.ron a pproxima tely 44 3 Mc. .. a. VI(I<lO l MHr) !II~ +...-. Each c hannel .bea l fl'CQUCocy into video sillll3ls 10iDi 10 two s ide-by.. o f COUf'iC. O"'..n" 1 mm. ~ ••" . I m 10 • •• '00 '~' "' ' I .."C. lI. '" .Uy in :to alllll teur band . .. Fi g_60 . CDlour olld TVI are lisniflCalltly mute i U5Cl:/"liblc: 10 interfr r.N. .rCl. ... . bu l it is ..." ".. ell.I" "i~ .. ' lall':' .:t lhe illlerfcrencel produced spectacular effects on tll<! co lu ur mo nilo r. " 11 '~... . tor withou l nnr preliminary lu ned eireu il).TRANSMITTER T OPIC S • . t:~ s ~ t" s .cful to knuw wmtt hing a bout t he: TV signal a nd ill frcqUl'ncics whtn dca linR "ilh T VI.. U 10 1 . On the o lher hand. ' .u incre.... with lhe velon ca rrier u-. '00. .H.. .it h ' ... h +. ~ . ~iv.II the " ' ie'. ' " " • .' ' of C haone l. ' " >-fi k ~~ c> "fC' . o r T V who have been ml>St a fTected by local tlllnsmlller harmoni c. mo. m " '"' '" r! ' N . dille r.ponlt) al ])-5 Mel' " 'ilh lalcr W IIO" i. 11 •• • • " 7 onm. 25 1"*.t. and lhe fm. Ilill....... !! I I 3 !l.1tel y a~nt tllat beat fRqucncics and lItlplitude Iewb wwe h resulte d in barel y no liceable p.A . !i M " ' 70_ _ ' .. ~ ~.5 8 M"is wide (Chan ne l 21 sta n .F.CIIpied by the ~a"".till «ery easy fur ) -5 Mel.·. e M e ..h 625-1i"" ' Yltem tS)"te m l) the yninn ea rrir:r i.1idcs. ~ '" _ ..f.. ... 1'1 It " . 'l. a sillliw. II must be no ted .. . ign"l..... lia nds IV and V in Europe: con ".~.. wilh vinual1y T VI· rrce u pe: ralion .lrajght Into a bipoLu trlln./~ lind the sound c. 40·" . ign_1 _""as Ire much be tte r o fT.. . h<>W5 l he freque ncy bands Of. 17 • • • • " .~ " '" . thls form of TV I i~ Jusl II likely to . . ....1 is Colour ~!li Tha f~lIcl.. . upc:ral<>rs l(l lin d tlx-ir silP\llls gett ing into the colo ur e in:uill of a receber with d isastrous effecl .. T f. L ~ ~ :0 v ~Iv.. .k/. w und carrier + 7-15 fro m the lo~ end .lnic r (located on lhe " intcn:arrir r " ' hel f o r the Lt_re.. .. .. . ... Iecd t ile aerial . )' . u.!! 34· 5 . sim!'[y Y mulliply t ho: d lan ne l n umbe r by R a nd add 302.o!our T V is a 1 more « ilkal 01 to bea ts (paftkularly a bout J to j Mel' ) th.s of V ..:' -er. C ro«mudu Iation dQrs fWf dcPMd upon the ~t renll:t h or the WlIIlled l illll-ll. LJ ....5.. mm. and l. where lhe IlroniCr . For mllny yen. at 470 Mc/~ 22 al 478 Me/.1e tM rn:ty IlOt bave been en~l r Iypical of actual tcrerreeeece. . To find Ihe [0"'" freque llC e dllt' of any eha nne l belween 21 an d 68. etc. 1 .Uy a l 39-5 M.ie<:1ing a simulaled .-" compnne nlJ. " t~ ea\ ily dr iVl:n lrno non-li neari ty resultinl i" 'lCver<: cros e-rncd ulatlo n (some TV design.. are 1T3".1lI mooocltrome I Tile Bri tiSh colour su b<arrie.. ideo bea l frequenclco. Re«ntly we ha d an Opponuo lly of waldling the effecl of in.1••• II .1 "'m ""e"'" _1'0. u .~d.· 2 5 "' 3 · ~5 .ls iI. il did britlK home w ry clear y that c. not... . a nd the y form lhe lV'I' bclwcrn R"nd IV and Oand V). h l'. where F ront-end uver loa d ing iaconccmcd. en.. . It was il11t11edi. TV II is a lwa ys u..n. ~'''. J-.. 10 • • """ 7 )II • • • I mm .! ~ . VIe r-• ". T U .. onm.!:~ ~ '" i .. ' la se s .. ~"" * •.5 .k N ' nne '". e 3 3. . . lhal with in the ma in if.. ." '" •.".. 11.om .t of u..lde monil0 r30 one colo ur. «I'd end.."• '".. u 5 ~ .c> ~ ... It ha s a1WllY" in the pa~l .' " H • •• • ' c..situa lion cou ld also ~r d ue 10 harmonic beals rewl ting f ro m o pe:ral'on o n llimosl any band.. trip o r a TV recel~r lhc>oc fR'qUC:ncic. i~.J.. I I II ' a.. H MHo c.·n '1. " ..II o. and signals le~ k far t oo rc~di y ir rto tlu: iJ.): in the: Rritl. .. " dl I d H "'m . 1. Wh. " '1'".. e. ~ 'n.. " t "'r . ' __ ' ~ ~ d ' . ' 0 • • • ' ...n.. i.3 r"".f. 25 RF I F IM H' I . 5· 25 +7. -. l . . f "'u'l"' '''t. fTecl s lrong . brell k th rou¥h . the other monochrome. displayin.. 0... ~ ... " T'" "0' . alwa~ + 1-25 Mels fro m t he lo wer cnd o f the cha nne l. ' weak signa l rece pucn . ' L~""n . ~ H "'O ~ ~" w'. 41 .e" .. 5 I 3f1.~ lf.f. .. eece in lhe form or pattem inlJ prOO~ by fairly hlSh . 'N' . . o r lhe a .un like lhe A me ricau J 58 r..v Z~JC ~ " . ~ ---.

dlndc . • • _ ..".01 .At • ..aluc for combatin..he limil o f Its QJ"':CI' IiLIlCe nlnlll lhe ' .. implyln.Il'\CeS... a tv ...1CS where the llet _1 be l'eQIIired 1 ROrM TV t nnsmiWon.idely . The filtcr inoert. milch lowe._. tW>uaIion lit ~.. ioIl.. lhe cil""llil but a l.oCtofI FlitSome )'\'An 'IJO.t ± I Me.00 1.. IJ ••• _ . b _ ' .~rrcquo:rc)" t\IIlCd cin:uill . _ _ ....1....Inln~"n.~n arc .... _. Iter lhe . . _ _• T " .f.. .I ltem...cd by.. E ven when ad<Jed ~. artl. sintle 11l'OIII sianal ha l nol in Il'lc: pul been of ~r . lhe hiJhcr ClI~L.tU1Wly aJlboLllh G30KX .lion on peak .n.. 10 null otIl .. ....'" AMAT E UR RADIO T E C H N IQU e S I r------.. .. .. The inn\ICnoe of • sIron.. _ ....~ fU~r ananacmenl tuo:h as thaI 011-1..cl.1o_. 4 . • '-------.. T V) ror wttidl the h illh' p... 'or.ro.'J _ _..:" :::=. !o .J i . _ _ or sbould be RpIao... 1ft TV 1 _ . _ _ _ _ _ .-.M _ • braid-bra klr\t ·· (i.HI 104 <1.... . cpl propcrtin of bipo{u....ry of aheriftl: o the r people's ~i\'Cn In any _ Yo o(he... o-r-\"j--.I..'n tho:iO tillel'l..-~ .. ..m p lc. _ TTl..... I _ "l . 0 E p ropap t iun.or tu none As Q JOLl' poinll OUI : . end sclcc1ivll)'..... front ...wd like 10 _ ... (e l T _ _ be . on rreqUCll' 0 IUftIy ma ke 1M cics below thai or lbe am....ulft'l1'lCly .lil from the wante d l ill.-...(~IOJO . in OQIIn«tlon with tho: JU'"'lleno::e or o:o-clIantlellllter1CftROe1 Roond I receptioll due 10 Spo""dic:.11 e~ l lillcr...u. SlIt). v. for e.ib) wWd be_ adlie\'ed lUin&...}n ..---. d'Wloe.ternall y the O JO HX filters can prooc very effectlve. "' _ _ ~_T'f''''''''''. . . l in..f.A .110 O"'Crload in Q1.. pgc ~t hal. A ¢OmlDOO pncticc II to v.l.. Mell or 4ll Mell sit::Da1autin.!l..umcd to .Nnateln Ihould he.. • • J9... ln _ TbcR! ..0 ..e. alllKlup thQ eould ~Iy be . _ . ')-lS "kjl fi....... Tb il filter j.f\al . 11 otber frequencies. .----j I C t. Simple fil~ of lhis Iypc could be acided ".1 .... .. .. u ...il ll sim ilar effect s: lirona cno ua:h II may drl~ the d iodc into l."&.. um o r dlslurba nco to .... ~ . s1.. Wbe.. c:hannch)...._un I ! ":' ~_._ . . is mu(:h I~r t han thaI o f lunin. o r even • simple 'Crles-luned 'np m the t ype Ihown in Fi. ..bout ) and )0 ¥Ott.. tl_1.I bllu:n m. '''X''_ _ _..~••• • M DO d.. inl d iode iI prone 10 aenerate ml ~inl prodU<.. till ulina the \I..._ ~ I IP"1s by 40 10 6Sd B..J"Y-Co l ~ 'M .I... J 8l'klptI." .On<luo:. nMoJ ...:menl : F:IJ...-.' " ' ._ n lb l. <."-'Cr.y \lnlt rc r 49-7$ Mc/s•• h boul h it co uld be made IlUlIb le Wnp ly by rep Wcin ..lIenIQlion 00 ill rcsonam rrequcn<.. f _. ay or . a pplyinl aJdilional dump.... Tho Post Office n:\o::>w:d informati..nd a I_-diode I tnnaemcnl fOl' <*'i lla..aleur .h l t _ C...h. (.ll hc Ibed a \l:lcitor by a variable IXPl" Tile abillly of this l)'pot of lilte. Intended I I a lW: d freq.. lhe chanlina pallem of TVI with... ...l cimlil ... _ 1 _ _ .._. makitl& if: more: dilficult for sipab QD the _~ the c:o-uial ~e to reach the ~M=r a._ 0"'"'"' TV r.b. .. _ _...--< " c •• .h. . 1. .~dtllng: o f the diooX and "'" detunc the dn. eountr iel. IO. pICOj I... TVT. it is !lOI f!OI. TIle nnlCtOr d iode may be a . = __ ~T _ 811. .~ is bel_n ... than perhapsjusl fittin.. 1 . HOIOtO"Cr.. .oe of dWll.kr 10 am: 144 M~. the ElI'OlHem of lhe tOcaf I.o. . ........... TIle PO unit is cWmed 10 rnMde OOOl' ) SdH . cI l'4cilon . sim ple hl. . Even in nOTllllI (:if'l:urno<1a~ 1M Ilat lc Q of I~ diode!.1e lnoomina 144 Mel. 10 ..vblc to lit • hi gb-paM filler in o. a low voiliF ~nlin. _ IYJIC or fillC'r ~ Iltnct i~ .. _ 1404 Mcf• •ft . • ... .. F ia.. .... 1fOO"in..... Ute Poot OlToa: ~ the \110 of an ad d-on bridpT AlI~ r u r-bk of pnwIdinll hidl . The Vllricap diode Iw 10 be ~venc: bWN and fo r lbil a pplicalion lbe bia.de o1iookI . sipl ICTOI!I l he llCrial etn...lll liller has bc-cn far mon: ". 'The. ..' 1<1 r~ .."-ndard let.. .-en adopt: such ein:WlS (he ~n lbey _0II1d actual ly c:mt the: lltlM Ics& Ilw) the c o n ~ ~ ) .r .. minin. IIdec p ' )'Il"OlTOI!l rical notch in Iho liana ls cum in..ull CIlI coml<Scnbly db· lurb lhe OPCnllioll o r t he tunin. " II ma)' ..r0l'TJlCl" t~ -. ..<cd fn:qllCll(y wail.: tune" eompound tbe poor liron... $9 pr1)'¥idn infontUllion 011 tbe Pos t Oftioc ." from fftOlIlIlICle. vanctor diollel to proridce toctronic tWlina of u.. sa ....y with reillivc:ly link lou OD dosely adjaoenl rrequencin.. _ . 1011& the focdcr With...... . F\lrt""rmore.. practice CIt ttsin.....nl ' " the tunc._ _ I H _ ....c1 _ = . t hlL'l nOI " nl)' dc lunln... _' t:ZI .. " ' ....... a u>c Colo .. 4 .... Co~ T _ ~...... an Inocnion lou o>f _ l han lIdB.f...>t her f~ncics..o ". U.he .. (b ) '''' .ibiJitie1 bere illl:ludc • I lLlb filler•• bridlJOd·T no tch IIller. II can l weep t he tuniRI diode over I ranp: of "llpacitancc "..>n.-"=".

~ elT c:eu apply 10 all IhKc oipaI-fn:qualt)' IIIlIld an:ui~ aDd in uttemoI cutS leave Ibc Itlevislocl ~n with virtllllllly an ap......•• tbe allcouaUoD ~ iihown in FI&.. When the !:Oilt Iwtye been fonned. t he: u P!td ton 0. no!: aU TVl is the flull of the rec>eivcn.Iiun. u..II uaMrlliner.... ~ I .y for r. &." . a DeW problem : r. His usual apprt>lld\ Or.r it iI ~ ~ in the fl"Oft&.d.f. Shaw. _ _ F".. ~ IOlIm' of FX lSU is a 144 M e. the ouuide SUrf ce of the i ho llllo . providiq isoIalion bmocen lbe th _ filter lOCIioni.tub.. Mu. <barnett. -. as pven ill all the ~l.1I i<: OOnlaCI bel_ n " ycrJal'J!in..__ en- "'1OIlIDCl: en . plana...h \llIC • •h. Coils _ re made from No .hen 1t:Je unit is . 1'.. are u:auallyeft'«tM: wtlnI carTlUIr xt up.:o-ulal cablt: this o.tub liller IIIin& a 0( eo-. and he Iho USotd U1f1t bnl... dife.. to pul a loruld filter In the mainl lead dOSCl to the bItck uf the I lTected leL Abou! 10 10 " IUrnI in the IIlII1a I biflliar rn&IlllCt with an 0. he rnativc 10 the brid sed-T filter .62.'IO...f. For his OWD reoeivcr he bas n_ replaud the OIllJinal a.roy because 0( the dilfigdly of obl&ilwl& wlllc:ientlr ~ ferme 10rcOOs)..riodie fUlfllMaIM W/f"ln. He ~prd. u ble 10 inKn a shull noldl In Itc IianU reao.r.Is. --.. Altnlholt " 'U drawn 10 lhe need 10 oecun: UdI ..40-' and 47-3 MI'/I raultinI: in ~~(:t~.. The 1en. bul baa ured J lit.ld or his Cl». " dtIl&n wtUch did 001 ~ wllld eDt atIenIioa It !be U.. coppe r wtre formed o n I I In. Wels h... ~ cno:rg:y wmin.1' di5<: Qlf'IlCilOr on lhe lNIilU lod r. LJ 6 lurna.. are lmporu. 61.)'1 QI)' 10 alipl IDd cheo.al _ oembled.h1y JOd8 for I ti nKle ..mibility of usinlll hmo dU~ In or~er to diewlop either I WI)' Ilarro w no tc lt or alterna Uyely USlll . The IIOIch i.to _ ... In the paot he bas t\1ftId. 6J ...tn the mo re ll-'ua1 imap parameter type.. Itreuea tho roM of ltllIiru wirinc in Ibc tramfer of IJ&nitk. aho narrowe r..:tiVe II r.an: al l 100 efter. T1Ksc pl«llut lon.. . " • ce ... offen lICvcnd Idvanll . . arc 1Oidc~ U the 511otf.lIr A..lilicoo. .. re-radiatint: hm lhe rnam. Some fomw of module are difl'cult to t..n l In rn:~nllnc halTllOOk currents from re>ll. u.... :md 10 by-passin.tlaU y IWled 1 0 by a dJU!ihDl lhe I1ImI ~~'"a: Wild I &. -.. n. they are no!: . . JanIW)'. ilia! the &&mCI Iochniqve CUI he \lKG 10 fom! a VCI'J' dI'«tM: nains lilter. &II .. only a &rid-dip meier..f.t..:. lhe .II....k tritbOlrtIClt CIQIlipmeIll..tnaes .f.lttt l 10 rcdu~ It. on" ty. OJ NXS. Ilutnbef or eua ofTY l 1IIina tbI_ ot... TlIe WR6Hk M lIIIil .ll .4 f"r ftS(lIWICC _ Filially. • • 0 . o f the cow r to insure &ODd m<:1.. 1l11llff-lUnlll i 10 ~ a Ih.'-.okk' FXlnll lou)' toJ'Otc1I."' ... 1-4 eoam .:/I QIC-otr. TIle co d. L2... The pr. module .64.. Sonxtima al a pa lh rl&hl inlo lhe receiver.._. mw:.. y. )( IIO ) in.oud SM fJIl«Y A.. with runcd cimaits II 1.l lTWlY of Ibc uwal t )'1Q of mains filtcra which USC the l! 0( thme-piD IOl:ket l AI ~ since the ~ II oflcn a n equally IatJe amuwu ofllllWUlIed r... _ j ~ IeplratIOll : A&.sea I" '" leu coils for eq uivalent Ito p-band altenultlon: ( 2) it PfO"ioJea relalive flUdom in the relcaioo of frequcrw... ce .. It 1-4 McIs. it " . T1K~! of the Jlube to lIOI critic:al-<l~ 1Ug:estS 9 in...! lhe app ropriate ~uen­ c:ie$. IlOI boxn fntd....'ilb OIher pcopl~'1 ..heae ideas hay... low.o .-d or a Ielevisioa 1llI:lCi¥n'.c.outse. the usual tiller coaSlruclil'on precautionl mus t be p lten.lioR. 0( WJb.&nI enel1:Y from a Iralllmitler Inlo a TV Itt. bued 1966 II the lXlII Ihown in F. )( 2 ill.. _ '''. alon& the mains Iud p . alta.. " ". --. he Is encouJ>lerin. W Joille H! of olIk:iaI favour (. rl eo _ .IlllIot do this . C . TOPICS ~ ')I[bn .. 0. ae rial" re-radi:llq ellUJ)' 10 Ibe viewer'l aerial IX lbe otMr bn.c.m .. M ~ more tfl"cetivc lo::hniquc il Ia uK two slu'" p1Kc4" a Ien.. GJNXS suueou. Faa.omPlU'C' witlt rou.... . bu t of\cD . To uhieve Ibis performance .. But _ . !D dkatiC! rt:'SOnanI..." by G lellll R. it . Col and C6 are ~de !""d across lhem t .. ttenuatioa.------20 )() 50 00 10 .h ge from lhe enclosure.. am pli1\cation.. His IU filler hid a JO M. III I·J : I aI 29' 7 Me/.d f ilter OI o.. introduced by lhe IIlter . A.. The no lch can be made 70 10 8Od1l dcfp when " . " .:mblll'l arc IDOWI ted III the ehasNI (IrtdMduallyl and fpin dlcd..lth older 1)lIe II'rmanlum Ir&n!'iIlon of the 001 calqOr)' an d tbls has solved the fIItlb\em-but one just l. ~y lOme whil... a1wnirU1un Miaibon....IlIa of the .. publ Wled (" AD elfectlve ~ 11lcr.. Thae delllllia&.. et : (1) il u..... tnnsiston for a.m quuttr_. '" ..hina the TV recebe r..0 1 .. . ll'X"kluaiity • in..ltbou&h t. lhe filler. Ille dlqlll ca~1OrI (e l. lead ~Iy ilIlO Ibc d _ mod ule wbidl forms the main Lf. bouscd In I ' in.tk1anJ form. Thi~ type of ) Oil the instnioll-Jou COna:p! rather Ih. .nd ia ....ht plirlts 10 assure i50L. W Il6H aM . WB6H RM_ QST.L aD the Ekad. bleld II ria. 1II1Cn. . Tbo:n:is ItiII IA obliptiorl 011 the pa rt of !he ItNteUf 10 k~ !Iarmoctic IDd 'PUriow ndiation down • __ and IhaI UNl1Ir eaUs for 1ow-..TRANSHI T T f.... While the Imditionaltypn.hln./JoBr.~ tasy 10 IUIIC win.iQ 0( IllUimum .el Mdc hetWfltn Uno (L) a nd neu lra l (N)./c:aPKllor -. I I millltt be expected from lhe use of IWO hiJlt oQcin:u ifl ..tpcd ~ (utW ~ Ws:1$. bln too oftn a a < ! 0 +-_ " ...-lIh palnl remnved from l he: cdGe. n.imIlrn .~~~" :=':~~M=~ '~ . mD ndm : L1 R lums .. .lly inlO the lICt. ampt iflCl. WIth aluminium lhid d.ual foeder.n-u eJfeetiYel. with c:obu ~n..

N. ~I has bc:co acnin.f. _ _a .. but with l~ r. _bto c:onIU1lcd by a s. t. - • . . (lo ) _ _ ~ M .. abott! a udio amlllitier II'lte rfe~.."". p K:ked up llId f~ InlO the a udio ampll!k r...itlWty of t rutSiWmlto O'IO:fI..-. II to .iDterfer.. I! t " ol cn terllinmcul ~ip. in thtl U .~ tMI . Thtl amaleur ohould know how 10 trell! and CUI'tl t oe h in lCtfercnct!l . . of the fC"C rIIUN'.. ". idea.. no ~_ 10by the o pro c imlil ven.. electroaie orpns IDd IUdr.1aboraIc hi-3 insWlatioo in • oei&hbourint: !at.>n$taftl of 0-61 10 lorm a n o pen-dl'aliled quutef-wave . interfc:rmc:e to aD.... O .. . . .w. a udio: c." iiJDal .tioa (e~pt l'Nilch otr or YlUt1y Rduc:e ~r) t o el~ te: the ~rity of ltullulccl of thia type of I1Iterference .. II iI JlOI OIl!)' ill teleYWoa tu1lcn thai the swcept... Ab n Williolm" G lKSU ... when: i1 iI RlICIIflcd and a r pean .. InAomlttn harmon n In Band I.0 " ~ _ oI1bm1 tiruded m60 5qCI wbicb indicated IMI 01U" .illl .. b ut ICoc ral ly .. H ..here . MeCv. a.. or t~ PI" . ib:ribcd In the G3SL .. " a nd I&CI._ .tub to I ucnll&lC . bchalO. WIICP .usscd m. . WH CP.it""r llutn lhe originalry ~.f... he ' Uue'lTN " I n in. • . ----m=. OlSL..k T . b lao ~ T. or e 1sP1lttre.. n... at of) Mel l IlSinl • l icnaJ Kelleralu r and val"C ¥OIlmc'le r a lilllmeoj toclIniques..ki 1101 be UKd 01\ • mnsmittu 10 DOCcb 00 1.. unfortunately btnc::h ~t .. lbc IlQIIble u sually ariJel front a pp red. htl con siden. 1 ~~. in thne Iypcs of c<:JU}pmeOI. usll'l...nd sniwinll b il...w. " H </ • . ••Cunn."ere r.. lr'eua tltat t.. II pnnoed • thorou&h17 iDllXUbic problem. « poanicuJu I . or to IUlllC'Sl lbal btl (or you on IIi.." .ipe-out .ioll . lloYd. ~ nothIrl. ta pe 'nlcoc tlcn.ny ~.. CIlCC. II'l(Wlbk sbon cit'cu. hal not ba:n tried ahhoup Ie -. tIIbk:. tiocr.hile TVI bas bcc:omc InI ud!at of I problerrt (t.' He llIanu W I Ihia iI lI'aio1y bcci..ld _Ill " 1 0$iW UlmUoD or tho: Icchni~1 d i5f.. T ypOc:ally he IIIOd ] ft . Unfortu llliely aomc dcakn IDd Ienice cnp ncen. olf such com plainl&. IIauld not IIirrJIClf uodcnak e anr. nidic mcIIlloaed below." ..nlea diRlctly to the manur~r or the equi pmenl.. ftelds Is I)eromina appumL Quite SlIII. and ~in .c ""..t bas PlO"'td _flU. o tl'er 10 pus o n your infortTlllllun on th e subject to lhe dea ler.. IT\tIy "'UIC the outpIIl level 10 cball&e.. .ith '!1 ui:t.-----------I ~7:: .mtllet... Instel d .a O )JOO ee-iden lhal !.n Mel _ IIam >onK: ou lput o f lib transmit ler. CM np:I to tbtl tlqIIlpmcn t concerned) stnce lhe owner iI likely to al. Bul _ have 10 11". UDate1tr iDtetfcrmc:c: 10 tu-e. I G lltSU ' .. read I uwr"... 10 do an ythln." He DOteS I~I " It: II 'I'Cf}' I PPVCO from our ma.tia of . --. TItil. ~ cusla. ak!nllldc OUT ociabboun and It doct ror our pu blk Allallons 10 sIlru.. Capacili~ Nninl of open stubs.. .. IIw amate ur II n Ol 10 blame.. leo."\1M arc >'elY crilical. d iplomtlcy ~ " " ' GM". ij " 1. 10 ot.H__ to bInt1Ie IU-ll iDterfe r.bcre iI nothlna lhal I n ama lCW QII do I I hiI (I1II'D ItI..:. The G1S L aniclc inf". Either form of ~nt Itu b cou ld be lNd In "rious MItt app llatloos.iaoIu). lt~p )'UUI coo) " and offer lu talk 101M eORlpWnant'1 dealer or servloc e naina: r. A<>dIo~ ' . IIw fa ult of Ille amalatr tranl.td 1.. "'1100.. 1bQ time the pn:Iblem tumed cue 10 be: J\OI TVt bu l . 19S81.CrlbD lily fUlure rilul tllo 1M. ( OST.. . is llillk\lIC d ue 10 l"llJin.K ..\ . So il: _ with _ b!. One I'ClIdcr ...d oc'l )' ""1fC" .. . AH AT EU . eQQC. '-. ot AJUU.ble r. rotmd:-up _ tbIs IlIbjco..U~! _ouI 1 01_ 111_ _ " _ . volt· 'I'C:I may dme a dcviee iIlto _ _linearity &lMla we n:ctifi. .l stu bs ' ( RSGB &J1.'':1:"(-... .. .. n\ll1lbtr of $ll ndolrd . Tbere II no ka1 obliplion (llI thtt part of an aroalc\tr. are quiltlliUly (uften II'l ianortlnce ) to lha l lhe troublci if.A-.eneralor (&.da from local f1. "'la rd>. 0 1T unti! t he notel\ . ho made aood WoIl or llli.bout . of Unindio 70 fDlce non) e&bk """'nl .1 L.l I tbaI . tuM.. 7in.hcr -oro. 1bc rnlIin t hin. J1mc 1970). 010 TECHN I Q U l! 5 ' -" '':1:.. wonc.." _ toW)' yean -. TVI wilb co- fl'O'Widal 1IrOO. use 01 Ibc ~ 10 1ICIl'IicoDductor.. .. sintle co-uia slubs desianed a round the c h:otKIC m.U f. modi1Icatio os.tion on nuok ln. • I' - ____ .

~I . a . at &.. leads and input lead l . fields. . ' .. or_ nd Ih ll soems qui te co mmo n_ via the loudspea ke r leads (un like picl-up leads thc1c: an: seldom shielded I nd may even form I resonanl aerial). """_ la) f U.C_ ' lt ' i.tic equipmenl seems unusllll1ly fUS<X1ltible 10 loc:a. ftl_.....an ItS Dormal tpCCl. Wbc re a n Item of en tertainmenl or dome. hum to .. W. On h«rinll' aids.. W'jilo dippin8 tbe audio signal a l rof.aJluf ac~r ot the eq uipmenl an d ulr.. etc ..1M).01.. for TUOmmCnda UO!U.::~._I."l'""'l ' . Wtl CP suggest... audible frequeneie~).•• . nd provides I eli ppinll ra lio up to 12 : I (i-c.r. The prob lems inY()]voxI in the USC or convenlion. ~ .. In stubbo rn eases il ma y be nCOCllllt)' 10 provide l hielded loudspeaker leads. _I.I..pe.he usual ..-I.ln co nverted back to a.f. _ _ J _ _ iI). .f.b. all of which are al lb) ~J:oc~ fC t]C4 rn\~(D ~-T""~~ . ow . Sometimcl a dmple CUTe will come fro m jim p ro vidin g a 800<1 earth foc. for e~ple...ldB point..f.. ha~ a l 1000.m. -.. . II"'.... _ 1_ .5.s.. For r. pnx:..ipmcnt. i have led to 1..:::.Ih•• • ." that the harmon ics produced in the clipflin. a zener diode.htl earphone lead Is 1. ••_ " ' . •-. TIlItY be corninll in via lhe v. ~ et ." .ncc soclr. lIIDcno form part or lhe hi· fl 1nsta1I.m. TN .m a re al a 5ulfleiently high f~ncy to be well ouuldc Ihc bask: aof.-'.llation is bo nded Ioacthc r.TRANSMITTE Il TOPIC S '" Where a limDle cure cannot be effected . mp l. . m . ma y be reac:h1lI8 the amplifier 1\ ill rron t-end (ror eu mple. s. Fallis of .. t "" . Ihe 5igna l is ap...c:. d. all. ...oneerncd here with normal BO a ffectin g v. ~·_r· ' IS• .:oJDizcd priDelplc of c:anylns o ut thc elippiJt8 a l r. ae rial (wei are no t f.Ie band Is Iratl._*fift ."I. .ft10..b. !wo 1.1. J. inlll. 'The complele unit incorpora tes I l lrall..ryslal~ntrol lcd oscillalor o.u: lt vn aonptltooO • . aO-Ol too ·~) I. _ Fe w. ' •• . A carefuUy to.lf.. wrile 10 lhe m. lSOD.lype clipper un it which dCle$ n OI rt' sull in .l. tl TVI.f. G .et.lio n... t 1 (. a DWltber of simple fIIlen : Fig . coming In ria an f..... -Io y .I-... A more e laborate ma ill3 filte r II aiY'CI] 01] pa ge 194. as &Ibbemh.Jes U>e IIS<' r with lhe same advlUl laaeS in allowing the I Y'C Tltge pcTCCfltage o f modu· latlon to be su bslllllw ly Ineru..I. The e.f.- 1 _ .. These: wtu co pe with inted~ coming in via loudspeaker Icad" ma in.h ..~i'tors. ppe. .I """'. 66. .f..C". . usi118 a f...he devdop mcnl of more comple. The limpkst fo rm of fillc-r is 10 bypass e ach loudqleakcr outp ut sock et point 10 ~il via l ("-01 to 0'03 "F dioc cer amic ca paci lor with tbc shorteSi ~sib le lead l : tinoe thf:se po ints will be lo w-lmpcda. t.h. piCUd-up or tltITiod in via the pic k-up leads) or via lhe mains lead..im_.. N • • •h . • tim __ <_.. _ M (~I".e ts Ihe loss of hid>cr a udio freque ncies sho uld be IIellliiPble. _ N ot... if illpUl sillftl l drops IU B.. ~ .. ma ki ng s ure lha t I II eeperare mcUll work irl an e labora le hi-Ii..i.b. l>or mo re diffieull cascs. ...s. "lIher tban I .f. "This mea.) f ll. I ._'-. 'h et ~ P'UfUO( UV!L ft_ ~~ 'I. a silicon bridae rccti6er ...lhe ampli1ier. a l 21)-1 and 24·\1 kcls.I.type high-pan n lle r or allYo f thc olhcr TVl lechniqucs could be UStd.m. _ 2M _ ).f.. Radio Liberty " described II b rua dC&liI. ... .oI. OUI Put .. Sf>Hdt I'roc-I". m .wlda l wavc fo lT1ll ~l provt.. This duillll IIloCI the r".) Mal.I.. 2000 cis.l-rc. Allhe 1910 Interna tion a! Broadautillg Conventio n. Th e more n:putabJc manurac lu rers la ke soch ma lle n Y'l'ry seriously. Ioo . DI' K.c<. _ ~"" 'd io . Q_ Herrick IIId H. aerial" Where f. "'l"'~~".. a. et . . .m . using the 'li mo ~llator. ppear o r th~ .b.. 2 diodes.. _10.led 10 v. __. _ y 0' lac _ .l r. filter has . usua lly ..r. the r.-. ae rial. Ihe lludio b. _ .. nx:c:ption). spccIrum (lhe problem in cLippin." .. o.. To allow ~ lippinll. . for 5 . I SOl) e l' lone will p rod uce . th e mailer should be broush t 10 Ihe a ltenlion or the fum maldut: or-in the ceee of imported cq uipment-distribulin l lbe cqu.1 1l..nd..S .. 1.t r ..al ' J'i'<'tJCll clippe n (wblch prod uce trape zoidal W ve fonns) for s.. .f is WI. roccd miller is drlYCll by a square-wave switehinll wavefo rm derived fro m a 19·1' kefl erys lal oscillato r an d Ihe u. I.<..ne r clippin g and filtering.

mo re com plicated than the pai r of d ipping diodes and 1 w-p&51 filter arran~mellt rom0 monly employt:d in v. r ~o. I\.1. in Glben the pcr1011l'lllllOe leavesmuch to He di~. The ar(\llTlCnlsagain ...n.. (9) il q uile l imple bUI in lI11in ll it 10 a 32Sl he 1I1~0 InOOtJlOratC'S an aAditiooal 4'5 11.e .S. - . p..iy IdS ). Hit.01 ~ ~- .. compre5llon loop) and I>Cptive (-.:OIIlide rab k be nefits siDce the o pe rato r doe.".I."." . clrt... which. Thill r..l .1e by 0 il "ruoe Cla rk. It must hOW<:!ver be ".. by illCrcastn l mean-to-peak mill of lhe speech wave-(orm . rip have U CClk DI a.ll al belt give o nly II fe: decibel s of improvc:meolw and ollen results in a tli. Crewkel"l'll:. wtillc often raulllna in no p. sliibtly hl&ber irn d istortif)llis 10 bl: cspocted compared willi straiaht r.. The U.c...ol ~~01 .Iltin.. Tesli--COnfilled to audio links' ugjlested thai Wllh II..es f . AMAT EUR Il:ADIO TECHNIQUES ou tput drops ou.. ratio.. Ihe resu ltanl highe r tem!"Cratul"C$ ean have II detnllll:Qtal elf"':l on valve and com ponent life in the tinal 1<6J10 R.m.r..I. in ... the Collins S-Iine ia one of the best for a\lCh rn04iflcation.mem bered that the full hcnc:6t will o nly be obtainc:d if the ol.ln in averaao: power.N"k 1 reduce intennodll~t ion products . DOl have to worry about o verdrlvinl !be outPlit slallC-leS1.b...S. clipper to an \:Xislin. The Iystem ..m~ll llllin it pos. . hal leu lhan I per ccnl dbtonk>R from 70 to 4500. I I Ilo. dippin.b. lonl recoyery time coostant.a in Ihis ma nner II a ny greate:r t hall can be ob tained with I pro""rIy dc:1 illncd e ·3V ~ lI.lion is no l already illCrcasing the mean powcr of iiS o utput by . He jl(Illlll OII t tha i for I~h .jpt ing an eWlill' rig. of providing a pl}Wer pin o( more than 10d1I.I. performance.s.. view provide a uodul due to what to romider !(you arc thinkina of ad..p. While .c.r.n. 70 1 and he dCllCnbcs adjuslments in detail io his arlie e. clippill..eep tuba) co upled wllh e(fective a. Alt houp I. II . K6JYO.b."count. real l ilflal ~ ia with Ll.l. notinllbal .". wben Inr. ft. Heverly Airpon. I"· .aI-lOpp inlJ" -in amaleur q .f. techn iques _ IOdIl or dil tortiool ess ~in ClLn be obtained (IIr mu eh Iell \haft the price of a lil'lc:U. esP-II ISd8 of clippinl produo::e. sse filt.y IItJU need to be ta ken lnlo . .. clipp ina techn ique lJ the on ly WIly to obtain audio limitinl capable (If providin...r The poMibility of fin in. K6JYO'1 clipper (FIJ. 1911) . n»rnc the additional atra in on t he lInal amplifier a nd driver d ua 10 !he w ee ir>crclllC in averll.Ul t :. 197 1). in whkh till! ou tput is returned back 10 d. A." 0·"'" ~ mW . W ith a short r«overy time· constant between 3 ami IIdB averalC power ga in un be acllieved. " (10 use the Jar&OO).<1 a mode rate ~ of IIM·toppin. Il!llJ{lOS for tm.""'" . a..F.b.hanieal 6 ller (see I'll .:tivc Nlauced mod ulllior (carrier ~ur>r>rC'S· $ion over SOdB for periods).c.. Olp. (r.-.. 0 ca pa ble. u .. rnay _ m a lot 10 l)<Iy tor a dipper unles s one Ihinks of il either as a subl titllte for a " linea r . Som e"".. Comdel e SP. ics) is Ideol. J-.. 0 between mic:ro~ne and the l. an d is normal ly used at 6 : I elippin.. 0 (3) Stable. He also loo k certain other pr_ution s which wou ld be applici-bIe to any type of severe d ipping 10 o. OJ a. 29 Market Streel.plotcd 1 O arl i(..r. lhe -parent t tnn is C<>rn&Ie IInc: .: va . can Increase c:QTIlmvnica tionse: tficieoc:y wilhout introducinl .A.. ooos l~r ea~ 0·01 ".:fy power supply. eIf.utomalic kvo:l wlilrol (1l.h clipp. • atra ighlforward I lon. ' British I lI"nts for Corn<kl are: Inlerface Internat ional. All lIul may seem ItIUl. o r a llerTlltti~ly as one mellns of lep llX run ning the equivalent o r qcne a few kilowau. for Lm..vcfomu an: red to a.. operation this is qu ite:c:omll'lOD. with. The use of COIlvelllional a .. nevenheless olfen l.if Spee<. djpp~ teclLniqucs. ca pable of high averaee eurren t. dtcde cl ippen Q. be desi~d. . U.e input powet .. r ' 2N~ L 5~6 12 """ 4 * 2. February. In Ham RmIi<J (A1Iiust. IOd8 intelligibility p in without . a brief look al lhe esP.Ive been II:t ou t by Walter Schreucr. RFC1 RFC2 :f2i:lOO . pewidal W3. retrofit tin. broa dcutiq applicationl. ·7k ~ .) 5)'1lem or volume comPf"C$" sfon ' Y I"'rn.b.c.loned silfl3 l whose averallC power may be less Ilwi withuul clippin• . II is an " ad. Mass. K IYZW/ G3DC U (ff. bul lhea the dt$tortiOll Il _" mucli lowcr . In t his respect M admits that &II " add-on " spc«h proc:e!l5Or of 1M CSP· 11 t~.. Ol 9 U . With r. tran smHler is e>. and • n::trofi"l1I&' older equj~t is liu ly \0 bo difficu h: ' Allhough wilh d . . tramrnltter.f. frcquenc:y n:sp<>n'IC i~ ~s tricted.r. u-rumute l'S.b. he: commentl: " I do no l believe lhal :uty ga in n:alilcd thtt>Uglt $JlCOI..In. 2) Use of 6146 tubel (aa lIPpo/lCd to s. cost is rather hi&h.J-on" processor unit with internal batt eries intellded 1 ./.f."" ! with the " Radio U berty " un it. . ilP'ificlnt-iplaIIl11'. " IiPPlllg. o-or esca ' m' . iblc provided thll ce lo. 1TU-mitlc:l"I.7k .Pr-n::ntdistortion. of which lhe block oulline: (bUt nOI the: InIIllI latioo frcqucn ."'" '" Opt lQtl.Ome factory ." '0' IJm .1011 mo. Irall!llTliuel'l . t con~nlional audk>Ip«ch d ippinl: for u . prt:e:iable pycltologlral .b.1 of " p. 2~ . Radio. the harmollic problem does n<M arise (see Ilbovc:) inremlodulation (im) prodllCls mo. at Ieall Iheo retically.h p~ It Ihus I«ml wo n h havin. He: shows lhe phisinB prob lems lh4t ri'IC. L m. pnce is aboul 1120 . 1 "".A. b. and II "a n be: araued 11\.

