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Pal Hawker, e3VA

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Sewnth Edition

Amateur Radio Techniques
PAT HAWK ER, GIVA

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Amateur

Radio Techniques
Preface to Seventh Edition

Contents
I. SE MICO N OUCTOU


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:~ ' c-l- 2 "13823 • r + .1 _ _ •.l:ror." A"ATIU • • • 010 T ICHNleU .. 1 '.. . ".. .Ji'.. .. u...... _- )oI...r 0 - 'J - . _ _oI ..... -_• - _.-_ _ _ n.. . 0. - -". as. . .. .. •• . . " t! ........_ .._ ploo . ._ TWo .. . IIinc ...._. ..

Uw ~ chInIlI' .. Thuca<n0-'71DD1l h ' ._IO' • I bnt*' II .I .. ..--c1 d . IhIIo bipolar IJ'I. to.-t ioIlhu cbanrwlln lhu al.. .. . ... . ~ +.........illl Oftt"" --. h ' " ~ ~ Far h:J:or a .... l'o lOS fI!T.o.-d allllllou_lbiI bi:Ib 0lIfPUII 4 ' 110 bel ". ...4... aI " _ _ ... . 1 •• " :_01_" 000 Now lMt I.bu ' ~ ' 'i<>I .... tbI .bih..> -. PET_ po-... ..-. '" PET 10 _ _ ..l aad 1biI • . ua~ .nc....QIio«ln . "'U C O N D U C T o a.. point mUOI kec.... ..on.... kM . 1 e.. u Quick Guide to FET devices 1_ _ n:r..... ca. aI" .. " " ' ........... B1pol1r .... rt...n:r 'hi cumaI danoo:eI it QOIlIducU..... " 4 ) mtJI.:IlIdorw-.... .. ' m ~_FEr. .... . . _ -. . "sl ba DtypIl........ only .. Ib&_ _ me...dllluloll .. drwib.t plll-uol... 0.. .. ....J ~ ID to.-..... tNI riooI...... IbouIh ia _ '" d)'ouoic .. _"""' ' ' . ..... . .... thM aI " .....ted Ia ihiolllpplioal.. variatlooo. Iltou ~ . 1M _ . ... 1':..c... titpJn~n.. clIIllla* IG otuiII lIooIb JOCId -.. pncI..-c:t..1.. . ...z IG 1. U ok). • .. ciIaIia...aIly "".... no.... A. "'un ~ J'P.... ....c. '" JUOPEh. bipolar tnIIIIioIon). in d'raisl_ _ ...... in ..... n..." '" t.' ill 1lwI c1111ur. "'. i:ll_ _" NJIool"' .. 1 • • • ' iIc --. .......-tioIt PET . a_ 111& I"IIT "*--ilIa .. ' ii..... _ . . aod ha....... M ~ n . applic:a.....C. ... ill by boIn.. p ' .. . • ... .-4' hi ...... ..ect ' In-... bul _ ... _ 1*'.. ... t_ mini. .'1looaI _ r"'app:to... ._ . ' • 1 .. 1:Quare-1i. draoiI allcJIlIi lOO ....t ohould til ... . 5dI<>1lt.1I. _ III. .bo~nlian' betl...l IofOST . up '" ~ 11 . .... iICh ...... f'na. S • em ..p.. rIlI l'ft.lnoficalcll .. * . UoI-a.... doaiaeur.. . ...I delec&ar l ---'-- -.F£T . .'..W.T ~jlIUriIk_' .. I 1 aIIlfIBur. F£7'O .. ..... ... AI .... . . Due to _ ...."i.....t..-a... LJ. _ . ... ~ I't T _....* ..v. aIwa.. ...... ..._11 _ whaI lll dooo proUM.-.. k. alllJn) ~ w CI'm . _'." - tn. _ 1tIDIIen IilIk: t.... _ Nllcd 10 --.. lhe COIIIl'Ol ... _ te brIlCL'IOl b)' dou w. ..0.... _ .aII m. dLI. . 1tistW aaia.... thelbocn<>l cI bOPult pooleftl'" ... lot _ _ 0rIilI-. ~ ....r--... . looroupply .-. . ..ldlaolJlllbl .. . I'fMIteI ~ • lbaIl:OiIUVl ~ at wbidl the...Aa... n. . eM..... ton.. ....... _ bu . ..a. I"" thI. illO . dloo-' 4urinI ~ II ~ . ' ~ -.. .' .. ·01_ own.iq .. III reIaIhoII)..... (If PETL b I • III . o r . . al lI'MlttaIrUcIl u.. -. ... ~I)' ' uitlOble t..oL TTT 4 sV >:e-.al . IIIIhIf'ritMr aI bipoIIr In' ....(.. ...... .. I" . .... PI!T 01" ft!ll"l.. • F£T . .. . . .-ID&Ikr . I· t.-.. .....:..I"" _ "' ..... .... . ... a )......I~""-... Por d ..4i '. triIh _. .I Bipolar .. mia« _.. I' ... Ih.... .io _ ill . . lbI .....--PET il allM ......... I ~ piodloIl' Y'Oltqol impI.. . ..... nf*.-burlH ditIdeI are -... ..... FIlT . PET u.........1 0)11"".. ... .._ doaraturiIl.-.... 7 .a.. ~ I'£T .. .. . .. ....u..-bal• .. . _ . . . "t l!loullll poeeIlI..... p. A . .q.".poIalIlial... ~ "'" • ' .~" U. aItd .. . _""" ....Id til Ietttl'<" ' ure 1I&b6I.. ~ II' d-.f"I!T_.. PET ' S ' . ~ ..... . . ~ bJIlW dI.I . MOS I'I!T .. .... JI!'I ~ial... . ' . .. . II> P'-'" ~ a.-. DUId . diode mnen (putbIut)' .. no._. ..... S _ .-u-l _.. _ _ duo: I """ kct 'ftIIY """........ is by ~ DnoiII Jo ~ .. ..... a ~ uail. WI .. .... . . . . ~ Pri..._ ~ _Iobo . afao poIItiIlO ~ . ..tIo:n: Ilos<arrler. ~ ... The PET produ<..I t .-.TllItiII <lI" _ curftI'Il n..... .d)..d I FEr It _ ill whOdo U.ll OOi0S:0doe. .lMiQI...w-. ..a. II """"'Pk\dJ' deplelCd &ad !he _ _ 1O:dr1lia ~ ~ ID _ I'm ~ du¥'. ... .." IIiP.oM ... G* . t}tu F'fT I .'h•.. _ . I ..... aI doe . .. f ~ 10 .... _ t l.-I _ -. cII'cuiIl'y . . Ine • 1H1Pl' lAOS CWftDI .-dIlOph-... l ll Ii '"" O PEl...n-. l ..... idrriooI bIpolIn u . . 0 .. . FET"'N _ tfof _ : IIw p>d . ~ I'1YPI' dcYior ....n.. 4....... " I" '" nIiIIoId"" .. .. .. .. plobloiDa fbi ~ ..c.~ Mod e-... better ~ IfI 1l.. ....... I IiIII wiIh tM 10 .. FET.-. .....1la.. to.la'_ .. _~.... ll>Ml wilb bipolar l'I.dior Ctbtlttsll dIMwidl. :-"" _MIC'lilWr