71. 1IlIt1bil iry. cin.lrlll. O H2CIl.. d lllP... . ln u>ereUJ.q""... 111 001I t..ood baDd-pil. ove r lhe pro blems (l1lrea. Some llIeI'w COltnI1'IenII o n pn:~ and ludic)." 5 _ e -tol Oo! 01".lly.tlkh ha-.:a. _ _ ' _ . lIlY"' " I ~ .a. l1... .$dB ot 10 (:1.. PCII\ib.. _ .s liJl:er.".. rrom the ¢'ltra <Jill ipl1 llo l'l CllUKd 1. IniI)' In the audio blind which cannot t-e ~Iimina tecl. <>Wina in ran 10 pr obkma of cnonVIooI:. He condudc:ls thai .1<:' ....n.. O H1C O. Vol.JaId>cd in I paper by Th<:ornlIs iI. nl iI. end IUCh I ."! ue si&DaJ-to-DOisc ra tio o r t..n 00I1C1 will help 10 ""I H . dippinJ. In b. inlo some son of pcnpecli~. I t ia Ih".' ..= been publishod .b.1I' to 20d H d.ite II'Ilplitude..$Ille tinlliltl:t. Bul thiI _ _ IPftnite bon dwidth both in lbe ludio atllS lAd II I. 100 200 :JOO 1100 1000 F""Q ut nc ~ • " JOOO11oOOO . . pc>Wff pill Ol' 4(1H.1I be 1IIeI1 Ol F Rll SIII&ftU thai it ralher itlraiot diodes ate uloid fot d . et c. chle"" ~ilP"itkan t power 'li n II . DLlloseootldl..ulll . III' notes Iha t it tlll l bee n dearly dc mnnalrlled thai. 20dR c hppln .. Uppin.Ie or r l ..eplinllhe hmiLiliom of IUdio hartnOflk:f.. altal:k and da. nocin J Ihcir n:femocc to the value o r rJ. ~ ......I (' 8) Jl"II Ordts" .na d ~ rlOll'll he mi='lphone.b . in order 10 mnoYC a ll 1M pvd. 10 oblllill IOlIIt adYIDlIF rrom IJ. SUNliM cd 7212/6146W "a1_ .. . weep-t ube linea " wou ld ha"" Ihort ..alIllle banDooiQ I dd 10 IlbeoftOca. ( ma ben.". Tbt ideaJ. l'lIIeIystemt whidl _Id fol low lhe Implil10dc or cacb pin o r the Ipeedl ws. La M" ... lipp ina is in. T ampli6cr conIputmcnl.mited II... ... 1972. dune by : " (or) audio P rocesstlll wiltl I ... the opcnlOr to modulale lbe Ull..~ O l J'R II n(lles. dippioa» Philliorwooc!.. .1"" lire wit h tOdD (If mo re . I"'" al~ (dR) wane Ip ~".IIi..ltre.. .." Ittenllon 10 the Frendl p... at least.uo ~i".. _ . In the reedback.b.ll<1 NidClrjohII. Ol FR. llt~flliure .oon lends 10 &lou. tha t ed>'el'llli n.. bllIldwidtb you Q. a nd 10 rortb .ll<1 6-9<jD UflI)rovmw. ow.. H _ .irich mly otherw ise easi ly 111'1 11Ibmerp:l1ll till noise. The respon!lC (withoul dippin&> 01 the OII1CD procaIOf . would be locally 10 rtlIl1O'\1l the amplillldc inI'_tion a nd tnmrnil only the: r~lleOC)' informalioD..""'lll~ whm ~nl al ""'. <)"Ilems.. lhey oeruInIy canPOI be cla~ IS efT . I' . H.T RA NS M I T TE R TOPI C S '" . Gl FRB bcliEwls thai the fillet foUowinl Ille cli Pflel' Ilbollid he a . UKII P>l"l'tt-oUde r«tir>tn Ippal'.: 'I'll thu...ac .".boul. ._ _.. ~ lhapi ror Lf. Illd Ilo added I ran 011 l op of l ho Innomilll'f C1binc:1 10 blowo coolinIair d.pe«b lotmd.. pcctrum. . No... CIl I'l ".1w j. I. Socwf. ind ocatod IJI the . . A 1lritisb _ k i l t wbo IlaI bomJ doial I Iood lkal o r wri: 011 r J .. M any or lhe l udio p r _in... ror '-S.ll odd bamIonil: _ _ 10 iIllin. November. ~ . _ _M )'OU (lOCWIlly c:annoc bave inllnit& bandwidth in the rJ ... _ oo- _ """ I 4 .. . '!I'tl ILl . alII to ."c:R"~ p by V. lhe p . dat~ 10 perm'l 1. lippina.. ir he UlleI .IIllly dJ«ti~. ~ .. Pappen(1lI atales tha t 10<1B cHp pln. " 0' .1ptr by 1l~1I''''1 I nd. th t OdD intermo<1ula ti(ln fl'"(lducu. loop. To Icd _ some ullhcac (b.. .. Ibm wt. (/10) inf".ily . &r-:b quality it !'vlly at=ptablo-«nd luch producta are a t least an in· band and not apla 1tainll O>'el' lhe .l Y O II I _ .... aciter. bul G 6XN lw poin ted 0111 lh.:ienl silfl3l J":O'I'""'n. ttl ddibenltelJ \l.... e tl:.vdorm _ k1 be ~ dilfteu ll 10 acI\icYe. . merdy slow I ·IC. pp. IIlOde currmt meI~r nil'" up to 220 rnA at l " kV IfId "a~ there I II the time I He alao points ou l t hlll in a lrve rJ ..dy lDCn· UorlCd) uill n.. """"="".....pp.I .nnot 1Ia. llltcr n«<ll 10 be It leuIll p. "Y'lemi wbicb. talk....} 20 " 10 beJo". cre&I it bco::ornca ino:reuina: y d Llli. l I re Ilmm lllUl"l: llI in .tl al lideband burn a nd noise:. " _. fltM IhI.. of IW ..ood I.. Ihrouah ltK boa. February. fl ..is own CIICl.. 1bis particular ')'Stem .IeIl I 10 which luch 1M pr od lM..lbe _ve . dippin&. Awn vb ... Per· ronnanoc of d.""". 1.. m l2CO ..-1)'l1C prtlCI:SS<1n (01 l..B . liP lhe unwutcd li a:nab ...il>l'd 10 IlIlke 1I111'OC'1b ao.. spocdI pmces<in...fCl of. ua. be ~ keep l!lQIlinl Illal if a WE q ve II o:1IPI*1 UQli1 il iltql. G6XN. ....ll lbe ~ Iy. Tho dc\oU typeI.ql In IJ'l'CIIi> IntdJjJibilily when UKd with a Ik an traIIXCI~1:I ...7 the roc hllher IhCOln ~... To 1ltemp1 trucl syllltbM. II the a vaill hle clippln. by tbe ta me amounl . OPe amatew.. ror desi .. even hatmolIics are la ter 1I1lemt 011I. and thtM the rclative amplit udes at tbe harmonics aeneralOl1. 10 l' 10 ... . 11 Is ho ped WI lbe1e "arJoo. ror Ipc«h proca." not hum or noi!IC) lhe IeI:Olld bandpul I .. clippinl il • !Dust ror O(Ilifnutn ub.i. As a .b. h ..... .etl euepIl dw:. shown in Fl.71..d~«l the cond""".tl..iledippirla.. spcodI dipptn " (H _ /(-110..~ "" I Hr J ~ O/'O ' I.r... In pnctke.(JO'M:I" ia any InInsmluer with II<JfficimI ~ pCI'fI'Cr wpply C1pabil ily .l. o:ontiDIIiDf. li_ . ~ pu bliahcJ m ~tHIrItJJ A.. Thelntd bpbdity of tillcrecklipped apoedt In noi:!e.~ •• -~ '. aDd \lCl to . _ C. • ~ .1l w::ilft'. The e:s. In H_ /l4JiI>. th whic:b are Importanl r" r int dl ilibilily bul low In et'I«'IY 000Ienl and . . hoo Il6."ovidc . wc....l.l n . 1' 72. 8d fl pin. or. ... 26--Jl) llOCI into the su bjcd ~ thoroulhly.ban ~ted drpmds 011 the amoun t 01 d ippin .. illMcd 10 drive aD .. ~ aoh-anla&lt could be obt. eilha' lone lint baImoed miur (as in lbe K6J'I O un it) t llo u tn pin inl roduo:N below Ihe c lippilll thtnbold will brin. t in PflIdke 1llc lint rew deci bell of d lppin . He d nl. rathea' IhatI 4oocie& (:IIJJAbie 01 SWlldtinl In . 14 tbe Q.".a. Pis. l peech'dippin. I nd he 11II ti Ihat .19?O. Ol FR 8 hal madt Iaml: l'I:leUIlrements usinl l Hewldl · hc:kud ~ anal.RaA>o UhMy" ouUinc. be proridcs a ~LU)' 011 IOfIIe 0I1lle poootl railed earlia'. d ...uo- o -0 Even "'. d ip per tilled after lhe _ .cl> 1..

and o/lKrvanoI: of tile was ~I • tal" rejection".. the UIO 0 [ ' '''0 1 hi&h-llI'ade u . dippin. even with omaJl dlPpin. e d'eai'WI:I dippinl..J &tid !lOt by amplitude.. can de:sigo ro r varyln. jVVlJ ... d)'Nll'lic: rante lD eo.h prOClt'Solin. pproprinla. Peter Marti nez.n..... R up p.. pre. In nther WtInb .t ". at\cr prHmphasis (I. 1Y'te<m..:tinll v..!ity ~ua an d I ..r..ft.mvc '_ftCr • 0 ""'~ . m I I)'t_. rul aid indeed. in ~ mw.e. In fad .. attention 10 the: f.. 1% )) . tho I Ulillmenl 0( compk:l:c d ynamIC r&n1lC lelrio:do n and llIus ruu impro~cment ror the 5ln rat io.nd freq ueDc)'-convcrs lo n (i .. pu:sinJ Ihrouch twO i ueh fillcn du.b_ CTy!ltal or /l'ICChal1lcal x<.arM. .Icnt to an Increa. AMATEUR ""DIO TECHNIQUE S o ill ordilllUY $pe«h. _ the pol )'JIh._ _ .."""'. No. but Michael Oi nlldl bc:h. e mploy c e e o r th ree syst~ ms for l erI<'l'lllinll l... thoo ch It ~ carcrul enllineerinJ 10 achieve an ylhin...hed indt in a .-ble speo:dl q . 11'1. . ~cm be 10 !hose ~IClDI which pcmo.. definite peak l iJlW.-'..:·c~" ' .# ltrl!r (NTZ-CJ.. fo~ S..tllavc& bipt peak paMC'eapabi1iI1. . .. a aooo __ ' _ftC r ~ ft<Cl - r l_ " " _' 1 _ n.. funher. is 011 !lie ...20.. is al r .. AI present 1 vast majority o f M commerdally manufllClurN rip I.~ • point JRIlIl ~_n. \6) ()peralioa of t he tln..1""' as to the val. il is c(ten omillcd ror r..eJa./.l k'Id and is ~ ot J>fO"i\dlfll a tOlallnc:reue in PIJ"U of about twO 5-ilniu 'Irilh 00 adwne COftICIll~ 1bis ra..lr fil~ in ~tk>n will Inevitably Io$e .Ia _ •• _ _ .. 1UId any oi". dipptn.. rnuctI mo .:t thD. rnt1hod appea rs to be r>anicuLu l)l ..u-nna: tdYaDlaF of cstablahina: .. H e bdl_ that fil k .. .. H.e meritS of : IU.r.f.. rwolhe1" Ulan 2·2 kc/•• Such filtcn wouI ci bot! d>c:lopc. (4) Ade(lu..lt foUoorlllt (:Of'ditiont : dem&nd. : II ) the filler method : (2 ) " hllSinJ (" 00[_ plwinll " or qtlldtalure) melhod : and (lj " third me1bod " (Wea ve._ p ut.. ...." Nodtrlctnmfflt-. .h]n netwo rk..ate _ powuha ndb o l C&JQbiIity. illl ltv: O\'Ilimum 6dBloxu. tIlt:""on: .. ftl... YakumaTllsio Com~ or Tokyo provi6od tIIlen modified 10 . 1 .. 1bc imporurol CGl'If......~iblCl al h.b.\'O bayc &dcq u. II !hUll I "'I'J ~... ~OIWct L--f~ f ll. Zn . Nnlssion and possibly o ne or mon: si mi1... Up to 70dB of IIII"PIWIi0D has !10m IOI. . like the full JlO" ible benefit. All amal~ur If'. (2) r.ha wo is tb&1!he supMol' me1bod is (3/ and lhat Pft'~ Is u ill beneflriaI ~o wbea the (hp p ".B. lnldl ip:oo.0( 2OdB. In prKtia: while moot am-teo.<.. 9itb ~h&sis.. .'....: X < w..-r. by Iddilll or Ia1loI away «t ra K1diom 0.) d isllnllU. \O'Ott was carried ou t in c:onnoc:lion with line te~unicat>ons &\lI"Ound 100 lu::/s... or • 1Jichtly I'ducd ~ DOSe s:p«l blion IhouId bl:used : in his01'1'lcue..arne intdli!li bili ty."' It should be noted lhat Ru JIP lalks a bout i"'f'l"O\'Cmc:nl..t ._. Hlpl :><:...e in uansns!ller powe r of the orde r o f 100 limes ! Spcc. lity far very hich Cltpp~KtOn (-4G--SOdB 0( d lPPinll") a nd..e II conYe)'Od ent i~J )' by frcqllCR/.".a. ' . 01. a new ""IY or maki nll a wid&-w nd "udio pluw:-.f.1 1 1 _.se net_ it ail 1 0 cffCl:l.al one. in 11'1lnlmi:s:'tiols IYs!CmS... al r.... or a 6dD locta".WI.. very qll kk a. thl.. lbe ~Wi. II ridded intd li&ibi.. For pra ctical amplitude clippin. n... equi ~ll. di ppina To qllOle Heinrk:h RIIf'P : "The d ippifta S)'!ItCID willi p~ . ( 2) I w d timilinl with . and (3) d . G3 PLX. ' .. SO<l_ . wilhout preempbnis.b.rinl. :lCIon..yc tOM Cl"mIet Oon). te ~ ~11ppn . 6d8 butdwidlh of Z'S 1..e.1Sl1tbe filler melhod dcst'ile the relatively hillh<a. G 6XN abo dra..l.t.hieved . <antralled DOde SUppre\.. mltt~. tkarcc:s of petf"nnaoce and ~om­ pooctIt lolenu>ce.. d~1 provldCli tho: hQlc: en..ha ntage o r beinl mo re toleran t 01 P""plll.. I nd Bar b« .l. _ l~ FlI_ a... c:bpPin..em p . pedal lI'IIOnner OYCl' the OIher melhod.tn. Syll.• .r thaD the cnn'o'Cntloo. lSI Tbc lRnImillc r WI stiD punks IIIMICUl'I c:onoemiJl..t of Ioodu. fitters comIClIy dniPlC'l! roe o:onvcntioMl S)'IlCfnS bela a uns llila bk.-1 .(.."u.... Hil coocI usioN an: : Formal r..al muot bI: hilJhly li._I... if there M m lM 0( filtcn dc:sianed for t ile job.-ion 01 the d~ 01 ~ by . " w. dippOn.. Ru pp ilIso brieny eomi den 100 p ro blem !lull severe f lipp in" brin p u p lhe a mbienl noise dUrlO! speecb IntefVals -ilnd o ullines a ras t-ac tinlll hl'l'Shold Ie..s.ulrn about 20dB of d ippfn.. II no l Ideal oinoe these hl V!: • )d B bandwid th of beI. (3) Adeq~ prccalillOftl 1O eftIUl1i thai tJ/ llmit ina taUs pIKe between lhe fi!1nS..)'Stem) . n 2 101)I1 1·2 lr.ns 01 ampJilUdc d lppln.... " Opl imurn eom p..VCI the s)'Stem C1"il" rQ....s .l. G.bul ""llh the ... 74..f...

90". yet ca pa ble of prov.in 0". ISO". b. when: "~<.. if o ne . A I very lo w fn:queno. &Dd OOmbillCl the OlltPllla.. tho seq ueece will be 270". 270' . 180"'.dS 4t repf"(:ntinl the ' loodne» ' o f lhe lOqucno:c.". b.I" q uite a wide ranlll' o f fn:queooes provided that the riaht l. Thi. 180" is fed to th e nes. each with different va lUllll'qlresetlted c o by 1!(21<CR1..f..an illllon: the raiston. o utpull will n: rtlll. il i. But a limplet arJalllpllITIClt wo lild be Just t o feed iI and b 10 twe balanl:od modulaton fed wilh caniera a t O· WId 90" .. 71.. 90'. I found however.. pu ll to . outputs will be I SO". .ies.~r.t secuo n .e. to complete the u.1 . 11 fal ling between normal p referred values .ldter... fo r a fou r""""".. mto I and 2 III0" and imo l a nd 4 at 180· (for example by usirq.omplcle nel work will be cxaetly 0". a nd similarly with b . no . in wh ich case iland t O\I&bt lO be fed in push· ' I." .. but a n er o nly _ sec1Km o f lhe nelwOrk . 270" II each o f lbc dsii" r_ qucneics o f tile various sec1iofll... JL D1&J"'''' 1001 100 _ k .. has the advautap o f eanocllinl out hsrmonlc oldcbands whlclr... ISO" Il/ld what hawe:ns to the outpul a t ditrenml audio fRqueoeiel. Mich:lel Gi ngell (oed. &rKI ra irly close to tbis in o '0 beI'N'Cen.ding ~ lIlat a Ic ur-section network with desl~ frequen CIes oqllal ly olOdB lidcband l upprelsio n. II + '" ".TRANSM ITT ER TOPIC S ".. . . 18O" . where \W: can see . rt:tIiud usinl readily available components._. " Re ferring to Fig. 0". _ .. 18O" the ~ sequmo.onno.0 o iiOOfC the capaci lOI"$. to (our modulato rs. b. 180". eom ponent valUt:$. Jenerator.•""-".u a number of sections In 0l$CIlde.00 d . With a li " . t and d OUtp lil.. 270" (m. no".t1nl the Rquirod ccrnponent 10 per oenl 10Jetana: can be used in the fin! five sta ges a nd WIlI$. he believel lllat p hue networka after c:aIoJlo. 72 usin g capaci tors and resi'ltors."....Ompo""nt valUCI ha"" been " Consider one lCction on its own with inPUIl a l 0". 90". 1.. the OUtp ut (ro m this s«ond $CCl itm will be in the sequence 0·. and labelling t he input>. . 1lll1'.J. ' 00 " 1ben... b.. 11 II h '" . 90".". 0".. . eac:h modulalo r ~inl fed with d .:s. r an d J will be in the ~ue~ 0". 0". 90'.ion netwo rk . II vel)' billh (RqUO:ncio. a phase $pUn er ) then the outp uts from . 0". ~ re e e e T o q uol e from G3 PLX '.1 and 4 and the outp uts ....- 0» ... whidl can be . no t too d iffic:lllt 1o show tha t if the ICqIlCllOC 270' . Thul.. balanced Inpu t. 0"... balanced modulator with .I: 0". 9O'.\. 73 if you thi nk o( the Y 4."'. 2 "" "" 2 ~~ . 1ltiI is a t o nly '"'" freq uency.~ c c t- m o ! . lhe respcese curve will be iii shown in Fia. A rlCIItor so 1lllion o cbose n.. The resul tt Il1'e very p ro millo..' _ ••"'01_. 270" 'f'ftQrd/~ss 01 TM wUwtl of 1M ttJP<'C/I<N1 and ..-. then the (H. 2 per oenI in the final 1Iage. Suc h a ~hif\ network would spared between 300 and 3000 e ll Rlquim! !lOmeod d wuct" be COnJlrUCIed as in Fig. But at l be frc:quc:ncy wl>c:n: tee reo '"0 f _ 1/(21<CR ).. n u lOfI ofI"" u fONl 1'(110" .. ir we feed .. 180"." IN PU T OU TPUT t <~.... In p raetial there may be a lnod n:a. the iI.. co and d. Thus.. 0".uellI.son for no t ignorinl lhe c and d outpu ts. +x+ PlI..UgI: network.. ' 00 earrlcrt In thc lCICI. .I~t fro m the o... T o atablilh pl'i\C1lcaJ «=lulls I b uilt 1\ co uple o f p oly. oa:ur on each li de or the bannon icl of the carrier fnquency. Ho"". 2. .

ly p ublished in Old M_.Ihin! and tiflh OfIkrdiuortion produd-.Choul • ca rrier or a IOCOIId (wrwanted) li dc tw.D6. ..y ~t. output or I1S... heal er rat1qs 6-) volts AI 2 aftIP'. aftd the euieaI _ y 10 6nd tlxir Q)ffIlC1 K11iq: would be to adjust than . of 1' ..:illoscopa .1ol. _ pmt. 19 audible bea l nOles in tbCl p hooea wllh the ohja::tln tbe elimination o f lhe nctes while mai mainln.. The ~ diap¥n .impk but dl"ecI1Ye method of a1i8Jtin.au! JIO""llI" 10_ for tuI Q RP opetIIion with tRmiltorized tra . IIlIltlnl rot mi nimlllll mod ulall ua on the u. _ hear lngead tbl= be:aI ~ the two Iide· bands JpacN 2 keh apan .nIRlin. Iso requha II.. tar. The o mpu! lank ci~ui l hoM a daip Q of 10 a t 2SO walts input. in (}sr aDd re=lI. .. . ti for the ">'SIl l OloCilwor. in QR P operatiolt " sa. H 916(7). Nli.jlun 11 !hal awl IIinIx doIer I~ eapKitun arc CIL1Kr 10 obI&ia itI lawa" YaI. the remainln. - .. X l.. ZUA MJ. Now if one or IIIne .. The 6Lf6 f _ • chidr.. oq...0-.I! ..... tboooon abo tbe citwit olthe pcXypbuemodutauw .• ..t YaIuc: This CIlSUfeI 1M the vah-. wiboul perlOJlnaQl..... co nlro l o r lhe u.J!'..'" COOIllPOOICi IU.. le 6l. W7Z01...bIy the most ~ of theM: 1IDIPliflrn..b... F."bile d iminat ... T. o-... a.. ftl _ Ck " .. . to a ppear on the rnaRCI.. . 1'g 1IppR'Ci~ l' lhe opmllio n it is ncceua ry 10 lhint of tbe I..)'011 mtIIllO Iuotia:I for OUR'-'CU: doo"t O'o'I:r. bul rw:n . i l . W2 D !'lJ.fIII llw heaI_ ia I'" phonQ lhil orilI lhen stK. 16 11bow1 1ht: _wwt. u ll - _ 0..rlll Rotkl't St« Ur. : ~ dUm WId.U iD tbe ana aJld 2 per COII IIlI the final ... ' m'1... _ arapIi6en b&Md OQ ~ lubes " (a more nocativc deIcripboa thaD tIR Bri tilb term . a n eUloCt duplial• li on . ~ atl'ecUnl u.....h Im('Odano:e p ho nes .. illS tIW&tI$.. .ur aR not ~ .&. do.yward... cardully IQ<t!I&Ied aI the operatin. sln. there .ntio. Fi. eatbodc CUI'NIII or XlO . so cee bean • 2 keh beal. use or Amidon tor oid co res (Amid on Auoe. 19..._. With " .... I U:JI siDe-wa . K7TAU. lKJ( 1I.nd ..lPO"!rum analyzers and .. "balJd he.. an arTanlCf'lCftl wttiett ten. .. PU09 bu • talCId anode ditlipralion JO _1$ Woilb peak. IJIwor \li" llally all i he carly Ja(l<lneoe".... omI COi' 4JOt.b.. A ulUM.el puIealiumeec:natkd buthcanicr bal.n" buI if iI shoWd bnU it can be repai red with cpo. $tI1ioo" by Wn H.dcsl:ri""... Inpu*: _bdow. US!"1 No . 71.l hcf tef.tpul . ...D6. s..r. bIIttet>e1eu be a .. of 40 waru aDd . about 21d8...t. ¥OIl"..l ha l _ have muimum Iidehand _ put "'... with )J wMts anode dis&ipa tion.-/A. .m.. I llIIo. _puC or about 17$ W&tU p Ai p.lIS nDt ioc:tuOcd ba. lhe o nly rtqllirement .. A smlk 6U'6 provida up to t 7$ -us c . xz. n . bclMn lo B.' .". tone)... ~ .iIl be: the carrie r an d tbe: two eq lAlly I Pac:cd heal nr:Mes. '1 While _ remain ullCOnY inad that the hith·power d .b ...." 01•• _ .. the 21 Mels section of the 1Ilduciof is err wound ... 4Od8 ~ miaht be P'*ibk.. output.....:tJy frem the ~ lIlllpul' of • 141) imepated arcu.a" lIwl -w Jb. Tbe inpu t Ira nsC . it .t urile II'loMiRori2:ed circuiD.(... the nal...Y'lnn...O!lI-etfcellve " for amat eur fiMd-stalion op:ntiun.meter ( Wll . 6HF5. PhalinJ-lypc u . 77. and Ten)' White..nd manyof lhe Americ:an H' gll ' m . 51 .. 18 Mel. 0"" "" ...kmp"bWo:ft. UIftr 1 .. A 1df_l. Apart from the p roblem of localin•• SOU/'I:Cl fo r the 6 LF6. two".b.:ausc of the I' ·' pI" out put eaJl&C:ltanee.1 .Q. 19n. dldudifl& key aJWI s>dr:Iooe UIQlrat or fits into a llandard 1 in .. But It tbe c:anier if. . I20H OW:IO SIred . ....e loti&.. fully-mod ula led a. _ _ ClIaICl!y 11 preferred values. n citers. TIle l1 -pio1 bale _ i o n s are tbe same as for lbe 61(06. F~ Juh nwn ..d lbe 6LU wilb ibmaumamalMM1e djssipohoo. ~ 1111: PUGS &Ad the Ia1a'PU09 ~ ~ lbe Dean:It ~ tr&llIOei~ ~ '''-P or no: iI ~ t b c : ~ All. endoted dlaIstI aDd I'lIm o ff a l 2-voll ba tt ery.. ".. aI 120 walll p ... '<OSt dffip" have butt bal.ee.-istant lN1Crial.." A numbcT of s~u1 kl. AHA T EUII. a raislor and two ca paciiOR . call be a1iancd by &dlievia. . and s. .. present (I kef..-r llSCS IWO Itn&1l T. ." he writes..... o Amidoo COI1lI .1.w..-M 1t tbe bad.. : use an aerial 11 leoIIla baIf_ .. Th.. WIlb 10 .s.l.. M. II.ini-.mJent but wit1l4lkol1.alOt ..udIed to lhe feed line .p . Calif. a pecially with bmlwlband OIIlpul ~1'lI. u . unwaotod sitkbaDd (2 ke/I 1one) .w.b... \ZIIC ~ kcyinc and lend weD . carrier IipIak ate Ilkal dira. One of the man)' Q RP cbi.0.Nncd . m u _ output on lhe. '2k l QIt.len not to oven l rcss the core while wind. So _ Iu.:uxc and "band b&lanoe. X l . For both profc:l!llonal and amtlellr equipment. The low r.. ".1"' s. The No . use a " ._ X I. uc ked .. 11 wire.. Idebanck can be ~ witboouI reiIIlroducina c.ll1O\~. T o minimize 1 _ .S lhe At l&nlle ti M The mountai~ _ u h ~ C . All J1Wt IipI Ol:l sucx::e.. . Tranlmlll. impuruntlo . All four pr..in be no beat: nocc.. Ski ruUer Unear " lor ) '$-21 I\okII. 6LM6.ADIO TECHNIQU E S raull! from IlSinI a 1iJI-:tioIl llelwotk.1912. 44 f>ilot bulb (.. " ' 1< f .... VIlliI recenlb. sperial bea!. apart from" pa ir hi.. .. with rRqllCllC:iel 0( udI sa:tion cboIcn In the _ ra tio at prefeno...m ....arricr.F6.. 0-15 amps) acts haw 10 p rol«1 the 6LF6 and also pr0vides • visual tu~ ind if. Care sho uld be la.c in the .. from -'CtO!. lmum safe dri"" ror lilt r.. 6K... so lid-sta te IrarwnllleJ ti yet .l and the c:arrier.e.sr.p a lf: beaiMin. In fal:t.lbe 6X. th e (bui ll-in) I keh lonoIll'=n(:ra tor a nd a d ummy aeria. 19nJ wblt:h. thmi is no d oubt that trarI$iIIor arnpli llers of ~ble po. 0QIy the liDaI MCtiorI b4b loknnee Qo"" po. 6LQ6. with the K1-up shown in f1.a. tqe.L T he ~lIrigU3 p re-K1 controb can be lei up while Jistenin. ttansmilten modulated by a I tel. IIhown in FiJ. al'Id ODe will hear IbCl I " " baa bttfown t he siokblInd.. lllc mon commoa tn* include: 6JS6A. Nort h lIoUywood.e.. dass is of. Ia " or cndWI.. the method b lOI:1pen1iYe accurate ami qu kt.. ... AI rllll output. Iino: out put ~ . . R eoei~ oso.. slsnallhm= . SoIU. M _ 2E ' torr.. ~ the """u. ina 6 SO mW U<Ltpul for a 101&1 key-down drai n of I rnA r'lus I" rnA for the reoe1't1:r : tM only lu nin. arc about 1Sd B below p.ss Cllyclorle to wmbM sud.. from where these noteI uem.pIlCIrutn produoed by a...t(Jf"le$ Pl'IJ'ricUnI PI iDdic:alion of the amplilude of tbe unwanl ed siaoal componmt(l). . c:apa. rrequeoqo aPd -eBm..ith Amidon loroid.. _ ....ed on Ihn . I. pKk your freljuetlC7 c:arduJIy .p. o r t.a.lbp...crnporv)' ~ ruial 0(200 _ tu. hu beerI dcKribcd by Douc Dc Maw. HI ha . . I ·S_ eociler will pnMde enov&ta drive 10 '"" allXl'ul iPeraocto aboul22 WUU. " October.. a Mable l'a:I:iw:r. "ER. ua wbelb« the <:alTicr . W 1(.. bands GtI • T200 Amidon WR. .

.. • r + 121f ce ".1 I... I I..u. _ . ... . .. 1"1. '" io. 1 . 1A rl»-lU 1000:... ......n. . T 01 •• "" .. .'"...... On Amidon T 5I'-1 <0' •• ose l ll .. pp... m I<• .v "' .h " 00 ~ to"l' U46 ... On "'mldo n . . ••1.. . T'" U N . Bastow..... G3BAC...l... I. 1 ' M .k• • 50 . _"'Y-1S 1M.....0. ~Nl51l5 S". c. wl.n2 2 "'~ 6 5 ....O l ......" "' . '"l>P' .. 00 t ~ . lO -........oytra nslstorlzed amplificr to be: used for s...1. z ...~ . w .. ... tu... 101>111. 00• ".. m. '" . lol. .. ftFe-J-Wfl lI.. 2 k ~ T 1"91 .... .I k. . 2N:l6 31l T~ 0.. " . ..lv."' • x » 0.. l " . '" •• 100... .. for III .. .... . U ..... n..n' 1"1 21 m.m.TRANSMITTER TOPIC S '" ... th ~ . " t38 t ·l i "' ~'""' . I .. D _ 1lI •...I~ ..s. _ 4 I....b.. • _ .m..·. T SIB l£ 'C rof 3o'k :1:.......~ . a means of providing good matchi ng lind protection against the high power dissipation in off-tUlle conditions which occurs when using parallel tuning.... ~ ' 00 2N 30$<11 " " t.. o. < f I. on o Idon H <... :U TSII-1 < ~ .u.... ~ <fI '. ..m.... tw.. r ~ 4:~ooop 0 ·001 2. • ". flo. . vol . IA I u . <. o... oIt-coll_ mw Com_..... .... Thc bipol:u t ransistor docs not take k. '1 1_1-1 . In par . .... T • • " • I" •• H«lon 01 N T M H ountal" • •• N uI ~ 1 "' . 11.....indly to linear operation. 11. recomme nds the usc of series tuning a. ~. 1"1 . N o.U "'UIUIt..':. ' or nil vol .... . p' " 1 .. ... .. l"I ... Hc has used series luning for some years in an a...... • . . R.h 101 "'m.. 1 . _bon . . U)f Wln " l~ TNOII -..skIMl. ltll wi... .2 . In.. . • ..lv. ~ .1 - N . T_ l A.... .. N o.1 ".. A.. r: '. Ion~ 0 ' + In._ pl l.. " '" ~·I• remains imporla m (0 look carefully at the harmonic and Ietermodutation characteristics of-.. wilh.... lll TI "'..."" .~ ..' 6·t-."• .. Ii( . . 14 . od (or 1J . . <>I d.' .." j o..nd ' H <I... :[ 1. 1 • 1jI~ ..!... '" I . . _ nod 1I~ .n . UA" tu. .... 14 ~ . mob ile rig. •_ 0 _ ...... 1"1 ....~ ~ .. f_lr~ .. ld....."'.. ~ n T1QO .. n . C1 . · 0001 n . ro f]] • • .. 1"10 . turM. .. :U "". » ..10 .. " . ...... But undoub tedly tile $olid' state transm itter offers many advanlagcs for porta ble and mobile operatio n.. no disastel"$ resulting from running orr-ume or without 1\ le ad.u• • I• • _ . e· to" e !::...t.- •• " -" = .. opera tion. u .... .. po...-• •17 ' M'n... n..... m il'. '" I. •..oMo... ...n).. 'Ubl Ion I05T.- _on .I . ....

.f.. .". for ) '5-21 J>k.mot . -~ . . is a \'elY d «tivc S)'SInn .IRl'lion ufl ha beseemiuer junction b y o.ly w kc:4 up 10 an indicated $00 rnA "'.o other W'IXdI !be 1aI.r'~' of &1.! f onl .. the iii wm prod uQIil low. . luned.nl lhe power ampl i ~r current rilQ Oft raon&lI~ and Itic ll>. Witll the b. __ • = GI e .s Co..b. I?t . ... " neccuary 10 aooid uasIi.. Inm. U_Uho. For 1·8 Mell OJ IZB .. '1. a ou for this a ppliUlion aod is Iiablc to be de!...... ~ with.... </.'" AHATEUIl. c:. bMed 011 one in 7J MQlu iIw.c. But in additiorl he bal tried m&ll... tr r. TbI BOY'I all lloup il . . .....-. 10 order 10 ll~ol d tow_frequency pa. . ..and. .. n and dilfen from tbac NCOmmcnded bY GlBAe as be doca rwr _ Eries I ~ He has fOlZlld tIw tbc capacilor CI'! f!"om eol~ to around. b..... it CtoD proWie up 10 ahout wan d.silic oscillaliDlII lho: eeneeor chou RFO is only j\l!ll " hi"'.._ ~ 0 . m'. Prim... state o r h . -ed. c0mpromise mly be necaAJY... lransmitlcr appe:us in Ekcr__ ( ~ 1m) by F. voltaeca aI !be eollo::tor .. 0Il1y r-o rJ. (suppreaed c:arricr) Ira".a. . be equal 10 lilt tranWOC" load rc:siIwIcc (Ro. .NI ..e -r H • )• jl .vcr.. tnaIiI&on.". • .nll ill N706 I'\Ulllinlll O rnA & 12 vu lu.It. . -1 . . ~ by I' "Ill" from dry cel ls. . ..p . 1'1 _. _ . .n 1l \:eu4ry wilh the puk alfreDIS of &r0ll1l4 I amp a no..1l\CnIlI l:&paci l&nQC:il are used) the n. Th e BDY'JO-92 funily IfJCll1I 10 be ... .. wllhin lhe mx. t . !be bialla freq uency bands and when the cffOcncy of tbe ampIi6u becomes 10'It' (~Iy wben= tram~ on with hid!. operator would be d Jl. :w:ro.S wattlI OUlPUC • 111 Mc..... " operatod as a liocat .b .. DJl ZB'. .. Jrid-dippu aDd lhm to 1M the: s.. I W H I T" " ~ U l " eu " 11". . 80 oulli/lCl the p..". )( V.m. To aliPI U>e lransmi ucr it Is a4ri1ablc 10 check t he rwonam Qn:uill with . 21 McJscrysW..1lcn the: p. p rovid Jn.lU at )·S Mefl. . He ~ lhat llOOd for C...b. _ ..l'R!\Illnl ete. ...h...Ur ~ Q1 .• ..s . . 24 voIll OT 10 7 Mell w.)' dill"en::at biabtt po-r deYlocI usinI a 14-"1011 tuPPb. Good rqulalion and deco uplin. i4 .."aP.. " with \IP 10 &bold 4lldB g.. Ll J4 _ _ H . fT abou( 4 Mc/s miJ\imurn "I I lltnPl driven by a llSY aS o r 2N 2:011 CIut A drlftf .hoes allou l lhe Sllfllll power OUlput.or i.... 8 011 7 (50S).JlUIIlOd modulator oonlrolld 00 1 or balance. PAOGG.hk uamiIlon _ availabll:.~ SoIu.' 11 -42 " . II is . ' OC § • . bal a ralbof DalWW W e openlin .I•• :ta .. n d s . .... Orraid.. d . value Inductance .~ .1=1f" " . ..II~rt-. a 2 NS06I (M Olorola....0 'C '" ~ .. TIle ~~ dj n ¥ f. 4..billSlDll o r o verd riviOIl.. ood at fn:q\OCflCiel up 10 14 MC/I Ulin..he bepn experimcntiDI with tbcm almost all too1I U Aliu. I I.jid-su'le. With IICries IWI.."nc:c it can be «HtVl:l'1«1 inlll u. up to IS Wllb OU lpul with suitab le dri~e (3 watt s muimuml.. L--. .ld .u el lO ~ rnA by rOl"WJlrd b w on lhe bue.an be ru d.mistoc" amphllcT circWl is IIhown in Fie. .rrifJr &upPn:::I:SloQ III • CODwmil'onaJ dj()de bUuoed lDl)duLIIOl' . ~..~al fo rms of ckmodulal ion. Ibc 2N2041 . With • ~ mum drive of I _ It typc$ sudl u Bol07 (1TI). .. ).. can be reduced unti1 opt imum dficic:nty hal boca ~-btJ I p rot ee:s ion apiml ue e rrect o f mllm&lC hn must be mai ntai ned $0 (hal . .. t he bMe of 1M: 8 Dl 23 . • ~ • I. . .. O.~ 1:.in1l 11 volls... pal'I icuiarly fo r opera lio n on such b.. CN\p1."..1~... HInbH" lII-J aodU-m Brandl..mineJ whidl ddl~n I~ _~ p. I ~ .J fu lly comp. ~ " . L _ ~ .JA. rioin. BOI1-4 ( PbiliptfMuI1r.au ral danodublor....lro~ U Ihl: 10wcr froquencies. reporn hia apaialCU of IOlidoSlat~ lnnImillcn . preferred m. u... '0 .mctcr or & n:o::iVCT. I ' McIo _ Ill<: 10 .etr Ili&!l r .. bo: ia usilll a QRP (2 -a: oulplU) ri.~".).. u n l" u . f ir. ...r. nicalionl etJea~ open to lhe h . A minkl.. OIl.... - '~ " A . the hil~ IwtinC dqrce 0( eomoll. f.. 1'10' Iystcn t wh ich is ~ I •" it«l 10 low-(ml O R I' ' ransm..a if.ve:n 'to'ilboul . room for Iwu ~ ide h..~ . OJ IZB . fr~ TIleR an br bn k doubt that for Il(lDo(:bannd Opt-B lion In the p rac1lltlt of rando m intcrl~ ee aydcnl prm'il!in.ld pull s il d own. The l ilieon diod e.th a 1N)Sn poMO" arnpIi1la"...wte fpan. b.B.. ... l _-pow ...1all(ll! or C.rd).llihlc: wilh I-S. is O l. •.ry p&po:f lubula r ~Ion a re u~1cu fo r !he c:oUeo:cor d«ou}'linl ~~ ilor . . BDYIl (Siemens) an4 2N3871{79 (RCA) aD ~ _ 4...m/ft.b... a~ 28 M<::I' wheAl ttlcn! i.lue for C. -. "ADIO TECHNIQUE5 ~ a.. to :aboul 10 . bin-. ions roo::e.

_ .~ .L conle nts On ) ·S Me/I .~ • 0·' 0. fo r the colJocto r choke.. Sol Hron or Solid Sta te ScientifIC) .cr.e. lb' p ath by an e1cclro lytio: ea plll.rar\$iltors with modulatio n provided ellhct by a Cltrban m icrophone or b y a carbon microphOllClfocdbac k tone 1ICncra.n.11.. p rov!d.. 111. of the grounded-base type .. DJU : .0 .. "". (2) The tra nsistor d iuipa tion r."r ".1 .SlOr il pa ys to have a Iat'IIC II ll. The SWH I. \VOfk arc lISina o rdi nary pOrl.. voh a Be drop should be about 0' 5 volt on t he lm. (I ) Tbc l up ply vo llaae Ih ould be lowe r than f VCE OIus. 1973) co mes the desian o f a limple lrans istor tran smitt er used for d . 1>.l stuck: into the former an d adjusto:d to m.. l. tts. wicho ut internal emi tter l"C$inOl"S. power tleCded 10 (l(>Ver tbc ana With improvised aerials... ~. a d visa ble to reduce the supply voltaac d u rina !CItin a up 10 a void po ..nll ) 1 -voIts.~_ . l. It i. makinS the imple . Input powe r ca n bo tip 10 a bo ut 5 or 7 . res istaooe be ha5 onen UJCd a pot COil' for t he baMl cho ke.. may devclop. th islimc: f". with the pow. saf~ ope ra t. . He uses a n L-nelwork AT U with " ro llcfoCOMler" inducto r. " Ano ther ronsid crati on wal the avai la ble !lancey powe r aDd the r. _ .pto:d for J'8 Mels.c.itor 10 " void da ma ge to the spea ker..lHr Once: upon a lime I Will conn ected wilh a n oriQni za tion l hat made notable usc o f co mp3CI lo .Mmn l.bu lb to It one.pukcr and the IOU -P<lIIl u docoup led from the d . ..f..e. As Fla. rli ... t n the form shown ..ti$fllCtmy. UJ! Z 8 recommends t he usc o f " Iow-vaIuc C>lternal n::sistor. for C>1:n hiaher POWfiS the RCA 2N5018139/6) ~ filllUly aivn up to 70 wat ts output a t ) . h.uimwn brightness .lpp ly and 2j mil es wit h 17 '0'011. pl. t he d.I Ihould have a... T ' .. . " " .. Thi~ co li ha5 then to be broullht in l" =nancc Wilh Ihe help o f a short Plco: of fe rrite ma tcti o. .ll'lllli6cr tcod 10 be about 20dB below the desitod power. O U ZO ha s fo und fhe fo llowinll three rul cs to be help ful .. PclerOiclcriel1. 300-2:lXlO .. at the: fifth t um fro m the • ro ld' end .tioll.lor fo r A2 trans_ missions. When adju~t i na the transmi tto:r con· tICICl a l\a."\lpp~sor type ferrit e chok es have proved . ut circ uit beiD 'mY di fferent .'..w . lJ) as necessary. mpl.O\on an: woJ.. bu t which co uld readily Ix: ad. The aeri al cQupling for hai r-win: aerials works bo:tlcr than tho mere usual qwon. r. th~ oulput cl ~i t i~ l uitable fo r feedl" 1I hal f-way vollase-fcd aerial s. . When tnmistors a re uocd which ha ve 00 IV very low iotlcmlll emitto:r n::sistors... Mul la rd ) a nd 2 NS641 (Mo toro la. mcn ts havc been concerned mai nly with c. . Po r safe o pcn. Whe n switc hed into circu il th is Q5CiUa tes aa... . 0' 1 m H Iypes.' " • '* iJ RFC:l Flt-11. T _ i_ . The who le un it is based o njU5t two AUY IO l.d) U3lmcrlt .~ IJ V' O . For higher POIIWS he mcntiom the OLY9IA. ~ . with lo w-cost tI'lUlSkto rs.. Despite the crude modulation system he has had Rood reports with 9-YO. wnees... H.n cb a t fll1l drive of low-eos t l ower tr ansistors OI'Il i p«.ondary co il o f a small OU' p ut tran "former WlL' co nnected in parallel wil h the loud . "a~ " ..." Sincemo. (3) If po s$ible the opera ti"..f.ble The two r. ~. $iaucd to be U5Cld III h...$ Men with 36 vo lts supp ly lind 4 -8 watts d ri ~.c lak ina part in the d . t rans - po"". and a not her fonn of pa rasitic oscillation . • power ampl itlel'l.t:r-freq llCllC)' bands whe re the curTent is h igh ..H . U. RFC2. Sim ple T... ould lie within the d .n pin is low.. ZS20 .. operation .. it WIIJ found l'"Iel:e'ISI.e. Th e o u lp ut s~ worb in C. Valvo. BLY87 A (Philips.:r supply. u.r I..t.e. po int of the transisto r even when deruned lJ."ll a rea. the in tcrmod ub.$. W~ ..ib le dan ger to the o ulpu t transistor.T"AN SMITTER TOPICS >OJ . Cllpcr. UA. tioo distcrtlon p rod ucts o f a lin(a.- ~io< . T hb resu lts iD the puasitit ~nanoea of the outpu t an d l':r.... Z S10 .. u lon I_ " ~ _ .f.o. d ue to ac o ll-" ie feed hack ar>d p rovides a tone wh ich """m . .lly 20-80 .f. bul in this CMe a carbon mtcr op ao oe (tclct>hon c type) has been alU<ld 00 10 a ~ loud speaker a nd bo th ceeeeeted in series. SO"" t o havc cnough d rive po wer.. 1'8MHz. much hllh« value.. Tbc "1I1C basic arrange ment is used for the: to ne modu1a. both u rthc po wer· type AUY1 0 n OW chc ap ly availD. '" ... Ilm plc means of amplitude modulD.. To llC:hieve hi gh lnd lleW'lc:C a nd low e.llblcs with loo p aerials. the bese choke R FC I shows . tun ing for muimu m response on a field sfrenlll h meIer.a ..UiI:la and the heat lin k should be designed to hllldJe tbc fu ll e.itically de .i. onl y two trWl'.. The mlldu la tion problem has been sol ved by simply COlmQCtina a carbon microphone in serie.sh.i. Tr-. ..turn loo p wou nd o ver the told end o f t he ou tpul co il.. ~ la p on the output co il may n«<l ~o mc D.f.m~tor in the O$Cilla to r sla. since there is no impedance ma.tlnll the t ransmitter u well as to modulate it with a lo ne for easier IdentificatIon unde r low iipaJ conditions... inp ut po wer. ~ _ __ .n f~ueocy and SO a vol s ponible a oscillations of the . h'· O ~lJmlrt . It is n ol ad visloblc to bypass this resistor: the impro vemen t . with 2!1 t Uml on a 2 em d iam ele r form er t ho ~p . t rlllllt for th is applicatio n.wa"" arranpTlcrlt l ince po wer is not wasted in carth Iosscs. r)' t o include D.lIIl power sl.to r rolloctor a nd the b<I.... T . The sc. _ -.lcI>lnll bias ing very & betwee n oscilla. &fler severul a llempll this dcsilll ernefllIe(I . chokes lin:: . POIO'Cr WPPIy COf\5i$ted o f fOur PM9 batteries in ocrlcll. t of tho .tion und er all co nd itions of m ism.. TPTG ' (tuned-p late tuned-arid ) type . Aoot""r vari a tio n is shown in Fill 86.'\C o f the p.. a nd then the flIP can be muio:oizcd ..r (or HunlSnC from R<Kf~ZS (Sep temlx:r..

. r DUmmy lOad T1"""""'i'i":':C_".th <"j> on I>Ia l "n ~ • 3011_ 10 a -' 1 1l1 ~ -.~ma.... : I _ ~_. complete tmnsoei¥er for .. .-...n" relLS'Cd on In.. vague.+--'l'i'---. SM4BSN ino. .ng _ OICl lta ! . !ll ..--. " 1. "'MH • • ..~.. SM4BSN ."y In be recei~ed. belief.~ . G Ull' H H H • •• ... uito. No .l<XW"1I.~ •• • ! ~. !il . n:a:i. So q u.'\-X" ..."' lal " -.. ." what can. 1912. .. of wh.. n w ... " - '" -I--+--<!~ I L .i le Ii few mcmurie'l "'~n: a wahned by a descript ion by K ilrl KOllcnho ll".. l1c r-ftO! iv ~n for purpme-.1ely to ~ro M T OOVIO' OOC U\ .a. . l_r G J VU Q....<>me trom \ Ilu i"".01...A M ATEU R RA D I O TE CHN IQUE S ll tc:fNltALOSl:l .. I Un.. U"" ~I I. ~I ~ C"YMO' ~.---.. a l.c• •.:q ue'lI. 1000 tn t r-------t"-----. b:I..g W. . operat ed liu<:h equi pment> in the tiel..."ovy lood ... 10 abolul I wa lt by . ""~·o .m I"..... l 0Jll V 9V C on d <OK r~~ ·C-·I Iopbo~ .f. C'l'0I.d ll <.. 'In IIU~.f"C. the lack or receiver l\ln ins cou ld pro~e lc$.lIt . 00"" . wilhout add in ~ loo m~h complexiTY. Hut the upcrience left me with a la.. ho net ITlQ&t ...1<. resis ter. ma ny II.. l l _ a O I UO~' af 321. ~ . _ .~ . ! f . t J " Me. TIle chanoel call be cball~cd by u~i llJ a select io n o f ~'f)'>Otals.1.ja. )'ar.. ." p~ 0 .. w hich !wi bet ter be left.. well as a profound ~pecI for th o"" mm an d woIJx'1\wh....t be the !oi mpk. " I .maim. r . in certain ciTt'U~LltIces.c.sed On ..1 • •r . r---.. _ " ."nion t«ei ver..•• U W .'.~ 10 the 2N 16\) an d Ihe TA AUi) ."·I.'o u ld bea su itah le ah c ma l i. an d the ma in dimcully mi..lon a Smll il ferri le toro id Cu re . l he s imp le e.. <Of 01.o .! in the mou Wlfavourable circu msla """" imaginable. .J . receiver wou ld a llow sta tio ns ul' 10 about ~ kels fra n' me cr}"'lal fr.~_"''':::..fofOJ~ .sc set•. . TO Cryst<>l r--jrt-:=~ e " '" .o1I mu. the JXlwer "r the c it:$: j .. ...•• ~ fO<' J (1 . . a nd ther c migh t well be a n ad o'am all" in makinllthe lI'l1'illa.W e-r _ w I'" Ulf. It. Thili QR f> ri g-Fig.m. : .y seem od d .. 84--i.> ' _ .-. .lor a \"Xu.. of a ha ndicap than il m illlll ap pea r ..j.: o .--. . TIlc:sc """'" oflen 01 lower po~T and Ies$ c:ompJe~ thlUl t he more widely kno w'l 0 2 and Polish" ..a lo ot h '" Ie or _~... eryllal · controlled fixed channel direct-eon. be IICbicve<l with a n o-v-l receive r and a crys till 01':111.<tin.w . Th c idu o f a flAcd-<:hannct h .. a. ~ .. - aal"""'" . ..! io lln Ihal lhe UFY J4 .. wilchi ng o ut the 500 u hms emi lie. H.:::~ + llV to3av tllV jl lUllabll l ". ."" bea l. TlU _ DFV!l O.- m.e. W I'" 'V ... 6/7..... But even with an o "li llary crys ta l ""...J .--· . 0 . 1lIc lank circ u' l lIr t he 05Cil1alor usc' an onliRllry a irco rN ind uc to r: Ihe Itt<'i~c r input circuit is baI.. in QTC.

.f. 80/TV' and N.In .. tllllt is. d V1l...m. ... on:a rricr re-in-.b. he lrammitted lipal II tru ly narrow _b.:.ed by a ~ia::nal picked up on the aerial o r do wnlead . "jnser n on 1 0M of sinitle-lOClion fillCT IS Iypic:tlly: jOO Me!s.. by.a1ted-carTicr me tbod of recep tion .-Iype tran llll issio nl if (an d (ll\ly in .ss TVI filters for u.m.. Ila:. n. copp...... view of the .ast receive'" a 10 to 20d H 1ri8ltu Itotl of inlerfcrin.. Cl " <If TVL 25 x 10 tnlc .....m. si1frl"1 as lbouih II wen: u.llCCIion filter typi ul liJ ures are : SOO Me!I . ~ . ".djacent fn:quenc:y bands " ) high hghu the <:X>O\$idcnble . F or a do ubJo.-.o. receiver with the ell. transmitter. b.M_O. A BIIC RC5Carclo Report (No..iotion C. • l ~ ."""'" TV! fllte. loe.t$cl.h by InlCn llll 1I Il ronJer. 2d B. U.f...~"i.lor " lOi n (n. provided that the inscrtion loss is nol too For most cases a sin gle-section filter ~hoult1 be adequme . 25d B . Ihis type o f filler will prove elfcd i~ in red ucing o r elimimtling the trouble. tilt.b .TR AN SMITTE R TOP ICS m rig using a p ricted circuit board .w. :rYe--': " 1---------25.1 """ = et. . th!JUlth ..b.C~ :'::~C"""" 1 1>OO1"Il .. u..+- OOO K'O' c oil'."'"('.or to' 0' ''' <Opoc.m.:. .e. to 1"«._ 101_ _ 0. ...bJ. e n . _ . 1.OIClI'I O ~ COO" OI e o un 0.: =.<.~ .i th a sta ndllfd h. eum muniealion...f.m. _ .. lnr p"...oc".. !I ..Lm.. The M theory behind Iltit "pl"OCCdurc II tho' t 1M sidebands in " n n.. lhe o adjU5t the lra ns.J 1 j<Jb lJ done. .b .ts 011 1'8. ..m.m . ...m.... JOdD. but in the absence 01 QRM co uld well give useful (OOta<. K . in Ihis tCSpocI. The improveme nl '" wc:oerally of lhe " rder of ZOdB.I. It is unlikely to dominate it~ channel .i. 1 HI. l employ. 1. below 10 Me!. S.. ))dB ..olcobl.r. ceptible to IUIrTOw-ban d-{n:qumcy·modolatcd lignJlls All ~ O<" n H t ... has fillIlple high_ pa.f. (6F3 ) dcvia t klll• lie wrile!: •• u sc an 1. _ &1"... > 4SdD (nOI mea'll~):' T~ '·I <o OK". 0"1 t..:tnd .n.. So for the " optimist" this seems a mmt interes ting litt le ~""r.iii.. ...miuer mod ulation level to a po int IliJht ly below where lhe aud io begins to Jel di~ortcd. rcpl:tcilll! the o riginal carrier wi.f.1 is bclQW lhe n:a:iver overl oad level. 17.m. 10 M e/. .M.: "~ := .m..~ . _ u.. tlte ~deb""ds an d carrier are 90' ou t 01 ph."....n:tl.b . 11 il illCrUli nitly RCOp iz.'C'rslo inlerfetClICC try servees opcnalinlt in . television receivers ma de from doublo-sidod boa rd.b. 1969.b. The rq><>rt oonfitmll t ha t .11. .: ": . G ltCHZ_ believes Ihlll fOT Ihe ama tcur . &0 mak. -'_J ro" Vlt W IOn..ln lo. l1 t1her Ihan by tunonll the ~vcr 10 pro vide T tiV<ly illl:lIkle nt slope detect ion..c.s.l l ign. 11y· 1 tM CXlI1led curler ~nerated c"'trier). not es th"t il pro vides a . nd u.. Selli nr N...: '"f:"f ::'" C2 C4 Coo". e..f.. 8~ can IUII u p to a bout 2' ~ watts input and dtaws eo current ill the key-u p posit ion .. 4~d ll .nta gc:s of n. ean be Iho ughl of li S s.<. I O.:. 14 Mejl . ~ weal. 3'~ or 7 Mels with suitable coils an d crystals.m. imr le mea ns 01 scni ng n. IlIan a. . led l il nm IL.:~ . below 10 Me/I.mall size or the filters they can easily be blddell behi nd the TV rece iver wihout traili ng leads. F. I1Ilhe. :> 33dD (not meullrN). rece i ~ eT it i$ betler to na:ivc ph_moo ul.. cla Th i$ is ~ble bcea u'IC n... mooJc:a. pluuc.. The transmitter section of thc Optimist can form the basis of a useful QRP. 'Ihe arrangement shown hi Fog. In the majorit y of cases where TVI il beina: eau.:t. He pornu ou t that a high-pass fLlter in !he lICrial lead forms a very effective way of elimina ting breakthro ugh l rom amateur transmitters. r>rovided lhal l he inlmerinl IIgn.... .::" .rero beat wilh carrier)..i deba nd..... I L. iOlllC u the amplifier in place of the TAA l41.. ~ <U ~.. 3· ~ M els....~ Clrwlt Boord...) co mpilrN wilh a mr>lit\l\lc:mod ulMed !ilPlals (a.s. 50 x 25 : ~:.1via OI.. tunc the n.u . A fllrt her applieaion of Ilti$ concep r t urns up in QST (Oa::cmbel. 11I1"".8 . 10 0 ".~'~.mod ulau:d signal are ind i$1inluillta ble from those itt II d .: .trtion o"" iUlIIor.: -'o'o . .. 0 w · e.hen lhe interfelinl si. o r 1I. bi hly 9 <>f po rtable Band II FM . in elro.: ".b.:. K4GOI!I.... )..". copaCltor plain OOW_cutsx.. a! ~ ' ''''9 W 5""" 0'0 .. .inll In ~lal lation easy. n .. r-'1••• ---.. . of _ 1001." .. Ro bjohn.cd thai TV ~""n lin: Ie"..i lh typial broa dc. Co llin!. "ilh lhe earner re-lnse ncd 90' 0111of phase:.' " Th e ~IlSCCJlt. _ .f .. ' is IQle\1lble .:" ' ' fl• .. S M4BSN buil t hi~ capable of fu rthe r develop ment at the cost of slight extra co mpk:xity.. OIlVO H .b. Double-sided copper laminate board s for the construction of low-pMs tiI«:rs can be used to reduce harmonic output {rom transmin en.in ~ a hJ ."u In In. Beddoe. The ollly d ilTcl"COCC betwee n tbe two is thai in n. 144 Me /I. cooxioi ._1 Iunt-.B. (. Tertnlnanon of IUch filters is by mUM of &landan! TV plup an d sockets. 10 Mej!!. 0 3YOM .. 1912) when D..bJ . 3·SdB...n::>I Co": :_ ::c. . cooKlol I> IU'Q ~ lo un.r.::".1 v'o~ M ~m .f .esad o ubll»OClio n design is given. but rorthe more d iffieull u. ".b. tlte rocci\'ed silfL11 will appear to be 1 identical wilh a .

2p --111'--. Ihis un.l.h arc WllICI)efo" towards rnislil/o:. to .. .I .f 1_ _ ..." by J. W -a Z.f.... lI: Ie4 Most of lhe idcucould be U in an. ZUBDB IBrNk. LJ U U "' 211 • • u . II iladvisable 10 kftCIlhc 2-2 pF capaciton prcssod neu lhe calC 10 rcd~ ind u.Ivcd lraosmitten.ilh ib nom ina l I _ n. prII'1>II Vz". TIIII .. 92.hic.. .fl. s.f. Some nc_1 1>rnC ideas wcro notloed howeYCr in an anidll "Solid-state drcuita for . To lnau<c the power or his Kenwood £Triol TR l2OO..ttich d= ibcd 1 0 all+)\ id~ Ie •• rront..ith limited p ili per SIa&C.mioD of lhis v rllnMcmcnl.. r--er transislon.... . he UK:S a Iransislor llmrl ificr (BLY87. il Ieat ures a rt><>d5t nu mber of .. ..b. as M ad ded rcal llrc..b..vmciaa lIthal.. 4S~Ha:l S D"~ Ill '. this. ilL Ylt91 bUI ~ aomc: way of ~oicc swilchin.• "_ • • <1 TV' . .. 9 Mllz •.f.ta tc Irammillcn... poOt _ _ 1 Zo_"n 11 _ 16 tl M HI Ie _41!lMH::I 'I . . I'"}:.....•.". .f.. and lhe use nr a hiah-power ~ . loimpIy by . u."mittc:r ~ whe n 1M linear OUlpw . Slmpl.. Tbe main allC nWllion .r. '.. Al i""nxnt ""nsists simply of 1_ ldlII the co il unt il lbc null II near the 144 Mi ll blind and lhen peeklnll il more accutaldy b.hio. .:tanoc .a..l or c:orllln~ dood to to:made of the IOIaI harmonic: OUIpu 01 tllII U... ind. from a Allbouch l he aIkoIilWtalC uansmincr II by now vodI I:SliIblishcd 011 • •bi . DJlNN cmp. for a J -' nt I4 MH z 20 Will i p.hL TV SOli with ilO <>erial on lv ) fl .l lio n of some 4~B or the fuodamcntal l. .lIlIJpti1mallS in the liller box boot does. sedio ns in KPArate (I. AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUE S ANorp. .l Wllh • 7S<k.l1:C..h.J 'K " " =-f .ith r. ~ y .. aJIowI an _ . IlOdI pro vided by the ~ trap is p la«d 10 thlI 144 MH l band .cG !i&btl)'. 0 3)0 0 . "'04"d llo . lra.Rohrt..lerial : _ . 9 1.u S. 1!n6 (FiC_ 89). it ililill rdl lM:iy rare OG h. aw" A siml'le ocria-tuned tral' connected aaoa lhe TV fooler cllbl..dlo:r. hiL solu t ion. th one or l he popu1u lef loow-t'O"'~r n . The rdal \lICId b)' rA OZH w illi I SIemens un.hen companld with . 1<.o cur ill& TV llo a 1nI1l1oislor iu d lI.. rillS. ut ili' an r.. 90 dtow... means of ee Irimm<:r Upllcllo r.. fo' l . . -. oc:eun. U $ .e. _ "'_ _ 144 MH2 . transceiver rc updale an earlier dcs il:".. II.h.Jhm co il bul ibis sho uld no t lxl und uly cri lical...oMfT\iUcr. I llhov&h thc!c m: eardully bid OUI 10 minimu.hich Qll cau~ lou of the incorni n. In. rcporlcd by .b..7 _ t 5<. Herbert .p.ia.atm(\flic oulP\lI of an s....es and Ih. A shlhll)' mere aophisllCllled .hcr ri. t .. 1111"'!' and simple band.." tic.C&CII) )to'llp(.. equ iPfDCnt bIl.AL _ -'0 _ _11 __ ' - -_ . ( W .s... 47 .mo:d to rtduc:e ~.la~ " 0'0'CIlIriwa ~ WI fb t· N N The Illuslrlll ion $ in the Gaman ma princ Ihow lUI bu ilt h i... AlI' l>SI.. l. may Mile an op:ratio nal lifetimc mcuurcd iD rnit:nKccondJ. -. and tbc a1ler nl lM broadbilod Ii.lll...m..h-ra-n cha racter. ~ )<.r ti~ '*. With Ihil filler DO addiliooal bnid-breaker IJ'JIC filla.'ie4 on."" TV' f ihM' The &'*"Pli~c filla tw ~ ..an reduce 144 MHz signals ruchina: thc fro ntcl\4 of a T V recei~er.. JIC$ how midi the h."_IO _"'_ z-"vo:o-._ _ .. harmonICS oI.. and I.p .M HI . .b. ""'" use !IClUM bmrr«n lIM: iDdnoidual !lCCtio ns . . 197' ).p...b..tures are lh e lliC of lWO smallO Slilla! d ual-gate MOSFE'fI in p«ra llel to form a !i_ dri '"ef ' Illll¢. -ilb an add -on an\jl'lif ... the volute l KfotS the Iwormonlc diss ipa lint raastoI" .. swilcl'tlll& v<>1L.. ..lTY Priestley. Uop-b&nd allenu.. p in... . • . November...1H "OX B. a nd al lne _ I~ WIIICI up ._)S .h be \l5C$ in conjunaioo . T"I". U I. Amon lillhe Dl rc unusual re.a. but pc:rh&ps tile most co.lllbet 01 l staaes . ilChiD see Fill. _ .e .n "-f. . "......... (.r. H1rlt-f>" u TV' ...n • dcsiJl\ by 113M A. 10 of. .Z p ll. TV _ "" _ _' .p. W.h.__ ....r.. The HLY 89 used in Ih is manDCr prov idcll a hip . U ~~ . r AOU l ..d<:s • hwnonic DUlput iDda lor 11Ll. filler.:4 " _ " h 0 ~ ~ ~ ~" ' .. ft.... .. Irarulslor &I h. liona.... 10 haw pr oved uocful. aoxordin. _ ullilla Ia .1_ It. 1974) prO'rid1$ a IIX for lhe M OSFET o'bi polar TAA 320 te. Iud udinl low·valuc capacitllrs to provide a hi.... .._ ~ ""'1Il h. II _ .ill . . . TV ~gnab...neaf lechniq ue Is ftO'I _ lbiq lO be underta l<. COIlkI be put rorwvd 10 C1pl... DJ l."".. ~ ..-arnmilTtt JiJ.. H H ..f.. .... a lIlOdal 20 WIl lIS p.. in EJ«t1'Qlf (J1llle.. n. C'b.n d ... .011.wu folUld . DJ~N N ~n. The syslem would ~ eq ually wllabl e f(>r olhc~ bands and OI.. 21 nH (l tum 1O""lI_..Ih an r. IIPN 10 .. .1-m.. in C Q-DL.-sllri n. ... TJto II 6 ... . . transmitter by WIM 70 to IClOd B and . Th en "Pin mos l lOIid-f.ct\Iated _itch ... ."'lN..al tbc PD"":'" lc\oc)" UICd 011 bJ~ 'l is 001 easy 10 INnkwiIdt aln ns lSlorizal f'O'&U ampIi6cr.. 1 tile: end or tbr h ~ lICII:tiom. t t _ ' 11..-ary.~L\~ L..)'1 rcern 10 require I vuy Iarp: nl. oulpul bul . A \"&ricly of reuo" . TYI I1 _ _ GIIO O . h....: QOUplm.14. _ ...----11-•_ 4 --':1-_ _ _ 10-_ .f.

n l"n " . "'I.. 12 s.j" ill(:llld0:3 a linear Ilmllli1icr. II d pouible uli og lr llllli& lIlrs with an F..t•. _ . lit 10 lim"" wh<:n u'lCd at v. silvered ). tunes H I 10 5·5 MHz for 3'5 and 14 MH t and I·K 10 2'0 MHz ro r 7 M llz.•.).N . o r ' bout roo MHz 1<1 obtatn nowee aa ins of up [0 JOdB (1000 limes) ira the lower part of thll lI .:.... are p refer. about 360 u hms ( 1.e..b. bl)' se1cded fro m a number of de~ iceI. circu it i. sum mary of tbe two stages : over<ill aain 49dB. «. enllIn.W.. in 50 ohm... single type 40841 d ual.o. G4DV I. L3 to L9 ]0 I. f"!'" . Hc ShoWItlwtl . Th e v.H .s of usin. .. '. parilSitiCll) unlcss it is run at much lower ~r thao would be f""ible at • . .p.I. L2 0·7 ".' h . L6 2 1'H .Olid-tlate Iransceiver.U ... T he IUI nIC issue ot !Jffak. is inte rposed bc:""'CCn lhe II MHz s. ta p 1 turn..w.. the impeda nce to aoo ut '46 ohma and the n to abo ul U ·S ohms with the bese" seelns " abo ul 5 ohms bocause of lhc elfc<. am ( 1] '5 volts al 2·5 am~) . '" '" " ?"'" ! ! ~ •• oo" I I I I I - " I I... 250 mm loog.nd " seems to aploit IICtnic!mduW)f' teduliqun in a vcr)' IOllio.later. vinUllIl)' inde>lrm:tible wilhi n the operating «lndilion~ " . . 1••• r""n nd . The step-do wn DlIllch· ina net work. filter Ilnd the r!nll mixer. U IO". U Pltilips l4 by 9 b)' 5 mOl (violet) tornid 8 pluJ 8 turns.. but of ecurse in such con ditio ns the lran~istor is vcr)' vulne rable 10 destructive pllnu ltil: osdllatio n (panicular l)' v. ~ 0_ " "1. 6 mm slug. provides details of the aTrarlio:ment he uses to interface an u. .. T ho r ..H {101llrnS.. It sho uld be O1l:f1 tio ned thai the 40481 MOSf' ET. L7 and L9 tor oid (llS l4) t :l tutnI.n not es on bo tb these hllth-pin linear amplifier ItallCS . In his .a. n. but the high MOSFET in put impedance mean s that F. fron t.b. for full con structio nal info rma tio n it is necc:ssary to reree to the orillinlll IIrliele but il is hoped tha t t he"" notel will d raw atten lion to some ur the dC'.. ". ZUBDB... 12S mm d iam. ~ 1 '4:" '. based o n two or 010«: 6146 val~s.lIId biased for minimum cmu-01odu to.(lme ] to S volts peak-t~peak d rh'e is supplied b)' the tCliODlln l circuil of lhe prc-tC1cl\lt0l'. :J I L __ """ 1CI w h &L1. * . those with the highc3t VIllueo nr drain curren t wilh ecro bias <l..b. on the bu... an <n uaJI power lIllin of some XldB is achieved in two ~ta&CS. using l w" ll Cl 0K. Irifilar WOUDd ... d vllnl/Ije o r the 6dn . 1 stallC . gtece th e M OSF ET driver has.nide Z L2BllB provides full des.</. _. bifilar wollnd . MOSF ET am plifier on t«"eive is ru n with fixed gain .. .. . Interf<Jee Mike Small.linn . ..II.p. po lenl ial to me source lin lrlln.f.f.II. b. n ciler mo du le based OIl the Pleuey SL600 series of intellrated circui ts with !be valve .p. inte nded to r use with lhis !. out put 20 wntts p.. .. 6 mm. wire....octave aain Increase wlth d« rc. bigh I d.. Co li w ta : LI 2...W p. d. TIle d river is fe<l fro m a do uble-balanced diod e rinJ mixer prov idinl o nly about 100 ". .• . 6 mm slus former with IWO " UllI.3.. U core u 1....I.."n .TRAN SMI T TER TOPI CS '" .. u ' pu ' an H.f. whl il nonnan)' It<:hillvcd wilh val.f.<oo'Id u n<"" ••••Id _ .. between the MOSH iT I and thc BLYS9 (9:1 and the n 4:1) 6nt drops.b. L10 15 t urn l Ph ilips 2] by 14 by 7 mm toroid (violet). 1 an </. _ . - --. U 4 . input J va lli p. 5 plus 5 plw 5 turn s. which is lU eood :u. Sclld _u /lI<Jlve Tr <JMmll1e.r. IDl'ut ] 4 . I tage ga in of rather mo re thall25dn . 168 mm long .e. 221.. A b. ~.l .H (10 1UmI.c. ' peclr um.:al way.100) an d then ma tched 10 50 ohlllll. 14 tu rns.lln jdea~ . 100 turns.. Th e i'lLYS9 has It muximum ooll<:<:lor curreo t I"Jlinr.. . or better tha n. mil.s.. 3l7 mm diam.!.w.. He gives t he followin. hillh..f lhe 27 " hm Teldtor'-T he very low o ulput irnpe d ancc of the BLYKII (abu ut J ' 6 olum) 01 impedance tral1!irormcd ill the ou lpu t netwo rk 10 . . efficiency S7 per a mt.uiol trequency..t (. . .e.f.w. A1to~lher Ibis ...... 3 pluJ 3 lurllt bili ar .s. but in thi. In . . pte MOSFE T can Pfovide about 62·S mW OII lput o r ac me 125 mW with two devices. coam. 10 turns..jmpedanoe . this sta ge beina uuned by applyinll a posit i. operated under derated cond itions ill order to lake ._ .

.. l m ll ..0.. r . . 1l eft T · M.. fr 4 U aI._ ' Gr J 5 .... T h IMJC'V " a tt .. is essenti!l as the o utp ut im pe<Lol\C(l of the SU I I ilo nel.:.II Ie"...-" .. The nC811tive reedMek. prov ided by R4 Cll&UJU 5I. ...) . T1te folJowinlll)OtC! will be foooo helpful in mainlainin! sta bi lity: ( I) R...:.. d. p. R ~.01 1 po wer ra il a mi evoidln. .llilC lin earily.. 94. . i<kband r. . • fl~. (lh. T_ U . o f coaxia l cable. .'" AMATE U R RAD I O TE CHNI Q U E S ::Jijl ~ ...••• 1 o. .w ..~ . escc• Dr l.. i'l c< mjunet ioo wilh th e 11'1 0 100000hm resisto rs reed inll 61016B o ul l'''\ JIlIlJ.f.b .f.~ " ~9V7'" . j11:~ WI""""'" a SUi" . nT . fl..- H' . . . . . dnv er in his h... .i. some: 26dB aa!n lind feed in. "'2'llV .mncs Ihe valve cu rre nt.. .. . 6-. (2) TIle input a dmi ltaTIQC of the device is a lso negative It ~ freq ucn<:ics . ~ d..1 4 _ ft..u its. u _~ T·n..4 . Th e solu lion p rov ed 10 be to U!lO I SL6 I1C lIllll "..lt8 volt! positive. ' 0"'.. R4 determines lhe total poio of the val ve/transistor pair. ith by a l()(l().c. am ph lio:r &Jvin. r.". . 1. " ".. .' - - . e el. R I and R2 set the 12DY7A .. "' - ee Il~ 0.:•• .. . ..... .. J 8C I I 0l. ::-=R r-r " """!--r . lmpUh4 ~ 7 omi " I0 . tliis lril li be deal t . •• •• . " .s. 1:. • .I<. ...f..e . n d I slijthtly positive.1 ~ .. this o ulpu t to II 21'i22111 medium-power tran.l.f.4 7 I. li= amI'M. Ollll'"l fro m the a. modu le tc abou t t to averts10 d rive the 12DY7A wh Uc usinG only . .4 7 MH.. . "' t. "1"'- ..·l toro.. T ill J N 5Ut.~ .. livin' llcoltcctor voltqc for lhe lransislor o f abcH. PII"/ ... l Dl t . wo n . _ r . lor iD the cathode of lhe 12BY1A : lee Fi~ ...ollm shunl across the input.. T he \'lIlve lind the tra nsisto r are located In lIePlirale oox~ Joined by a bou t I fl. T Il. . * _ r_ ... l Oll LS U 'Urn• • U .. T Ill.1.... .... n o mW ro :u n n • • 1. ol« wl " h tly .. . ch o • ..0'1 ... L_I---l-:-~t=-_·.e inlcrfaCl: problem is to I nc~ the SO mV or 10 of f. . '"~ T ~ ~ ." ~ ~ ~ the eese o f th e 2N2218.llti\'C at some rreq ueecee...... 1 . TIU 8011S.. t n.. L I IS 4_ U )I ". the use of lUlled c in.. u ansceiver which hIlS • TI.

" " ec " ( l ei f c + 3 00 HI . 6 146 or similar valve . 400 lI z CiUI be mc d. reports to be ClIJ"'ble of providi ng lulJIcieotV id d rive to be used directly with a power am plifier wilholl.."' '' ~''''Irum • ac ac ... " and hellCC the carricl: fmj uc:ncy . Sbin the carrier fmjucncy by..ncy 1aI m o.. . Sup pose the ~taIfil~ has a (. . " . otray ca pacita ncn vary crystal " Ioadin. . I. ..no u•• 4 b.6<1 8) passband of 2·7 Io. ".)and we shift b y 400 HI. . 1.. 0 tio nal carr ier luppression) or 700 to 3400 Hz. l _ _oI08 (L WI.2 N70tl• .t be It high -voltage type chosen 10 s uit Ihe F ilIlwinll of the Dllr ti~lll llr amplilier va l\'ll. rspeech ill1ellisi bilit y if"e ha _e vet'}' stee p sided filten. although wllb ca re it is poso. Poe an y fillcr wilh a band. EUl4)..-OUtpul . • ..0<1.. Th_ is a further po inl tb.. ~r . f.-off frcqueno.w:d! Yet lhe need I'R'Clscly to . " is delermined by the filte r charactcnstics.. it i ro .1fCl: that JOt) to JOOO Hz or 300 to 4000 Hz is a bo ut oplimum f. tra nsmi t a JOO to 3000 Hz span of aud io : 1I. ~. s pectrum .iyo i5 tbal the corrier mould be a l t ho . II rou. ho '_u+n. Fi.Hz)...2600 H~ (witb no add i.q...6<l B..c~ . a t the most..2OdB point o f Ihe filler response curve: a tllJUTlll ba l may have been nca r e m> lh correct f.trum !haIlS acIuaUy tran smi tted : see FilJ.r.s.. a n H ~l . ' .tc . ~ p.. "Y.ym . ..s. u l .30 00H' ~ rc e .dUll that one o f the im port. I .. . . b. n . H ow far d own the res ponse CUI'V'C the carner . but the HFX 29 Blllitll ble for u.t a n inte rm ediate thermionic dr ivcr stago.. woolly" <HI th is poinl . roo docs temperature. .." of 2·7 !tHz or mere. 8CI0D.. lldjur. The pn:fcm:d ca rrier freq uency a nd its. )- 'n :1 ' ·3 k ---- " ..an t facto n a lfectiD.t common ea rth imped a nces between input a nd o~tl'~t eimJ i~ of the SL61 IC . il becomes easy to ICC why thc relationship between carrier frequency and tbc filler response d etcnniocs the audio sp:o.. At the hil her fmjuc:nQoa....~ one is usin l I~talluf>JIlicd by the filter ma nufact ure r or beca usc the rii r or is fll~tory-built.. However..iblc to ma ke final adjll. fot thc best.b.. lrinunln. r illht . match " the CIIrrier freque ncy to the .. 400 Hz slli flln camer wo uld cha nge th is 1 eitbcr l). u _ " . '" " . b. .. ofte n tbc only practical a dvice they . sits. .' C&rrler -----' I ~ .y of JOt) Hz is probably lhe bc:<t clt oicc..... ><><>.whal one is ~imi ng Bt . III the K«!i\'in lJ end. The point 10 note is tlla t tinal IIdJuotmc nt .lht ewen he more than 3OdB. ..u'''bl.. It mi ght be 20 (If 2$d H' it m. filler wnn the stoep side T>Ca"".c with a n RO? . M Olt lIuth orit iQ 1I. ... %.T R A N S M IT TER T OP I C S (31 Avo i. ."... u WI'" < r•••u.t Is onen ipon:d. lCfICIalo r. B F~ • .. e:spon'C serve o f the CfY$1a1 (or nlOChani<:al) filter acldom MleInI 10 recetve the att en tion it d cscrYeS.. ..b. or usc an .8.. _ bl ... q ui te a lot o f amatcur l ... . '" 300.n w i. Th e carrier Ilel:dl to be eccu rare to with in...dllo te. lhe a ud io pusbnnd. G 3 FR D...s.r f'. for narrower fillc".ltic-sha pcd s. If one thinU of the basic Operatioll of a fIlter_typc .. nose " band width (poosiblydown to llbout H k... I.d. the n with the " C01Tl!Ct " auricr freque:ncy we wHl n om inally C"rrl.pos itio nintt <HI the fl Ue!' res ponse CUM: th ul depend on the fille' cha ra cteristics.b. ! ..cqllll'C! so ma form of eryIlul .g.s. fillettype tran!m isaio n. Ne:ilhcr would IIOUnd . {4J Do fIOr UiIC a d river valve ha ving a su pp ressor gr id ilI«:rually co n nected fa its cat hode (e.cles OM SOS...:: ~ BCt0 7 .b. . ld~IIY. a.4 fl O. +12 Y o-ol I . io the prc:cioc fmjuern:y o f the Clltrierwhich is aenetated only to be auPJlfCl. 61t n.. rat her tha n aslllnUlIl tha t the carri« frcq uc:ncy m USI be correct beca u. lind a re de terrnmed by the required low-frcqucocy roll-oll . mten o f the 'fifties b UI is u not nt'OCSliilrily 00!TtlCt roe modem filten. Mall Yof tbc staod ard ro:ferecce bono are .. '_I. 400 H~ (IlOl much at 9 MHz...H z.tmefll c:alla precil ion te. lhe intclhllib ilily a nd ove rall II'CO'o'h IIwtlily o f -. . "-' c + lOOO lU • +lSV " r.. a few tena o f hertz of 1 e op tiJ1\UIIl 111J~ lhis demands a n order of 1I procision (penicuJarly with Wiers in thc ..t eq uifl'llCnt . 9' s hows an a llemat ive arrangement which Ph il Horwood . It is . T he p!MC1 resistor il adj usted to pr ovide the correct ADi anode current for the out put valve.1 I. p rovided that it i~ a pprociated wha t one is doi ~l l-nd ... tI • •• . ear "..tmc nU by lislCn inlt to the low_ IeYeI s... roo docs the type o f osci llalor circ uit uac:d a nd wtx:ther th is is intended for lite series 01" parallcl rc:aonan<:e of tho crystal...t 10 <:arTier freq ue ncy.. slanals o n a loud recetver.. I. In tbis case the " optimllm . in a crystal of nomi nally cerrecr fmjuency a nd bop in. lt bl. ba_-ea ra ther narrow c . " I .""lot.-ould be o f the order of 400 10 2SOO H ~ lit .. The p-n_p lnln! ilItor m u.. to 10 ·7 MH~ range) W I cannot be guaranteed sim ply by plulJlJin.

Yel. F or domest." This ca n roughl y be regarded .m . t. In lbe a ud io field. but it nee ds ooly a lill Ie a ..b.:an In hi&hly b im l'Orta. U nder-mod ulation. entia o r Ihis .t.t rndes..la p! bcilll open. It w"uld roq uil'il c::< tremcly acute . The point is proba bly not o f grea t Jrnponance 111 10 fa r as ama teu r operation is conc:emcd. an o ul"". in PITt Ix:eausc o f 100 prominent bus reaponse un der s uc h ~"'l1dit i(lns .f. lIlih tidcli ty am plillen.. AudJo O utS'lIt RotJn. The devdOJl m<:nt of ".:arrier) a nd . Ullles$ the ditr~ beewocn the lWO fOntll of ra u ngs i. p n>-1llflPlific:n.ognise l>ll CODllnued and v.ted pOWl. (with w pPl"C>S<Xl . It is 001 a lwll)' a pprociated lha l valve dlara. f... p rovi ded Tuhn'C Topics wi th a d. tan ce) anil IICI"ruIll the Qtthodc b iasing resistor.. Th is argWTlC'l1l k:d to the gen e ral a doptioel in !be U nited . been 0( lhe best types rc r high-qua lity wo rk and is q ui te widell ~ as 000: u$ed in d<>mestil: la pe: rocord ina: and p ub lic ad dress. Fo r ma ny yea>... . This IS nonnally measurod by applying a sin e-wa ve inp ut 10 lhe stago: an ti mClUUrin r th e o ut p ut. This is mlIinly bcoca u. for !lilh fioklily worlr./ l'OlrQge /II "'3p«' 01 c"rh".at to r«. The bus efl' ctil o e1imi natN by a s imp le bass atten uatoe nelwork at the mil<'! no . h.c.m...s. yslc:rn haY<: long po in leJ out lha t sine w". Rlbboll Mlctof'ltoll" (Of' Clo. wavc: in"".. In so mlDy mallen ".. lD ELS4 which the des1lncl ho ped wn llld pro vide 4·2 wa u s but. W h ile Ibia nll inl Ii""" I tnOn:: reeusue idea of tItc maximum power available it iI considerably more di mcu lt to tTlcaSU t'C or cbcck.minds '" in CQ JI '6 wa ll l o f audio wo uld l ive 80 pe r o.lativdy sim ple measuring instrument.. mu imum output in lhe rqion o f 30 wa llS. u. -kinll. noi iIC A.w and this i. but II is worth rcalizinJ thllt a n eq uipment ra ted. wire). mu sic ra ting .an to de lect t. Th e I"garitlun ic ba sis of aural ~n:ep t i"n mea.te. o VCTTTI <>dur"tio n.IIon of the audio and modu lat ion pct. ~ . then: an: SDITID erxnpact ribbon micropbn llCl whic h overcome Iheoc pr ob lel1ll by insr::n ing small pad s II the back o f lhe microp hone . One of the m ost important fact ors iSIlOD-optimWll mftleltintt 10 the o ut put loo d . meJllIon N abnve.m. simple mo dulation systenu and spco. M ~ I1Itinp are COIUidcml to be ~ IIIlla" for Il'fIRIistOr I" IOliJslat e ") a ud io cquipments. Since.r_filtcr un its.he d..m.he erro r is nn tho. illclud ina: e.ghly loga t ithm ic and IlOI a Iinur I"eiIf'Onse : 200 wallS loo ks o n paper .hell opera ted from the usoc:i.Iatinl to signa l leY<:ls it ia viul lO remember tOOl lhe ear has. as W SE HC n. pro:timity effect" S!lOWI u p on elOfoC .).".. modulali(lD.. S peoJtm. resis ta nce or the primary and !IIt'COlIdUI windings of the OUtput trlIlUfurmer an d of ue Iw<hpeahr leads Ilave been ~ected.. and poaaibh' for this re. ALT etfect ivo---it =t years ha ve MlCn cert aitnly this.ate 10 annck modula lc a loo wau trlInsmiller Wilh a n a.lIt n lhere is a n illCtl:aSina: te nd ency fo r Drilil!. n iht side. <IcbH nd -a n d be error.. ~mate urs would today ht!lit. o firms 10 UJe thete millie ratinp . line lind c ha w •. aml'liflC1' livinl . pulse code mOdulation (p.rorms a rc !lCldom e neount e red In M IIJrea sust a ined wltis tle botn. .S. W hile o n the su bject o f a ud io power an a rlic lo In Mulfard Outlook doole with the q uestiotl of why the ilCtua l outPUt power o f a 800d d eal o f audio eq uiPmcPl fal ls well below !be value quoted in the mal er'l liiti fot' the particular outp ut valv«s). is in pa rt dee to s hirtina: (If th e r ibbo n by JOUn<. F urther . lhe poor tq.ended amplifier usin. f. modulation llIId few lis tenen co uld even det ect .Ctl !be m icrophon e i!1~nclom by a piece of oylon lIoc1i:inllUl'POJ'tod on a cage (fashioned fro m 20 SoW.m.ent. In E:/u rr<m /u World II is suggested lha t these etfr:cts can be o vcn:o mc by a d ua l p ronJ 1I11l1CL In the lb-st pll. w latter or ot her f"rm o f sp urious tr amrni-\O'<ion to ca use in tc:rferco<:e o ut o f a ll p roportitm 10 lhe ac tua l degree of HO UG H r a sleady &l'OWl h n. w ill us uall y go urlOot i<Xd . lbe so -ar lk:d .ment "f leu lha n.t wen:: t he . clippl.c. in p rac tice.SECTION SIX Audio & Modulation value of a lle'malive modes. ralin.Jm. under <:omm uniclllions cooditious.n.: Ihe nearest aJlprolIC:h-and th'll th e max u num poHible llndis lt>rto:d <>\Itput on Ihe sp iky 1y waveforms of normal speech and music is usu... line vol tai C k:s5 IlK voll a~ d ropped aetOSS the prima ry o f the OUlput transformer (which oftCl1 ha s 8Jl IIppn:ciable d. H ow im ponanl th lliH vannu.r . 1000elher WIth u the r items.I understood.. Some of lhese may provide only a modest aioe-wave output ".Is suc h •• the exp losive " p " and. lhe 2db d iITe ".10da rd practice in the U K to rale m <>dul. u pplies.s o u tp ut POW'" f<Jf a 'l'«ificd dea:roc: o f pe rmissible d istorti o n.. ir h~ bQeo th e st.. t haI rlld io ITBnsmill er s and aena ls an:: Wide ly to lc:ran t of incorroct adju51m<:nl _providcd alwaY" tha t t.U of a n a he rna ' iY<: form of OUtPlll Stitgo: ra tin.ingJe.:o SIll. T hi.I . However tbere a ~ sl ill many in w hich a .. often confu ted with !be vOllllte belweeD lhe h .sc: of del\c:'e neies in the ".pcu rrt.t si a llit' il ca lled upon ttl eetoer high o utp u t only for rJlof l perioda of time before the d ro p in volt ages m a kes nse rr felt. . res i. t he OUtpul which IWOUId be delivere4 witll a Jino. T bc aetUll an<>de >rohqe Is in fact usoaJ ly the h. iD lhis "'ay is nOI q u ite w ha t one Illlty t hink.:IIU"". Mao y a. b. in t = o f the muimum poss ible s usta iued r. .t. from the <.. Man.c .r.ulalion h85 mueh leMeffcct u pon normal signals tha n WOIIld be ' ''uested from lhe TtlC8'Iuremc nts with s ine-wave siltf\llls.Ilon.1 apprecia1:JW llr ~a ter lhan the r . 1·4d b..ted with perfectl y re gu latfld p ower su pplies.. such m icrophones live poor m u lts whe n used for dolo speaking and lire also very p rone to p iek up wi nd noilc.eteriltW:s arc q uo led in tenns o f QlI(I(/.h ~ i n ~ le-s. lfCTrnl:e on 1U1 an1JIlCur ba nd .·.ie amp lifiers it Is st a led th at o ne of the mo st common ." much mo re Q RO lllu the lqal limit o f ISO wa lls bu t rcp rcxntS a slana! impro'".gu la tion o f the l upply vo ltqn to Ihe elo. The ribbon microphone has lon. a ct ua lly lave ooIy 2 _ liS undistortcd out pUI.m:e in speec h Ir:vel from 100 per cem. IJnlea Y'CTY KYCrc.uses of m ismatdlina is lha t the d.b. Low.~ fact ort ca n be were graphically iliustTllted by a nal)'lb o f a . rou.• d . for microwave oper'l..m. Admittedly.u tended to ma ke some amataJrs un du ly secsinve to Optimum perl'ormanot: fi~ that may In fact have rellltivt:ly lill Ie Telll communications value.b ClJm prcuo rs have.verse tlt ere.

.udio valve:s su<:b M tM l'iBR7.a.o nc il obta. .c.I .. to a standard hiah-lmpOO. microp hone Wilhoul a. amLn semC1lI is m uch im pro ved b y t he UK o r a low anode: load resistor. ClStf)'in1l 1eIda(aWns Input..... KlI!RV·.r ....11 of Ihe bias clrcutt Oul re tains all Ike a dvan lllgC$..bililY n raistot1 In lhe an ode and IPid circui ts oC Ihe f11'l11 litage.. Fig . . It i. '...f.. A. U N . i~p a' .) IttU . ket'P III • . 10 avoid ma gnetic indu ctJon.-t..OSS R4 (I " lowe r tJ. TIle followin " n ot es are based on """Clitions In GEe lUId M uI1ard pu blICatio ns o n aud io amplificn. etc . T.. im podan<:e m il:rophonn .. K8ERV gives a l. IlIpuT C'.. ror exam ple by ltavin l a separate . d o no l laY!' th c resist or un b)1lllS. In EI~c"Dnle. is as low as possible Ohis is achicvQ:l by lTUI..llor as Dc:llI" as possibl e to t he sillM-l IUld pin /Uld th e ca pacilor urtbed a l the signal Inpul eocket.o f>r'O\'kk:s an ad di tiona l inl'U l conl • Ii. It. ' " microphone a n a ddi lional rr...Indicator lamps. arounded. ".--. Specia l Me bile opot. d Ilt hi. s p«dl "mplifiet is . and the ju net ion or R21R4 (tu mcrcese Cltrlmn microphone euncnl an d heeee pin)..m a great d ea l in Ibis respo. th skirts an d • mellli cent re bOloS.'. The earhcde b ias raislor .i.e.r -. Cllre m ou ld be W<en 10 a void oornooon 'lltfled.alf4 10 cruWlc a IlI"IWl 2 in. iro . lI/. This Qrcuit atJ. "i.II... I . >h 12 AU 7 .tage wh ich is opcnIlcd .Utcd.. vefve.. WlI U C Ioopoo..ol and skim ear thed. With SOOIC poss ible cin:u. World (February .f.. _ ~..hows a cimJil inlen ded fur usc with a d )'lWlllc or 5lmilar microphone &lid d ra winll power from the main spccc.eulll 10 be used as a.. lruc lion .._<l .e micr opho ne in cathode circuil of lhe finl Ilmplifier ..w to adju'<t Ihe l\iI in o f lhe sta ge 10 equalize the OUII'UI of the Ivro I y"". .-. tile • a:otre-ta pped b ealer supp ly a...tion ror usc wilh liiah· •f ••. IOK A IO~ ' " H~o~ 1 T U I0 9 -f£ O~ Ir~ T 9Y : ~ I !-l Ui '11..er cin:u.lud M. !ICC I'i. isto r C&It be shun ted *. M Ic/'OflItotl.-UP lrand omltr The tran~or prov~ a mod~1 gaiu while lI1lowin.. 4.10 _ p" _ .-. Vllh -e h oldcn for this stage sltOllId be low.. This elim ina les Ihe n«d (o r 111 illput lran d ormcr and ba n eI)'..ed in o rd er 10 ob taJn negatJve eurrenl feedback).el. Iu.. designed for 11\ im pul im redancc D )O-SO ohms Ilnd with C an OUlpu l iml'Cdan<:e o r a boul 4000 oruns . Fig. . dlr«1 W 5S UC ha s shown Iha t the gain of lhi.F. MI. i.ler line.tlould be adeqoately bypassed (I. Rut th e benefits confotrr<! by low noise valves can be IO'l1 un les s reasonab le precaulions are tak lt:ll in layout and «. 2 sIIows a simp le whkb ap pcan:d in Eleclran} ".. with the lead s o f th e bypasl c:apa.OU M Iu""""" AmpIJtl.a. ph a n . . 4. K8l!R V liu l itema_ + t ively ind icated Ihlll a mall wilh Ihe usual s~ lern is thal Un: ehange of nUcrolJl. 1 "'" &. . . R2 .ln' .anoc COUplinll lO other sta l es.. lo r receivers with a 10 O/lm spcccb coil. R3 sn d C2 will be the norm al compone" l valu es for the pa rtil"U lur vulue ul<:</.~ U~ " . Constructiall Th e fitlll $laIC o f I( hillh p in lI. thaI th e leads to the valveholder d o 001 QfT)' o.one rniJbLncc: is HI...In.I somduna suf&knl to Inlroduce disl o n ion by I" ~ I elIOeSIive Vlrillion or tile operaling point of th e y ... " 'N PUTOi:'r---1 ·. maIdUn.D<:<: amplifier sod... A w e for .1• • .... uansi$tor oho uld be ouilllble.. &I Ihe incr ease in mic ro phone: ~nml mor e than COmlX'lliales fo r the 10M d ue 10 ITIlHnlttdlinl : ICC F ig. Ha ler supply wirn should be twisled and \UTanged liD thai Ihe c url'e".AUDIO AND MODULATION • C I ~ cu n J '" ... ..h ampliAer.". r . 5. Ilc:mlltivcly belWl'ell II ... Pre ferab ly.... .... 3 from Furtk_TuJrnik .it which lak n the micm phon e 01. transi..... Jl" .' a n .cP. with both ... 1. When a..-0. The spea ker WlU on e of the type used in lran. Shoo k! it be mtui. p 'I~ 1\d .ra lON and olhers who usc carbo n mkropho~ illY!' Ionll used Ihe Irick of conneclinll tJ.l ors whidllhoWd n ol be o verlooked il based 00 Ibeir a bilily to n an$form impedances.< ooIA: ' " ".I ~ ..new or better qualily n. (Voco_a 11I_04). .n.. In Iayou l. movin ll QOillowlspealr. i leaka ge types (c..e gain fro m the c...• an ar hi oh hn~ u.. from lhe valve .. I ~owa.T ... n yl"n·IDltded phenolic) . Z729 and Ef 86 have helped panicula rly su scq>lib lc: to hwo and micr o ph ony. The WIe r Ihould begin to cut oll"ar OlJ nd 200<:Is IltId be a ro Wld 16d b d oWll at SO cli.C ...~ . nc<..+ . cGu it used wilh is 470 ohm impcdaooe 'ra nsmor pre&mpliliu.kin ll Ihe lirsl Slal:e the end of the hc. the llOCd oft en ari scs fo r additioo&l Pl e-amplifiallio n o r fo r ' lmpedana: mal chin lil..il val ue clw1sca almost lUly .... llt.j(:ro pl. oJ.llW..arbun mit:ropoone) Dr T . ud ia 1_ i • • ~ " . .h-et..I. ( IiCC&2) &]29 1O ~ ~m pliflCt . 1962)..:urrcn t (or !he o ther vnlws). l "' '" FOU r WCROI'HO Hl f i. grid Input l lallC. - + Lo w Nok .' lUll r .-..

. w" •• symp ll>ll'll: fo r example eli ppina on I'lIlra SI'1'IOO\binJ caPKiton may actually ClIU8e the hum ~llo rise bo..... G. dricd-out elcetrolytk3 o r transfonmr ..1t a p l'ml iwn on !he WoO o f hillh pin . It Is abo nry cuy to produa: m isleading line.--. This lrall i istor i.·7 K e:-...hlch Ibemo4ula lor b.."". ps II is clearly an economic lid. we: no tice thai a number 0( tape rocordcn ".. sm&le-cndcd or puab· pu11---aould respond to this trealmen t The elftdcnc:y is a 100d dcal..pacilor may Utjoc. A major dilllculty In tnu::lng hum in new design.nd lhi.•. (from .. . . .w arism..I.J doublo>trlode c:awodc eircuit ~ for w-llOi5e a. fit'It luned u p all tor c.. i.alva In • Ilum ber <>f modem tape m:orden..1.. tlIOU&!l ~ I CROPHON E lh. Alm ost &fly p. .. . dia#am (Fl. aI'IOde CllITeIII sboul4 drop 10 aboUI It&lf the I'""iOUI rudiDl---.u~ he traced 10 defective valve inur· "OK dectro<k lflsulal ion. '" that hum Is 10 JM..b (the healer vo ll&. 0. A r«cnl double triode forlow 11 is I. . WRONG Pli. .ulalOC" o r a modulalioo transformer o r eveJI any &dditl Qflal h.. H _ CO RRECT • • " . noi'IC audio work il thc ECC807 (Drimar).. lio n.. n.-. lel rodcs o r penlodcs.. In this R:SP'ICt.. van lago (an d d O\lbly 10 with Itl:f"CO) tO llmp lif'y the sigrt&b in .e. po(eot.. ' n..OUn UT lieId. f""" seap as pouible.. '" ~ • • : . . o pJlO5ed to the 100 cis bum from f\lll·wavc b.t twisted leads....a1ly crid ·blu modu lation.Ige from the beater timlit UJually prod~ T' lUIsisto n can be made rela tively Immune to hum -pick-up SO ell hum . W"'N N • • I m pl _... _ VI l lA X J (I"C•e •o).c..aUses. Inci4cnlal1y Ih is &110 maka it ~er 10 apply oep live flledbac:k becal1le of the redlKtioll m p haJe Ihift.t and microphollY.ld.. With the low o utp ut or many hiih Mdity pK:k:.. no - ri'" . is deri ved) II a boul 400-600 volu. I"I .. y. • \ . The ""medy for this I)"JIC 01 it m a y be from several d ifferen t f. b UI GOOd qualily can be obW:Dcd ejnce the f»rJIU operaling condihOl1S ~ developed aImo$l automalically.. lhal electronic: WII<1ue:lion befWCICn as a low-no i5e p'&-ampl ifier...od. Many of the _ c. .wio &mpWlen an d l?1taK Ifllilun...t. _ wl.. m. bus " line are in flCl irrll"<X1&Dl and Ihould be the mirror IlJ\ll~ of the JI...ith low applied e. _ ~ _ • •h. . lbe p..~ It pomly in order to _ Ll .a..onaiderationt afll>/y 10 ..~...t. 7.. p rima ry wirin. due to the hea ler &ctin. -' .• • •m..c. QODIpcHile ?thode modulallon offen a &impleeohntoa .. ISH pPtItIC. beltcr wiring ill well known bul a fair ly common faull ill &bown in Fi . J ....f.1I Ill _ impro\'C high frequency res. (~ r )... '~ " WI' H'..$'C)..m earth rctvrn (or tbe b ier slqa talco dirlect to lhe b..70 .. ... sbO'Q ODe version of lhis IdIcme by WIPH . pro""iin.... but who fcc1 the I.'" t " Ie. Tho .Il"IC to make &fl O<:CllSional p houe conw:c without lhe or " high power • .in.e. wo rk .. ca thode Ic.i ana! circuil-hut this wo u l4 nol iDdicale thst the unit had eeeeive ImOOlh.. aensibly rO<.. that .11 II po l itiVl! b iu o f d... 11M: rQCfYOir eapaator is then ut\bcd by mc&DS of a ieJIlLl'ate kad taken to the input AMATEUR R ADIO TE CHNIQU E S PLUG toeicl . in 1J5C fOI SOlIlll time/ it can u. al thO\lgh there Il is a IIITI& amoun t 0( U'c:oInpalIyin ll anode aDd sc:m::n·.trQflic: o:<lnd uClion..I some of the tipple currenl inlO a ..I..ou t SO volts on the heal« clwtBC:S wtlich reduce bwn from one IOIlI'l'C lI'llly Ilavc lillie effect on othen.. the COlTCCl condition for p kone... _ .n SOO K (and I' leasl one hi&!> fidelity atn(lliller) haw: adopted the '":l:::!::::::!~. The small tiltcr choke (L l ) ""moves the L f.illJ1 Smoothing capKitor connectiolU 10 the earth ." ' ' ..1n 1'/ooa SpJlrl e". T he lower the output U ~7 . 6. la-r than with anode modula. f»m pol>Cn1 from tbe h.~"" . tupp ly tor the p.. . KII.w. supllly... . tile fllO!'e \ impon&nt beconw:s t ile d.. l:lIpeIl'" . YOnl. HI.. an " an ode· .uan of ttle lint • . used along_ cathode an 4 hea ler..n .. it il worth n acin. Wh en the modulator is \n$erlcd In tile p.. ata ge.miuen. The imponanoe o f ~.1so necessary 10 watd:l Ih. are used for p ilo t 1am~ and a. from Ille microph one .. ide . The bias potelliialsalurales the dco. Where equipment ~Iop.. and loaded 10 normal power : the IllO<hIlallJr is !hen pluJ8'fld in.t...' ... le"b . ' .. .I.::ausc incolTCCl of the e. 10. the AC I07 has been l('OCially d~1opN ripple. A rypica1 L f...(I~y­ m. -The h.. .'....1'eIen'Oir capacitor. pro vided tblll the calhode/bcalcr insu1lllion will 11&1I4 Ihis.... 8)..: If--''E::I .oOlIly tnmsrnlllers. The lransmiu er Is.. Iwlsled lca4s for a ..lIod. ld ~u1Itlon .t ..--triodce. The develOpmen l of two-dlutnd audio systems for IICKO reprodllClKm bu JM. it pro vid es prlncip. a • modulaIOC" ·· which CllII bejust ptuued 1010 the usua l kerial jack: on DWly traru.Lr-L---l""':':':'-.m. icalt.. posi tive dimibution lyolll1Tl (for this RlUOQ lXXTUIIon eartb ecaeeelio nl in m uh iple section capacilon are tomelimel 10 he "voided).. . Cln cauae eitller SO or 100 cll hutll. cascode cin:uil is Illown In Fla:.... While L C. IUpply fOC" the two-slalC l peech liUIIpli1leT: in th is c:ase a 6S L7.ia. I D m canb.. hum after hein. 0·' . SImfII-I Modulotot' For those who ron e. wilh the input I~ OOllIUlCIed 10 c~1J at the iDput 1IOCk"'.

. Origina lly the circu it wss publi shed in Efecl'Qllie Deslgll...a. '" r-r- O-OS)'F N ·...pl'l/cll amplifiers for use with low output microphoncil...... ' h.lIy.. FI.j . One way of inerca. 2·7 K O . n.:: ..11. T h. 'hole • • • D.....:...0 " M ... :fn·· .!ts basically of a tw o-stage direct -coupled amplifier co nnected as II co mplementary pair with fOcdback.in of around I~ is shown in Fil... O. and " vogad" (voico-opera tod p in adj ustmCl1t device ). voltage d rop will bring!h<': anode voltage weu below the SlOl1:CII potential..t co fttPDl .l_ l n • • • _ . . automati~ modulation con trol . '" NEGA..... TIle sc:reen potential may be obtained fT the cathod e of the s~in/l om Slag.0 '.. .tl et. and it may therefore be useful 10 drllw attention to $OmCl cireLliI m amngerne:ots DOW llttractinl interest in hi·fi cirelcs. Ie«_ _ eo.p and n·p.U " nl~ '''''' • .' com. '" " .. The sensitivity for 20 watts outf'ut frnm the pair of El34 output valves is given as 400mV but this co uld be considerably improved upon fOT co mmunication purposes by reducing the amoun t of negative feedback ... 1_ _• I.lue of the load resistor becacsc the d.0......AUDIO AND MODULAT ION .o4lD " ·7M b8R. " 100...slng vollall" ampliflClltion is to ope rate the vallll: under" starvation" conditions with an eK:tn:mcly low ser~ vol~ which permits the load rtlSistor to be raised col\$idcrably...1 F ! UOl( I NPUT .... R-C co upled stages there is II practical limit to lhe w.....n transistOrs capable o f pr oviding a g. MOlt IYStc:ms m:tify • small portion of the modulator output and \IlIO: .mlt n . Thi s means lhal in practice the stage lains realized are often far below ".:i.nVE fEEDBACK -$0 'If.. The IlLin of a pemode is lovcmcd 10 a great CJl1cnt by the \'lIue of the load into which it o pcra u:a.. 11'" to the _ _ of the .S}'F . "" ... ~ . 0·' '" "" '0' "70K E : : r: . they thus eliminate the DClCld for constant ercee !peaking and can also be a4justed to make it imp<)!Sible to over-modulate the transmitter...l. sece .t1on a1"'_' _101_ .e... .. .. yo 2}'F r-- icc ~ 'f: I I "'" ''''')'' I. . WD'. ... ~. automatic volume ccecoi to bo ld thcl o utput of the modutato r reasonably level for fairly ' wide variations of input. to proylde . OUT PUT I .. _ t l....... With con ventiona l (6)..1_ Fo r many years.hal is theoretically possible... . providing both phasc-lplitting and ap preciab le gain with a small number of comp onents....S)...->-- A tra nsistor phase spliuer using a complo:rtJl'lllasY pair of /1"n. klrh h l.. It cons... ohtaln h llh pin In the .). BasicllUy th~ systems amount to an a.. '" vr V2 RI 0· 5 1....-tooI. 1961). . .ll .......F . Audio Con1I' I"ftIIon ..... wmetimes in co njunction witll a pos itive feedback: loop...f.. :~ . All exam ple of a 20 watt am plifier using this a)'Stern appeared in HI-Fi Ne ws (March ... ""U..-.. c. .on.. 11... '" .1 . t. and the voltal!'l= amplifier/ phase spliner pert of the circuit is shown in Fig.n. 801Tl8 comm ercial trarWnitten and public: addreill amplifiers ha ve Incorporated circuits prov iding what il variously termed automatic: level con trol (a... TIley eould be of interest to operators wishing to change to a belletquality microphone with out fittinlan additionalatage in the speec h &mplificr.. Fl•• 10.."". .. audio co mpJeslion..h 8 d.n.. 9..

010 SIt noJ Pow*.. ta F i.:I: order.. h no sepa rate amplifkor wOllld be needed if.. am p lifier .. lhoo.l ' ." V2. " ... 2. pnctice. A\I4io co mpressors aro uWul oo t o nly for tnutlmitl i~ A s pccc:h compraso r sui l ab!~ for u.. ...0... As In reoelYer • .yO do no t m ind iOIsinl a m""iIl mum o f 60db in the rJT ocen (thi s toss eo. in the carly pan of the Ipt«h lUTlplilIo::r. . A _-. I~ "' .... a. -. ' TI .". - 1 ...e... •• •• >QI" f. u.~. rem oved .. commercial transmitter (from V.r. are find ing th~ir way .I< " . ""'" ..e.ooN_ VI.ol(liD. ~... • ' '- ..oonl. . A similar typ... o r speec h l igna b oll" the air ..... level c lipp iolt it is po ssible to we a ""P"Jl'IC e. '" I "' I~.: of wUt but with transistOR a rJlown in 470K F ig.. a.la&\. .... \00 101l1l a time wmtllllt win C1. Where . r'''. The a udio in put Qtl be f. The point I I which the . .. ..1 uxd OIl a small ~ .lvaln ..tIt~d. II ncp. IRA' bu' 0. Jk~lI y similar C1rcui... IS... .I..ed 10 control lbe pin of "'" .. Gil. _1 .. Keller) is !Ihown In Fi. . a ma tn.u.<'Ch dippina: it is desirab le tha i (he contro l voltage far the e..boUI 0"2 volll to 6 vol tl.hLncc inp ut c ircuil wita hle f Ol USt: dir«tly WIth aystal or ceramic m icrophones. entirely ~rcd by the Signlll QST)..... 1"".uncd uni t between Ihe microphone and the usual A limp~ dn. S_I> _ .. 1 . too rmaU II ODe would renck:r the AM ATEUR . 00 ... - va .. - fl • . Part of the audio OUlplll II """' pled 10 the rect ifier val..teady to within about ld b r an!!'" o lhe : • orderroof input chpro vided f that ~ 2Odb.F. <_... 00' ..~ . with low ' Is. 1ltJd~ MdnlIaI by P... $lagc in the amplifier. '" ' )0.I'Ml .. . cquipmeot. i t.R YR" ""Ra "R _ 1."M " diode .'"""'.onic~ lIIusI. . ~~ v- "'" " eees . 14 from a design by W2ZL F in E1HI.' ...H.te ..._ . This device will hold a udio o ut pu t ." 4...ft(QM .lioon with h ell")' l J'l'... fo r c~amp1c. An example of an ... ::= ' control ecuce rut enouab to cut OUI Donna! ... QI Op" r. '" '0... roceiYCI and the in put of Il domc:$t . 1N»lICJ .~ . Q2 is atl ltm plifier whose INPUT OUTPuT gain is con tro lled by th~ =tiflCf and ave raged output from Q 3.'... Vll. a $(IJ :. World. but a1so rOl the tape ro...... If the gain o f Q2 is eJlca.m.. a ." I>a .'"' .....1. the ecmpressio n 10 Ia$t too Ionl. oa m _ _• • ell.. +. t he devia! _ inserted between me OUlpu t of...._ d. '" cu ..ic:e whic h CftJ\ be used for a n umber o f such spnrll ampllfiao is iIbowu in F ig. 12. . WJCU 1ft ' • •1 taken bef"re dippin. !be diode flller Mou ld have II tiDle-<:oI»taDt of about the wm:o.. '" :J I . po ten tial obtai.h cimliu are lISC'd ill cvnjuoc. C II I..11 ..~ f l• ..live bias IP9lied to II varia ble $lope valve.r. .. n . '" ... Jt~" " '10 'CO ~ fII I ~J "... .llCS III a bool-stm Pfl<:d cmi ll er_ llower providiog fo a high_iInpet. - .---l• ... o r a.n be made l oad in • ... ... capacitor C7 shou ld be .... IS from beinI: eompresmJ is d>own in a design in EIff.ubscqll~nt IlmrJlifict... R...nducu is determine<! by !he "" lI i1l g o f the p Olenciomc ln RI.n. 1Ht)...>cch volume.. Q1.I.. om -. N U A.. h. producinJr. 13..tiOllS In •p. 'b4OW. iV(!. VI ..~ audl.. an d uwd a. "'" . lyatern should be " _ ..l"ly the oega tivc d .... .. ta p" recc rder) . ADIO TECHNIQU ES KT+ e c v Al':G an e8... ST.. e\rI....e.. _ . . . "1 '" M ' "..b.." Aotd/o Compren .o. ~" .. (De:silPl by W9C ZZ ln ftppticatio"" and which i.

wal' M oduleC . 18.O TM U . power mobile ria havina a 6AQS p. n.lln p ) :II a modulat ion Iransformer fo r. Note Iha t germa. _~ ... ma y be fresh to 10_: il is 1 usc a nllim IraMformer {p ro vided this ha.001 --- ~ .. by K IIEEY (OSTl ill to uw I IWlI. uu r ..-.------r~.' '= 1. Some lL ocful n<>!CIo n nn w to calculate pennisstble ra llnS' anti impe<..olwn d iodes ~ U$Cd .. _ w I .. Provilion il mad e far &djUltment o f the d ippin. • _ " I.up ply 10 that the whole un..tSO~ '... ..lIlllcr w mponem.. . ~.:1c: a lso provides CDJ11tIUCliol:W dda.. -4 . . • p • • I0.. .hich 'Qu ~_ two output penrod ea and a triod e inlo Ihe WIle min ialUre B9A mvelopcl..T.~ .".. but we cannot roroll oct bsvina: p rovided any -. For ecrne of IU...~ •• ~- . n~ .. 16 cornea fro m F'IIIk .. "~ '00' ". Ihe olde r type numben 0( valva hi"" b<come 10 ingrain ed thaI we often fo rl et Ul.~ Vt~J- r.rn nn at lo ni _re JiVa1 by K l RGX ( £lUItfHl. compllC\ po wer . .. .T«An1k {No.. 'P ""o."'. levell on beth neptive IIlId positive peak~...... Modulat ion l ran sformen fo r I . -..AUDIO AND MODULATION m ... The low I'U'I filter In the o ut!?"t Ilim<'vq the II. . P OalO-Cu . . Ml Y 1%0). ~ . Jl). ." -...s«ond. rJo#I r . u p.. We have already referred once before 10 the EC LUlOO .c tran . The o ther ~cme. b~m plCk.. '" t .• .-.. To pul lhis n&ht....ils o f the m ulti·impedance mod ul.. . lIUpply and aboul It 'IOltaoffu..JOOO ~/" If the unitla to be pla<:al llhead of lhe main If":CCh amplifier some can: may be needed 10 pn:>ven. . . .. hiJh po wer ria. ... M04JvI.. .. ~ . " c.lI a:ood 0 bn:al down Insull tion . . '" r---tiOj.. . f2 c-eca ~ . .. III the cwnplc lbow n. .. Such a lIllil would Iho be allraclil'Cl for public addteu work. From time 10 time several add-on I p«d . where the mi~rophone OUlput ill llllblc: te vary mu~h nloOn:> than In normal &nUl1eur close ta lkins. .. pllller and push.pl i. lJu: OUlpu. the a'lN:k time . wilh silieno <Uodenddi!lonal pre-clippin larnplifialtIOfl l& needed. ' _ ..luded In IT.~. Fla:.. . ~ n·5V ...~.. _. and two ideu for IessaJiDI the COI l POlCJn wort/\ PI-'llIin ~ <>n .ation tramfo rmer. Audio C/lpp«/fUc.letaUI of clip per Wlill.t.stale spf«:h arnp1i6er is fo llowed by a phue ..l. ..._.ovidea • I : I lut~ lTansforme r with the ..e time (1-1 Sl!COud. .... 1965) 11II1 In the original d csilJ'l included D. 2.. 1•• • .t ..m... DLlI1M In DL-Q TC (JlUluary.o... remains w nl lan t at lUll under S mY.anrl relea.e two.1. .o ..~ '" . pull oo tpo l ~ : ~ Fig..t was lle1t oonlaintld . .Ii... ./y.' WM /d.... 320lt . . " W' _ < h o I . . 17.._ 4 . .../.. can be used for . The 6m..." " .-:-::-"t".tura te the Inuufonn<T ro re.. . and mod ula t"r anode currmts lend ins 10 de-u. _ __ .intila r .......M(or . L aaoc a - 10.... .lt lI\Ifly usefu l DeW types cont inu e 10 be int rod uced .. compression units have hoen lno. T . ~ ...fR - m 210 V ..lno..t ... The o riainal art i<.rieta ~ ma in • pauband to about JOO..... PansnUtten II"' nne the ~hea. II.pest of componc:nlS..... .... and 1110 r...11 . ..w:t ..."" f '·u J~' ~. 2" mUli... '" I U n Y. In effoct th1I co nnecllon ..ed llia. ... pllU II miniatu re do uble-tr iode valve.". 6AQ S modulato r : I « Fig. ..... eornp3C! modulator or am plifier with an ou tpul of lOme 10 ntlll when UlIcd with a 250-voll h. VI. '" _W'OIl . 14 It." "..s.. on)..Iard IflWe pu 'lh-pu ll ou tput transformer in. Ieetl. 10. I% S) MOWI how one o f these... An :f 4}' F~ ~~ .- .. MO DULATOR 'II..r..o-ora/Y. . thouah DOC new .. . "" It.·t .

~.-isIor 10 ab50rtl the neplive peats 0( lhe L f.ee FlI .. 1--::'t~-"i ' . I • ur CIlQll' Il ~. COrrM lfanI. A sim ple dmlit----. N_... then it I. This 11m a Hci sin.. in which lhe delftle 0( nqa. II • hilh-Jeotcl l)'SIeIn a11in. .tioo with '" '0'00'"' c . ~ !heir pown IoeI in lo tha pwduo:tioD of -nen """only lI'e iI 10 eatI5Il: ~erodyne tnlerfen:nec.W wlthool ownnodula'ion U'OXlJrrlna. hiah· walla. .) modest audio requlmnmls. " (. _ 20. Tho sim ple twol'Cdi ller net. permit • lei mon: .udio ~ 10 be pu l OCI 10 lbc: carrier. _N' "-" (c:DnAIn te) "'""" + !!J Ib! N' """'" w-.'.. . 19S9) : we Fi.. ~ of IUJDa mud!. wa vdorm . . COOWftllioGal smarud Uflder lhe I&IIIlI that most of IJ:1a7 n . 22. a .Clct>hony.__ I:r:::".' .. (or lCr'CIeIl."".... For eumpk. . ~-- . .$ I~-::. 1• • 0-"'.o rk.ur.ctIoaI. lbc UlOl o f VR·l llbel or neon b1l bl to provldo voltqc 1 droppin.. pid d rcuIUlIl&l _ eno..... former IILtioI II described by W1E PM/6 In CQ.n..l ..'" 0" AMAT£UA RADIO TECHNIQU I.l of the IlIIlIa1 I : 2..".~.. very limpk kror lev<:l politi" r-t n pandfr I\q been dclcribcd by W38SA (CO June.. /IrII~ fw Eftrt. 19J9) petTllill an &l1dio/c:alTkt r" lio of liP 10 2 : I Insl-.I.-. to IIX:OmmenoJ J<nCIl i I.. D L6KS -.. CQ Ap ril. - . Be !hal u II may.rJd M .ra modw. bic:b ~nlel !he dlffieu!ty of f1ndin.adberaIll ba~ Ev« IinoD a.. dtoke syslem and if an odd power Illpply llIlll' dloke is UJCld the cI\antQ .. for K¥mIJ hich-vollqe re.l1...11oft cimJiI C ST Odober.live: pea k oa the . . vet'I . . the A1Jal ul...t er " • (0 ) CMl'UT _ "a~c:A OC« irE! I ~.:: thaI III in lcmaJ capacity wIU dfcctlvely by._-'_. IP1d modw.lincn aDd..~ I-ll'l. ptrmi ninl m uch are-l cr positive: peats to be u.) For thoeo woo requ ire only ~o.tIidr.nd DnZU we Ole idea .r. ICYI:l'a! IIChann M ¥e COlTIe alonl . 101. b.pow Ole unwllJ1tod lIia/le:r aueUo-f'requmQca.. n.

AUD IO AND MODULATION

m

lboblip out or tcftIClI arid modulati on Camenlly re&&nIed u trkky to adiUIC fOl" optimum IUl.Il ts) w d t() provide a form or COlItrollod-m. effect. Fil. 23 Ihows the cin:uit u livm
1)1)8

iD the Germao journal, althoulh theR is no indication of the of p... v.I..., io 11K. On modull.tlon peaks the IICI'C'CD ooltap 00 the p... riles 10 thai USI:d for e.w. o pcnuion.
' llT'-A CHOKE-

'"

." '0'

.

,co

'" "

:!:+,~~

....

:l50-300'l

""

]~"

:~!
.~

'n on

27 5 ""11 ,..-+,'0'"

~+

ra

"

It our dkllOlUUY-f.ided Radiua of the oriii nal al1icJe is eotfe<:t, we p thcr that DJ8ZU po ints ou t that Ilthougll the l yalem worked very satlifaet oril y with a pI1l'tku tar typo of IIOOIl IWilchln a lube (a type ORZI ma4e by O:rbcros of SwillCl'Jaud) wh ich happened 10 be a l lllUld/ il has n OI been l((lled wilh any of the Ulua llypes of VR IUDC,
HT+ 70 C IV

which is DOt Ilways availab le. An<Kher form of acmcn modulation a\!n ll a lintilar outpu t ~t but wi thout nep.tivc bias wu dctcribod by FAORG in El«froIf (October, 1!l61l. MOR! na:ntly C£kCfrClII. Apri1, 1962) he hu delCI"ibed an impm ........ IQllm modula tor of this Iype ,"lna an ECX:81 and inoDrporatin& a dipper and Iow- paa lilta- : ... FI&- 2-&. Th e .. f. mput w the lim triode slage sbould be of the on1cr 6 volts, 10 thai a simple pro.amplifier will be D«Ided in fronl or Ihe ECC8 I .
Z_ BIGI Mod" " ' -

::.
usinJ

~+

'1• . 11 I . .......,.w .......I.lIe. ~ .l ... . _

hoM, lorOUltlIDJn.u.

Much ravounld for many ~ ha ~ been modulalon a ~ of 801s in the class 8 ;n:ro biu &rT&lIteD"'Cftt. F Ktoti to th1IIoololl1alldiD1 popularity ar c tho ~ of components &lid tho elimination of a blas supply. 1be usual elrcuil comms or COIlDeCliD& Ihc aisnal in put diRlcI.Iy 10 !be ICI'llCII &rick. and , via IftiStcm or aboul 22 K DbIIlI, 10th e silDal

arids.

II is thus pouibk thai lOme ex.perimentina with various VR tuM may be 1lOCded, Ilthoualt there -..wId seem to be no fundamental I'C&IOO wh y a1moII any IypC should not wort .
I)'peI of neon or

~ how

biih pcnazx:e leU'Odcs. I... QST(Fd:>roary, 1962) W2YM

This arnoaemml is no l well suited fo r

\IX

with mod em

.../tIt ell,.,.,. The ICric&-ptc type or Ia'eelI modulation ill simple and effective but requirela low im pedaDc:e ~live biallUpply

s.:r-·rrld Modu'_

n. ,W

r Y

M '

V I"

r. \ ., ,

...:!.
" on

.. -,
~O<

Ihc: 5" lern can be adapted 10 mod<:ro valves l ueb as !hole IlICd in Ihe line o Ulput Slap or telcvilio... rrociven (" lweep luber "). Tho:l modil'icat lon consists buic:a11y of the Jl naI input oonncctioo a rrom 1. . 1I1D'1 and OOIUIeclilll theIe to earth: h_ a'"J W2YM also how a doublo-lriodc e:an be \IKId adva.alaaeous/)' as a c:alhocl.....oLkrwa" driver aac: see Fli. 2$.

slm'J!.TemOvitl.1

'",
no

'"
.

1'00'

~

2 '7 1t

""

500 V

220C

"

",

.~

n

,~

'60" :;",.

, -

~'" ~ r--Y

, TO Pol. , seR U N GRI D ,

100 , ..

",.

'"

AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUES
ad"" Mod..1ftIoft
speech in lhe pnIllellCe of noite, panicWarly wilh low l iiD&1-

BRS26OJ9 an d O J PKW "-VC UICd • simple clam p mod ul,tion S)"lml Otl. a.m. tTalUm;t\£~ of up 10 40 ....1 111: Fi&, 26. The dJwjt all shown is l uitable for \&Ie with . Qfboll mi=>pboM;. bill BRS 2fJ039 laYS that with • crystal mictop honc, the m ode portion o f the ECUlO If DOl used bu t the sii""l . ncr ampli fication ~ aay an ECOIJ double triode can bol fed directly to the &rid of the pcn lode Itap.. The degm: of mod uLation can be adjusted by a11e:rin& the potential on lhc Il.nleO grid (112 at the damp valve, but I ' no ) lime should il exceed the anode voltqe otherw iM: Iim;\;CI will oecer .

_

:KXXl

oise ratiOl. A cb&nte 10 500 cis for the lower edge or to ell for the uppa- edge wero both found to dqrade iDlel\iaibility.

....,'"'-

DowTIward f RlqUl!f>C)' sblRirlc tend , 10 produce &"'A lei' deteriontion than upward shi flt., and as the lil tenina: eonditiOlll delerionte lb. tamble I.m()Wl/; of freq w:ncy m ilt is

With a I'CIllly Iood si&noJ. ~h Qn be ah iflcd 400 cis upwanb or 300 ell down.... mb wit hout undul y impairina ru intelligi bility C commuoialt;01\I p urposea. or W ill! . r.ir l ill:Jl,al , pi ta 200 or minus 100 ell ~ abo\It the limi t.. With .. poor sllfll1l. shifll of "'OR than 100 eli I re unsatisfact ory .

o. aS M
EC ~O ~~ ~

'"

Hf+ 300V OIl 1'0 ,~ MY " _MOU llllll tl4~

]1'" \

_v l.'(

Un_...... AJoIl. 1.11 view of the nu mbel o f desiina for 1inear ampWicn il ill .~risinr tllat thoro has DOl been more ~1 in teRs! i ll their UIe for &rnIItau am. traosm iltcB with Iow·~l modulation. ellCCpI pcrbaps in so me tnn5ceivcrs. O no or lhox
who ha ve made df«tive Dill of th il leCbnlq uc .II O K U X who ...:ports thai he U5Jl:$ serlet-p te modulation of lUIbllfl'cr st.~ followed by • linear vsllll pou-al le1 4-12SAs 10 provide IoOrne 600 wIUa p.e. p , He lAr- Ilia! OKI BMW bu funher adopted thiJteehllique to employ the ""ri.,.pte a.m. mod ulator also ~ ar id ItabilizeT 0 11 u .b., and a keyinl valye fo r e.w.

LId",

~M"

'f'

MICROP HONE TIl....I'IV'OIl... EA

as.

$.$.8 . ,,,r.lllr1blllfr

For oevcrlll yean. the civil airl~ have been oollliderinll the use of a.!. b . illltead 01 Un. for lon a-d isl.J.oee ni, hll, and aft ARINC ehaIa<:terilt ic has ncently bocn Iuued on the lu b}cc:l. One o f the m ain q ucs tio ns, for lUChapplical ions , is how fa r QIl the equi pment be •• o lf·tune" (thai Is when tho lllSerted carTiu differs fro m the: ori;ina1suwrcw:d caniCl", as to some ClllClll il will alway!! tend 10 be) . II f'l!:prin t! • rq'>Ort of an [n_;ption made into Ihis ques lMllI, which
it.eludes IIOme points of Inl~ to amateur operators.

II ..... feund that an band of 3(l().)OOO cts prtn'idco higher intelligibility than any other for frequency lh iftcd

a.r.

r - - - - - - -::-- T- --- - - -..-r..

AItodoo Mod,,'..tln, . TeIrOde The tClChnl q ue of ampli tud e modu latinll a le trode valYCl wilhout usinl a n ~ modu lati on is ~f",.red to in lDOU thatl one book. One or the places where it appears il in the STC Applic:a. tio n Re port on lhe $B/243M IerieI or powet tetrodeA (ol\en kno wn u miniatllR 8071) : see Fli . 21. It il pointed ou t that the Inclusion or a 30 Henry ehcke e... bIcI the ICreCn to be: " Iloa tlng " 10 Lf. w hi le a l the IlItne time fixed to d.c:. The lQClance of the: choke 10YUlIS the lo~ a .f. to be han dled, a nd should be equal to lhe r.tio of t he d.c. ICftleII voltale divided by dol:. e<;:I"CICIl CUIT'C1I1. It is claimed thalthc: a rr&/1iemenl provides a higher dellT'C o f modulalion fMklity and makes the powet amplifier leN alfect ed by o Yel"drivin,:. The same booklet abo omdcrlinn the iInportangc of drivinaclass CpoweT am plifim from a low impedance ·,5V 1OlJ1U'. u otherwise the waYCl is llanened Ieo.dinl to poor modula tion e/WKtcri.tics, h igher har. mo nic: output an d lower efficiency.

,J.

Ow...rr>od"hrticwl Richard Fu. niak, G1TFX , Iw

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been uMn; a fo rm of overmodula· lion .u~ 00 a low -f\OW1:r

the form of o ycrmodula tion-indica_

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tor which relies on detectiq the app:arana: o f a neptive yoitaae on tilt MOde of a p.a. valve,ra condit iOll which indicates 0".".·
modulation. But In G 3TFX'. U1angemenl, this condition II used to reduce automatica1ly the pin of the lirst L f. am plifler by appIY;"l II ~tatte 0( the rectified YO ta,., to t he IUJlPreIIOf

AUDIO AND MODULATION

Th e s)'ltem dau "'" p"1K1I ".t.tntJ<1ldDII,,~ b ut prevents 1 the del~ o f modlilatioo risin& to a va lllO whe re It uuseo sp1a.llU. U i. puossiblc lhat by placina a fixed bi.. in .me. wilh !he diode il eolild be ilITlUIged t o conduct befOIl: 100 pe r ","I mod ulatio n, allow inl lhe circu it also 10 pravidc
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lrid of th,s stage, resuJ tina in l lHlap~ of a " bole" in lbe au dio peaks.. In hili ~ IHl llnd. thaI 100 lIluch volll&c feo:dbU tend s 1.0mak e !he circui l lou nd " ploppy .. but this c:an be ....riod by rnocam o f !he polenl lOlllclcr. He UllCI a

F il . 29 and comes from £k~mmlcs U arld, Matcll , 1967. This is a rathu more eqlU\t eirtl.lil (inlcudcd primllri ly fo r hillh.quality a udio) Ih. n the more usual li ngle slage step up amlnl"mcnt . II is .. Iorm of .. operalional am plifier " usinl direct OOUplilll: with tbe in pul tr. nsislo r operaled in lhe OOIDmon blllCl confisunlioo, and wllh ll«Ible matcbi~ alld p in cbanlelcrillk$.. Tbc value o r R I is choscll to m.tclt ue ROlTIinal impedance of the microp hone, wbUe R2 I Ovcnu lbc c!oRd.1oop voltage p in (typica l valu e l bout 100 K ohms). ThIs particular unit wu d esil.llcd for lIIe ",ilb hiahbeta 11 1CQII 1nns.i ~1'I (examples 2Nl906. 2N29U or 1 2NJ644) bul ether types cou ld al mosl oertI.inly be usod.

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Dptamlc S,...eh ComjHI_' A oompre50S0r, cap lble or coosidcrablc .....ri.llon in the dewec o f com p ression, is shown in Fia:- 30, ",bJCh coma from an anicle by PAOCHD In Dult" " (Jllluary, 1967) but which we believe is bas<d on. circui t in the ARRL p ublication .. SingJ. Sideband fOf the Rldio AmalCUl'" : It U$Ct tJa principle of splill ina thci d . signal anl1 passitlj OlIO Kellen O&dher with L f. f11terin& 10 limit lb• th rough a COftlpRlSOr. 1 bandwidth . nd lhe harmonic co nte nt.
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lilioon po wer diode (1000 p.tv.) but poinlJo out tha I any SUila ble diode, im:ludi~ .. tubu.... IICIcnlum rectitler mould work. Sinot Ihere will be hla:h peak \I<lllqel at this poi nt, rel llrd should be pa id to lbe IU'tifler p.tv, ,..tm p, particu_ larl y if lhe ~I is lased on a hlchcr power rig.

Ron Gou ldsto lle, GnAG . KTIds.lool a citaUl (o rililllJly teem SOS- Fa irchild Applic.ll ion Report No. 169) on a new balaooed modulator/prod uct delector bued on the BFX 78 MO STfIGFET; the repo rt includes per formance 1l1\ll"C8 fer 4j j kcls Ind 10 MeI'- Fi J. 31 aivcs lhc circu it for a 4jj kc/I deilin . When usod as a. product dekCIo r the i.f. slp lls fed inlO the o utput rocket and the • ta ken from lbc audio inpul JOCkI'!. Clai med carrier reject ion us ina' BFX78 1sup to 90dB belo w usdlll signal. OlTAO rcpo rtllhal he has tried . luh_up version "flhis cil'Cllil usin l lU\ iru mOl' MOST device : I l().t um link wound on I II old H .I. was u!lCd for TJ. and T2 buill up 00 III old

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capacitor tl'Ien adjusted ror minlmwn c:IllTler; audio wu UIca rclll in &rid an output ol.bou l 100 mV p.e » , obIo1.lned.

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MOSFET IS :1 voltagt: variable re".'o rj.U cnt....tor n in_ ina. Th o technique could be readil y adapted for l och other a pplicAlio ll$ u audio-dcriftd • .lJ.C•• or for IVnOlc pin com rol of a.f. amplifk rs by meaRi of a d.c . con trol \'Olla ~. A second MOSFET b; .-d as • hiih-im~dance implilkr, with . two-stage bipola r line d river ampltller. ln ilia l bin for the MOSFET a uenua lur is 101:1 by the SK linear-taper polentiometer. When tile de~i<:e i, bia sed 01T il has hig h rc-j,lanal and IIlere is lillie auenu<1tion of Ihe OW& aod tbe input circuit. All bi.. it rtlduced, c ur rent U dl'lliJl..IO«III= rcWlanCe d fOP', fo rming a ~a riabl c ShUll I across Ille a.f. pa lh, Ihus incrcasin a:auenceucn, To pro vide I S\l;tablc: conlrol voltlll", Il. lillie o f Ihe dri~er OUtpul siiJI ol is Rl;tified and fed bac k to the MOSF ET . Tbcsc three units ca n con~ellienl l ~ be aMCmblcd iOlo I lirlllie COJ\IroI unil o r II' cus to m·buil l control s)'Stems for Lm. or I.s.b.
SImp'- P"""uct M 04.. Iaon>r Lovelock , GlWHC, describes I prod uct modulator which he believes ;' o f ultimale slm plki lY.. In l~oi dlDlt Iht;: llCCd for any b8lanc:in& adjustmenlS, and ideal fer home oon&lrucllon. A disadYilnla~ iI IM I it u nOl intended for U'IC much lbove 465 kC/s. The ~I Fil. 3S, is baled o n Ihe Olrlicr Fai rchi ld desilD (palle 2291 ~I uses a dual.gate MOS F ET. With an . RCA 3N 14 1, a lfpicaI ple-one 10 d rain C&paI.';luce is ODly 0-00 pF Ihlll dimlnll~ the need for Ihe IlCUtl1llil.lllion usocl in the carlier cireuil at 465 ke lso ar A b fQl.d..tJo d etecun resulted in a c:arricr IcvcI of - S4<lB (rela live 1 peak envelope volll&e) IlKIvidcd lha.lllle 0 I .r. is rest ricted to 1 vol l pe.a k·lo·pcak, a nd a pte Iwitch!og
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5.S.8 . G_G'llon .. /tit CAJ02Q U C

, Nick van Weed e, G3YNC, Ila. b\lill I soli d st'Ue n. b. «titer fo r 1·8 Mcis ClPCl1Ilion using II ~cry lntcrellling method o r geoeratinltlle lower siJo.band lill11ll a t 4SS kC/l. His lyatem rcvotves around all RCA CA3OlOlinear inlelrate<l d reuit which is \lSCd IS both bala nced modu lato r Illd micropltonc lmplute.r The CA3020 Is \1&uaJ ly dcwribed IS I m ulti. purpose wide- band power amplifier; Ille cil'Ctlil is a stabilized direcH :OUpled Implifier lind iocludes a tcmpe rl luro-tl'adina: voltajle regu lato r to flcilita te sta b le opua tion over I wide lem pera ture ra n~. The device is = di ly availlble In the UK a t reasona b le cost. G3VNCpoinls o ul Ihlll .. hite possibly a chea per u .b. gene ra to r co uld be made 115'111 dj,.;re tc cemponent• • tile pins in simp licity, me and slabil ity lurely ou tWl:illh the , Ii, hl e~ lra. COSI.

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lie lists poin ts 10 note • • fol lows : Carritt WPl'mJ :dOD b e.wellclot. bein g lim ited mainl y by "ray l'eQel.lncc, dccouplio g, e iC . (2) b.ce llcnl sl.Ibilicy. (l) Su il.able fo r p nnto<!. c1r<.:",it Isy-o ut bu t not e tlta l symmetrical lay-oul lm pro 'oU ca rrie r suppresRlon. (4) The OUlpu t lra nsformer hal I p rim.:u y Imr>e<lancc of 1)() ohms an d I IC:COlldary winding to ma ll;h Ihe liller in use. (5) A ca rriei' voltllp: of 0· 2 ""It e.m.s. 1\1I. been used . bu t th is value h.ils nn l bem optimized. (6) The eerrer rt cons um ption al 9 voila is about 15 m I'.. The sclllng up i. l imr>1e. but VRI mUSI be kept nca r mid·tnodr. to avoid ~ ve d i.ipad oll in One or aliter half of the OUlput tra nsl' to rs; 110 ca.pBcilive bal a nehl, will nceded in lhe prototype. (8) O ood qu.lity ca rbo n trI ck trimmer potcntiomelcn shou ld be used. (') ) A simita r circu it could p roba bly be used as I.r. am pllo fierltlliAu for conveB ion 10 lop ba nd (in pra clice !he 0 3Vl'l"C exciter \ISCI I. COnVCl\ I;01l31 ha lf.Q:>wll.n m ixer immcdi.tely fo Uowinl I. ha lf_lattlc;e IUle r). (10) A lrif~", wou nd ou lpu t tr lllllfonncr is r=lmmcnded 10 ens ure light COOptinl. (I I) t1ilJher c.o rrier f~uencie. co uld be used . although t ltil waul d depend o n lhe (~uency "",POrl3': of lhe CA lOW (Il: CA lisl . typica l ldB bandwMlth of 6 Mclt In widcbllnd a mp lifier a pplicat ion). ( 12) The arnneemcnl has lulflCknl pin for UI;C wilh......,t dYl\ll.ll1.ic a nd Cl'YStal micrQllhonei. (13) When lIeUinl up . it iI ad visable to include " milliImmeter in the lea d . Tho d .-.b. ()U lput a ppclll'5 to be free of ha rm onicJ . un l...., the a udio is 100 h ijOh , whe n limitinl may res ult in the prod uctio n of harnltln"l . The CA3020 il oI'tcn usod III an a ud io amplifier, and in thll role ca n IUl'I'ly an ou tput of aboul200 m W wlth a 6 volt lUI'p ly. In B,rak ·i" November, 1969. R . Mil. m. Z Ll Wl., Ind,ca tod how with the .ddi ooll o f a n MPF I04 F ET pream plifie r to inocnasI: Ihe In",,! Imped a nce it could ta ke care of thc .udio req uiremcnts o f I. typical ".,:elver from d iodedeleclo r onwards. AI 9 vo lts it ca ll delivcr Iibout 5SO mW. "' t the h ialter power levell . a hea l sinlr.lhould he used: the device ila TD- S type pac kage willt 12 leads . Z I.I WI. fOlUld tbal conncctinl ....1J'CI 10 the clO1Cll' spa Ded pins Pl'e$C1l11 pr oblems and u:dn g long....,.., p lien be carefully ben l the 1oa<1s
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Audio Om ill r Fo r IhC'se witb. handful o ra.f. IraMistors (Iyp e should D Ol be erf tl.... O an effective l ud io pell. lim iter suitable for 1.lob.. k e.m • • nd n.b.Lm. a ppl icat)ons is dc:ocri bcd by Ja n Card Do. ZLlUI ( lIrrak .fn. October . 1% <)) . Th is 1I.1I0~ somc IO dD or .... mo re . "" ra ge OUlput. ~ flUl lI.!la ck (about one millisecond, a nd re lease time or ab<,'u t 100 milliseconds). A lIumbe r o f l'l"cw Zeal and sta lions .IC u1ing the limiter (Fig. 37) . <lCOC1oSfully. A hilh -im pedance emittc r·follower (T R I) Is fo llowed by the pin-eon lrolled slaae ITRl) Ullnll common-c miucr CO D· figura tio n with the em lncr byopas1cd thro ugh TR3 which coniro illhe ~ in ; TR4-5 form a e.e. Ilmp lilicr Ihe uutput of wh leb Is n:x:tlficd by lh e d, odes to provi de the conlrol for TR3. lim iled to abou l 002 vo ll by llteO"'85 co nnecled d ;r'Cl;I' b' across CI. II.I10wini fa'lt rdeMe even on loud noise pulsa. 11le who te un il !hOllJd be well sb ielded to pn:venl r.f. pi<:k-up . nd hum. no t for g<': tlln ll the Input an d OUlPUl leads. sellin l up p rocedu re...' o Ul linc<l by Z LIU I, is It! (oUows: Adj"'l trarwniltn a"dio p in fo r C0 I'1"" 1operation before connectl nl the limiler. Nnle !letti", an d <io not chan~ it unl il aner R2 h.ils bee n adj u.led . TrtuI8fer micro p hone from II'ltMmilter to lin,iter, and con nec t limite r 1 Irarumitt er .ud io inpul SwilCh On lhe 0 linlliu and sct RI lit muinwm. Speak mto microphol'lli normal ly and adjusl R2 for correct operalion : do not after. ward s chlnl/C xuing o r R 2. AdjllSl deIt'ee o f limlti,.. by IU (up to about 12to I ~ B of limitinaJ. Adju st IIIllUnlltll7 a udio lIlin conl ro l fo r correct coereoc» with desired smount oflim itin, . Siocc it is po ..ible 10 O\'erJoad the Hrniter, R I should be ad j ustod SO lhat th is does not h1ippe o . W ith. limiter ill circuit It is desirab le 1 a vo id bratlhing a nd backgro UDd 0 no lscs IU far as ~lblc. Remembe r that llle use o f . llmilu will Impose a ddi tio nal demand>; un the lra.nsmlue r. whla. will haw: to o perate almoot u nder C.W co nditlollS_ so watch fOl . o verhcal;nl. Audi o fn:quency res pun.e should be l hapcd II far as POSStble 10 300 10 }OOO eJs.

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AUDIO AND MODULATION

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'r....""'Jn' O"..r/nOd..,..,Jon Harry Burt on. ZL2A PC, !las d rawn our allcn tio n 10 a pea>. limiter, which he described in B,eWl -/" (May, 1%5 ), l uitable for am plit ude_modu lated v.h.1. or h.1. trans mittetll : Fig. 38. The lWO active com ponents are a neon bu lb IUld tho light dependent resistor (LD R) which arc houscd in a Iil!lt-tilbt container with the neon bu lb anunp to illuminate tM LDR . The neon bulb i5 oct to ilP'-itc al say 95 per cent modulation. In its da de. .1.Iltc Ihe LU R (o f t he type: developed for auto ma tic contrast co ntro l In TV ~t, ahhough ~ld om \>$CId in el1fTC1l t models e.lt. 118 731 03) h.aa II resiSl-an QC of &bout 10 M o h!Tl5. A• • con as the neon iltnitcs, the resista nce of the LDR d TOJM """'lily and n:dUCCll the p in of the speoch amplilkr. Si""" lICOns stri ke at II faJrly con. tan t voltage, the whole IUTIln~lIt C'llllbliJl>cs a COll-ltan t limiting level. It will be noted th at Ihe ncon ca n be isolated from Ihe potentials, and the TOI'll'O IUC of Ihe LDR I, ' uch that aud io froqllMCY nrilltioT15 arc no t fed back; recove ry of the LOR ill about 200,000 ohms/, . Zl2APC UBCd the ,ystem wit h II modulato r WliDg pu ,h pull EU45 dril'C'n by a 6BA6 pllMo , plitter an d pair of 68A lI!I as spc:cch amplifiers, and II WAS llmlnged to limit at a lcvel o r about 1O",. . tts. Tests . howod I'C'ry clf«tive limit_

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ing with n~ o bserva ble deterio mt io n of wave .ha pe, fo rminll a limiter WIth sharp o nset and co n,"'nt outpu t t hereaft er.

Quick Guide to Pulse Modulation
In the 19 )/)$ ... hen e n~illa'n " ;:;1'\: de-..:IOflins microw ave il WU rc.Ilizcd lhaltherc wOlJ ld be ad vanlap if Ibe wgnal co uld be tranunit u;d a.. a seric:s of pul_ lal her t han 11'1 co nt;nllOtlS a....1 01U l illMt Th islcd to the ~lopmcnt e (If VllriOUI mud ulatiun $~Ien. wh.ieh W(>uld all ow the lJoLoic ;nlellixcnee , such a. s~h. 10 be Iran!ll1inod in pul~ wavefonm. T1Ic systems tha i were proposed included pulse amplitud e mod ula tion (p.a. m. ); p ulse width mod ulatio n (al'lO kno w n ... p ul", durat ion mod ulali o n. p.w.m . Of p.d.m.l ; pul.., po. ilion n'od " latioo : and p ulse code n>Odula · tion. In pul 'tC lUlIp <k: modulatio n t he amplit ude of t he pubc litu II illCra';ed o r dcaused about a reference Iel clto a <kgee dClcrmincd by the amplitud e of the ori,ina l analogue signal, and wllel""r It is of po , itive ()( nc:i'lIlYe pol;lrjty . In pulse dura!illn mod ulation , the duration o r tlle pulses toceeses of d""rci<<;c:S BfOll nd a reference fi8.ure . In pul,., pos.ition modu l>.tio n the preclse .taning time ofthe pulses is sdvanoed o r delayed by tbe input signa.! . I n Blit he above pulse systems, the fidelity o f the si,nalaftcr transmi!l8 ion is determined by the lLCCW'2l:Y of the reference in lern" of lUllplitllde o r time . To obtain the full bene fit of a pul.., system it is desirable that tbe only fact o r lhat really needs to be dete rmined at lhe distant en!! i. simply the P1'Cl<.'I\OC o r abKlICC of the p ubf;$. If Ihis can be done then one achiCVilS for speech oJl the basic ruggedness of a c.w. Or MOT8C . illna! which can lo lera te very great d istorti on of the " ,n~ lIinil pulses withou t Introducing eIToT1l. This is bas ica lly because a replica o r the o riginal pul. e can be l'C'gcnemted loca lly if necessary. Th ese gre~t ad vantage. Ire ac hie...cd in pulu (od~ modulo/wit IUld in ""me of the related systems such lIS d ifferentia l pulse code mod ulaliu n. In p.c.m. the !IlLII1ple of the inrormat ion to be tnnsmittcd is flm eon~rted 10 the nearest of a IIlled number of disc rete levels. To each of t~ levels h gi~n n spoda l code aroup or 1)mbol. con,ist;nlt or just pulses or the a bsc""" o r pulses. For example, ir a binary ,i sod;git cod e i. !x'inl uwl , the ocquence !KXJOOI mighl be used to ind icate " level I," ‫סס‬oo 10 level:!.:
.~.tems.

lltX.lOll level 3 and 80 o n up to 111111 which would repre5CIl1 " level 63." T hese code .. wo rds " can then be Iranamitted In simple c o-err ly j'>C of . i pUing, f or exampl e I cou ld be rep resented by a pulse. 0 by the a bsence of a pulse. In other wont s nO the infollJ1lltion is ~nt in a form of telegraphy, on-a t! or mark-space . The code gr o up o r word. on receipt , Is decode d to pve 11 level , whiCh ill o ur",ump lcoould be anywhere bet""",," 0 and 6 3. And a signal rep resenting th i, level can be lelletllted. If we transmi t la"", num~ o r t hese eode word s. with le~1s on sam phng lhr o riginn! wa,,,form. M the distant end we can re-create 1hc5c level loamplcs and by the lllrnplini theory meo tioned earlier in t~ introd uctio n to d liPta electronics, we lhen have thcneo::s.saryinformation 10 re<>a.te lhe equivalent o r the orl llinal siplal. The O\Ilpu l si&n&l h0wever will be con fined to the levels " provided hy o ur OO<le iJfOUP o r word ; l here il thus some inheren t d istorti on which .. termed qumtf/r<l11mt N>be . By u teod in, lhe number of levels in o ur code, for elUlmple by usln, eilbt-bitl per word instead of sis bi~ we can reduce lh is q uanlUalion no ise to any dcW ro,Ilcvel. The important advanlallCS o r p .c.m. are ilS czg:pU ona lly lo w slda:plibilily 10 nol.." 10 inlerfcrmce M d 10 di81Ol1ion o f lhe tignal, d urinllfVlSl1liulon or Ilora ae. and the ease: with which t he o rigina l wa~orm ca n be! ~l od . The p.c. m. syslent W devised in 1936 by A. H. ROC'ttS, flS who soon rea lized that it rouId be one of the most powerlul loo ls ever Invented aplnst the ell'fIClS of intcrfercng: and no;'" On lpec:o;h tr-ansmlssio n. BUI it w;U not until 1947-3 that pnu:t ica1 Implementallon of lpeech lransmiu ion by p.c.m . w... aUcmp tod and then , with o nly thermion ic valvea available. il Itill _mod mQlt unli kely lhat it woul d ever be widely u$t:d. 1t will be a ppRlciated lhal all the Iwltching and tliiPtai lulic operaliollJ requ ired to encode 1P"'"'I'h. trammit II. regenerate It and finally decode ll inyolves larwc n umbers of swilehing type ~tionl at ~ry blah I~ ; mo5I un.ultable Ior va lve cm:uita-bul rar. faJ' . impler with llCmi· conductOR an d Intca r& ted cireuitl . For a n umber of yean

""sed

M

.bJ .he w.e. .M. d 26d B and l ignal. This means th aI the bandwidth of a p. ~" od Iv d. I- ~ '.c to r diode In conjunction with the 8 Me '... I :" I . dl. _ 10 ... BlIt fortunately for p. mar&i. . wonls " w mide rably simplll'y the circu itry requ ired to con verl from aD~ 10 di lltal (o rm and 5ho u ld not be (lveTloo kcd as a fea.••1101.. 40 shows the es. "ne~ ~ .l" l lll"nod o n.tI•• d 1 •••1 Tho .locI. KI MHD . an d IheK io tum depend upon the bandwidth of the opcoch or other . hell nmltiplied 16 limes can he to a mulmum of 10 kef. such .I.fiddity broadcut Quality. where lbe w. v l la ~ ' ..unplill$ nile above 30 ke l' and a 14-bi Lwurd (13 im o n nali" n bill p lM a parity b iLfor errorch<>::kin Rj.. h • di.. ~ k -= ~ . .. provided that the sampling rato is above 7000 times II sea>nd . alld io Qual ity. CS Ilnd C6 al'<) aft«t Ihe freqllCOCY ()( ope ration ..(en).: . H .. H . 000 . "' • • • • • • • R 1_ ~ "Vj!!-i rt...<Dd.ntlal delails .. which IL1ll idOlllly luilN for muJtiplclling tOJlOlhcr II number of ditfemlt speech circui lS. p._ . w .01.-t. 0. is lhe fltCl r o tha t mIlkrs . ... n..nay be connected between C2 llnd R2 One e nd or the po t Is grounded.g.. panicUJarly (or whal an: ca lled urblin juncliQ Q routes of aboul 10 miles or "'.~ •• . .I• •• • !tn l Oa I....'tWYwosidembte distortion 01 the waveform can be lolem ted (this is of co une t rue o f c.la. Good ....In . h ..... j ust a lhree or four bit word.noise flllio bellu . ..' • .m.cquem.. " Fot hip.lour-dl.. Two smal l 9·v ol t balleries provio.IDd.n.M .. Adoptor f fH' A.15 and signllJ. .." INn••....to-noise . w mpact lUl d self-Q.._ ar _ . u... n..." 0 00" • .n be a good d<:aIless than the th<:on:tica l llglire . "' ~" wi.ll h ".. eryslal..Il. h.m_oiJDal ea. the !)'lItem might neve a s. dl • •• ....luI . the other end to C2 and the . : 0 ....le powc r for the t YPl' 74 l op-a mpl.c. frequcncy response to " 1«. .... ~ bit rate required fo r p.. lra nsrnille r 10 o pera te On lI. ..... .ntd liecoo: nnd the &a:cfllabk: level of quanlw. It sh ould he no ted t M I th e lr&nlffiissi<>n o f " high ·speed bit Sl ream req uires " subst antial bandw.tlv ._ a.. !. ). Nevert heless bccaUJ<: o f the t ra nsmission bandwidth p ..~ ible lyo len. a su iuhle va lue would be ~ K o hms..md centre froquelk. _ ..I.Iv " ~ .tion no ise. N H <I' .. 1973). ."y shoul d be . is .m ..11 <1••11 ..w... 0 ' ~ - .. hArmonic . and clippin g $0 effect ive) . (In C R I tllT s lhe junction eapacitanee1 lldjwment o f trllllsmiller freqy I1<....rn. .mln..mclI & second IllId coded into !levcn or ci$lu-bit wo n4 to provide 128 •• ~ls.. a varr.. OI '~ d l.telepho ne q uality " IlPC«h (about )00 10 3400 cis ntio of bettcr 11w1 4OdBl il t)'l'icaUy sampled llOOO '... no .. . ....c...1 ca h a l _ d .. u adap. r.' 1O O J .."' <k>nc: with t .h L and microwave b&ndl where t bey ~~t pole nt ially one (If the m 05t elfealve moanl of IrlllWTlill ing ope«h ove r lo og disllUlCCS ... s~tems.. II ii sUIted lhat Ihe l de via tWll .. a. +1 . _ .. Ul _ A 14 1 • -•• " fii1 ~.on.c..p .. '" " .peceh pro<. J _ .. nus ".d .y hllfRlooia....wn ... Si nce Ihe hi.8._ . with . ~ j "'''''n.. techniques are o f main interest fo r the u ...c. .' ~ . lIn! ..'.. Tron.. II b Ihus Quile p""ib\e t(l ""nYe)' lnl elli". ... i.e Ildapl(l. If IlOOCISllIY lin aud iO pin control . iper arm to R2 ._ <OdoI .M N hl< . (this does nol mean that ' ho ld be ~tod with this deviation i).:.m ... . baDdw idlb..nce usin ... _ to "".' n _ of _ p. 16 ... a lld CRI delerminc: the amou nt of de viat ion.-dorm of t he outpulIiJR'lI In the hcadplwocs usu a lly has very lilt le resemblance to an ideAl on-o ff seq uence o( M o rse c hanl. h. described by Austill DaVitt..l.. in the ordinary Idc:pbonc net· works....IHo _ _ • • .ocI _ • ••• p • • IocI. uooted earl ieT. _.es wou ld Rqu inl el<' tremel y wide b8nd wid lh if lhis had t(l be don e without dist ortion of the pulse weverorm.. hich en a bles allD05I llIly 144 Mc /~ a. MV' . . The c rys ta l frequency can be trimmed by C4 for co rrect nettln.. Tho d _..cssin. .. IIwI 7OdO.. ' o v n d .m. . . hil. in QST (July.. ll d. . ioto:nct ion bet ween lhese components a change In one vatue tnlly require eet c ha ngel elsewhere...m... . T 070< h Dw ' .. hort . repetitive waw:(orm of p ulses of short duration mUSI a lways wntain many bigb (.. n J. d l .lo. l _ I. .... . D_ _ . nce II. On the o tller hand il sho uld be DOled that speech in telli Kibility is co nveyed almosl elllirdy by f~uency and Iwdly at al l by lUllplitude (thl. ..... fun<':lio n of the number of di~le lewis and the b""ic samp lina: ra te. Th is means IM t the tra nsmission (If • sems (If hi(lh speed pul.>ntalncd adapter . 11 . _ d l.F. bo ..."'.. A wnvenieat ..teurs .. ~inee there I. AMATEUR RADIO T ECHNIQUES now & grea t deal of use has beo:n made of p. (or IUnl. . ( H .. ~ -. o " a .

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.ble ' O<' p o .. .". l)cpendenl upon the sell Ul. res tsto r-rra ns..~ . .d ... _ .n nstruct"r o r ('le. . J .J. 1978... .... ' Upd"t'fd O ne of th e keyen thai mad\: .:irL 2 .. '''. the cycle staru IIp in..... po wer con~umplion. Til! ... co ntac t A I brea ks the supply and (. HIN ABO. . Relay A is a minia ture scaled rela y mad e by Ma..L [ VOLUMEI TlIc key. I . wriles . . rate. is i '" "1 r .:1 discha ren lhrollll. 00 d o ~ a D<! " per cen t on d MheS) .c keycr wilh low. C H 0 1 .. so t«Iuci ng po wer eon <llnlpl ion to. <:l. SO per cen t of (. 12 'lOllS. uPf'ly voltage Cl n be from 3 10 IS vnlt~).} ~.. r ... in. . In nrioul fllflm il remained popul ar f<..00' " ... but CSSCllu ally the oriainlll OZ 7110 & proa ch. h liminl rchlt.. ..~. . ~ ... TONEl I + sv •...... .....n be acq uirN V<lry cheaply.. I c .. .~I(. ". T .. 5 Fl f ' <!o d " " ~ ~.I ·b y .. . TM IOllic M uangtIllcmt is de rived direcdy fro m /I.. Th e qu an til)' Ilr charge in Cl dccidC'l how lon. '... ooR o.::J ".:MOS-ly>'C e1eclro n. .. When tile p.. when the pot cntial between the buse o r TR2 a"d C'OU"th falls below 1)-6 vohs . ' " •• • .• NE!I!I!lV .. ~ . ""." lilt)' " ~. .. for P o rloble Un In C Q· /)f.. tant dil-oJlI.. It hili been upd . D ua ' Po la ... 'The usual rn..ll"" Ihortly after 8 and Ihis dclerrnin"" Ihe . s ~ U HO lI v:llIOD .. . 1 "" RLAI t '2V 02 780 Key. . itIVfl the ea r is to inco rrect dotJ l pace raliO$! The ke)'inK paddle is • piece of "u it.e.. are Cllpable of millions of operatiom and ea...1. 43 ) using... .!I ~ -c I . hycr u.. When A releases . h. ~ eying seemS tn Il'oubie the ..lrunic hyen. Oft... "..'" AMAT EUR RADIO TECHNIQUE S No switch is needed since no CUrni m is drawn from tile 9-"011 1rlln~blor radio ba ttery excer>t when the ley iii depressed. net ic Devices Ltd. N 0<>0 _". . • ..'" 11411.. .ark~paeo rntio chocks CIIll be made uAinK all oh rnn\Cter (t. 000 Dh m ' . .I.• 0 .. for CM OS I" n Mar t... m. ... .n Nned i"ll. per iod ..lllp le of trBm isto .po .~ SPH" " ~ Bob Hearon. ¥ ¢ .. .'hen worki ng . g i ll be adjus ted fro m about 5 word~lminulc "l' to around J(I words/minute lind it shou ld be found Ihat al abollt 18 to:20 word~imlnule a ll the prese u art: ver)' close to mid-positions...... VJ 11... § . l 0 ... space .u put togetbet a keyer (Fill.. 1:1 $I"' • 4711 o . Ihis IS a check wonh makinl sioce it IS slIprisinK how sc:n. " 011 1 pola nI)' 11 Re lays are viewed with suspicion bu t sea led un it.onship inc. . Relll)' » isa roed rday fro m an ex-comoerer pan el.l for speNs I I rn>m " ~ 10 ~O halld.. relay A w ill rclc. .c~.. .. ••• c ._..IU .. _ ohm.. . ma king it suilabl e fo r I"""Ql>lc ojlemlio n. . C U.... ' . Urs Hado m . p . .l.10.6 ... s ~.. . T he keycr is Imcn<1ec...ldd le is operaled bot h relays A and B o perate ...ri l:>cd $Ome yell" ago in QS7"."".1 inlaininll H co n. . RUl! ¢ '¥ ~ o.I G3JIS. of RV3.. .cd by using C MOS devices.bly~haped dou bleaided copper-elad bOllrd atl ached to a small piece of junio r hacks aw blade damped witb smal l b10clLs of foam spongy material. CMO S £ /_8. 12 vollS (H C6U size). • •ofJ'hIIVI 2:J IIOh.. -t .lr many yell. r\'lll impact o n cloc:t ronic: keying in the 'forlies an d ' [. p.. .. LA8AK ..'O n~ . . par licularly .. tm C MOS dev. .y l.. OJ Till ..fl ics was l/wl by lhe l" lc OZ 7BO using relllys an d tri odes.·ll'llic tRT L) c. . .l erc:ffik'll of Ihe keylnll. lty Ke yl" .. ... ... described a (.h R V2 and RV3. relay B rt:leu es. No 1... .. U b l.. ".. . ....... GSJt-Y. D will hold up and this ISldjusled by RV I 10 de termine the " do ts " .lC5l. modest 2 rnA al ') 'loll s (.

. a nd ca n be bas ed o n slarl<la...1 vonagcs \II' 10 Sll vnll•.litl .w. ivinll srauon :l l~rnli". N o pro blems o r RF I a re e~ rtt: rie n"e d.:<I oUI " n M keyboard. The ~r>cci r~ed I rlln ~. i. y ~ 7_uni l < "Ode lo r c. Is this ""...wild ) a nd l he jac~ . r' wblch make il d iflk ult 10 vary the lrn nsmi. peciflc Ira no. measu red in haud ..'o' '" aL~ ~!@ '" II ~OO<~ .. and d... " r Iwo 1000 pI'" . ' 1l1...k. .leg".. or eicctro nc system s in .ll.. ).d d. shou ld r . ad io T elepri nter G rou p. III "ell below nurmal power level.. ....> ". . ilh LA8.s the m" SI "ommOIl fo..o uld l>c I'< ihle 10 u".~etl : orbe r mac hines "perille a l a st>""d sc i by a " 1I"" ~rIlo r ' a ".II/I'i' (I.. Al Ihe lra nsmili ing stalio n. ch"k e.~..j ' Il "' . so ar ranJed lhat (u" liLe Mo .:rc are Dnllmbe r of '· . A swileh selocls Ihe " m. ~ " n P ...... key·. s.1 i. ~gcs arc IYI. .p\u.llntl whcn ' · un " t:otfcs a n..' ilIA.rn. i""" . with a Ill1n....:>. Ir h' llher vollUIl"" ure cllCoume rnl .eh ellrrcn l .. IN " b tween t he .. and Ill. using f.' (~ J"- r. .Irai II 10 be used W C MOS-l) !'C ")'> lCIl1.AUD I O ~OO AND M O DU L ATI ON m up USinll .) is ust:tl 10 co nvert i nco m i . and " ". used fOI Rr TY it will be fou nd lhal a \IU<II1 .tor ' N . <.e. fhe lotal dra ln from Ill. ill iast a long lime. while Ihc mos l tOrn mO" tb la cod e is ASC II or lS07 8· unil code (1· Unil otrmhut C1Mle pillS11 pa . overno r·pdju slinll 8~ n..:..) or ..TlInlletl so llla l ' h~ rrcq nency ~hill i5 upf'IiClI h ' lin tlo<: illillur. R1T Y_lh~ ~a"y way ...II)'. •• mark" and O •• spoce" .tm" will 1"11""...nl~rli ..<.Or I'r< lleclion.'· ""'" f.. ~ aud io signal. 1rou Nes Itt... . lone II I II .mille. .1 •. " (T ..e.." ple I>y rnt:lI n~ or '" v"lIlIb var iablc-cilf"'d laIlCC .... S". 'el)· lillie ad dil i"nal cu " elll .).m ....". T he usual code is a ' · unil internmio na l code (CC ITT No 2 code ) • hhou lth oomrnt:l'Cial.ion speed.a. LAMAK mou nled a switc h o n the ". TS. o prinler : Ihis involves eo nverlloll tile siilna l.>nlinllOU..Ii. R2(l o n h. paCiIOr>lind a 100 o hm d . 3 mplifyinil Ihtse " gna ls 10 provide OU lpUI... ". r m3Y be used ."'hieh Ihe key.) a nd req uire adjuslmenl (Creetl MlttJc1 7 by 7f ao(ie loek..d.vc 0 oom[tlcmcnlary pa ir or devices. n:l1l II) key lhe d ilrer~ nl I rn lls nliHe r~ wnn Y .... /3 Imud .. td le fo r" Ir~n~m il ".~ r" r C...1c andiu lun"" h.......c.u.1". hieh lbe most commo n is .. hillh d Uly cyd~ m". into co nSlanl· amplilu.d inl 10 II!<' ..k r~ uen cy shiT keyin. .io n!rec:eiv inll sP. speed 3000 r.. n ...·aves to elimiM le Ihe dro.cclly or a "I {M '~1 I ica lly fro m punc hed tape .. machines inte nded fo r line o perati o n may 8 110 need modifi cali o n 10 r~duce " hash " R H ... fl" ...c. r""ll" menl uf T'i.na lly devel"""d lo r Iand·line nper.. h 1 lISe Ihe v. (bu t no le Ihal hc<. are bf(lu... . ilh"u l . This ca n be accom pli..il>le 1 l" e lhe 0 . hleh Iypically ma y be N:l'llflllcd hy 170 Hz. lud inll IllIee CMOS de vice. f. ily check I>ill. IlJ ....U. '.. I~ proteclio n diod e con d ue ... inlo II (o.rid. igna l· lo-noisc: rn' jo is net:dOO al lhe nx:civing end 1 provide rcaso nat>l y ~rror· free copy. m " f mad ."" ap\'Cnr o n a " "Ullt dIsplay unit ( v. ha ve 1"0 ".gnal· ~nl ·· o r lransm lssioo S)"Slems in use or .}.adi" ld erri nling .... c''Cf. .alllC period 01 lime. .' And m051 dual pi..ht mto synch ro nism Slnrl Ull" sillnal• .....rily .".1 it is p.nil l i.. 'c:d d""ill" in or de r to mabie II k~Jer imen ded ror .. 0 even Iho ugh he n il's 200 walls illr"l o n 144 M l tl and II Tri " '" ::J ••• 4' .lll1 i" . Tde"'-. h a ~ hc:c n meas uretl nl I .. in[tU1 le . a simple 10 .. • • '" '" " .. tIDnsm in.. I" tra nsm ission . equal to a "Ill. 0 aoo inlerrel'COCC ma ~ ceusc lhe mae hine 10 prim inco rrecl s)·m hok.. slicin.".n devel"p inl" a c"rn· plic..he<J 1M an I . Ihe k ey i n ~ of .1 pro ve posslhle 1 lind lin Illlen "' I. . ..' of one bit per second j in aCCtm la ....: 4·' von "'U lery... Each ro-m of telcpri n l~r pro vitles a keyed d ..~ ~OO. en<-':>l-"'lered 'I . " peenion fo r l1I ninll (i. ! -" " .. . <-. A useful guide (0 t he elemen ts o r R·n ·Y.A K hu found Ihe . ly (100 per cenl dUly cy<: lcl b'll Ihe r""luency i5 shifted bclWft'fl lhe " ma rk' and "SPIlt e" l""I uenelCS . The Icleprinler coce e ronsider('(\ In lite fo rm o r " rnarks" (on ) and '· SPR~ •• ( off)...I. • polSl livc· key. e '-------Quick Guide to RTTY--. is puh lished by Ihe British Amat eur Il.i gnals 01 opposite po l:lrily .l" . uilahle T r r"".~n: ''' 'I:. AI Ihe ra ..lc Iq"" n: .b.rll< 'lu'r : il reqinr. In Ih ill syslcm II C I Mrle r i5 lransmh lctl ct.. ilullli" n·l . Noi"...I". fo r 4 " ~ ba uds . I rll n smill~r hy fee<l inll the a ppru priM o lllrkist'll< sin.... wll h II " aooa rd Id cllra ph cod e.allSC of 1Itt.l e " 11 ".l ~ of fad in\!: the I lSC of I lreq uency co nverle' 10 conver t Ihe rretjltO IlCY d ifference betwee n IW aud io 10llCS into d. 1 ..wl 10 red uce meter speed 10 2727 r."'.... in e~w ooerauo » stncc he has no wi..s. hlueki "~ k~)'i ntt (' 1 lllive· keyinW )· .. Iypically of ± 10 ' ·0111.in<. .r.....! a ball~ry . " (a.. Olher u ".p. d ily derccsed . ilUt.s .nsruiuefll a n: a.p . . <l i<Mtcs such '" IIY I06'1 .he. I . .tl" m<tn: ""ph~l ica lcti l mosmi"ion SySlffllS.. "I .'iMi njt . in Ihe keyer pro per." Il" 'C v" h ll ~c II' in t:llhodc t eyin!!) 10 be u<al Ills" in conj urn:li... irn. wro n.. r". C"nve nlionlll RTT Y is 00' a Iully " synch ro no us " sYStCm bUI Ihe IW Omachine.. hlch can 00 prepa retl prio . Mllny surplus machines are designe fo r ' O· ba ud u~ra l ion (mo lo. b.r"i... nnd senl eilhc r d i. rreq ucncy shifl keyin.hich lite "'••. ~.) th.... OlllSl he of""aIN r..• ."el e\ery symbol oceopics the f..s.rn.t. SUfI'lus I tkprin l~'" may have ~YJlc h ron" lts mo".idely lL5Cd fo r MrtUl lellf RITY (allh uuJ:h Ihe UK tc ee ce no longer Insuts o n Ihis re te). ull... provid ing meHlIjtCs 0 11 rolls o r raper la pe in II page form al . "'.le /IIA I I I o r 'C even silkon po.f... tr omaJ:net ic Iclc[trinlc". Ih.. is uSlially possible tor t hese IU be nl<ttJ ifu:d to use at 4' " baud....wise lurns of . and ~uth e<roo arc nOI rc.. u"" . it sho ul. lhe ""'" ." ..

nnd I:!OO Hz fo . pcrm in ing .i~ bl y lower d"rlllilioil lh an hr oaclensl .II'''' an"l Tl1-ei~er..is~ion) 1I".. c l<_. nju i ~m('m _ Ill" 'p lelll ":>c:i lI f' f' r"".... $~ n. l ' h "" in o t""l . Tb il is .."<hahF o r p holo gra ph" •·.. me ra te Or 0 "'" o:otllp1< l" p.II I"W U roc l o f pnUI"u ' ' . i. 11 niclure " lemCllt.. " >"il able rw U~ on h. To dis play SST V picture.1I"' '''.:d) f o n nudio ta pe casscnes.: ".i . P7 phospho.h.--Quick Guide to SSTV. in eunju nclion .. '"n" I'h..tlro I r<l nsmis.r. au .. h.< . k I~vel. · l f"' r<i< t"oc" I"ho<l"h".Siow-Mdln lc1t~islon is a r' N"m of ~. ... r<'<lll itC'd (e. ioll (no rma Uy 120 lin"" in' tcud "f 6 2~ /~ 2 ~ Ilou. llh in Ihe boInd widlh nf . SSTV 5 i ~ oKIl can be I«Mded (O u.). Ion... 'M ny " m.:ln mk co nv" rsion In allow the 5 S rv p i. 'n ..r..'"Ond.o nal 1r.n ll ie....al TV ''«('i vc.s) w.. lind ~ .... .. T" .udio cqu.' f'O!I'ihlc to UM: slow-lo-fasl.ilh lhe nccnollry achic~" nnrrow m ndwid lh.. u m~ I('l1r ha nds. lr" n. p . 1~""Ut.I". H..lUnn is .~ion I'<'qui ti nll . lcur< find the .AMATEUR RADIO TE CHN IQUE S ' -..s':'1'l el"..'wcv~ .Jon e by Irc nsmis." h y"lIn w fille r to mini mize tbe visibility o f the blllC' shott · ren " tc:ncc phOSl'ho r antl h il:hlighl lhoe ltlllfi·!'fncislence yello w plwspho r).Iy a na rrow ba nd o r r~ l&' I< ie5 (nul 3". va ryinll fro m 2300 Hz fo r 'p<:~ k white 10 1'00 Hz for bl" ." " of co r"'c nl.·.. iliary "'d~. lo&elllcr w... al'" Ihl\l1 s.". lra n'IIl.n seven or ".zing info rma li" n..s"'~'" ~II Jnfornl.. ahernalively il IS no .:alhotlc-ray 1Ibc with .. ro rma tion .t1ctl >iltnal has In < ey inrornHui on On Ihe lumina """ tt\laek Ihtoolh ((ley to "h ilel o f "". . pmen l .".. ~I ~v . The i)">tcnl is Ihus ""IriciN I" Ihc 1I1lnsmi>sil>l\ ur U JCric:s o r "l ill piClur es rUlhc r than Ihc movin~ nictur es "r normal tcl c~ision...lm"" to he di slll.ilth! = omls instead o r !$!30 frames per fICl. ~ed on onr"..1 is lh.ltli" <'PC'lJli<:In.J " rr. io n ur ~n a udio lun e (l ube" " i"...lh oynctlro n...g.han ~-.:tur.

tl'>cy have very low forward resistance and biih rcver5C RSistancc. o f <. at rectificn.In&lY in 1M 1. power . ev. and I of 0'1« 100 per cem...001Olle..ll# Sllrl/.iency o f the 100 a m v..II h i. ean bel made R$ oornlW:t a ImaU l'l:Sisto~.lchinl/.lano and illtCllc rll..l'$ has m<..:cnt. 0 easy 10 des tro y silicon diodca-logcther o flcn enou l/..I...ulted in hasis T HoEnrise \lSe n f i<:ondhigh-eu"" nl>tasuppli".liona po i"l increa singly 1 s uch.Il. and wh o may not CYCll ha ve rull malt er'1 information o n th c diadCli he wishes clips.. iro n-co rc<. All these points la 'll" ." " ir.li f\c-r which i$ hiih·c urre nl . ilioon dloo cs_ somc800voll (c.en i". o r fro m llllttninl/ stril C5.b le ubinct SflllllC.es are 1MW.w.. A melll ~ rectifier ta kcs up oo nsldcr ab lc sp3OC ..lio n in Nral &r C8ll IlInn In urban Fint.. W Ot.\ 00 per cenl. Aft er a lt. 5CVCrC a.nd o f longer du tll. he o pcm loo from A frcquenl l.. It CILll bellho'Nn simpl y (th ou llt painfully) by louchinl/...:l a t th e PTl:"CllI stalc of Many or the presenl In ' hn iq ues COI n be Im C«! d irec lly 10 the art and PArtly fro m 1M i.ntinl/ freq ue ncies lh an th e ~ or 60 Hl Whal thai are the sn" lP? TIle main p ro blems an.reat <ka. lio n. . ket or mo un tinl ap pear on hi. a well-designco:l power supply wilh l ilicon di odcs is net likely 10 pro ve ebev e ncrmal . t is For ma ny a p plical io ns. o r 650 vol ts peak.. incma...mll l a bove aboul 1 limp . tins ." "r =-ve ° . whidl ill why cooling fins a n: filled .1 of rectl licl'$.SECTION S E V E N Power Supplies lower lo rward rCSlUarlOC and IS u. inhcre lll unreliabilil y of silicon diodee. and 8 or 70..r. l upply sw. Silicon Aooct .Ul 1.'OSt th&t it is 1111 too 1 alTet:t electric Ilppliano:::s (K lamps. who willscldom ward resislaDCC tends to inct'tO$\l with ap:.10 amp range.p..h idl may cause Iud! dTccu lIS osc illat o r drin.' f in.rttry and ma illS s up plies as a n " lle rnal.0: rn:wemplinea r low-voltage..m. Metal rcct irlCn hllve lIPPreciabl c fOfWllr pJ . 4 or 40-70 pcr 0 Neither valve nor mctaI rmifien can meel lhc definition t.. bUI flU rna"... durins: a period of tlx wecl<s Iile follow .0be mnsidcrc:d as ha vinj with lhe typcand ma ke of.gc on 230 \1011 maim IS cq w~alen l 10 460 volts r. lill a req uirement fu r lemperalure l'D.1". "' ell·' lal'oi hud h illh-\'<."""" wh ich Wl.lll.. \ wilbltood by diodcs· manul aet ute.c<!ucing lhe weigh l nod vol ume of r><. in o therwi se well dcsi~ed power su pplies . Ihou ah . o r thc two . Ihere lias been 1I w n lin ued """". has a ". low. ofIeli Lllltrnln. requite wcdaI mo untinjln th c form of a valvc soc. 1 main:s. etsewbere is now known 10 be th e momentary vO ltaae I urp which ooxur at Irregular in le rvals Oil IlK: d earie lupply Why U. we have l:>cm usina thermioni c and Dudley. Surrey. aelenium metal rcctirocn h.o l>lc" . ind ud inll 1'' '' 111 hk: a".ioon rnpid ly <>\1. Silicon... YCl)' lillIe h..l Ileat . "'l1l'l ifl<..: con tinue d lhc rm io nic dcv.:a nl lha l lhere .llC or silicon diode fai lurca in this c:oo.. and bel simi la rly supported dim::t ly In thc wirinl . The !IlI\Illicr l illcon dlod es ha" e no ne<:<l.. The val vc rcctlfler m ust 1\1.here tbc normal ~ 1It\Jlinll: dc!IilPl pr oblema.u\ce is SO lo w.lppily cnouah for ~ aod have substan tial OVCtVOlla gc:s \VCfC rceordcQ: 3S of 20-40 per cenl them well tamod. The subject is of l ufficienl importan«: to lIt"lUler hal fuoctioocd co tn:<:tly. Suc h ltal w cnts may Iasl o nly a o f the Ideal rect ifier. fu r high _po".. Because of th e low forward resist ance. ter aupplies an nee ded . Butl l ince a 100 per eeee ~) an d infin ite impedance In the othcr (revcrac rel lslam:e).h . o r r . lran sien ts uc more caD be a\lOidcd . n o h .>1tage uni l• .. pIU'1lcuinr mains supp ly.. or th e dctcrioru.Uon of rubber wirin llllfld c lectro lytic capacitor&. both " har d diode QtI readily pt!SI destnlCUvcly hi~ CUlTCIIU if vaeuum" an d ...a n p rese nl ". ove rvo lta.. lICI'TIll\I'1ium h..v. kIlu lIC Ihe forw ard res i$l. o perations. the o fsem ucl<>n has ""..... and t&Il .1livcly high · usuaJIy tl!Ilcd rOl'" un liml led 1ll ~lilll llUlCOUI peak CIllT\'lltl) .. ThUll bo th vlll~ have any n: liable inrormat ion on the o verv oh al/. the o vcrvolta..es amounlcd 1 27 o r 2040 per ca ll. a l present prices.. Gennan lum and silicon Junction rcctificn are m IlCh nearer Ihe ideal. 1in lilt: ""rly 'siXlies o r silicon po_r ..1ly wed fo r carrenu o f 1c5!I than 1 amp. llcral le m. Itln t>crrnorc the for_ 13ro volts..i der :.vol llll-'<' . Prcs lUllo:l.:k: ba lleriat. oo-ver liM.. deriv cs from Iile power wh id> Is heln l wa:ltcfu11y diss ipaled Th e bllill·ilI protect illn lIpinit \IOltagc transienu vari es Inside it. ide r_ add up to a h iihly clrJCimt rectific r with very ~l advan laFS .v. . . caU ICS InInsicntx 10 a ppear on th e power lines by because 1I11u fficicni &lIClltiotl ha s been paid to fundamcnl&1 direct Ilrike 01" b y induct io n... II-solid ·l la le " e'l Uip menl h.. " pplie< 1(1 e lla ble rc l. Ihe Iil.nhcrmt bilh cffil. tht:sc overvollal/.1 Ihenni<Jn i<: .....i l. con sider why it ill wonh bothering about 11.l Ch O~C5 a nd tmnsrcr mers.) a IImlled life. Fo r th e amateur desilflCl"..ve In veh i. li&htly lcss elT. ludin.. And ...'ted lo r cu.. types ha vc Il'llrtu cnt invcl"lC \IOllqc n1liIlp or ar(lund rcsl~Wt ce .:h niljllCS as ' '''ih:hcoJ. dU rlnl a pe riod o f 121 wceltl. 7 o r 40-70 per o. but ill llWly of th c earlier di odes th e margin is a aood dcaI less.. recorded lian ltlcan tly cl>capcr than with Olher t ypes of rectifiers. A I wilh tnetaI c\' "OlWln ica l way s of oom hall ing Ihe infla li" na ry . inle rfCfCncc ....<'Dlll dem and arose fo r unfavourab ly wilh Ihe a vet1l$c selesuum rco. .r unils a nd I\:g Ulnl0rs 10 la ke IId"" ol llge roctilicn . lha l il to say .Cl can all 100 eas ily result in scmlcondUl:1ot failurcs. t.' " likc ly to and mc talrectificn occu py apprcc:ia.CU' . of too short du rai ton Man y am a leur s haVCI fouOO 10 their l.r. II will bel a p precia ted tha i Ihese envclopc IlIat a valve rectiIIu bas a fairly h iah forw ard rc:sWance-Ihc hich Opcrallnl lcmpaatu rc of the envelope volt... A M"IIard in\"cstiralion W>owN lhat for llXllml'le. aDd llCt\crate a .. me" ry va po ur " w oes : bUI it was no l voltages a rc a pplied even for a Ih o rt period (Chill com pares un1il l he laIc ''\<'Y<:nli lha l a sign ir... lco.a l ma i"" 5UI'pIiM: ah h ()tJgh swilch ing-mo de fro m Ibe rela lively 1 '" tllllllt inverse volla lCS w hich can bel 0 unil' ". aod how they IIIll1llet usc o r o__bcad lince..l: which o ffers zero few m icmseconds and hav c lillie eaect 011 va lvo rcctiCIcl"I impcdaDco to cum::nt flow In ODC d iRction (fo rwar d rcsi$(cxa:r"t some large lla:I-fillcd types' ..l mulli l.. At ChClUll . h ror rncll1<'I<l.. dis tricts . ligh tnill. need 100 vc:ntilation.. dissipaled.i cnl ...r u nil' .. T ills is not due to an.for many ap plicallon s o ver aU th e cartier types o r ~r 0 mode (inverler ) po " . even .. a <1evi!. Slleh "on. paTtly u f e" nvm llot.bly boca o f thc lUfl jUltify a review oI' how these breakdown s OI. wilb TbeIc transient overvolla ga enee nti se during po wer l he UIOCi&lcd mains tramlormcr....

reak invenc \loltages . a ~ ('I Pu ll w • • • I>.on will be roughly 2·8 x l SO volt. .. "1 • <... no protective wum-up time so Uu. Fo r e.> th ink in ICrlTll <. lit leas t .. Vl)lta~ wllleh ea n be accept ed (o r II."CIl1hl". w w .\I.w. _ 0·' K f • • I " o t •• 1>• • • 1 .. AI wilh mercU!)' vapour an d o ther low impe<!lulcc recti_ 6en.lpcn sivc COlllpo nent and there are nuuw ap plicatio n.. ". t nn.wvaJ\lagc:s in mims d i lf~n t Iypes 0( d iooes).e hi gher Ihe ~VBK m1' laJK:C of an y pul icula r d . CIIpllCilOr fCl"I"C&ClItI an -'most dir«.illcr .eh r. ca pacito r of the con vc:fItloILll rip ple lill".lGl. Fi.. G U • I . ~ OC(lDom 1caJ1y practicLl.l-V.fonner.I.\e. An lICt.h di ode were Prcclsel1 the sa me. in serics with One of 800 pJ . l(rnil Is reach ed whe n an y o ne of the r1iodcs hu . o f a bout 1200 WIlts.e. 980 voUs.v . ""hidl ou..llage d ro tll.! limes that of nOrlll:l1 <:an be ~cral ed Ihrou&h the sudden i DlCrruptiO... vo lUill" OUlput . A ran ll" or u p 10 ) to I Iw bftn quot~ even (or the AmC make and t )'llC of di o. sur ge h mitiJlll l'e'<i.v. · former..'. in practic1: WIl mighl well decide to nse th ra: 400 p. u • tr. whe re th it.to h. rather lhan of on e u~ina: a ]<.~.mtt three diIJlnIIl v. ~I. (..rormcr and r«:t. by .ill now durin. TIll.. m e rex. (e.. In sud! (. A Jin gle d iode: ovItlllhi... .. . Add ilionally...i...citlve load soch as ItIaI prc&eIllal by the racrvOl. «) H.tillcatio n clficiClX:1 uK! the ptel'&Ilo~ 01 lIdd illol\lJ heal..roortltJll since we enen lettd 1<.i~ 400 p.3SO volt tron. Un(orlW>&ld y. ruting would ten d 10 be rat ha Clrpcrllive. ~iticrs) o... The p. ~ wOM flOS!iblc co nditions eccur wilen the swi tch cl o!ltS a a<:tly a l lhl: pu. " practlc&l 1a!~lUlIId iJ 10 jeeve t he most ...\I.I. G ' -d ." o.llanl p. . _ mus.!IC~panaCl ean be found am on..t sh lln -<:in:uit KJ'OSS tbe ou tput o f the TtClificr.~ aJma n cqUAl l1 bc1wem th o dilX!co d""pile any crrrerences in the d . thaI . o r choke) is cncrltil.~ i cn l vo l la~ o f a peal ampli lu de severa. rety. Il_ov.. It ep' '"""" ""nri de M g th e d""i &/l " f a po we r (0) ___ l'Iy. The peak aIff'eIl l wh ich wi] Dow at IWitch-on Wlll lkpend upon Ow: preeae mo ment ¥I the a. $ur.. aut work inS volla p ) wbkh will 'TlIc Ii... this problem CIUI be: 1ar"ly $fIlve4 by "". ~ will ~ 1' • _ . th e reverse l'CIislan ee of CUlTCrlt t yllCl o( silicon dIodcs vary _PP·e d_bly.1.t co mmonly used d rcui ll ({heac thC<l~tir:al llillfCl igno ~ lran .oopting Ihe lerm . P.e.I f'l. output rs ] ' 18...l i vety .v. A typiutl value would be 150.~ then . " U . di odes wo uld be needed in lWO :scries.. .re o f the t otal inverse \lOlllllle.1• • ' o od ." AI Ibe moment of $Wi1chinll OIl.."srOtll\C.. K E" or 1-17 ICrics (we co uld US<" " oe d iode nlleO at 400 p.Illil' lication fact<. lha t o f a potentiomete r rompr. AMATEUR RADIO TECHNI QUES to I. or ~ E ~ ..lalioll rcr the: mo.(). lypeS in TI1Ul.t do IOmethin l to limit the bi llb volta I C and cw mlt ' W"JCS thai Illcvitabl..od es thenl$lva.ticr lIavi".o.. ( h dl ) . . reverse veItage o f 400 vclu. .argjn. II lUi14ble value relistOf wo uld be 100 o llm s." I• • un<l r Iul..v.\I.. k 10< ( _ a l>o ..000 o hms. of <. In th is calcuLt lio n it h. em an equaliz7<lg ll:lIi.v." U below 1200 volts unl~ elllb<!r:tte Iters ha ve been taken 10 ma ldl U_ J'on unarcly Ihl. If 11.onvnicnl.. bU as we ..i . ld • • •octifie• • .sl the lwo a re not t he Mme .v. • E 1 "' _ ~ P. U o ppo'lCd 10 Ihe tran~cn t ra tinl which is _ hi. outpa l.. inp ut to the RiClifien and the tt roret ical e. to bypa..Wl1Stanoc:II it is h ighly adviJable to lit a aurIC Iimilin.lue ""ilIonIt. ~.nJuil~ belween !hc e.u lhe di ad et but thi. appear II<. The a~ acres clea rly sh. ) ). . These rt'5i.c. fro m the theorc\i c.. 8 ~.v.tl. . to r is roughly 30 o bma per di ode: tb ur with a seriGl m i ni o f tlll'tt di odes._ Urnlllnl Wicon or mercury-vapeur With an y rcrt....!~JYE ] rl t AU lsrlVt: ..If. A~llll.....te o r fullW\lW ei n:ull (Fig. are p:neratcd wben e.. _ . (or gett ing th.m .. the rdalively anon dUly-cyck of the rcdi6er.. ~ .) ] II]I..i. would be t2(X) VGIU o nly If tbe l'C"iCnC l'CIi'l ancc or Cl\<.i.. each diode (u shOll'" be don..r II 1l\31"di< com ponen t b ud!.) - I "I (. thou ah a t the 0. the IoilJ... rgilzd. evcIl lhouah Ibis resuru in SOOlC 1055 o( n:o. apptar in power sUl'fllil'$ /II lhc: mome nl o f cwilchml an d durill il mains oveTVo ltages..~trin&l o f th ree d iodes each.! can be in. g .. diod cs are likely 10 ha ve _ combined !ll:rics ntt.U1TtJI1 by " vudtinlWe th us have IWO main dcs i. prote ca n be o vercome by ~~' rmcctin.i.l ol'l wilh It serics llrl nll' o f dlode3 unlell _ _ _ _ J .cd Of oJ_ ". To pro vide _ rcasoniIblc margin of .til1~ oect. th il cllanllC Will IIlw im p rovc vo ltaae rqulllCion...c...k or the sine wave. hl . d i<>tia in scrie$. will he ad vi<ahlc ro r eacn lO:Iion to hllve a pj v.... v. Rm ln• • suppl y using silic:on d iodl'$ ill lO calculate the basie peak in ve_ vo lUlges ( lu t i... . Th. 1 4 0 ..:001 <>f lOme lowerinl of d.v. r/ltlng of ea ch diode. oocondly ...l ..) for the muimum p<lak Yolt..l.tins voilaI"' ( rnca. _ • 1I..1 it q.. l ok G O-4S K . .ho koInPlIt ra lhcr \haD a CIlpacilivo-UlPUt..l. possi ble wo:I y ... I . r. whim I. problC1Tll : In the finl " iaa we rr\lul make IUfC that under normal wo rkin g cond itions we an: kocp lnl well with in the p.I"" of lhe caPKilo r b h igh.lf3&CI...."oir . t~n large oealu:u rtenlS .. a ppr«ia biy hijl. P. Cc n si!kr th e cu e o f th e very populu bi-ph a. TbllS with a 3so.'• • 0•••• 1 .v ... aUow a certain lUTI<lun l of e." U Id. across coch Ictt o f lh e rtetifICf \I a pprollimately equal 10 2. fo r the power supply._ . rarms o nly /I smo ll pan nl"thc ripple curreet . some d i. mi>cd l ype! WId ma...OIC. ~ _ _1 .er t han the 2·S used. w .>r 10 <.e.lly the voltage d islrih ution ac ross llle th ree diod es TC-.'. momen l/lry period eore"/... ~p "' v .. <....i.un under n o rmal re perm ve eonl!it ion .) lIQ'OU each half oflhe uan~former RCOndary wiro:linl . the p. II 2 (a bou t 2 '8) times tbe IItemo.. lhe J{l't\Ittcr will be it .. . hBll oce 181 the re are I._ I dl 1pow .Y.1 d.s." . Some mal e n distinguish bel ween these two pro blem. Th e 'IItlllC of lhe resistor rnll11 be ~lll. ripple fIIln' .. the IhFft 400 p. P..Ied VR -tllbc:s and el«tro lytic ca pacitn Tl).l...It·Wln ...>bta ln the p.. " because th e In.i. TramiCQI .:ef'Iable value for . tn' au. o f co W'SC. Since. (d) H. A sil icon l'1'd i ~ r h.I&&C . c. I llt o "". TIli. resin or between th e rectifier and the reservca « paci lo r.etc.ode. incidentall y for .Iiol.u bcfl\ ~..malt compared with the reverse "".iSI&nl:Cl " f the diodes. Ho~er.uunp lc. we C&n 1101 jusl co nnect Itlreoc 400 p..hi'" much grealer d. The rClll.I.>f It 3SO volt power supp ly.. enerola.. . " low fnnwllrd J'fti&tanco (. ericsoO'>tlno.. I -.y" '" I j (. -. but thill 10 o f lill Ie f'lrartical co noeqnenoc ).1S0 volt I"""...v .. cho ke is a bulky and fal rb c. Un.".ry . er.Lv."fOII each diode.lon will... o ~ .. iOlul WD iI in o.\iblc fo' II 1~"Y JUf&e of current to now 1 1IIo the ~rv(lir o. _ . am worH.IlUcd In r. P. poli.... Into a capa. 1<1 juat as Imp OfW ll.onsidcnlion must be gi¥en 10 ille effoct of o pera tl" . In o rder 10 ob tain a rating or 1200 vo llll p. l {a »). w Ihe advisa bilily o r aIwl yt mini eQualilillg res.\I . aero . cyd c when the OOleh is c1o!iOd .ap'lCilor .Lv .l . .

a n example o f cases . p. mould the. The characteristics o f ~ilioon jundl uo n:ctiilCl"5. "" volts.. UIC5e have a care full y contro Ued non.v. like those fo rme r and ot he r components in the po wcr pack .i. J .y..00. Th• •"u. resistors it is advi$able 0011 0 ope rate scnes-conoectcd diodes right up to their full P...v .me device which would immediately disconn ect the unit on lbe: failun: of on e diode. mp_lI... h .u pp '.. that it will provil1conly limit ed prot ect ion agaiJtllt output o f sllicon dio des m~t be reduced wit h incre.. the maxito the transformer centre-lap. PoInts internal avalanche breakdown 10 project the junction. uld b . 110 the nwd mum ho wevcr....lingand to avo id overheat ing of the junction <h. Better prorecuoc for the Iransf0':lller is .llsin~IY . because the forw ard resistan ce of indi vidual diodes mILl' difTer a ppr cdably so thai the e urfC1lt load will not be shared equally between Ihem .. T ry to ensWl: that the diod es are no t mounted in CUlTCllts o f general use by amateurs .. break ing down to sho rt .n aero". polentiomctcr. Shoul d par allel o pera· tion be decided UPOIl. and these in turn arc likely to fail.v.t a fa.cl g.. enough to o ffer adequate pro lectlon i.nd thc hermetic sea. upply....h.. so to spce k. The conn ection of two silicon diodes 10 paraDcl in o rder to inc rca'iC the maximum curren t rating &:h ould be a voided if ""ssible. the p. altho UJiI these are not in .reslston can be kep t lo w by tilt ing lfCZ\erous ly ra ted typcl. of tran sient dampinlt devices across the rectiller out pu t and per cen t lit 100" C1.. the dcsigllCfs hav e either been luck y in their choice ofd iod c:s.......lizin.' u. Thillho.. on es inerC8SC!t.uo I. To . warm air com ing from valves.. Ila.n .. 1. In .rded ~y co nnecting a fuse in th e transformer pnmary C1f'CUIt. Silicon diodes have been d evcl. rultngs if thi s cart be: avoided.c. nus.e to be derated b y 25 p« ceJlt a t 55' C an d b y no less than 60 aU short. All an ene reenve to resistors. sho rt-circuit across the teed in8 temperature. Some d iodes are rated at 25' (..i.v. .d . hl.v.ult in one T. A good safely marain will Jive you somcthing in hand to meet unavoidable FUSE "'S'" current an d voltage sur~.... Ul. Such a fuse is ve ry useful in mum safe d.ti on agai nst II. 6<'11 connected across the su pply..a. o lt p ow.. S~proof Mag_Nickel delay fuses ere likely to be more satisfltClory..V) .. British manufacturer ad vises the usc. ueh .. remainin. il Is.u:lIly be done with a conVClltional cartridge fuse . fo rming an a. the unforlunalc tend ency of silico n diodes when dcstroying itself. dl .... .. a uni t rated for full o utp u t at 35" C may need con tin ue UDtii all six d iodeo have b roken down ... ln . this process ma y for example. be • • 1 d locl I. 2. with 800 p. Ju st 113 man y transrnluer va lvc:s have to be being fed by t he pl>wer . w.i. triet<:d t u a bout devices consists of WI O'!I'F ca pacItor in serid with a 1 K 100 lilA if req uired to operate a t a high tempe rature. or have trouble 10 sto re ! Even with equa. "ft'umicn t sllp p ression comlX'nCllts of various types The l'\llUling tempef"dtute of any equalizing o r sur gc-lIrnitUig have been developed.. It is true thai o ne st illll<:e! c 150 K ISDK lOOK llWly published designs in whiclilbis pr(Cllution is omillcd. are sens itive to chan ges in extent can thct. Di. Alt hough silicon di odc:sc. the tOlal t ran sformCl'socom!ary winding and th " may bum o ut. l. ce.ra tber than to o pcn-circu il. includ ing the use of srnaU rnctal rectt.n be used at temperaThc typica l power su pply of Fig. . ulways advisable to check: . this I. acrou the l ~ C. of course.. uch enms resistor (he re a&l\in watch II . tri •• w.' .. 3.c . o f man y kilo.l. oUlput cu rreot falls qui te m pidly with incrcaspr oviding prll\ e<... Controlled avalanche rectifiers are like ly to be inere. . Th e eJltent of Ihe demtina: necessary can be quite severe: Regardless whether Or no t th e fuse blows. ".".I . the usc o f ca pacaors is shown in Fi g. mti ngs) . voltages.affo. ] ] . 2 kV t . the un its sho uld eith er be derated by abo ut 30 per cen t o r individ ual CQualizillg res istors of u pwacdao f a bo ut 10 oluns shou ld be connected in scries with fl •.' or If cee diode in a string sho rt-ci rcuits... G2BVN passes &long the information tha t on e d locl.. for the fo llowing reasons : ambient temperatu re.. ith ma kers' literatu re. likely to blow durina: &witdling on surges .. wnOWIt of co ol ai r CWI reach all outside surfaces.." ""p. uppt •• fc>r.{ t. Md o f resistors in The lUJIount o f hea l gencrated in th e recti fier ir..v..clf i. CI each d iode. C. e tc.POW ER SUPPLIE S ..sh over without It I. u p p ly oal ... grea lly Uicreases the dan ger th ..asing other faults .e hazard~ be avoid ed by protective fuses? temperature.inL'C one ra ted 10.uld d.. they m ould he kept Bway from heat producing va.1Id . Typlc.It a t of ot her scmicondlK. ".cel'on_ .. lu.1 JlO . ollCd capable o f withstanding transtenr p.al though thc figures vary a Iiltle with type.. 1. Eff_ diode will be f"Uo. or are depcrld~ upo n th e conserva tism of mak:ers' ratin gs..destructlve M I. di odc:s. They sllould be mounted so that a continue to be developed. "derated " with increasin g freq uency. 150 K lOOK ' SOli There are vari ous circu it methods o f reducing the effccls of lransients ar ising fro m switch ing surges Md ma ins over.p. 1Ii' on diod e ". O'iKlS u f (5 ... It m ust be readily adm itt ed.. .e1 0 ·001 u F Most malen warn users to take care 10 a void d am age to ( 1-] k V). .ever CWUlOt u. al <1>0 p .. here is a great margin of sa. 3 shows II fuse in the lead rures well a bo ve the boi~ ng po lnt o f water (l0if C). Fig. 1 "u. the d iodC!ll various methods of combating high tran sient vcltagea 10 tha t it sbould usuall y be po ssible to en sure that rea.d!cuit then an effective sh ort-circui t ap pea... eq ua lizin g cepacitors may sometimes be recommended fo r this purpose. ""..!v WId comp<>nal ts.ed by others and SO endanger the tram. .'. ot hers a t 70' C so th is point has 10 be watched .. But fo r maximwn prot ect ion what is reall y needed i ...i.1 • co • " llIco. .. in other words the recnn cr can . h• • • mal "ln.1o r devi=.sona ble fW1 coer. also across the transfo rme r scoondary: each of these:dampinlt ThU! a 250 rnA lliod e mighl have to be ..

31SoO-3" voll ......:on teCliflen raled II' 840 \'0 I. transl'om>c:r...O.trty $ale to dR.lI1' or t ilieoro diodes . SV4 ra:tlftcT valves.!. SIl..... pace for two 6X~ and .. A ph."fJ (JUM 196) il thai... we foci II ooouId be Afc:r 10 add an enno.s.• 42!1 rnA .. rm. I IOrnA. brid«c circuit to J'l'Ovlde lOme 6O().. . lip III a1mosI 1IW QlrRPI aI 100 \oOJIs (Ins it ~ ~ i:I dra_ from the " ' .' '" • • C~2 l O~. in NO'<mlber. this ~ th. . r. n S U4 Gll 1 00 ". Io~ r rai l or 2j(J W>ltll.dlcor-W IDF . Ii ~ 0( the f*"" .:b .. asr...._"""" x .. W.. The oriPnal dnlcn . if allY). eireuit iI that the cf5ciax:J is rovllbb' 40 pef QI:III bi&bcr tIIlm fill" the full. 19S1. ' 00"... I. elrcu ll h4lI belen d o""rvNly popular but requ ire!l II KI'l'IllI C matCf IraJUl'o nner lIJId .ol1' ca 'I .... it ooould boo.. ...bp lion of th i.. l 50 volt. All in tc rnlina a <. 0'01 000 • Back.. III in.a..u!1 ( R I" 4) .. " a-""'" ..in 7.... ."o v laM. in!". < mv lOtt • +2 S0V ~: . O:<juin:m<II'.. A sinlle . The key compoMil" o f 11111 l:ln..to 150 or _ 200 po:r """" ollhc ori$Ulal: iD odla" ~ If tile oriciDal pack ~ .. Sup".SO mA o Since' III.... • -.(.tvtn.• miUo:nt ~ -.. .. A point un<lerliMd by WA4EPY in EIHrr-k....1 lyPe ..'" A MA TE UR "'''010 TECHNIQU E S ] (0) . 200 mA aI 3~ voila.... _ . _ ~ . "" lIldlln tum provida lWO ted l up plies or l lOand lOS volta.. _ ' .. lhc powa" OUIJNI caD be .. idchandcT" (Q. rIa for ) 'S-30 Mc/s) was nolod in K4EEU . main h . Ibowl lbe amLlI ll'ftIlieIll . d >o<b with ..... pu blilhed.r HI _ _ Nt _ ..) No vember 19"1... Wbile 400 p. C R I and CR2. .. III:I'OIOl the siliooll dioda. _ _ -.. tramful'Tl'Ia w uld bel UJCd in . . W"~ ~I point with l lUl bridce m:tlficr ~eemcur '1OO I . I.....vollqe rail.. l'llllof7lJ().. . hi.. Il IYfIe ..o r illc riL wilh ...m. eom p.... F i. ] . f. 800 vo lt.lct 3SQ... . 11 .l"'" ror C&padto.& .. _ II_ . ca aIo_ ' - ~ ..b. and . f..•• ' YJlCS in eadllllrini (four altoFtherl wauId ci~ • ft&5OIl&bIc WA4 EPY _ n:sn.ll!'tou#> .. _ . diode to -=h ItrinIIO take can! 0( mainI tralWmlL 1\010 800 p. . I ... 01 1M 0'01. Tan:lan lype I2lJSM. _ ..Todlnkal ii. r''''." .a dwlPnI !he co. .] t)1lC' 3 ~3 60 vo ll .oov 1 n 00: -. d1lI...Ole on ... cin:uiI ....... circui t (111\( inciden tAlly' '' f fKti.SO ¥Ol" II' 100.. ....i.. QDIl O'mlional ) ~ vo ll powet eatI '1ft)' USl ly ~ oon"Uted 10 provide • InntlTlillel' III$lpl or y 100 vol lS by aJdin. t1le mo l'!: dTcctive uliliJatIon of Imll1I JIO'ilf"U tran. _IM .\... 160 rnA lrun'lformer lu ppliH 1M cnl i ~ h." ad"..I. the " ddil ion of Il llntieftl " N'f'I'UOr IOH 1 00 . uamforDJa CI. amuaor traDsInJItina..w _.....WUliolW ~tor in put JmOOChlnIm ler 11110 • d1Dke • _ i_ . ))0 mA plu • 220 yolll at u.l.rol'Tmn " and ~ ho w II non".....*-. Sa ..lI ddiYeT CODIidcrabIy more po:wa-. 1 cal •...

damalC..330 volt transtcrmer h e was able 10 obtain I I BOvoll1 (with II bleeder current o f 40 mA l dfoppml by on ly 100 volts at the fu1l200 rnA load... Tho nw....i• ...UY a ..... 400 vall pafHT o:apacitor (polarimi clect.v.. Pe we . 7.tube ill Inserted.O.:in:u it which is en ee o verlookal.go current regulated IUpp ly for InoruiAtor and .. The output volla BC fal ll awayallTlOllt to zero for about 30 per oent overloadl ma king it al mos t impouible to bunt ou t a traJlliltor if the current rtruIator hal been &.r<~. A low_volla... Tho key totn pooncnt is the 3 .. lllCa!\I~ a t the valveho lder. c:ircuilll that it mablca. 8.l... if thi! is well insulated.-u I.. Bammc1ln RadioEl~ctro"la(January 1963): Fig. up !limpl y by revenin& the IXInncdions to the prim&ry for 11M of t tw... U5ing exlended le&ds 10 p rovide ~ voltaae dro p. to .t · Um ft. 9 &hOWl hill practiell d~ll'I fo r _ power aur pl y wlolch providn a . . Ooe _ tion is lid for halatio n and lhc other fomu the =etVOir W3FQlt ( QST.. one ar..---. Fif. ~'I. Doe standard o.1'.. WSMCV.:>ltage rqu1ator is exlini" i&hed. other than the h...I. but then droP'l_wa y ra pi dly 10 0 volts a t about " rnA. li&l>t riac between J().it<>r an in ICrica with Ule tranJfOm>f:<" ~ windio . 11 i5 ctaimed UI.. Ho w m uch better it wou ld be if the o utpu t volta IC &imply fell a WllYra pidly if th e ra ted load were lubslantia lly exaedcd . .tays fairly lo w ill tha t they o ottm have OfIly ooe e volt hate!" wmdiog.tI the o utput can be aho lH ircui ted inddlnitely without caUl in.ad. But ~ are IOrne vcry line 3 ~ noand SCJO. ohio . 00 output wtlas the VR.<t_ h•• WI~ 1ft w hl<h .. H .'" male..... b u t wh idl migh t fo rm the basis 01_ uxful tl1llWTlin.'" _ h h1lh ~ <wc.liolUl is described by S..n be used fo r the 2 ·' volt 'amp. <aft "'" ~ far <~r. k _I~"" ..trolrtk eal'llCitor willi lhc out er aue IXlRUnOn 10 both teelloru:.. E.lanee ~f !oC..:cd rrx tilkr cu m'llt ill II voltago-doublc:r power IUPply (and such Iupp liea "'e becomin C moR and more po pular to ob tain high transmitt er vol t... SCQJJIdary are stri~ o lf and the l.in ful rea... two o f th e c:a. . VoIwr. _ _ .civer mains lIa. .ltin. 2V '1 • • 7.)8 rnA as the v. IV.tion and m:I. Thi.iI..bi llty of reasonably priced sur plU5 silicon power diodcll (we have noted $<'mc 1000 p...t diOOca. (or ooe of t' . 1ft • _ . . ulln Bomallay. • i<Je o f the rectiticn.r caPAcitor.scadc in lel'"a to r-type volta ge 1 dou b1eB with the ou tflUt in oerieI..on to re gret th e effects o f a short ciKuit on the avera~ power IUI' ply-<md mo re particularly on th e reo. lupply usin g o nly a stan dard ra. a SOO voh power uu itlo be eon verted for 800 'l'Ol1$ for linle more tI:'an the I' ria: of a JOO volt tr:anllfonner UIl1 possibly tbe fllCtificn.POWER SUPPLIES ICtO«1inC to the: way in which lhey ate IXInnectcd. article II _ no vel me th od ob taining im proved lCpl1lr.ta~ o r dual_wound thoke....--. o ld m.n dra wback IS that Ute MIalion on TI must be IOOd enou. .... Cu'.. 10 that there . heater o f each 1616.. Th e VR -tube j um pl:1 ill crnmcctal.:$ are not lWl4 blc (or Ihis a pplica lio n). _ _ d ... unitl in th e Ito ra m:cntly fo r around 1' 1') offen a good opportunity for experimenting with voltage mu ltip liCll:liOll po wer sUI!plic$.Lntin. lhk I:rI&bIes lhe uu it to be lid fo r QRP o r tu. uch I cho ke an d a 3JO. Wit h high voltage uni ts luitable aurse an d tTu>licDt JUppreaiorl oom poneota Ihould normally be added.pablc of bein & so u!lCld. tab i1iud 10' volt o u tpu t for 10adA 0 ()'30 mAo sl>owl II . . ligh t moditlcation to th e usual ciKuil . It hal been found that.~I>I . ] "'. combined voltages of T I and 1'2 10 !hat a IGlcrous!y ra ted nndOl'lJln is _ ti&!. for e:umple. OWl• •.. AnoIhct ~ C r th is tvpe o of d KU11 is 10 o btain .!!.d . imilar al'pUcu.tfllJlSformers provide nne so lu lion if a ll windin. The I)'Ilcm is ak in 10 II choke inpu t smoolh ingcircu it bul with the thokes o n t t>e e..Multlpllcat10n C ll'ClIlU 2<... Also in W 1FQ Il·. _i..u in QST(l'eb ruary 1963) has rou nd that or . In all varves used all power recliticra it is important 10 remember tI. much bett er -rquwllon I' pollSlble WIth ''':. huldy unitl""ovidcl a variable voltage from O·2-lS vo lll (regul ated 10 within volt) with a continuously variablc curren f limit o f about 3-100 rnA .....O-SOO ex-Admiralty tran !f'ormcn around which _ wen ar.am... bias .al•••• "... Thls is ln elfe.. . ill a fml uent CilUSC of fllilun:.. tBnIfonnct'l...e." 1001...t in suffJciatt heater vo lta Be..l!Ueeeducto r di odes.. The on ly SIllI.. II .RI d ..ls. voltaIC mulllpilcatio n UUU\ Wit possible with thermionic diodes an d telenium met a l recl illers. Ooe of the rcuom why ~ price of thcIe tranllf rmcrs . Fil. a ftd ~< .lllfol'T>l« is the voltaIC q uadru pler IbowD ia fi e... lnt:loknta. BeaUle o f the lo w forward !". ages) : Fi g.l. Sup p lJe-o Tbele can be few o f U5 who have n OI a t some time o r o thc r had pa. _".a:h to wiUt$lan d ttw. With .t lfier valve.. The _vai l..rolylio. 1%2) t>t>intl OIIt that th il can be lItT aed Quite limply by al ways uain Cli limi tina ca pac.. A lI$dul feahll'Co f tb.uyn llnctrbl Iype of voltaIC doub len permlls th e ~ of th e twin elo. . . P~ of a bout 2S V\>ltI from a 6'3 voll windin.. "' Ihnl... il the need for I a':I1 lfo.ationa restaeked to provide a b utt Jomt..L-<t--TJ--~J'-~+ . r . .. OClober..

.II. . Qll·N15J - n o .. . II. in IhC\C citcuil. . it pot dama&Cd by allY load... d.r- S(I 10 ..'" eo there should be no need In muunl II n n a hut sink. provid iD.. no . '_ r co ~ IN)01' 0' J"'U4 ote... The two co nt rols QUI be d i1'llC\ly u..17.i~ . .0<1 T ..... Vorlob'.'.. . he 11 10 _ I l Oll...... 12.. but when rectifier 2 II $Witched on i\ becomes a vollql:: 40ubler atr. Included in Iht s circuit II p rovi . ~table value. 100 c/o of II ruU·wave 1'IlC\ilicT u il necessary ..wI power p&Ck 10 provide a variable su pply of about 75 \0 300 volts.. in this tho rcvu 1ll. 1o .ula tor a m . mainl)' 50 CIs. .. 1' .... shown ill F i•... llIaled.o '1ft r.. a mi lliam met er in ocrics with VR I wilh the "ullase 1 k..eriC'S Ullulntion IIDd will wilhlland a tl\<Jrt-c:ircuiting o f the OUlrut without dQma lle_ The uni l consis" o f a (X'n'<'e1llional bridll': rcclifter with a sh un t..'_ ul. ." .aulC: the ripple vol ta". WiUI rectlflel" I ooly COllJlCICtro. To calibrate the "o ltage Ul ob simply co nn ect a vo ltmeter aetOll$lhe ou tpu t 5O'kelS.\It! rectt fiera 10 provide a su pp ly whic h can be vlUicd from about 80 to vol ta. •• h . T he unit...ometimci referred to as the . in this cas c with thc d. ion for a low vollage e. 21'1' Will '0' without lreally 1nI.. p ro vidinll a co nvenient :suppl y for bl.. I _pl\ ld.. h .. i. "'as lPveII by KOHVK in CQ (November 1960)... tha SO\JJ'Ce ImpcojalKo by the IlJe of lICrics resistors.libn ted (t he current cal ibra tiun i.hm.. P" w.l u fu lJ. il i. R4Jlo AmJJu~" " Ano ther ~rul small un it (from Rild/I1oElterr<Htia. Sc~eul simple bul lnJCl'1 lous ~rcuitl Mill: \II .1 .noI " ' . ... ToQ!ibn He for curRllt lim itation .c.e.in. Fill..e.... 2$0 mW Zener dfode. low riJl1'Ic power unil whid! deliver• . ofl h 1ft •• h" . VOllAi" l'Ci\1lation will be quilt good on lo w vollallC$. 1• • J.. . -. The 16 19 val va used b y KOHVK are a larSCr vers ion o r the: 61. t-.lngernent. . ". circuit comes frllm III llJticle by W6WTU In Wu. 1 . .. 00AAC<. ft' ._ s oon '" '"' . Q I act...m .. 14.::~:'::::t"11---1:-:· 15o' A '" . by 00 means IirlCll.. ou tpu t appro~jmatcbr Iwiccl tha t of the tran dormer . ""'"' '"' 1001" non ."" <Ire GI l. 111...-c.. ] oom~ with 10 UJO II 1l00d . lof n .Uft D .. o. 'i.. 1lool .. outpul controlled by a polmtiome'lcr. If ' OIJTPUT Fi~ IS and 16 show two compact l la biliUll1 power P1Kks provid..V"Il"I.Jl<Jb ~ to 10.lLt or uluuisto r IJ'l\'lli· Qll ions ... po L_" O~~ '":!=::::~__ .L_.woUI 6 vcru d ." nov II01 1. the n.6 IllId co uld be ~placed by alrnostlUl)' !arlO oul pu t types IUCb .as the edvunllge o fbclnll ].... illdudiPll a ahort-circnit..n:aain...e. c.Wll. t.. . ll ft . filler.re. .ll~ dollb lcr.. IS.. ' ..r) with a voll/lIlA metei'. "'. C . -. iftc _ . .c. I YI . . Z. ' ..ined from a 6·3 voll heater windin ll and u sing two small ll':fffiiUlium cry.-If..btin s or II . as the voltage 1. but (alb olf -ri. This is u$ually a co nl idc ra t>ty cheaper .:. ystem thiut u.. Th. Podul A usc ful """C'SSOI)' fo r Ihe shac-k 111 11 power . al 2llO mA ISdescribed in EIUfrM/u World (Oct ober 1963) : 5CC Fi l ..in S a biBb· po~r zetlc r diode: regula tor alune. " h ri<ll' iI xe"... " A M ATE U R R ADIO TECHN I QUE S socn 1· 2 n ~ 5. ..lfl''' P"we' UnIt A wen reiUlilled._II .l.' '" r'"n.of 1ft r sv . A huakicr variab le :supp ly unit .tOf "al~ also &<... 0. .. . The lellu1ltin a: trans isto r dWipation does nol e~ e bout 1·5 .I.. IS lIlA an d 40 rnA between 110 and 250 volts. ~ .~ lale ly. 1 of. _.. ....J_~ ': OO>~ ~ po .. '" • IQO }'F o. 11 A . This t.... 1 11.ldard power trn nsiot" r witb a 5·7 vo lt.. cireui l is t hat of.. 1• .. n e Mo Il. _ ... ppl. convmlional ha lf_wave raotillc:r. ~ I II _ .... '-'1 C. OUlput obt... n . smoolhin a..' $hun l n:gul ated un it Illther than tho more usual . _ _ A. CII....md inlRECTI 13 UIowt a v()JtaRc-ronlro~lU1ator clrcuil which eatI eMily bel . This mAkes use of Il1I inclusiI:l&ly popullLT foon of voll.11 _ . h o . J N JOI o . INII . ddW 10 a normal .. u pp ly Whicll can rcaillIy be adjusted 10 give ""Yeral vo llllge outputs SIMI LA R.. "" '00' . i . ." Jl«.s as IU1 cmluerfo llower wlwHe input \'Ullage is governed by Ihe Zen er diode..~ " • ..wave eascade doubleT....... ta l diodC$ in alCCOnd vollaill doubler o f thisl)'pC . Deoernber 1%0) i.. .. ..

. . Z4G-O-:Ho V til mil. silllle . It will bI: a pprecia. the a ppl ialtlon is when:: I~ VR lube ] " :<. in I'&riollJ C\nnm t oond ll'Oll. ..lle1y 370 Wllt$1nd this may not aJ wa~ be .. ST" I ~ISIO til ". T he onl y oomponents ~uircd an: two "on 47 K ohm 1 wau resi'I"'s all<! II lN69 diode: ~ FiB.. -He whereb y a sta biliml 300 ven nne can b<: ubulined from any sup ply delivering aho ut 3 1 ~ vo lts un der loa d. c. Iightl. ~.. ~ L O-.a4• • " .... .. " O Wt R S UP Pl. before Ignitioll ..l '0 l-I . .. .ted lIS o t1u lb _ n th uugh in parallel llClV1<I 11K supp ly....• " • _ . from the v a lube UIltil ancr II Ms tltod .. urus p lacing -. ..yn::ducW bu l q u ite Slll isfllctOl'}" rectifier if an iwlaloo healer l upply il not availnble. and . Septem ber 1%0) . ..... 1625. eiC....b. t hen ro nducts.... and e. The .. . ~. ro r IPfllialtiom whe re the KTeCJl I require so me 15 101:10 \'Olu k:s:I h..hcd lu rain. 1 •• . ll ... .Z!lll YDI. b"... ... potenllal of approxim. This sup ply is USUD... o VR.:-drnppinl resis tor.. and eontrol V QhallC cou ld be: repteced by a suitable metlll the de aree o f ~KUl alion .... -1 -.. . of ~.. 75 &J1d a n"".. Out put volta le will be a lill ie 807.tificr which provi des the lTill .. s ease . But . G3 WW dntWi lllentlon 10 an .c rq:u_ Lal r tuba lLte «". . an inilial il1lit in. 100_ _h _ . The SUQ4 reo. bcca u!Ie of th e l"C!IiSflntt o f th e d iOolk. D4 .tfon of a . Co mpa. VI. but o n firing Inc bias is remo.~ __ 0 1 _ 1_ .l cd lIill thi.9 1( • " RIOS " " It.. ·n ." . orlhe h..k .o :J.. There is often. In 1'..~ IMn Ihe circu it Opelllle'S DonnaUy U l. anall. .y 0( =lucing screen vo lta".!. .• ..\Sii .It In. V2~ . __ I•1 ~"'~II • ll I.'" III " H I. rip for .. n. It unab le to tire becau'I<: 01' ins ufficient polen tial wilh kl&d COMCC1af.Cpl fo r a ' r. 'r:: =. yolt.'''' '" r- ~"'" .. for mOil purP<'~.. Ihan the an ooel : see Fl. 1 Vft lu be..Tuh Scr_ Oro. 20.. hn1: it b not wi.w A \'C'f7 simp k .'1lOCfT-. '1' .l'O. two V • . 1..w from the diod e wlUch " ... ula .... line C'a ll. 'l"bl ltzed voltaIC rail of abom 300 voru.l\lI"" ioo . boye 300 vo ila.. In th.~ ~ .. I ~..lltO! lube M • <\1'OppCr.IolISt o r tile omln Y lts-d ro p through D I. ....IC'<i by cllUl B o pe ra tion or th e ' n . common difficuky is tha t such an OlTlUlJiMlCllI feCI". _ _ :lOI _h . '~lem dOel nOI smooth ou t an)' fluc tuat ion .6L the two rl'gular l ubes in ~ries . . '" •• I~ r . ..:reau In OUlput vo ltage b«..imutn r"rwud cu~t ..l .. u •• . . 1 TI... Yailabk . .. 20. IES 2<.. . ..1"_. Im ll 'YPI .m. Oooc: Ill k bu h..• . 6.w in. I" M _ .." the val ue o f the voIl... _ Re...nc". mg maxi mum in"".._ N I-J D' . 18..l""..+ . (Apri l 11 19(2) bill for m bilizcd lines \lSln& . "" 114 'ly 14Ift. u~uaHy for the VoIta.. need both in M..VCl1l~ of 40 mAo In 150 K dfllCf.ror TIp Krtt7l gri<1s 0 ou tput Ictrndes... circuit dC"Yice (ENc-trOllia WoPld. IN69 Is tisted lU . . ~. II to UR" volt'ltC'"regu.ll • dlwit in Ekc'Nmk obtainOll by oon n~ti nB two VR l SO/OA2 rcl(Ulatorlln 1U1e!._ .... . U. I'whlch Fl• . ouflI<l_ ....8_19 . .. hat similar idell u \IICId i. purpo se germ aniu m diooe MY. .V 1I h Vl" I CI. .. l . .. ili<:on d iode D l d isconnoc:LS R I and lhe .. 6)(4 11 1...lly '" """"".....uI.. D~$II .. with l\ilh nlue Iftiston lIICroSSthem 10 ~ lp i!ion..

../I with a .abditicl.r.. bnct diode.• ••11 . I. _ ..crlincd in • nol'c from Rca Hanvnans.eniD... Fi.cl..liable Zen« i ~ from th e 1.. ahibitr.....ttMJ _ ... pushed Ihrou&h • Iltna ll h.F on 1·7 Mo:/I it abouI I ohm .. and lhe: fad thai l he:)' do nol need a hnlckT.1. F.. . . 0 21 0 tIrho ... •• _ _ ___ . .. CIr no:eivu U .Uy \'U>able wil h vo~ was Klin.o...e .r..-:c.m~ is both qu ite ktw and l1iJ. ...-.parale the diode from !be bypus ~(l.. eh. il II swal.'I r..n"IOf" vaJyQ Uor eumplc IbII GeIoto OaJ9R)........ from aD UftItabllized..... 1·1 M.OOI!: 10 '1JIloOR Ihe i~ of lhe: ZM« <li lldr wtUc:h can "" . from 16V doow to JV ..""'*' aweat aaoa the I. . .. Ielcctcd to be about 0.. 1be _ _ ir... Ihas 10 fUQClioa widtiD 2O.. hi&her ll... "' .. •• ' i..5..t" by a . . ...i. "'. ')'Item islltOWll in Fl...IC ind n lOr bttsed on lhe uw or a Ila h. 196) _ rqK'iDlcdfrorn H~ f f _ ~ AppI~ tW Nom.. me for • few hours ... .. uanlionner W'OItqe chanae or I l per cent.1&e1 **... This n ot onI)' Ita b ihlClll the o ut put but a1Io rcd_ Several methcds o r I la bUirin....led . n _ ".16 to _ 11'1.1 tipple and can bet UKd 10 replaca Ihe o utpu t tl P1'1e tapaQtor He Fl....D.. 1)'pQ 0( banalen.. a variable Ih unl KTOSI lbc 0" I ~F by'1"Yt' o:apKilM lZIOd to aJmC)leIc !be r..JOO c.. . 1 lO P ~ . N .----..o. MamaIt z.....e bem qWle Jmall comr-ml with lloe <1.. ~ pao.... 0IWlat.. Z_ _ "' _ T_ _ ". rio<. An dl'«t whil:b puWed..1..-nIl low eoou&h 10 ..h ncld l~ble c:urre nl con.... .'I<:kl-OfT most o f lhe bAil er)' vo lta ge wilh the rc<ull lha l o nl)' voll nll" Vllrinlion.Ie o f lhe: hol llcry vo lla ge d urln. M _ _ . I had COMtrw. Wi th the Inc«asiDI need t. available and arc 1101 npc:lUiV'C lukinl in lO ... The .... _ f .. But h is oCtm fOlf'lOCtI!D thai chaaps in hfIaIer .. .c.d>uda ~I«Iabitolllly ~iqtill& l:lul was tboucht WOfth.... Provided thai the vol ~ or Iht pack an d th e baUe r)' arc I'OOIlhJy Ibe 1:Ut'l(l......Oll 10 tho: UillOduWon of . Jl. 11...../I U'&Mislor " .. li' .. A docd &boItr«l llIaI lhe ¥OIl..•..tlc::all)' ltnhdflife. . o n: x y" ..{1w Mer .. T1ley Uti easil)' . Bul in QST Coaobcr 1964) W6UGAsh there it. .U be Very low ao that the batlcr}' Ihould hut prac. b fo r use with t raml'lo r equipment have Men lP~ from time 10 time..d..:1n1ft IoC1'OSI iu taminals. A _ lechnique f".urbtb of thaoo dcvia:l ate . A daI&n wln.rubc chancurirotb llwJ one olIm thirW.c..I&e was ranaiDina _ I al -9'1 (U1c ~ diode voIl. Ub I IClICI'. ...... O""\&._ _ Few amatcw'1..the: enrtre di ochr.. H _ ..1ltion it the tUbe it lIllIde 10 operate 0 " 100 wide • CWftllI r&nFThis can also lead 1 • form of reluaholl Okillatioa II 0 e:at*dt_ lfatcr than ......w i i..Ilrml l u luco (C&'I il)' vil ible from a f""" ll'lA to 20 o r mo re mA l.1 the charac1cNtiQ CUI talc the form of • ~ 1009.. t ile lI a bili ly o r lUI otdIlalor 111 lim ply to opente it from • lupply aabili...om collcc1m' 10 ernlllcr ria p-ound .()If/Q WOf'IJ. can be ~ by p uttiua: • unaJI reaistor in serial with the I.. The JerKr diode b. ....ted ill paralld Wlt1l the rube. more auentloa could UJduII )' be PO'CIl 10 this ~ Some fKtOrJbuilt RCleivoen have ...J rreq~ ~ (particu1&rty <luriDl pow.bid> it... ...bk ¥OI~ powu ... d l. . ¥o:I}' doae rqqlatioe 0( a 6-l yo h G-l amp valw in ~£I«1-W1 (Jan.e-d. '" d rilled in a n nisliDa piVld . ... 01 tlw ~""lucney 011I<ffiQcnI of...er cub or if )'OIt. wo uld llOlIlemplate opcrati:na • v.nlea: . appro. b. lhrouah it (or $IIlIII volt . wone 1IntIIlbc 'h&tr.. wno.-"_"_ . TbcK use ful de~io:eI hOl-.. . When lIc:I up COIRICIIy.ml' lioo In IIIe ... Some: ~ problema can MmiIalb' arDe wit1lo diodes and this . .bout 0..c...~ okallTKN'l:: to VR .i rm or lhe 11. ~ otunl. 2. 1 ....no.. TbullIe$ hoG z-er dktdcI eonncded Mck~to-bId: in a bridet~ ..-----. n .. Bul tho: ~0I 1) I .. 1Lt.-r v v......). rclul'D path f. thl. tUeu prel ly mudl (or &nnlcd. U it Is (OIJnd that the l. ItKllc<r. _ _ "'_ .... suppliQ Q.4..ld ha-.na..aun l lheir Ion.. T"" . ppiy.' dw'ac:teriItiaI and there is • I~ ~l dwl."...nile fOlf mobile ocoer-IMI...T!ltl lJlI diode (1.. GlZXV. l im ply 10 1lOM«:I • IltI'\.....r..lhe aIPPb'..).d. rolto..".. ....nod from ...r. . no.. if required : PI• .II _ ew:a I'OOft: subat and.._ _ . _ 21 l howl (UZX V'I utlUI.. Thus lheaddilionola Z .. Voh. tion was to .. T1ley can 00 lbou&hl or . a " oeM balla')' . lhe dqftc 0( YOltaae llabili7.ID ba ltCTY of appropriale voilaII"' lIal:tss the OUl pu l 0I1he power flIU'k. proWJc. M)' lOI. ~ .. and Iud RICCCIIlded in . moke whidr.... the h .1 voh !at than the mi nimum work ln. that thit 1)'51. .0 . DllII-Iu-r Il:PItalKI. o f improvll\. I llit e 1963) i. 10 NbioIize '-ta' supplies to . DOl by an... pltIt... . .1 .. y a Js. OlOOtbI qo COfKel'N tbe ... QPKilllQOC.. 21) will n:sull in a beater YOhaae ~io n or lea t han (H)4 per omt fOf".... ppl. the totill eurre:D1 drawn from th e ba llery "".. by _:11 k.mon.... durina battel'J' lira R uoeaiYll thi.l:cd by • VR-rubc ror valyc cim>itl or 1M COITCIpOooinl bncr diode for lran.UfI'Cftl variatloa thtouP the I.)' . dwl.... A MATE UR ItAPI O TE CHN I Q U E S Mo:u orus hlVllIona: acted on the UNmpoOOQ thaI NI CU)' ... _ 1__ . emc: nl 10 &iV'C a lnd"ul Ind i". . hln Davis...--. You CIJI Ima$iDe my ~ when 1 fOWld thai lbe tiluatioa 101 viokDu. 1h<t OUlp!.e p ~nd ..~_... Itoldil oir the ...'l1er)' lo w " . tin)' Ind k:aI01" bUlbi Openllinl on a falrty wide r&lIll'e of f. tN.1 .c.o ha"'t been tome ... IhouuJhI I came 1 !be DDndUlion lhat !be 0 zeeee di ode... are un(~ ~ 10 $Ulfer 1'00I POOfb rqulatal maiM 5UPPtieIL M The L E.. with dwIfe 01 alfl"ef>l bult.. ..:.o... .:lably redudnl. Rut o ne of the limplal dodptl (£1«.. low . _ .e heromc readll. UJ><I. th ...r. bioi t he r~ue>lf. har. and ' ''-I one: <:aD run IDlo 1Ille1pa:&ed troubleL lie me:.....ll from anall pet..... . voltqc of the equipmerll.d.

. wben the voltage of lhe drop lIQ'OSS the capacilor is relatively hi gh com pared 10 the Y{lllagl: d ro p required a.cr~ the valve or valves. however. _ •• :u.ml this ~ possibilily IIuII pa n icuJar care is necesSILt}" in amateur shacks. he will ueualty be well awar e of the possihle danger.1 10 ••1•• . often d o 00 1 comply with BS4I5. 19$ ~ 'no 1MJf ool _. bUI Wllh Ihe usual 'IOllalO"droppinl power resis to r R!pllleed by & 2.s Iik.c.. C1earIy.ted_ M ca ... I. (tnulm .. 2$ &hows the biu wpply of • high liddily amplifier minI a pair of 6913 valvo in li>. tM .. t tbe n posed parts are not " live " with the on {olJ swildt in bolh POSilions (n:membcr that a . type of IUl"gC howeve r has liltle elJco. supplies of 350 vo lts or more.. but is also one about which there is II good deal ormi$conccl'tion. EYery amateur soon learns to pay heall hy respect to h. _ I T hl 1'10'" Oft _ up to I '0' ."pole on.lly the ~ line ") lead of the ma ill' supply.t on the u.. turned on..... '''''1 c h _ Z. Tk on ly hciat .e:' Jets bu l also-and this Is not a1way' . tlte CApacl lor loo k.r circu il the k. Cllf'l1 backs " or be uMld wi!h exposed con trol spin<1lel or P'Ub 1ICT1'W3 .. th.tULATOR . .olJ swllches. isthe " Ii..---..thou. F2TR (HmJiD-Rf. there is some evidence 10 sho w UIllI ~use of Ille d ilJerent phys io loik=J. to to uch any pan of the chusis and a lso insists on d oub". a 1'fIt'U """.ed-bias da$$ ADI from El«lronleJ World (January 1960).:~ .ul.. Since vollage dro ppinl resistors umally Ol)QtrlbulCl eonslderably to the beal. 26.u!t iUld the surge . so und -.poI l COon.' $OF paper- In modulalors Or t~illen .h l amODI man y otbu p rocautloDS. ".:""gJ::. If the re l~ an y such equlpmenl around your dl ad< mako lUre.e a &hort cin..~ 150 .. "~ r.. .ute".. _ » I_ I. ~ H SoIH . ari A llf'Bctical wal whic:h ari SCI when us in.>n ill wuncocd. of ca pacitors in bla3 supp lies as discussod. Shadl Safety in the shack is a subject which should aJ""llys be topk:&I. wloio.acilo r roiled at 600 volu...ol Fi. .tive bias sou.". m 0-. .. I. QpaQlOrs fo r voltage droppinl in healer w ins has hem poinled out by """HK...000 Y lts haye . would ha ve been calcu lalCd fo r 60 cis f\'\llins. j---f<J='f----.1_.:I lH oolta... sp iratlon... parlicularly with so me of Ihe IlCWl:r lo w curren l drain Y alVC5. . lind worklhoJ"l.e.-_. w li\.U1icu\a. BUI o ld radi o ICls.j01la1ly romes across the use of capacil'. E~ yea r there are oyer 100 fataliti~ fro m elc<:trie shOl. 50'_(y In til. till OOCl!.. In Ihis f". But the Achilles' hcd of mM y amaleur slalion .... ~" 'f' c:: ~ . .1 etT« IS. unfCQ he l1eYclop . too o rten fo rgotten or dim:garded.. lllO tlwre WI' • Wla ll Pbilco broadcast eecQVI:1 usln... He writes: " One problem wilh Ihis lcdu1i'l ue is Ihal lhe instanl the equipmenl i..:.. so n loou U Ihough resistor d roppers will be wilh us fo r a lOll.. !he real dan l[l'e r from mains sup plies is "'here either the sk in rcsistance is 1oO'wc red by dampn_ or per. MllJdi19641 has lak en this a slage further by provillinl a uscfu l lut ohowin& the neplive voll' . lhose who rind themselves llCl"05S vo ltages grea ter than 1..IQ fo r voItall'l droppin....ndirions for wblch il WlU not Intended. .... _ "'.." von"p 01'Of>ll'llr < hr .n.e if req uiftd _. ituali<.ltn flllltl 1Ltc. Th i. '!-<or<! " . T ... Pl'rtic:ularly ~wat n>Odeb.t. !he Q PlIcilOr also providQ f. U. ee '" + rav ACCllr. _ hi . bul one .... One tw:a. 1lI<! val~ 0-07 .. .1.. Even Ihe 32 volt ma ins supplies in SO me Amcric.tup -I . I have d one some U PCrimc:nl inl with Ihls circui l and fOWld th is limita tion 10 be a problnn... on ly " modrb. . h...:ted to severe nlCtlium yolUlge shoc:ks.. used Wldc:r .. 100 lod . Th is . o r roay have damqed .. . In vArious Ipplical ioll!. ..:c:jver _ IUlla ble on ly Ior 50 ell main~. ma y ~ prepared to take unn= 5lI1}' n sb from time 10 linle. . inlillo-pole switch in a ne ulrsl Icad will leave the ehaa is " !iI'C " wilh Ihe act orr C'o'CIl if lho chusis M did«tric ClIpow:ilor...k m the UK alone. Thl: idea never cauPI OD.. . As the jingle saYS.11.h. " (or more corrQl.. . C II. II is ap.) Io _ " "I .P. ... and are a fairly frequen t QlI3Cl of bn:akOOWll. These sets are nowadays u_Dy buil l $Irielly 10 comply with Ihe Brilish Standards sa fety sp« illClllo n (BS415) . . 01' Some rc-.{d.. _ ef .eneraled In the ca p&dlOr would be tile . H 'Ri m u".... 11>4 idea millht be IIfOnh ffil}eJllberinl when a nep.... .. serll:S-Q(lnnoct«l valV(l!l."F. -'_.pprecIs<>od pro po n ion of a... . sec F i• .. _ -...1. ' 11. "". .. ~ It's volts lhat jaU" but milo that kill.... thougll it meant tha t tho re. the idea IeallM a &ood one. Ihe va... ". «lI ~ .as have been known 10 proYe lethal ..mall amoun t resullinl from POW"" [ac1or ~..." -.l majorily from 240 yoll 5lIp plics. I••1 w ho.0 .tlInfll limllin• . 11..... Z _ ~l .. safety di5Cipline .. . m::nt throujb !he valve bea lers aut VCI)' o nen he damagi nG.1 C<>p<tcltor. y componenl e Is C I . _ _."h":':r::::'~~" H MeH u:::. b ys down Ibat h sbou lJ be Impossible for a ' little ftnaer .= ~." Th is problem oould he oven:ome with a thermlstor bUI tha t ro-lJItroduCe:'l heal and complkalions.. o r "' here the victim llnnly gri~ an extensive area of ~ live metal while in JOO4 eOfltl\Ct with carlh... bener o chance of rocovel')' Ih"n th01C lubjQ. lime 10 come. obtained wilh V 0U5 values of ""paci tanee .--. by ehockln lil with a neoll bu lb. Indeed.. " W.. All mod em Brilish lelcvlsion sets and a fair proponion of domcsIic: rodio rttdvers faUlo1D this ('IIlelOl)': noI only all the" a. VDl ~ :" . _1 .rd is: equ ipmen l wilh a mains<nnll«led chassi.... ' "':'1"':. _I... • . 010-.

Since the layer ce ll.. fo r eumplc. can operale eo. li itas happened a t G 3VA) for the primll. 2 1b.ry winding to sho n-cin:ult \0 the scrcenina: plale bet~ primary and secondary... Afte r chcekin l. an unrtClCCSmlri ly large a. wltiDa and switch ina . . But llI1 C"""... VCf)' far from beinl lhe f.... The h." S uch equipment will ofl cn con tinue 10 operate qu ite no rma lly aDd can lhul repn:lC1lt _ real danger over a OOtUldenble period . .. U"( 0": The devclopme. an licipr. Th ese l1'C rath« formidable read inl for tlte non..MC in the a~eralf: amateur Wirinc: Rqut. ... But there II mtICh m ore to hallc:ry Icchniquc tlwl ill IUlillcsted by the dcocprively sim ple appearance 0: thclrcon tam~B.. Th05C who entered rad io via the old h.. .luc ria for Im nsistor eq uipment arc : P PS 20-1'0 filA ... tool wh ich hal ' fau ltotl and . The ~ weJUard agaimt this i. care tu m in ItWIIlo facture (one of the t:OfISUrTlCr rnagazloes rece ntly publisbld I very illuminallng eruce which shOweol considerable dif· ferences between ba tteries made by dilfe ". which will live I ~ rnA lit 9 ~oltl Tca$Onably comrurtAbly. howeve r. paradoUcally.... ' It il 00 UK ha.hkh hal_ "live" o ule r caAin• . WlIh tramistor ~ ~e.'. U TlI£ F EE [ID D R S FllIf PI IS Pl... neut ral " when tho ~ ill OD)." r~ M (iYlr..lllUd1 tools Iho uld be uo. for h.. I arnltcun will be _ II aware oftbc damage which can u.. Pl' 1I S-~ rnA.k. hicb the:y I re lntclidod. .e claM B push-pllil. PPl ...I II lh. .. t. and o flcn-tn ronjunct ion wit h 1·4 volt filamcnt valv..11Cff.. &II.ile of the edb. It i.. li-JJ ..ll8 with watcr-deteriorille wilh sto rage.r... The modem dorncsli<: drill of repulab lc fTIIIke is dClitploCd ..1<1 ". The . gn:alCf huard.re 8l.. . . it sIloultl not be foraotten !hat ".. buUery and \V! ' ~ may _ II find tbe pn:scn t pldhor a or ba ne!) c)'JlCI confUlintt.t.-n..i:. Since the c>ulput stq<:S of many tl'llllsistor receivers u.o. A l' PIO. ris~ m..uipIDCIlI becomes •• live . vibratoc pada an d petrol eenc ralOfl so redo len t o r NFD. Today..e.cdan~hc type.1n. III . llC"lernUy the wgcr the cell the Icso the wll~taltC) : and finally the min . Witb valYft" h.narise W1<Ier " r.ot of ee transistor w ith i15 great powcl savini com pared with va lYe3 has.lfe. liE SOC KET lOOllU iT AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUES II I.listo n lon whidt can be tolerated. Ott th e omer hand...tioM. E~eD wiLh tramillOrs. An o ther polc:ntial danger is lhe el..ys eottfo nn with the hi&!> standarlb laid down 10 the T .eriCl $Ometi~ appear to Ii~e sc much beller service than a t oth~r cimcI f The fo llowin J Dotes.. This can hap... U not t he on ly fa cto r which go verns the to lal amount of power wh ich (:1UI be obtailled from II dry cdl of Ihe l.o.". Z·'-" .. . . -for also ... non.w.imi1al to that developed fo r to rches. wi""...lImco.ay be co nsiderably IJTC'It" r in lummer than In win ter ... ballet}' of the ' twmrics and 'thirt ies W developed ill from the: original Let:1anc h ~ cell dalinr back so me hundrel yean. plu... pen.e ru le tere is that the IafJl"l' the . and in~cstipte immcdlatcly if any " tin .(CCJl' the specia l inert tYf'C whidt a. uO (u on ) LIN ' .'insa SO ohll1l'r:$is t:l1lOl: to earth ond a 10amp c:a. portable " a tloo.. -. Other IlOnsideratiom include the period of usc com pa red wicb tlle rest periods (Ull old hou. i50laIiDll ma. I. F ~ which I. prs.t u tra IOCkeli in their shad. batte ries a re uouollr lirnilcd by the oscillator fa ilin r below a crit ical VOllll!lC. ' '_14 • the. o <. " N" _ MI.mount o n renewwl balt cries. u .e. iI still S<><J'\tl ellCtgy lert in it . Size of the: ce ll.e . Many anlatc.. 1.. we igh.bell batteries ban illcd Jarle currents CCOI'lQmicaJiy be<:a. a_In&. Thcoo sho uld a1.e Wlwarye&n l pe1I< M WRK (. ror eL'lfllplc. The Loclan ehe cell starts with a ootl1 ' .e..ooornlcoJly wil hout aU the parapilemalia o. _ pin ' 1.. they art n:lllti vcly low curreru devices and the round ce ll Ia ul. PP IO I ~ 1$0 mA : PP I.. 12 oz..... .Ies " an! notioed.:iently low RlistanOCl to l. that . fOCkelS in the sh ac k (and in the ho .upply fuOCI (whkh IhouId a lwllY be tffl: minimum amJlCl1l8C prad i<:able) 10 b low... grneTaIly) '1': wired eeeeectty. the more sllilabl~ it il fex hea vy' d~ . tffl: primary and the other windiDas. pin .. the core or 10 one of the ~ windinp..ult w ndilioolll " 00 cq uipmcnl fitted with • dOllbJe wOW1d (i..ith this danger very much in min d bUI even so it Ihould be remembered tb&1 in ind ustry It iI oft\:u rooommcndcd m. because Kldon..QQ/llXtOd 10 . _ _ ~wl" oh. The eartb . II b by II<) InQlnl unknown (yt:s. .'Onomi~ use o f hit ~ • • V . may help the amateur te a void Inme p ufalll and 10 obtain C<.hcd an d cao o ften bcobtalned frnm l()Ql libnrics..sshack . many <.5 to 1-(.lw recei~ a nd tnul. led 10 fa greater COn. Irl nl 110 'M ... During tbe 'fo rties a new rOI1l1 of C11 l11lnl\:1ioo .. eartb flft " a n:a. . They were bu«t o n round cell ~tructl on .llUIe tloe ..lcut f use.. volts ami thIs dmp:< rairly 51eadi1~ with u"" (with some reeeverv durirll rest periods) so thai if.d~atcd by l Ci11i.. life SiK to !ICVm limes &I long as ror a " mA dlsclWll".:.. though brief.. " _ " A n_n •• IId>M ...l. based On lhe IRE reronUl'lCnd. This It rikinl d ifference decreas es with larger batteriell.mum volllllll' l uitable for tM particular applica tion.. the core and the dlassis lIR! aU errec ti~ cly carthod. . so that the chuaia of the eq.. arc rectangular ex lQ. U tIUL /".. M O. car bltttcries. have been pu bU.s and tbe contro l aran gcmeDU may call for 'lu lte a lo t of semipet"rtWlent '.ASCS the ballery has to til th coWll away wh ile tl.reversible maln.nninl a set with hi&!> a udio outrut a:reatly Incrcasea the ba tlctY drain..H. ...... To .pmfessiona! bu t • num ber o f books lrivina: sound advice on modem w iring practi«. _ . Thcre ill IOIT>C I'CUOll to belie~e th at e!carie Ibod.usc of the V<:ry lon l felt-tn-nsc ra tio) : the lcrnpcra turt (op timwn temperature is about We). tl. as used in lIle vast majority o f Il/N. .iJU transformo:r. Pf"6 In A ... PP9._ _ WJMly m LOOKI .mrnpOOD o r bl<. compared with th~ t oz... .u tm-pin main. Pl'4 less than 10 mA l PI' S IesI than 8 mA TI. . L " u. to cnlUle that the Ihleld belw. tion wilh time than rowId cella.l i<ml.. ~amples from tile Ever_Ready ranlll' of b." 6. n . ...t. aa..:onno..tlle la~er battery-GllnC into &alCrai 1I." II ill a1Jo weu worth whilo 10 ens ure that . II it cheaper 10 we a Iaycr boIlltery tllar m ercu ry celli ? Why 00 boIlt1. ~. with soldering irons and power dril ls. a PN d ischar~ at S rnA should have .. !r in anydollhl gel upert advke.in the rale o f d ischar ge for ." Ihe di<card ~oltagc II often go~emed by Inc amoUllt "r cross-over <.. .:ti n mll-<r be of RJ1r.ed o nly in . worth nOlin.IJally beller where fairly heavy consumption (30-300 rnA per <:em is req uired over lortll pe riods• For subslantial POW<:l'J Ihe layer cell tcndI 10 be Wlo ceunomlc and e'IIC'Y effort shou ld be made to l1IC IUC~ bull erico witl.. n t flnnsl: a ID (all OClll --e. Kcc:p a Cllfd"ul eye o n lhe at:lte o f aU 1ICJ1 (XlnJ.t .uare in section tbey can be grouped tug~ther with a minimum wene of space : they also tend to suffe r Jess deterio ra. _plo.

... n be used to power translslor tra nsm illert QYCf" a I'lnl period .. 10 .a.H~~caU III 1·5 . particular ly rOt lon g peri od. fi• .. lytic action which co ntinues ene. ln J n ·to .LIES 1<.0 1.-n t thei r price is intermediate betwoct! e-z eellli IlI\d me=.. . aUy. & call~ic alhll (potMh) c\e(:trolyte and a cat OOde o f OOfnplU. liII fairly n · penswe.hod " " . C'lpeo."".. 5 "" '. . The cheaper miniature lead-aci d cell! (wilh a nominll 2 volts per cell) ba ~ 10 be trmtcd care ful I)' IlI lC>rne will sta nd only a Umile4 number o f charain. . call .. ..OWER S U. fOur h .. . . Lec:lll..ftc.To ..C!ll ~les) . and a h igh-valu e el. . h-f>ol'fo..i lable larger uni u intelldcd for ponablc leln.. alkaline manganne lOx. <.oh. n must be po tnted out thaI their prsce is severe! times lha t or lhe LeclancM . . .. . 0r. 11a.. .. h'_0"" U1.Won l'CICeiVet1 wh ieh ..S it deterio rates...... II hIL' a Pl'per lIC'p&l"a tor which .kG. n'.. .) of the "rder . Th c mcrc:ury cell.. LPU2 (leak prooO 1'21 ... On the other hand.. d . - ..I fOl1T1uJ. il h. n lis cell fea lu res a Sled contAincr.gures show WI lm pro vcmm t u n CoJ ba tlcrl es for some a ppl ications.. To set against al l these im porumt advanta aes.limilecl <:ha'Il"R are U5C!d. We foci that the amateur woul d lind these I'llrlicu lar ly errractfve for the odd lransistori zed Wlil wed o nl)' OlX:Uion.. whe1"<:M a Slandllrd U2 will su pp ly a continuous ~ rnA cunrol ft>r on l)' a ho ut 18 minutet (with an end _poinl voltare of I vo lt) the hea vy d uly Eve r Relld ) HP2 will p rovide th il CUlTCllt fo r a bout J J ho un. _ fllld bero . l'licltel-<:admiwn celli (nom ina l 1·2 \'0111 per cell) will ('f ilm wittlltand vel)' IaflllC nwnhc:n o f c ha rtina cycles provided lha t coowanl-eurt'Clll or cum:nl... peri ods o f contln uc us dischar&c-though tor the latin lUI allnl. . A~ fro m Iheir ... l. a nominal l ' ~ vo lls outpu t. should Do t be lert too lo n" Some yean llgO it W DO ... of Ja••.. 11 11 11ft. low as a bout onc dOJ.. ho _ ... .per-ho ur r... 10<l4. The intern lll J'ClIiSl&llCll o f II. tcad y voltaae.. . a high-dcmily manganese dioxide ca thode.. . '" 1· 2 ____ 105V H P2 DoItUry U2_typ.... vra<ll.. \ . batteries could be u-cru lly «tend~ by rellUwly applying a small " rechar&inl" cu~nt o f about ~ rnA ..dy a t th" lhrou llh<JUt by far the p-e:ater part ol. ' ''0 _ "a. a potass ium h ydrol ide eleclrolyte amI a zin c anode. the mercurr cell hu d edded advanllLp. t... Now ada yo. . .. J7A.ilable main ly in the rarm o f oom pacl " bullOO .. then fiMily falli ns awa y with illCRllsina ra pidi ty to I vo lt Th c memJ ry cell doeo no l recover to . .. d..U life.• • . . Co 1_ of tho . Tho 01>0 01 ot.. . but tbeee are a". . The total rnergy wh.... muc h Ihi nner than the dectro lyte wa ll in the wual f"l'le type.. t ho ... This ill lilll hetovy dUly Lectanche oell whk h Ihow! very mar~ed im provemen t over Ihe w nvCT1t ional oell dn e to ooMtnoclio n&! impro vemen ll and to achllnlle in the chemi<:a. A l peci... which fo rms thc nc:PI.'n l Nch d. In a pplgtHms havina: a wKIe voltll&'l lo krallCC.Ial ly ea ten a... 2'~. 1 Cu .y ~y e1ectJ'o...rge ra te for which the)' aa intend ed .. 'helf_Iifc. ere .1' 1 11 I".. Un like the Lecl:lneho! il sta)'! almmt nc. resull from !ea. At p. . or alterna tively for ap pli<:ation s calling fo r lo n...a\in... <100 r iME 1~ 1"S 1 " . While the l.. Su _ . h l..I pr ovide considerahty ar eat cr service lifc than co nven tiona l ca roo.. . ntllCl wilh & Jtccl co ntaine. ch ClUl be ta ken rrom" cen of giVCII size . R~lat. HPl.\... D'" Hr ...oo mcn:llric oxidoo I'l'phite ' n ./w"lIeablc n ic~cI cad mium storage battery... c~lC!I (sometimes ..U. I...h . 0 110 120 11lO 200 2<10 280 320 3&0 li ME: (Mue " ..:ell ~ It ill ('..1'11'1 co.. h rlo"""n" "'l't . > 0 1..h. SKoncIa~ Cell. .h~. UJ ...al calelOry o f ba ttery hu been marketed whkh can prove an econ omical su pply for fai rly hea vy-duty ope ra _ tion (ca llinl fo r . of di""h~. ~ I .1 o ~" ++-~~---"..rio .«buu.nch~ cen risea I toeply lI..rlICT """led 1)'1'"... ventilalion il necuoary while elIa'sing l inee lhc fwne:o a~ explol.. Un til quill' eeceeus.. b<lttoIty . mercury cdIs _~ ava. .e manpn""" or mercu ry oeili ..di-...... U2..ueries in equi pmen t ArMI Iel t instrumenll required o nl)' infmruently.."0 HI_.i ~. All with the l.... an d a hllh p-ade man l l _ dl(lli<le wilh im pro ved dCf':?larizinl . They also ha ve hell.. mw l be avokled .-.. yo lo ••ho ••11. Seriow oVadIar&ing o f sealed «I1r. merc:ury celli reta in a IUMtanh aUy oon"a nl Internal resis _ durina tl>eir lirCltme. . 'h ). Good qual ity nickel-cadmi um bettenes.... 0 \~\\ ".. o r interna l prasul"et will build u p. 'howo oh • • of ... a nnc an """'.<U'C JhouId be UlkCQ to U5C! mercury cells wilhin the discba... There: are vario us leak reslsl&llt ba tleries aYllllable bu t evtm Ih. Th c eo-loed vol~1C is about I ·J an d on Iliad this drops I" aooul 1·2.ury ba uc l"ioC!$ similar ill appearance and COllUlc:tl to II&Ildard batterie:t an marketed In rhe Un ited K in gdom by Marklry I1all~riel Lld~ Cnowky .ll"}' <:c:lls and cost. llle amateur o rten USC! b-. h ..: ia Jl)' where requlred 10 dt:livcr apprec:iabl~ ' UI'1'Cn l.\fly Inlrkcd «twl durinl ret l period s and thus sOOws lillie differ er>t:e in to tal encrgy ! u pplted in intermittenl o rrontinu0U5 ICrvic:e... . merc ury 401.. N * H I....' "_hool "'_arred . aceause o f the low inlemal resistaooe ti le)' can be rapid ly dioc:hMted by an aecidenlal mon<itcuil. baneries in equipment for Ionl The outer zinc Q>I\uUner i.. Fo r .::trolytlu capacitor acrog the baile r)' line will o rten im prove rnattera. ~ clCdf'Ode. 2' 2x ..... .. I" WCT "'lerna! resIStance an d slan d u p w<'ll tt> adv e~ climnt i' COndil ioos ." and 8 volts mcn. fo r Imaller Ina<b the imp ro vemenl woul d be much ItIo ma rked . ""riods. Th ese ce11.. ur rents of the o rder o f ICVerlll hundre d milliampere!) when: the sitlllltion doeI m>t n~ the mOre t:lpensive lllk. but they are bciltj used iocreuinaly fnT soch a pplicat ions as halld-po rta ble co mmunicatiOOls equipment . ~ pried (U2 si. With 1a...oct&ncht. 0 1 ..... . h. An ot her d evelo pmCllt of im ponance is the " a llalinelTllUlgancse " high-C!lle rgy baltery.. For elWnp\c.. and they can rCIlIAin wlused for lona periods with o nly little detetiOll'tion and without leaking.har~ ..:tive e ucmeeve power source is the &enlcd m. .s several l limes tha t o f thc co rreopondin g Lec lanch~ cell........vin. hown thlll the lif" o f 1ImlL11 h. cdIs.... " lIno " . \ :: .ho llo. uch ...Hi nc cells.a fu ll I1UI IO o f I ' H ..hahly l he most "::00ornic&l lype fo r fai rly rqular .t..

. An article in E/«troniu WOf'Id (Cktobc:r-.e I piece o f doublo-sided p. 30 il derived from RoJw.:1.! with lar&er uniIs.. ~ _ cll l _ .• bUl tbe" stuck-on "version &OCDlSto make II good lub$l' IUle.volt eeus o r similar low-vo lta& ". Th e whole Ihing is ralher li1r. wide) with a $«Ond I'iooc o f cooper foil lhlcd o n the o lher aide us.. In ~ rcchargiJlll of dlY cells mlly be eoonomic:ally f<:lUi ble only when quanli l i~ o f d ry eeus arc used under c:o ntrollcd co nd itions wi th a ')'Item o f cxchaqe of wed celli for new 0 0« alread y in practice.. a 200-2S0 ohm ruj"tor wind in parallel wilh the r«tiflCf' 10 provide an a. teGlmlquc for hil panly transistorized equipml:fll and reportl tha t five cycle ba tteries ha ve .. 2!Jl. ft tu -~ . G aRNO.. aDd &JlJlt*l" to f'ellia tc the tinc: man:: evenly. the 0 apPropriate ~o noOClio05 10 the meter..arg<: should no l be below 1.. l (iv) Owi ini rale l bould be l ow enoug h to diltti bu te Mllarlor Mode £ ..e: ' The dlarger (Fig. could be taken eee of by \l$ing a low ~rTeIIl bu lb in the " d iny d. . J 96~) qootes tomC a ulhoriu.. lo nl b y 0-5 in.. oeM d ry cells...b .. miJht QlU3e ." department.boun of recharre Iho uld be 120-180 rer eml of Ihe d ischllri e.un ill in !lC:ries.. G 3DY.in rtpLltini operatIons.eelb are stacked lid_II sprin& co ntaclt and the form of constm~tion rllH ke8 it d ilticull tocon n« t II test meter ill circu il m1na eon..~.~ " bipolar transitton il Ihe r>oNibility . 'OI O P~.~ of 0 celli whICh arc 001 1pc<:itica1l designe d for ~1laraiP& can be y d~llinoc CXOCDi vc amountl o f g.h the probe bet. a t lea. woo w. B1. him through two low power field daya and other od d jobll and aRlllili in Ule alk..ck And red witft a re lhen solder ed 10 the IWO eoppcr fo ils. sma ll m ip of ccpper-co veeed p... GRONO 1_ .t teri ell it posiblol uMlI& charging cum:ntl of • few milliampcra. is._ value cap acitor..... .:harJm.. .l'(ull " I d -I'VI Tftin tl. (il) Th e bat tery Ibould be p booed on clw'Je very soon after rmloval fro m !lC:rvilx. Street. The tec hniq ue is Ihe" sim ply 10 pu. u~iOll the wites 1 mak".1t:4 (October..c a home-mad e 1 0. _ .. lIrid1y Ihesc a n>: (. C. h illIH peed Anl ldite adhesi\ e . In hit form of probe (fig.. U loIlTING JlU l l l'OIt 1 ~_. llIC l1m'L!1&cmenl show n in F ig... put r. ~ 1M many U5Cful ways of ClIploiting tbe co mplemcr:lIllry plfl'1 0( I.hi..""" P"'mdrf s. bIlt O l DY belie'o'al thai thi. ~ ... Ofleo 0 .. (iii) T be a mpero... cassette tape recorders and the like that usc se. " .tm p ler 10 u.e. ft..char.ing from 100 hilh cu rrent ma y l..... fOf' Silicon C"nltl'oI1edRKt/flwI A further lUueation wu J»1t forward by Joe Croprer .aUIC! a tJa htly scaled "II to e~plode:' Oo Ubll. O b... .ti vc vlews on m:hari:i"l (:()llveotionaJ carbon·zinc Led . '1.atte ntion to an ankle ill WINIku W".-pf... Small transillor ndio cells wwld ad: warm. G~ O NO poi nts OUI tha t II would be eve n .. App an:otly din)' ue .0 vol t per cell w hen the twrlllcry jl mnoved from ICtVice for ~harainl.u often bcell ....~ ~ C.. !ional meter probes a nd wo nCCIOI'1.. R.... R.. ""' "' . E1UIM.) The o pcraliDi voltqe OQ di!ch."... ba... . lult deviseu ll ~"dl:"l to make il calY 1 measure ball el')' CUrRnl in the ma ny do mestic an d 0 portable receivers. o r llOI8 ibly bclWOCO o ne cod of a batt ery an d Ihe Ipriog coniacta.nl by the US Nati olUll Bureau of Standards. ""'O' ~IO to nc~ a .l1y considered .IJ (<krobcl:. 0 3BY uses !... .ra l l ·s. able 1 pro vide dirtlCl: ~I fo r dlar~nt. ..:I. rec:ognizcd technique .)'del und er ceR&in oondi llom." two \:d l. T~ ..Wod thai some degree of " reclwail18 " ol la)'Ct bl.tin g of the cera. .. .. lt.. It may all sou nd too 51mple a nd obvio us to be reall y usefu l. 2g) hu DO lilt'" aapeciton and ha. dry ce lls.c. ..o:... primuy bolttery It ~y be RdJarpd fO!" • Iimitod num ber of (... (a bout 2 -4 in.. TbiI anicle described ... y (v) Ce lli mUll be pu t inlo IeI'vioc soo n nfier dll rFni as lhe recharFd celli have poor I hcl! life.b.b . 1963) . in fact il 5CCtIl5 III userul a nC\V p dgel aA if I<Jmebody Iuld jus l Inven ted IIIe t ra d itional crocodi le (all iglltor) dipl Sub. mol'll lhlln two )'Rn-e'Ym tho ugh he admits that the od ls have not . Althouah the dry een is DOmlI. w...A H ATI! U R R A D I O TECHNIQUES . wmpoocnt which {If Uling • pair I{I give the eq llivalmt fadlilies o f a small silicon conlrolled l'IlCIi6er in man y oontro l Ipplicaliolll. G. and wilb equipmen t avail..... From time to t ime attmtion "'" br:cn turDcd to the probl em o f m. 1955). 1 waya been promptly recharged .._ u. lin decttolytic: ahakc up l " 1'be ICdlnique d imin&tes her.-.O Olft ll . dl 0 1 ~O_cl. preferred n>etllod dcV'c1opod in the Netherlands using " d irty d .. ..n. II h.. ... In his cue !he lraml'ottner IICICOIIdary is 18 voltl to ~ thcl IS VOltl o f lly(\cI bailer)'.

tro!ytk:a wilhOllI ( hobo or blcalcr rcsialOn (thou'" bi&hcr·q lue reslalon are atiU vaI~bIe ill di1c:harp o.. •Of•_ . IaYUlJ !be 6'J.ra.icnen ac:apl lhill view-bul It IICCITIS 11'\10 tha t for lIlIlIt amaleUr a pp1k... .. G M4QK.o Vaha. reaulu in " .--IloIo_... . 33(0» Ihows thlt ecrreee noWl lMoullh lite rcal&lon until tbe II. HRO pown supply siooc IhiI alJowa Ihc YOII1 10 Ill " WI'OIlDd up or dC'WD " lIIItii the I"llOeI'feI' e~ filS M caJibntioa curve. 1bc1D-.. norman)' 't ied.. One problnn'I01th IhiI I)'pe of WIll il lhltlll h. GJOSU ~ bow t'IYO IiliooD tnrIiaislon c:aa be IIICd 10 pn...n....JoltJ. .. .. =1. rem. ..._ .) (a) (b) T -L .. pairot2AlI lo provMic. He a1res1C1 lhal then: is DOthUlI new IbootIl the ..Iion " Rcmomb« lhal ror I ai.m by IU&Ptint et. Ulptll choke..... C.. Sma ll ""1I'MUPpratlOIl _ il Io n ... p: 1 hold of them"... nd + . Tho: IWUlam.. be pro.... ta il " and m ullS In hllJher mini00 Dwn1 voIb thiI ma.1. ThOll any runber iol. portiDnal to the ampWIcalion... d uriDt ahoft-duraliOIl charPn. nr ~ r.. Weona: lbnod 0« QUiU:. (or a bu_) two trl odM.ilio:n in ~ with II diode bIu reeci(ocr. 1 1M dlokHripu.... I'ClIcbca 0-6-\1011. rrhich .' 0I her1Yise <Iisc:Ilpp:d.. HI. 1M INltct In practjcIe...1 ilnOOthin.aliolll ca~ lor fillen a re pr obaby Ille better (..U. the IIUIpIlI voltaae.7\ + r: "- '31 _ .niclI ..... Ad~ V.hoioc than all)' altel'ftll liY Ohilill\. ..pac:i1aDc:e GIel. The ~oltalC acroll Iho deyice i. I r • (.....bias " uran "emcal ill m Ul:h l imp{«.. although il 11I5 • 1 ' .. And for mon purpcIMa... {21 if you QUI. pe..rridc Idjulllble votll# sabolUa!JoG.. ea..p $ """• • Dr .hcr (wbicb c:amc: mlo UK ia the c:art)' lhiniel) II limilm....--Sl. "" IioeoI of the IrIOIl' ... 8)' liliQoa tranlistors.. .. IIR(I_ + lo) but aiIIOII the resistor current remailll almool! CODitanl. . furiou! .CW1ftOI OUlput. _ _ _ . . thua : V_ V. capaalon wit h the I Upply IwilChed off) and wilh voila. - k=_.. . Exoelleotl. tetJUlatad aupplls caD boo obtained with hilt> e...olllOlll..-el l- s-IIIoI. (I ) .era.. .. ..flItod qhe reaifien. .yoll toilldin& the l.lio-the peIIk io _ 1lp oaciUalory YOItqe _io p .ircull (Filii.1100 ~ oblpxn ani coalCOlt to plod . turlttio:a • a _ dio<k by a~jf)'i nl 1 emlllCf'-tuc M The . _ V" . ...... I.boke If llI ic:oll diodco are used..yol talC rmi6cr .on diodes al lhe ir IIlOII IeIlIil iw volta ge n lina-by len in. pa ir of 2Al lriodct will work ce a S.n.rcue In cu rre nt will be . -.ten.. bou t 12 timeI raled .tUdl c:aa UIU&Dy hlDdIe ~ted AUTmI u p 10 .. rillS " In QOI'llinu!ll.. . liD!: deriwd rfOll' it ClUl...._ wrU o-v_. He poi I'll <MI.. ~ 10 Illlc:ua dio6cL Tho: maia putJ'OIO or the tr ad itiocW ~I 6. Ippc:ared eI»~.1 11I1 rated I . lhe IrIPff the Watpalton "" l he Iriodc ra:tificn.riabll volta ae tdf-biu syok:m (F.rlImfonnc:r. Not aU dea..ins Ilmosl cons tan t... '. C. ~ pea'" rOl"ll'Ud ~ n \Olin.. _ ~ A I ~ or CIUI.-. Consldmtllon of the bQlc (.. ill a eeuer a nd more ecolM.. Ilnce V. it hu q lw at It oaIel\W'd to ailicoll diodcI -.-hidI CUI be IMde dcpctldmI OD the ft:IislOl' ralic.. the breakdoa-n chlrXlcrialk oermpalft -'I wilb !ow-YOlta. _ .lIbHizod YOIII . teII... cha... _ .POW ! " SUPPLI!S _ "-. t he ailiooa d iode slrin. \mos l eDlin:l)' p&Ued yla lbe tra nsist or . bow 90 pe r ceot o f AlPpl)' YOItaae pcab .. errIiI&ioll of WQIUIII and .. .tIictl hi... lJNI Z~S I .I.>lTlk:a. A. med ..ttIe ..DOt radii)' III u..bolixd aiDa! Ihi.led 1619 valYC1 . . Hc _ lonr.1 (. .' "dII. lIotes lbe KOHVK uni l { paltC - "ow. inslea d o r usislUlL ma)' Ktu&ll)' help <bIro )' lilil...... -..._"... _..YO! I ~ C.._ JoI:u:i Roscoe..l . nlC1. 0 &lIen for hi~" hDIIDiner ~ ckspo lc havin..

. The tempcratwtl stability is thaI of V This cin. f~ure The part icular al1llll lltment wu dcviocd to r~ a slClldy rnA Inlo a transistor d...cfr. All t he resiston are I ..L.. '..c ...aac dlanaes In tran_h·'C. u a. The zener wu a ~ery 1 0W-eoo.. tio n device ith an el1"ect iVQ opt!fllting value .. lIh eonSldcfllble clIanaein batt ery vo ltaJIIC."/on A Ileed o ften an.ct voltage ""lwrcd..U BD. rool ... Th e idea comes rrom EJ.. J.. in CQ (DecembcT.. It is ~Ialmcd . _ .a>mc J ·2-voh total.uil thUi prcvldesrhe deairod sta bili.ale for varying 1000d current (F ill. Z L2BDB. ll(c).dded 10 obtain the eu.. Petformance of lhe lltranacment shown in Fill..'j. A tlUlUiltor ~ed It!I a cons tan t CU rTalt ck:m (F Ig... ampl ifier .~nce is ob tained by usiD.. and by any Increast! in V..dcred ("Rliit A much 1Illll1let" I lope rcaisl.. t'Jllra Itages (Fig. a Darl ington p. Hcr1)at...n!li!llol'1" shown in Fig.... typically a I N J815..Od eqoi pcnent for vollage .. fo. wilh cur". tA<O E " ND INUS6 U •• <If . . The arranJ:<:ment provides a sla bilily tome ten limes better than wilh tile diode etcee..on too . indicated ..'jtant volta g" will btl ma intained ($01: Fi.ool"... J . othcrwi".mlc lHslgn. po ints ou t Ulllt cOlll'entio nal ata bilir. . . to ". W. If tws is nca:1ectcd.1ir of t rll. .. HUll T R2 must be mou nted On one s ide of tbe d wsis wa ll U'.. 2(l Banery volts Output volts at 2(l rnA To ta l curn:nt s-a s-o e.. unit C&lI also be subjcclCd to . U . Fill. 0"" of the man y applicalion~ for such a supply would be to min i m. C.ian ccnsldermions for Iu~h Inppliea and also prca<:DU.. '.<1. 1'1 • • k + ~~ oVrwr I p.. n·~ •• 1 60 1·60 1·60 (7-3l) n7 <SmA "mA "mA 32 mA (24'S mAl .l4(all provides u ce llent sta biUmlion a t lin le ""till current. :I&. QI the insulato. .. l4(b)) lVOu ld provi&: evea belle r volllll!" liabil ity or com peru.s a ~t slnlr. ltn l la< . and with almost no lOll! o f vollage when germani um trnnsiS lo rs art \liM... 36 sl>o"" II simple way of o btainina both positive an d neG ative voltages rot 0"" with S ICs (uM)nvnetrical vol llLgcs can be obi ained by \l5inll different type! of uncr diodc).1rt001. Rtl.". ~ ~ Ilo~ restnaace" II p rod uet:d by base cu=nt in~rcasi!lJ the >'(Ollage across " R.J ' oJ L. dool".... tabiliu lio n ablf: to cepe .. ZURDll 5uUCSla tha r the on ly ImponaD{ conslrUCtional i. ~ 4 0 321 '" ~ ~ '" _. for • 2ItV . 1. SI".old coos u"'" mort: than do ub le the current.t l"1'l' loa type. The ava ilability of rairly high volUlge ailioon power tnln sisto f' aDd z. Dr.here Y..... ~Ml u tlo ft hue cu rren t is sma ll.. l4(a)... _ _ • ""d JOO . -a_. NTH IN nu )2f~ >- CQTI. '" 1~. then II COTl. 1%9) discusses in detail the da...pplr .". Ie _ ~ . then alope r<:liItancc can btl J~ • ~Ia.~ volt. .d is a pplitld.lor. which . tld·.JJ show only II barely discernsble tWlt~h of a voltmet er when I 200 mA Joa.eoers mak es .nds h upon Ihe setli ng uf the variab le ". Fir:_ 3~ indica les thllt a ! tJ1l ighlfOfWlll"d c ircu it ia u=! incorporatml: two k CA bigh ..all unl""."'ata<:/ Powar SOl" ' . . to ' ''y. )O..a.I. A.& a su rpl...iston aDd a highvolLage zener .nt. indicaled below. tioo ulin ... '" 8"fta. lempoltll d>ort--eimUt without lIualrm l ance the 180-0hlll resistor limlu the currenl to a safe value.. 030SlJ . . l4(c))........ The minimum ~Ul'TeI"II for atabilw lIlo n will thus btl J. ). olLallC lrBlI...<.... SM"/I/~. lIS1D.. 3l (b» equal to (II x I) V. bM no bt.. I nd . lcb ~pt. Volta.. Carr. 50 that the stabilizer on ee comumao two o r th_ limes Ihe cu=nt ac tually used ..1. LD tIlOcive and tr ansmit mocee. ~"" VQl.~ fJ leon 4 0 313 ~~. . tog ether "'.._.. ..... ) ""' . OC7 1 . juat zc: n<:J1l all d resil tolS is of limited IIpp licatlon siDOIl II la rge vollag<: drop acl'Ol<l the resis to r is o:sscntilll.. DcIlpitc the use of II aericl lLabilizer Ihi.'" --'OJ'' ' OC71 + STAIlIUlED OIJTPUT A MA TE UR R AD IO TECHNIQ U ES S«14-S"' .. wi.tb a lay er of silicon grease to improve lhermal cond uc tivity. ""tra diodes ca ll be . co ml"kte ~isn for a 250 ~olt sUPl?ly wlllch..with lI'ansistoril. A thick ·walled a lumin ium chu&is is prcrClllb le to emutll boLh mcdltlnical strength and itl eITectlYerlCS! a. pro vided.... a... wlnd'n..G-6/R....t po ulble to build uscful lOlidsUIte "'lllIlatC'd su pplies at voltaacs which still \I$uaIly teDd to be lISIOCialc<:l wit h thcnnionic rCllllla tof'. " .

".10 .I zenee plu s a low-<:O'tt po wer tran!ii3tor . the: diode begins to Jo. oI.. 19101 no t only oYel" eOOlCS the probl ems le t OU t above bu t also protects the a n:ui t l. June... two ot her am meemenu are suu.u .n uv _I O~. 40... U" ~. opcnoting normal?... _ ... . voltlae..... J ...... "....wcllon The UO\: of a diode in the ball ery lead of tra Mistor~ equipment 10 provide pro tection a& t «. ....SCd (depcr>dmt upon tboe voltase ralin.e its forw ard bias... N . lind whictl is n~lIy '!f'Craied from a main s ballery eliminat or . A l1-volt ha ltery for ms a pnmancntly ava ilab le inS!lltlll netl US .. /hallcry power supply by Sven Weber . ( .....cxpeswille..uitable for ITJO$I supplie.aocd and the re .. S.."..1_1 _ _ Pi... Ulrick in EI.. base voila II'" across the now bigh intCTnal raisUUlce between emi tter and collcaor. n .Iol_ . Tbe i n d u~ ion of In extra diO<k and bul h l' rovides a reversal indica tor ._ . . no-break .ted cir<:uill.. A suegest io n by ZUIO (8Tcok.ested by R.."". 40... I . ~ . .. o utpu t sudrlcnly fall.. ZLAIO incliellta tha t if R is 100 o bms then 5 rnA of load cum:n t ~tI 1 drop of 0-5 volt and hence the th=hold of current limltitll . t or P% r)ty P. ~ 50l _ IV 2 NlO55 0_1'" (Yz+v~l . Wich the lOCCltla '0.. from the malna aupp ly.... ..llOf! w.iator it can be ca libra led for RU in....'"'_ _ . lr R ."... lhe thres hold cu m. 31.'\I i t mlIk cs it "...y aive an idea ".ctJo...nt woulc1 be SO rnA" and with I ohm a bou t SOO rnA.~ ..nneaine the \lin...-.. .. this does not I pp ly whcre 1 10 or 50 Wilt ra tin.."... I Th~ a_ _ _.. Yi4n . n oolp.cl-hr S... No lndlc don Js . _ ... A full bridite ~i n. n.Im • • . If R is a wircwound variable -. of • • udde" run. ••• amer nt ~ 'c. 39...bou1d I. (" • . Tt ~IIY l 11 S115 • ~ Bancry rav .-""rr O~.iven hy Z L410 of l he supply e m ltage to which Ihis circuit can he l. A ...c(..." .. "..- .. ll'Ir .. wh ich a. Ea rlier we Ulle I hown 1 ma in.. involl'eS IW O diode switehes : 01 and 0 2 In Fig.tc.. _I of the em ill. um:nc. ~.aJ.. IMt can u sily be <Wna....-l~ ~II ". hile 400 mW an<l I WNIl eeecr diodes I re iJl. lot _~ •• ~ ••Ir HISII'5 Tranl/. . pack C reduce ri~ ple and lra nsient volla ifC$ ...... septemh<T.n. '.~~ ~~r : 2SB3.I 'OIfIc IH~irll (I Scplcnlbcr. L lves (cO.flf . the tra nsislor Is ill a saturated «.pproac ll apreared ill Efn. in whieh a min iature 12· volt I~u\ator is permanently " llOll ted " 1 " 003 the o utO put of the J2-volt po .. D2 is reverseh.tonne an imPOf\llnt chlonncl.. l . A different Iwlication of. G SACC/G1SFW{T.nnce led.Jcing powered from the effect.-" 1 _ 41o‫ס‬i _ of u..ed by a short-circuit o r hea vl o verlolld is well xeewn. Th e details ohown in the d. then D2 boecomes forwar d....lll item ativc: e"i ~ ls In the form or 1 sm. inten ded fnr u"' wil h tr ansisIOrs and jnteer. The prob lem of po" u supplies. Ampllfl... " . 10 ohm&. hithtine up when lhe haltery is wrongly «.. .. tor ) hut it would prff\lmab ly be .. So lone .. " " ELI MI N. > J ".. As a reoull the currenl /\atlens o ut lit about 6'5 o r 1 mAo Simi1arly."OW ER SU . 1970) by G . is required .e . h ~ n........>Uld be a IOCI"ver mon. Surma and G .... 1I11l)' whik 01 now ~ls di. <lI1eoiI.... _.. Th il simulates 1 hiJh..olla~ on the base.. But lIS current now incr~-. 4lo<1~ .-.. .I._ " _ _ _ I _ .... ::.. than lhc l N711 . s..... sbort4tcW( o r low resistanco Ippea r across the OUtpu t of the supply (hen l!le maximum curren l will be limited 10 the bala. y a of . th us restrictinl base cu lWl1l I nd ra lsinl the inlunal rcsista neo of (be tnln . mtlar I.... no drain rl'Of'll the hattery.. _ _ • .... Should lhe mlin..ncina dTec! 0_ 1. Coonu. the cu rrent fiowinl lhrouah R JI such thaI (he lJamistor emiUer voltl SC is len tha n O'S volllo.. nl .. Acllat')'ll. ~ ~ ) _ . S.l gu lll rn..ndition I nd offen low fClillanoct: to the supply. Thi!. DlodlNWltdtlft.. biased to co nnec t the N. N. of the tr alu i. ' harie through too power supply which should hlo.. e. LIES m ( .t vohago: abnu t o-S voll o r 10 above the Mtte. UHIIEG '" 002mA ""\:b (.. . . tor.ihle 10 fOf&et 100111 M ileI)' po larity. • "" PI• ." c. leads with the wron g po larity hal been widely uoed fo r many )'!\III .m oll ics World (Septembocf..j Za"er C. 1970) nctes Ihat . 1')70): i'le. to the requfred current llmilinl ttveshold. .... emersupply for tile eqUipmen t..poweI' zener by form ing a simple shunt relulafor lIS in Fla..... II.

thal sbun t 0 nculalioa d.. maim but bas bolh posilive and DePtiw: nUb differinS in polCrlliai From either side of lhe IDaJIt$ l upply. ama tftlfcan lind llWIy U<lQ : Fi.. Thc ~oltacc ra linp ate l hose &5~Io:d wilh a 117_ voll input .. <. W4YAA daiJ1l5 that as a ripple filter it will be some 10 times mo re effective lhan uaingjult l HI-ohm t esislor. ¥ef5ioro this is slwn u 520 voliS no load . lhe regulation is noC . Plovi<lQs lktai!s of a 5efies.. 50 I haw: added a transformer : Fis. Junes M.10 Gwtval P. Trlplw 7) M agdZW (December 1965) prac:ols a n attra ctive and prac tica l triplet" arnngc:noent.c. ~. . -i>Jfued Pow. " ". ""ft.. 1 u ma~ be wor lh laldnl 1 CITe in the selection of 11 suilab le ca pacilor to bring the circuil near to resonance. ralinp will df!pr nd on the lr3n5fonner""OO..e.... ripple rrequeneie5 of 100 or 120 ell and nOI witb a single diode arranaemcnt. A related... Th is aJTall' CDlcol iI !tated to result in a resonant rroquency of about 106 efa. 1970) in tum based on a QTCUi l pu blished Q rlicr in RtvU$ EEE : see fi..... .. But remember Ibat Ihis form of ripple tiller is designed rot use with full-wave roctific:a tloD.. cov ee ~~ .. and it should thu~ be even more effective on Eur opcao n pple rn>qucnC of 100 efl than 100 Ame rican 120 e!1 for whicb it Q W developed.." Z _" Page 251 I hows a u.. wbile perfec tly Or1hodox..rq'Ula ted supply can be ufdy s.._ thllt 01Ml is eollltll.. ~l. With ailicon diodes . G8 FNT . Nr 10.i5ts of usin& an 88 DIM toroid 1I5 the inductive clement of a parall el tulled circui llO provide a high impcda noc to ripple frequcnciel of the 0l'dtI of 100 to 12()e/I. ng=lCnt ror 117-voll 60 cia e... .ue.. . with eloctronic tunln. Le.." ~ 603 V I"" • • 11 ....t !• • .. . l!tyant. . mil ht be antlcipa. on lhc otha. . "" .j _ l ~p ~ ... This is l lal ed 10 operate over the range 0-8 to S volts..I'Ce no ma tlet ho w liltle output is ~ taken . 1bc toroid is co nnected in para lld with I 25 "..noe the oulpu t eootalns bo th /ill a nd 120 ell compOnen t. • 1. .<erul adj. • 1. Murray Baird.AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUE S or how 1 lUe !he S)'5leta II inWcaIQ. AdJustDtl'. • ~ T. l ~ .tcd rmm a tripler COllfiguratio n: in the lralJofonnerlc:u. ror eumple...slable ~<llta ge stabilizer arnngeroml blIsed on IWO tnl\$i510r1l. .. H """"" t doo~. 490 vo lts 100 mA oand 4((l VOllS al 2..WE. U..ommcnd it (as we indicate. turns up in R<Jdio-RBF (June .ic Frorn LA4HK'.. 4 l.F ClIpacilor as shown in Fig. heiDS: pan icular ly effective be twoeo about l i nd 3 ~ollS.llUy dntwin& l ome IS walll rrom the ~r IlClU.. diodes or o!he r applicatioO$ needing a rairt y his:/! Itability. ' . " " " I ~ '2!l *T ".. a belief . I . laWre Rip ple Filler ripple filler for UiIC with minia lure power supplicl for lIaIIieonduetor OC!. II3 reslstance of on ly 10 ohms and will han dle abou l 200 rnA..l _ ftl .. lhe Iype of unit for which llle traDIIIlittln. 1971) COI1le5 a aeneraI purJlOiOe power IUpply wbictl.S4l1'ftl'1 " 0"' • pow• ... _Ibp . A W." I 12!l :1: '" . AOcut ecov ~.. In1 _. tbe aYCf'Sill amatc:ur tends to usc two zeeer diodes in cascade. ~. P. Siooe also the to\cnmc:e of typ ical 25 I' P electrolytic Cllpacilon tends to be pretty wide (usually pro~ iding more than the n.ov . Slllbilized rqulalor for power su pplies for use wilh semiconduetof1... Teknisk Brevkaac " (Amato> R . _ ... The Ill! mH toroid bas an inlernal d.. system hal lillie to nx.. F I T . SUdt . He noles that usually when.. ~ .. . bBd . . .uipment bas been suggested In QS1' I>l' Richard Malleis W4Y AA.. 43. A~ M/. a lt a." ' I... ! "'" 140 ". ...ominal ca pacitance) we I USpcc1 11l.... calli It • f -wltve lripler ".hort-drcui led with an immun ily to damage seldom provided In series-regulaled arnna:ernenlS.. 1M •• 1.11' _.. • " 2N5136 ' I... ~ _ I _ 1to.. .. -'1 .. or course. 03 0.hand the !\hunt._ The current . This co lI.. W 'LW I ". "".._ " ....1<0 _ • . lk Volta. The Qrwit is ~~ It$ a tranoformulell .001 _ . W6l.. . IU~ted G 3OSU..... .. 42.' 2 V ~ ( "'Poly 'I• . but slightly diffem ll versIon thIS Iccbni'l.w r~'-T ..20 mAo 1l>c aulhol".. .. oo ~. s .. ~ • •• '1'1' 1....bitiD:d IIllllPly is ~ for ... or b . .

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adl'aDtaae of the &bon d Uly cycle of the Cllfnlll peaks. A _ ~ ;lpproi1dI--whieh a pplies &l$o to hiah"'lIlait' suppl ies for l.S.b. line:an-is 10 use .. vny l~ rew:l'VOir c:ap;lcilor. so allow ;.... a subst an tial reduction In the lnnSfol1l"lU " iron. n A l oad eurnple is liven by J. Ennis in D«trollia (4 Deo:mlber, 19nJ in the form of a pcwe r supply able 10 provilk 0-4 amps. al 20 vctu wilb rqulal iotl benet than S per <::enl " I it lo tal 00$1 (USA p riocs in lbe Sta tc:s) of $13.12 : FiJ. 49. TIle key fe.tlllnl il lhe 32,000 ,. F racO'oir capacitor pennittina the UMl or a IOW-OOSI and klolsy In Dlformer. Apia, to ....ve 00$\$, 1\IlI() car bu/b$ are \QOd for sbo n -cireu it protection ralher lban the moR! conventional system or CUI'l'enl fokl buk. ; (he bul bi DOl only act as I fuse hu t abo rNUO/l the voltaee drop &o:rO$S lhe regula tor tra nsisto r. th us red ucinl ita powe r d issipalio n. To change the l upply" out put voIta;&e 10 I S voIll1 II is J'O""ible j ust 10 ese a !7 · volt zenrr. bu t ror lower voIl. OUIPUIS II u better to lPe a 1 0-. \lollaP' tra,","ormer a nd appropriate zener . lbe plilJl<l'S<: or Ind udin l this item is to draw al teotio o 10 tbe locbniques rat her than 10 111.&:8""1 carbon copy conSIrueliOl'1, bu t lhe 1912 USA component p rioel have been len on lhe diagram as it i, reli lhal pricec;omparisom Ire llwa~ of inlcmrt.

oepll\le supply \loha~. The system dcpeOlb dim;tly on the 300 \loll$ u nregulated sup ply. The .iJ:T TR I wlnw. R l &nO R2 to haY<: tulh values so tha t ou lpul loa d inll ;, kepi 10 a minimum and Iow-w:mage resi,tors can be used. Relati vely low'\lolt.~ lnuui sto", ClIO be II~ 10 rellul. te 2S1> volts supp lies (Mahendlll. Sha h, Eln:lron (cr , 24 A~ril, 1972). By absorbinl the bu ilt "r lb~ o utput voltllilc wilh II 200 volt :tlInef, the Olher oevio;eo can have quire low volta"" f'l l i n~ ; ICe F i, . 51. Th e cin:uit shown I, Intended to Ilrnvide 250vo lu
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A. tip in Rm/u,.EktlrtHlkr (1oly, 1973)noler.thMt when COIlo nectl n, blt.lleriel in p:u'aJ1e1 II It, ad\llln~ to do so lhro uab diodes : see Fil . S2. TIle reasons ale tha t two balleries w:ldom haw nactly the same vol tage and with a Slralahl parallel (Onnect ion one may dill:tw'Jle Ih ro u,h the other; further, lhe d iodes offer ....otflC\lon apimt oonna;linlillem tbe wro n, way rouno , and also pro vide flTOtflCli<,m 10 &0 ClI ' tema l cireu it. will be a voll.l.(l:I: drop lOI;I'()SI the d iodes, eq ual 10 lheir po lent;al hill; Ihls wm be: knott with germanium diOll.". than ~;licon d iodes.

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The current popullu-itr of small hand-held and mob ile equipmcn ls ha s res ulted III II req uirement fOT such ancillary itcmlu ma ins power supplies and battery chargcrs. Stephen Price, G4BWE, h u II simple power su pply which •Uow, him to use II Tri o /Ke nwood TR 2200G transceiver from ll1lIins .uppliCll and wo uld al. o be ~u itllble ro r ma ny Olher units req uiring 12 volts an d wh ich alread y have built-in vollll&e reKUlatio n. In such Ilnils it Is possible 1 dispense with zener rererence 0 diodes and such t~niques as I.e. opera.1iona l am plifiers o r I.e. volta~ regula tio n since the equipment call cope with moderate varialions in l upply vo llul¢. The potentia l d ivider (see Fi~. ~) e<lnsisting of RI , R2 and RV I det crm inl'll Ih" bICIC vo ltage of TR I and t hu, controls the "miller potential of T R 2. The 470 I£F electrolytic: (e2) en sure, that th e co ntr ol voltage . and eon>;eq uenl ly the output , is fru from ripple. RV I i' used to set the ou tp ut voltage anywh ere between 10an d 20 vcru. 1'IIio conlrol . h n uld be pos itlo ncd fo r minimum voltilll'l before f1rsl co n necting lhe TRllOOG: th e slider may then be slowly IIdvan<,JCd , while k.eepi ng an e:le on ' the " batt cry chec k." meter . The T R220Q0 Should draw ju st und er O'S amps 00 transmil. so that for thiS eq uip ment Tal requires on ly a !mIl11 hcat.,l nk d issipati on (a bo ut 4 watts on transmit). Hn_ ver.lf TR2 is mourne d o n II larger extr uded heat -sink and T RI i. ,1$0 provided with hCllt-&inlc. coo lin• • then the su pply sho uld al"" be CIl p;Lble of "ro vidina the 3 am ps or SO needed to ru n a 1I) ·watt transceiver, An ~ltctn Kt i~ to the 1.5-0-I5·volt tran sformer wou ld be 10 UiIO o ne with a single is· volt wind!na in conjunclion with a bridae rectifier .

A uumber of suita ble .. ba tter y sa ver " circu itlthat accc mphsh this sampling process have been described : for exam ple, by Joh n Rum~y, ZL2TN K , an d Peter Williams, ZL2ARW, in Breuk-In, August . 1975. TIlis dCli ign wu inlcrnkd for ~ with It spcc;:ilic walk. i~t ll. lk. ie b"t there il no reason why it should not be used , possibly with minor modificatio nl, fo r ot her equipments. The circui t details arc given in F ig. .54• An astable multivibrator provides tbe ba sic 1: 10 d uty cycle an d thi s is used to control a tnuuistoc po wer ~wilCb which interrupts the power 10 the active eevrces in thercceiver.

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When lIIina hand-held an d otbc.r ballety~ra ted eq uipment over exten ded perlOl1s of lime it is deilr~blc I'" locI' eonsumption 10 the minimum Ihllt aUows the sY!'tmI 10 fuDetioD without sil nillca nt 1 of e/Jk iency. One technique 0&1 used in profcssiona CQulpmen lf, II the low duly cydc d un n. stand.by operauen of t he roccivcr, a uto lJl.llically switehlna the equ ipmcllt to normal rcoc:ive conditio nl when • slana l Ippeal'i. Th e muted roocivw " listens " for perhaps 10 per cent of the to W time, tlltin a a brief ~ loo lt .. al the f~vency every few iCOOmh. If the squekb or mu tin, circu it then indicate! th.1 there ia I ';gnal co ming in, the mtem.opt co nd ition is disabled and the rooeiver SllY!' o n IlIItil perllapa 10 IOCODds aft« c e ~illfllli has gone, when the u mplin, process is restarted .

In o per ation the ,eo;:ei..:r is he ld on either initially Of afler transm ission for aboul 2S KWOOS before the $itffiplong cycle begin!L When tbo receiver is $witched on , CI is initial ly discha.rzed but Ihen chaQ:CI slowly through the 330.()()t)...obm rcsisIor Ind the baso-emiUcr junct.ion o lTR I. boId inlJT R ion .... hkh in tum for ces TR2 off. F.venlltllUy CI bo:<:omea fully ctwlJed , so lha t base cu rrent c:eascs 10 now in TR I , turninlJ this transisto r 0 0: aDd CllISilllJ TR 2 to awitcl\ o n which in tum wo ru lhroulJh the Iy$tcm until TRS is t om ;J on , so pro. iliina po wer lor fhe receiver. If durins the IlUtIple listco ing IlCI'iod th_ ia • sipll1 present, the llIuc k:h cucuit in the oqu ipmcnt provides a n ,np"t vol tage 10 D I. T his causes cu neot 10 lIow thro"sh D I and lbo ~1un resister, so that bMo CWTCIl tll~ in TRI, t W'llina TR2 off and hold in, thc RlCciver 00 , Wilen the signa! disaPJlCltl'S. h _er. CI a p.in c/w'Je5 throUJb thc 330.tlOO-ohm reaistor IUld the orliinal cycle of eYents Ill-OOCW'S. TR' acts mll. o nly as a swilC blU. h in oonjunctioD with 0 3, as a vo ltaac rcll\llalor. It is important to use hiah-,.in Iransistol'll lhrouahout since klw-lJIin typea (e... B0 31, BC307, BC212) do not _ itch cfl'octively and ca n l ive rise to unplcasant noisca fro m
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)'6-vo ll l:Cner d iode , T il.l • TlPlO ilnd Rl 1SOO ohms. o-S walt . Th i. lives bim ... ui t.lblo dui' iling cum:nl or . round SO rnA (lnd i. mon-e~it proo r. 1>4 1I.-.:.-.:nl5 tlv: ~ llC1)" disctlarain ll lh roudt tbe co llfCl.>r'bK'le, R2 circ uit. An If-/NI Il'lIllI iotor cou ld be used for TRI l imply by inver linll all po lllril y.ocMi tive Ctlm""nc:nt5. eren l VlI llJ<:l o f R I the charg in g curn::nt Uv , .. i"; binll in d ilT e8n"be Chllllgcd; in me (;41lXP u nil lo 200 m A whe n RI il 15 ohm. , for U1<: wilh 2 All cc ll ~. The UI1;1 is sim('loe a"'" d":I\\'Ilo bu ild, o fle n fro m ju nk·box COOUtIHIl-e urrent ell.." ... eomponcun, bul OYCrcon>cl t he r rub lc m lh al c hargin. nka4 Nl-cad (nic:kcl-tadlllium) ~Il • • nj'lCCially th ose ~uire.l ceUs fro m II cun ..unl·voll~ae (Iuw.im r><:d anoe) source soo n deliver apprrdable CUffenl , ...e " pclll ive bllt fann a desu oys them . eon-=icnl po wer l upply fot> roru ble o perot;on . W ilh _led Pl::ler Ma rtin , G4AZC, bu desocri lxd two adjust.ble u nitllhere Is n'11o.,... o f Wlter by e'<'ilpor.lt;n n or cllx1ro lY' '' arr.Inpmcnll which he hili fouoo usdul in l ""lIinl in trim a nd !Wl creeflaCC' of cla;trolyte ; nonwnkllana: is nc:«led 1100 ni-cul Qdls whic h IlO""Cf" bi, 144 MilL Iwld-portabk I.Imi. the cdllNY be moun ted in (lny poWtion . If wrr«lly lrealed . T1'lae limvlc but ,e liab le eifcWll may be of inle rell to IMy .. ,11 ....tMund a ~ry 1lu1:c n " mba 0( dL:IrJina cycl.... <>Ihm . ~ Ir.."si,tor t:!o be . ny ccncraI-purJl(lIe lyre Ih. t ill ud lh.... lTIIy ba qUlle econom~. It Is ~ unpo>.l;l.n1, o;:Ip.lblc ofo;:anyilll SO rnA, fo r namr4e the BCl OSo f Fi ... 56 b~. t hlt tt»u'_'~,,"nlr or Ct ffIr'.JI .... rrd dlvF'"~ are " o r lhe fHI""I' ~ DClOll .... u..aI io f l&- ~1. TIl;" ~ UKd. Apan f.om conPdcn.tio ns of 1 0", life, ocrioon OYer- traMiltor", provido:d with . d ipo(ype hca l-s inlt. ""a,..iD, of IUIed celh mll~ be avoided or otlwl'wi,c imCI'NI1 RVI octI l be ellalJinl wrrml (al 4j rnA for AA ;HP7 Jl'I'DSWe will bu,ld ur: ....i lh la..... n><ad cells h:&VIftI .I si.u: nK:ltdlJ s nd I.... cmiftinl diod e ICt5 as • rew:ne~ vlhe , YCnIib.Iion .. nquircd " 'bde lhe grll " p "..n ty pro ledion as .'C1/ as indicatinll thaI et.r.u'IJ II on cII.atF"nee l be fumes iIr1: " riali..... ...lim, pU;;e . The two IN4001 diod"" acI .IS • simple OR K om Ma\lcr6dcl ,G4BX P, ha roMl1cdout IIlaI fOf optimum 1"11'. ano-;.. e ithcf balletWs or nwino-supPy to JIO'*a'the life n i-cad cds Ibooki be chafaed I I _ ten lh of ttw;r one- eq ui pmc1l1 (ria .. sim ple f'CI\loIAtor t:ircu;t 10 red~ hour elI~l.cunetl !e.,. a D-4j Ah cdIlbouid be dlIracd the ::Do..,,11 .... wl)" 10 12 "OI,s) . In the cYCol of mil;,.. r.ilun: l 1101 4j mAl. 1 rr-idcs em:u;t deu.ils f F" H ) 0( . _ . l nl- the eq uir'mml .lu lOlllaliclllly JllCI O'IU 10 ballery flO"""' . c:um:nt charJff thai he IIndl elTn:ti",,: by d>oo.i nc su ila ble The: oompollCn<l Qln be .~mblcd 00 • _ U pioce of vall1C1 of II.1 and OJ the OOITCCl an d _ r .-aJUe o f Vernboard and lftOUlIted in . d i«:all box . cnJlhlin' l he twJd. eharlUll ,;uu e nl is prodllO"d. held cqU;rmcnl lo be pIaocd00 ~ .. bile ...iUin opcratioct. lie ....... the cNflCI' for 10 0 4 S A h cdb lII'hic:tl liwo h .... 12 "01<1 fOf I porr.ble tra nsmiller. TIw Ir.nd'.......- it Bo ll • • , fl lm ,,,,,lo.(o. IJ 'n'l RII" 18 O-II:l.'C'!tlleCt' ntlary, 11.1 it S6 oh llll, Q-j wa ll , D J " . FN a l2 _voll "",.. ." l<lpply in'cnded 10 rn..:..t ,h " rcqu,'" LEO ' ... men' ellCOul1lere,1 ..·I>cn OjlCtiUinll ""nd-Ilchl o r mob'le tiP ·~'!~ ~-.,.-----t.it~--, + as fixed sl ~ t i<>" .•, Iller<: I' no nrc>.! In 1.1 1<: cl a bot-~ tcl y ~ I a bili rcd

"''lIII<i('-,,,I. e. The eu rren t drawn wilh the mute ( low d I~ no rma lly 40 rnA. but wilh the batlcry .,m:r in Of"e.a'ion the M~r.i:<' cu' rent d ro~ In 4 rnA, providing a ",,,.,I!,,,hik: cXlen~ion of h ill er)' life. J"I, tif;ularly where th e cq u'l'II'Cn t i. required to operate ror ulcnllcd period s on .l an.... t.y.

l he: ,«'C'" ccr as ,t ~.. il<;hc:>.. Tantalum (;3p1OC,t Ol'1o ~",,, be used f.... ( "J. 2 and J ; they $INIlkr and Iu~ l~r bloleo:. Since the umrl ,nll lime and " Ul)' C)"'k ace .tI'octed by bo lh CIIp;:lc itor ...1l>C'l and l ra n, i~l .. . p i... ..-.me: cKI"n,men ,a' lion f1\:I)' "" nccckd , especiall y wilh CJ. 10 $C'l the deiin''' fnu ll~ . n.c " ri'lOl l uoi t wae h uilL on 11 r iocc or puohn Its, lhan I in. "l" art "ilh 0- 1''''1111 rnr.lon. 10 til Into /I C""",",C1

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1o.;lir,,,, Ji"Jc$ n hea l spreader c" mprises a II hy 11 ;". ~ h "ll i n i u lll 1.late "' Ith u ~1 3 2 in . h"le in the milldlc if (he KHI'CROO 5 hri<.J ill: rect itier is "s cd . Th e l wall ()'12 ohm resuroe ~a " he Illad c by wind int: 2 in. of cOluta ntan wire (0·6] mm d iameler) arctmd a 1 .....all resistor of no pal1i~ular value (uh crllali vely 1·211'1 1 r, .)or 26 ~ .w ,~. cop per "i", linl: 4 wire). "l'hi. """i. lor, (ojlelher wilh Ihe De lO8 uansmor. [,,(In, Ihe c ur", nl·se "s injl t ircuil ",'hich lil" j,. the 0II1PlIl current under sburt-eircuit co nd il inn, 10 1Ih1.... t 5·2 10 5·<1 amps (if mnsidc Ihi. , Irim the l)· 12 " hm """i,tor unlil Ill<: eurrenl is within TIl " w i1"I'C;\s inll ~i'll.m'e ...ill d~r~>c eOUIPUI curre nt). A hom cla ,i~ l-ho "" 2NlOSS Imns islor Ii .e. ~N lO S SlI). as made by RCA lind ...."h'''''. i> uWle IUllab le fo r Ihi:< i1 Pl'li_ ceuon lha n Ihe II hefua l;vc e pila, ial base I)""". "o1 . llempt to USC 16 V eb.:\",lyl i<.~ in place of Ihe $[""..;[1<"<1 (,lt 2S·voh units. A~ in any U""«-st ~Jte fcedba<:k a mrl ilicr, lhere ;$ II risk uf oKillali" n. allho ugh Ill<: 0'22 \& F 0 {1 1 " f ". I'<'"i\" ", 0 shouh l eli""".. te Ihis in Ihe va" maj il)" of cases. Ho....:-.-cr. if an y lendeney towar ds ~illlll i"" is round, aUen>;I1;v<: ".1 ...,. hiw'ult.l be tried in Ihe!" ...."'iliouh. or addll ,,,n al "" 1""" I" rs fill ed (a 0 '(1047 ;0.1" f;llracihlt fro m collector 10 base of the D(.'212 may a lso h<:lpl. The ~y",l'l oms o r o<eilaliun . .... ",' ro,,~ voltage. o r .. \Ir~ n~", ", .i'4:$ fro m Itle receoer" (if y,," have a n a .f. ,,011~ "",i,io n "" yo ur mut l i· meter, o r cr.n "".:1 a 0· 1 .. F capacucr in scr ic:s w;l h II>c 10"· . a.eA -oIII ra nI:<', II ch ed ~'llll IX made f" r o<.cillalioll: an)~ hi "lt over 0·2 volll r.m.s. slloul <J l:IC vic" ed wilh suspicion ). Perfo rm.1lIX sp«i flClll io"s jrl(ludc: no-t""d ".. Iplll vollage adjusla ble between 12 11..... l ~ voll.$ ; tend ",w lal,,'n " O·~ vc n at 4 amps load; line fCllUl11l i/lM 0' I volts fur 10 re ' s cr:t ll cha nge of m.. ntns volla lle; l h'>rl-c;n;ui t c" rrelll ma \On1 utll 6 am..... ; C O",;"UOI.l'; rar ing 2 " m....; 4 11l1lpll lra n! nllt Hnd O , ~ ..mIlS n:ceive at SO:SOdlUy eyele; sh<>rl-cireuil ratin g J min.

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He<rv y-CII•• enr P ow a. SuppUe. Mod em solid- . tale I r~ n .m i llers and add-Oil po wer amplifiers requi,e h,,"vy-current d.c. supplies up to ab ollt 20 amps ralinll. J. G,een",,.>J. Gl K RZ. i, c" nvillcc<! t iHlt there i. 11" real d illi"",lly '" "u " , " ·"(.li" ll ,,,01, ' III it. al " rc" ""l" hlc Ni ,'"

Ihi", un, ati sfaclory in some respeet>. h<: W :i S a l'lle In m<llIify Ihe d"",i~,, h . I~ f ror m the lask in hand , HI S nlO<ti fte.1circ uit i.~ ~huwn in rill. 59. Fo r no rm al intc flniuenl aPl' Ii""li" n. il will pruvide 2S a mI'S. FUrlhel'l11 ore a .l rippOO-dow n "",!'Sion il ponil'lle, fir><.>: prol ect;',n "ircuits ('h'ercurrenl. o vcrvo lll1lte and undcT""h"lIc) Clln "u lI'"lirncs he d .. pemcd wilh , T he rema ininl/. ClH"I"'nen l' are lota ndard (" jlh Ike e, ee!,lion rerh.o.l'" " r II><- IrJ " ,fo rrllcr) and Cl'In oflen he obl a;ned ~ I minim.1 e<>s!. A numlxr of eompo~nl v·.. hlCS are 0(\<1, silH they ""rc Ih..... ""ailal"c frolll lh<: junk bo~; :e prercrred val"es ~~lllid he \ lIbMillllcd . While sU'l able tran"," .n......,; a,,: a" aila ble. Ihey are not " al....ays at a price an amale".. w(lUld wanl to )'o'y. 1I0" c"",r, isolat ion tra nsformers C 1C.. IIr sui la hl.: ....'wcr nll i.,& can , oflen be rewou nd (10....·.'011"1:<' SC<.~."<Ju ria; M.luirc few Iurns an d are orten acccs.s,hle). S ince ICAS ralinl:' ca n he a pplied, a 25·a mp supply can usc a ~o", la 'Y wi"d ing raled fo r 17 a mps \-.:>m in uou s Col in McE....en. G 3VKQ. bu;ll. 14·v,,11 S-llmp su pr>ly an d IHlinl. ou t Ihat Ihis co uld be u p-ra ted 10 10 Ilml'S hy d"r lieali "g TR I lind RI , alt hCHJgh he has not lTied I h i~ in pta~lIcc . H is lIp p,,"' CI> (F ig. 6 1) iso lO 1. ~e a I-nmp 7H I2 Ihree-Ierm ina l i.e. fCgulah" . i,,~ .t ;, red L iOD in rbc refere nce le:<d I" ~i,.., a!,prnx imHlely 14 ,·o lls OUlplil (ro ughly the " n-,'harll" vollage " f a 12 "..,ll.k"d·ac i,j b"lt cry). The L e D l i g h t~ quil e ,,·,,11 n n IIH: II rnA Or W !low ing in thi! 1 1d . lie then a dd~ a C. T IP42A I>y pa... tral"isto r 10 give him a ~-a mp ' atin g. Ad vllnlal;e is lalen of the fO ldbad , current ilmning and Il>crma l . huldllwn "r lhe 7RI2 10 give rcasonnbre prot""ti" n: If \l~ i n l1ll1C su pply f,,, a £200 lransceiver an s.c.r. crowee r arran llement ....n\lI<.l !' ro v;,Je flea"" nr mind . AI I(>w currents t he dwl' :<",," s R 2 is insufficient to turn o n TR I. but al 1 100111 noo mA il . wiIChC!: o n and SU FPtics mllSt of rne add i1i(>nal load up t" Ut><' UI ~ amps. At ful load lhe 7~1 2 llOCS into current lim;t all.d, because of R l , no renner current is sup plied by Tit 1. TR I is m"unled 011 me ha n~ hea l ~in k as Ihe 7812 so thatthe thermal shlll-tlown of II><: 7111 2 pro tecls bOth f"gul alo r and bypw;s trum;lSlOr . Simila r circuits (althou gh usually witho,,! RI , which giv.... II d"llr~e of , ho rt_eircuit pro tection) can be fou nd in mllnu_ fu" tu,..,"'· da.m sneers. T he lIn'ass unnsatcr can be eliminalw (up I.. 5 bmps) by u,ing Ii hea vy-currer n Lc. regulato r, and ~n advocate uf Ih is apPwilch i! Ga.rry TOllcre, WA4FY Z, in 7) M flltt1:ill(", April, 1'l79. T'i ~. 62 ~ h"W!1 how Ih is simp lifies Ihe circuiny; Ihcsc ", gula tol"ll inco rpora te internal current limilinll ( S llmpl Ihresh nhJ) lind therma l ~hu t-tlown. The Fa irchilll 78H I2 12vo lt unil i~ ~u r pl ernentet.l by 5·wlt (78J10S) and U-voh (78 H I~ ) devi<.:co. The ~~nl or see n devices is fairl)· high, bUI

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.he ~ I i ", i n a, ;on o f . ho d ilcrelC c"ml"Ollom< hell" 10 co m_ rcnsalc thil . Il a rry l.ccnl il1~. G 31.LL, ""t~." ,hal a llI.ml>cr or amal<:tlA Me r.",linll th at c-.:<1nl)lllY ll-vo U 1iu pp l"", ~"'n , in the nlll' c ome, l'ro'~ l.'\~" .;vc <lwin, 1 lhetr hahi l " r de velup injl ~ 0 sho rt-circ uited "" " la l" r tran _i.<l" r, re<u llinll in some 20 vulls Or 50 a l'l'carinll ac n ." tile DUll"" ~ nd wrea king h avoc "1l 11le equipmen t they brc meam l<> se rve. lie !,,' ims Out lh ~ t a 5Il 1[llc w,w of I'rcvcnli n, lioch <l ilinle l"'l IS ' 0 til i1 IS. voll 1 , ower IenCr <.I ir.,;tly a c,~. lhe OU IPUt. When the unit is '" nel i" " ing curr"" lIy th" Zener d iode ju,t sits loo,e J"in~ nOlhing; bul if II "'tI" 1 tw Ira n_k lor <hurt-ei rcuru, the ; ener " 0 bill"'" Ihe fuse . Th il am ou nt.. 1 allo l"", lIo<ld rea'll n (or corm:lly r" sing power s" p pl;... an d nlll rc l'la e ing a hlown rose Wilh $ilver parer, oop~r wi'e etc. It m ay be ,alher Ii kc stalin, the o bvi" u. , h U il seems ....onh I remi" d'nll read" B Ihat fo r heavy..,,, rrc" ! circu its, h,-", "}'· Il', u~.., cundUcl"... (:Hld h i, h.v"l ue ea !'dCiln,s) are ......:rlti ~l .


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Al 10 .. m,...., Ihe u .II.. p: d rop K'lM 0'C'Il (I-Ill . I \-011. or ",,,'" Cla,;h, ~, a;nl of.be supply \·o!la te . As ~ ~.t nDItI1 hd" ore, In In" 'S;,,,., powa alllfll'l'irrs • roll«1or u ,nl «til lNy he: c:lIlT}'inll bot h e .e, lind ' .r. ",rrcnli-lnJ no;cdo "f'I>l."'i.1 I II""l i"n ; If s hu nl ftal if. UKd " , lI rn lhe ""il'll. i.., in lhe • .r. ' ch<.>ke. HClivy po,:a.l nJrrel\11 ...ill show up IIny " M>".vminp In pc:>"c' luJ'Ply ca bll"ll . plu~ """.... eI. e tc. Tnld ,lion.olly, radIO«!u lpmcnl has been I'finlOltily lie hH un e nl e nl" """";"" and il eeecs /I d llk,en l men lM ;a l' pr o ~cto ...he n III , n L l n ~ In I Icrms or I) H,hs 31 5. 10 or 25 a n,,... "' Il!hon ~' It 1'1 3111. G lNXC:, r,. t e~~ n,p l<l . .... rit... ~ "" " l lhe: scp,u /lIIClll ..,r lhe ~I ir,,,, .... i ri n ~ rru m . he d,e . n,,'I'''' "';rinll in th e ci rcuit diagram•. ri ll_6l . h",,, Ihe pre rern:<! .. r p m" d, a nd. uh ho ull\h pu, li,' ulady im p' rl anl r", h i\lh e ll' .en l " sup plies. me ~/l lI\e a l'l' l'<~llIh is al." 11" ,..1 '''':'I1 11l1e r" r IIny Iy~ o r p.I .U . The .il' l,lc cu , rCIII ill " ""'lifiN /eHI'H"iw, e ircu il elln he "e ry hi~h : co",n l'l". Ihe I"'" l ehM lllnll "I" T""I, r" r II 2 ~­ a mI' I,...d ",ill h<' in 11K ,ell,,, n "r M nm", t Ir t ll l~ curren t 00" • •lIro uJh ;u'y If"u d (Om m"n 1 lhe d.c . OIllI'UI the m"" 0 liLely I.,. ull .......m.ide r~hk rirl* 31'I'liCiI 10 Ille lc>:nt, A nolll~ pmhlcm .."II h lllh-cum: nl stl prtlcs .. Ihn. o r voll. d..... .. I" nll l he In<k co nO«1i nl Ille s uWly 1 !he 0 load. Th.. p.. ,hll;'fTl ~ n elfel,'"livt ly lXelimina lC'd by . M use or rcmo!e ..: nsinl u in HI . 6l _ Uo ro ll una lely su pplies UIoio. Ih rcc4cnn in.:r1 i.e. IC'Illla lOn a nOOI Il-~e III. Ie..:hnlq ue 100. r... Ih......, heI.y· Io1 UllC .. irin. ht;l,,«n the IUI'ply aod lho: ....... ilo <"'SCtIliIIl. T he 47 o hm ",,";"IOB """"" n in Fil . " PftY'C"1 ru""WlIy lhoukl. he sense ~!Joe en,itl C'd or ra l olT. It ;, ...... ad . .... blc..nell UIinc. for "..ample. rcc r 2NlOH fI't_ l ra noiOl on in P!ll1lllld as! he tn:\in leries p.uI ekme n l5, 10 C'I\MInl .hIIll"" klIId ~n l is wred equally ""I",ocn Ihe four dnica, nt hc""* one or ' ...·0 lra nsU-t l>n " .. y b f8l!! pc-tCCft'I&C or ,he .oul C\lrnnt . 11'IIlI1Ire.;"1..., ..y 0' 1 ohm for . 2So.amp IUll'Illy, in ~ wilh lhe Mu llen or ca<:h "I lhe rnur dcvKt:s. "tti.. hotslhe d ,s,ad....n la'" lha l some

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O ... , lo" d Shu l do ... n ... 1I 1t s.e,lI:. Su bsti lu le ec.tric Ma rsh nll, G l YR N, .. rilet: .. T be \.n-<hip e U"",1 ...,n, lnll "A nsisl o r or n.. .. . i e. r"llu loto rs cao be tIS<'d !o ro ..i<J C a n,odc nll e ~ell," <If cu rrent fold lucl . Wben I lIuk ed Iround for .m ~Ile rnlll i~e .. r p.....c h I \..-a ~ inlrigucd 10 find !ha l lho! Si..... ~~ l"q;llllltlJC i.e. ~ a cu rrenl le nsin, a mpl ifier Wiiolll "" ' I.e.r. aubstirutc ' con till.unotIQn. As Ihe 550 dOC-'< 0..1 ......... 0 l'C IC1Idily a ~a i lablt: from U K 0 s uppl iers. I .......~ dcoI 1 .im ula le Ihis .lOrra n.et!lem IIlin, Ihe L M72l aod .lO p:.o ir <II e~!"",,, l rCSISIOU, The arr::m,crnenl ftna.Ily a dopted is . ho<on in f<i,. 64 . " Tile sumlil ule--$....r. lti~1S "iUI aboul O-H \"0111 across R'K'. bul ilJo CUm:n1 is !>claw .h e hooId'Oll ..a.lue if R r . is~1ow :t ecrUio cOlal " I luc. When Jt FIl i:ro .II or abo •.., Ih ill .... luc. !he ~ol u ll" . I.....-doped K lOSS i, (as II\(' coueco- load or lhe DC I7S) .. SUfficicn l 1 SUppcmc-ol lbe voila to' .oo:-ros.. R'K' 0 ;an.! 10 4ti..., lhe: ' ....:.r. ' ;lOO\'C iu hokJ-on "'m:nl. " The eti, icol l u ille can be found to) LaSinll\ a 1 UJ va ria ble 0 rcilor. It Qln a l.o be loo.. n 1""1 lbe <;iKuil .:IoI:U .. a. simple (urrml limil CT ...hen Rn is zero . a n-d h<>w lhe ~h<><1 ~irc\ri l cutlm l ,cd uces "Imost 10 ltto as the ental ulue is a l'pn\,"""'1.

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On rv o' I" ,," P r oleCl lor> wl1h Thr.e-hrm i"" , A· r u lo l o .. navid L"ll". G 3p rU . po int s nut Ih'd while overvo l lll~e r r"'....1io" is p"",id ed o n Ille ch iI' " r send-sene, th ,,,,. ' ,crm;nal i.c . rc~ " la lors ( LMm ele .l , lhi~ la kes llle r(l(,n"r" zcncr .li"d" "r h"" lcL! SiIC. In ' h,,,,, " pp l ieMi,",,~ whe re enecuve ",en n llaj1c p rOIIXli"n '5 ' n"l. " 1"110'"' va lua hle arra llgem"" 1 "a " be provid ed by "-,,nl( ,In u lern,,1 s.c.r. (lh yri'lmj: s<.'C H Il . 66. U nde r n"rmal oper;u i"lI' " m<l ilio ns lhl' I& o h", resi.'l"r h" , lill ie ciTcel o n the IlCrf' >r m"""., of the re, ,,b lu r, as " n ly m i"i mol el ll ",n l 110'" Ihll>ullh II. H,)w cvcr . ;n lin over · , 'ohal''' .C""' lIlio n all lh" c ur ren' !':,,-\inlll h ro ugh lhc on-chtp ~e ne r dU'd e fIo....s lh ro ugh lhe r""'\ !OI. and lh" v"lt a ~ men L!cvd"I'O<t1across It ""ill " " ....IJ Ihe ~ "CC of lhe So r . !l,n e. l1Ic ' c. ' .c.l . Ii ... ". " cm wl'l,1 "" " lhe "'I'pl y and blows Ihe (II' C. " 8a thr y.,loIJ IIi.ed Stlpp ly I'ctcr Sm ilh. ( i J H WL. u'''' Kl>.,ller)' 'IS " .·"h a llc 5lab il;tcr a nd (,,,.1, Ihi5 \.11isf"" l"ry r" r a 5·a"'l' , ,, pply capable " r de ll' e,inll hij:h peak o ulP" I. He wrncs : .. The sy, l, m o f ri, . 67 has bee n i" usc fo r 5<lITIC """ IIh.l ; ,\(I pwl>l..ms hav e ,.. " ,,, ,,, hllh t a n<J lhe rI, k o f "","', o u lpUI

",n pu l 14 vn hs . Th e ballcry eom pri" , a l'Jel o r lU"Ah P-si ze ni-cold cd ls !lo uled acrD'>S r h~ nu lpUI of lhe p.s.u.• w il h ore o f lhe ~ rics lin ks between p .s.u. a nd bnllery nude or much lh inner wire 10 act;iS" limple fusc . A .\II. fc ly felll u~ C i.l~ o r "n H. S lho:n "'al , w rleh in euntac! wilh lhe m-ead ....... I:>a u ery p"c k. wired lO inle rr upt c harl\inlt s huu ld ~ f"u ll cond ilion deve lo l' whi<:h ca u'ln lhe cd l, I" o w rhc,,'. " Tbc d;.....I'''O lal,:<' o f lhi s aPl'tu a,h arc the '''''101' the ni·ea'h a nd lhe sligh l v" ri", tOf1 in " " lrUl level. 11" 1, in il. fa vo " r. lhl' o ur pul eurre nl ror s hort d " r:llio" r><:ako nuy be vcr y hi"h (ObVIOl...ly if lhe mCan curn;n l ou l c"c< h lhe :< ehar¥inll current ll1e ha n e ry pack "" 11. in lime, di scha, ge), F"rlhe., lhe unit fn. ms a • no·b l'e;, ~ • supply in It(ll being eo tllpkl<:ly ma ins d Cf'Clld~nt a nd cl. pab l" o r "onlinll ing 10 ['""vi. le rower r" r II 'ime in the absence " r ma'ns po",.",. T hcu n;tica lly l herc is I' p ro blem in that t ile lIi", ",h s ho uld pnl h" chllrged Un.kl ennSla n l· v"ltllb'"condi lion" but CXi><ric","'C I,. da te has le' COIled no pro blem. whh lhc a rrangeme nt n dcscribcd. A s imibr Hwr""eh mll id bc "W illed fa t d ilrercnl r<XI" irClllellls in terms o r OUlPUI cune"l "r ,..Uler y l'al u,cily, an d n S"'ilc hcL! meter sh"wmS vo llll"c/ cum:nl is u uscrul add ilio n ." G.n. . .. /· p .. rp o •• Po we , S.. p p ly f ill. 68 shows a gene ra l-p m po," p" wer supply d"'le ri hcd by Doug I) "M " w. W I H I. a nd n "h Sh rme r, WAlIuza. as pa rt of lheir "ba,ic . m~ l~ur r"d io " , c. 1es. in QST. 1\ provido M regula ted "" lpUI a<Jjll'l" hle from 2 I.. 18 vollS al III' 10 0 '7 lim ps. Ahh",,~h lhe e in;uil is Q"i le ~ta ndard , il ch fo rm' Ihc sort or u roil .. t u m"' l 1'' ''0,,10,: .. o uld he h aPl' y lO ha v" "rmm d lhe sltac~ . If a main< Ir.ndormer Wil h 12'6 vol! s«p nd ll.y i~ nOI ava ,t1bl e. lh" j unk holt ma y well pl'ovide a n older ~"~"ponen l wn h lwO ti-.l volt windi nlt< 11\;l1 can he eo ,,"""'w in ser ies.

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I'~~ h c~ vy-cu r :~nL p."w~r su pplies l h~ , iN lind weight or lh.~ door-slap lIlll ,ns tmmrorme'-'; 'Cems oHl-of-pIJCC

wllh solid-state lriln'l'"rrJblllty. There is an alternative npprn"ch tha t Is fl nding increasing. lIpplic:Hion, in pJOr~,_ slonnl eq\l l p!,lc nl~ lhe usc of switehing._mode supplies ;n whlC h the SI& " mj welitht of lrJll,rOrrner cores can b~ <l rn m~, t i Cil Jly n:u ucetl by using invcrtcr-Iype swild,i ng Ir.~ ns'stor.; 10 ra,"~ Ihe su pply rr"'l U"ncy from 50 &0 Ib lo ", h,gh as nbo ur 20 kH/.; lh,s nlso all"w" much smaller -value eapaehors 1 he " ,cd i'l the rippl" niter. 0 1< should he recognized thai a p1"llhk'11 with swilch-n",tle power .luPl' lie., IhlH is nOI nOrtnally I're~e lll with (rad ilion,,1 power ~ n l! ' is the genera! ion of radio frequency inl"rferen,,,, (RF1) S1l111"' , 10 that rad ,a l",-l hy the manv COlour lele..-'sion receivers Ihal Icntl to rely on Ihis approoch ; 10 r~"l "c·e R H to a ~"-~onllhle level re'-luir~", <:<Iref" I atte ntion 10 f,llerinp; nnd shielding. To clo op d.c. at kil"h" rIL rlltes. the swucbers lentl to usc three <.l ifTerent circuit ""nn guration s_dcpenu inll '''' whether lhe, p.s ..u_ is. high po wer, low power Or hillh v"l lap;e. Au artICle on H<'Clrtmic D~,.iI:JJ oUlllnes ihe rn. sie ~wile hing lecl",; qLleS (Fig. 69); p".,Io -pull ; forwa rd "tmver!er ; and the nyhad a rrangem enl. The;r orcmt ion i, ue"",; bed .1< 1', ,II" ws ; .. Th e. push_pun contlgtlral ion is lypically found In highpower supplies and giv"" Ihe lowest outp ut ripple of the lhre<: designs_ It r"'luir"" Iwo swlrchlng transistors which pmd uce ahel'llal ing sq ulIre wav~. T he ~ up ply oulpul is r~ll ulatetl through J krohae k lo"p containing a pulse-widlh Irto ulalnr, .l which clln lml, l he length of ume lhal cllch IransiSl or contlu"ls. If lhe d.c . output increase<;, lhe 1111 > ulal or reduces <l lraus;, lor on- lime, causing a proportionlll decrease in t he d.c . o"t pul voneac. Similarly , the modula tor increases lra",islor on-ti me to incrc..-Ise voltub'eoutput. .. In some ~ u ppl ics, generally lower-po wer swilehers , the r~lrwa rd conver ter a rra.ngeme nl is O "ro . This requires only a slnllie switching transetor. To pr" ..-en l salunllion of the transformer core, the forwa rd conven er eon lains a ftyback tliode eo nnecled to a thinl, hifilbr-wound transtcrrner winding. When lhe switeh i"ll lrans istor is off, the diode returns excess mngnellLing curren t 10 lhe ~l ,pp ly's inpu t filler_ ,. Fo r higher-voltage app lie" ti" ns, the Ilyback conligura_ 110n performs holler Iban lhe other two approaches. Like p"sh-pull, lhl, req" i,",-"" Iw" Iran, i,to ,.;. hilt Ih~. switch

s"nult~nem"ly , rather than alt ernat ively. T he tOllligur-J L i"" owes n., nmne to the f1yback lra n, fer of stored en"rg' between the 1 1~ " ,forme r pri,m,ry and secondary. Enerf;Y I~ stored in Ihe t ransfor mcr pri mary wh;1e the lransi stors an: on . One" Ihey turn otl", the stored enerllY is coupled to the po wer_tra nsformer secondary. Diotles from the transistors emitters shu n1 the harm ful kick from the transformer pr imary lIr<lund eac h tra nsetcr... In "'~ ur:r ;lS a.s«ond ~wi(~hi ng sup ply is used to keep control Cl rcu,ts alive a nd mucpcnolcnl of the main Outpul vollage to enha nce sdr-prO le<:l ;on and sclf_reslJrl;ng. The sw;tclllng_m nde approoch is d~arly very attractive for Ihose c"neer~<;<1 w;lh size anti We illlll, although ror nnrmal do m",t:c nperauo.1l of amat eur eqo ipmen l one red s lhere i. ,I ,ll 11 l o! !O be said for Ihe 50 Hr. appro ach, even lhough il meU nS findlrtg those I,nge door-stops.

S.amp S wleeh' nr Rer u'a tor One of the pro blem. with most heavy-cum:n t vollage regU l alOr~ for power "upplies providing oUlpuls of lhe order of 5- 13 vons i~ th" cn nsitlera ble amounl of power lhsl is wa sted in the pme"," (i.e. difference between WJlt, inpU and l wat ts ou tp ut). O "e m", h\xl of rcduclng this 10 is 1 usc a " 0 switching reg"la lor . Th e design or a , wilchi"'l rqlulator providing, lypieally, 5 volts, 5 amps OU lp"t from a 12-15 von d.e. inpul e t a n etficieney of ah" ut HO per cen t (ap proach ing 90 per cent for a 13-voH OU lpa t) is br iefly described hy Buh Haver of Mot o, olJ in Eierfro n;c Oed gtl, 26, 20 Decembe r, 1979: Fig. 70. n , i~ us"'! an L M317T three-lerm innl i.e. regulator, and lhe oulpul voltage can be set as; reqo ircJ by cha nging the value of R1, eilher for a fixed po tenl ial orma dc conunucusly ..-a riahle hy using a pot enliomel"r as a variable resislOr. Elliei"ncy w!1I d rop wuh low.vollllb'e outp uts, alt ho ugh even III 1·5 vollS II can be as muc h uS 60 per cent. T he ope.ratin! frequen~y of lhe swilehin g freqa ency de pentl.s pnma rl y on lhe hiler elements, the response lime or lh" r.c. regulato r and the load. Norma lly it will be abou t 1- 2 kH t, bUI th is mar drop 10 about 100 H lt under no-loa d con dilion s. Ripple oulpul (ahout 100 mY p- p) can be reduct:<! by using a filter ca pad l<>r wilh It very low equi valen t Ser'C\i rcsiOla nce (conversely il ,,",,ultl be increased \.or using a IOwt:r-g", de capacitor). NOle tlllli the circuit as shown tloc' nol include Shorl-c ircuit pr<II",, 'l"n. T h~ s;te nnd C t of lhe f,lte, c h"~ e could b tctlt"'etl It" o, e

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0 . l1Iol(1":)'I.1e N lle rit" are uSCiJ with souc.sr arc eq u ipmcn l ~ "IIY from Ihe whocle. W ririn!! fro". Yak U ni\ e rs ily. J.""",h M ~ek , c . · VK2 liM E. <;end<; dela ils Ifrum memory ) ot • no vel dlarger c irc" il : Fig. The le ner Jiode an ti s.c., . (thy. ;"IO' ) lll"C fell ta W d.c.• aoo a l lhe ~f'Propriale lime in ell<ch Iuo lf-cy<:lc tile «Ill:( vohage e~""""" the gau:-ca . hOlk .. il:l.~ r vol {~ ~e BOO lU.ns lhe S.C.r. o n, swilc hing [he roll>' d.e , <Ll pply ~C'O!iS Ihe baller>'. La te r in lhe ha lr-q-ck: Ihe s.c.r. tu rn s off when IIIe Output fall, he low i.s m in.mu m hoId in, <current. Reca ll<;e o f the shar p .i~ lime. Ihe lra ns fo rmcr can .... e~ po:: lcd'o" ping" .m her , hIin hu m. AvCf1lllC c ha rging ra le lend , ' 0 be se l by t",,,,fo . ,,,,,r 1CK.'lt:S . , ahou. l limp$. Terminal o utput voltage C n be va ried O\'e. " ra nge o f a bo ut a I ....,11 by ch 3nging lhe" va lue of k I from ~ OOUI ]4 -4 ... hs '0 o IIlt-oul 11 4 vcns (VKl n M E ma l es Voul " boo l 13' ~ vons, whkh mcallS t hat the" c hllrg er is u ff fo r mOSI o f Ihe lime) . IU (ol'! iona l) pro vidCli lea ka ge currcn t fe r ' h e bauery to :wold a burst o f ping ing every ~ m in. or so. The main " d va m a ge o f lh e a.r~nb't:mCnt is . hal it provides a n o Ulpul ma tch ed to the ]ow-im pcdam:c: o r II lea d- acid b<! lle ry ", hile

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SECTION

E I Q H T

Aerial Topics
Jrqponaal ~ cl Tnluliall T~I. TIle aim .... '''!J l lIY tnn 10 praml idca5", hic:h";11 hd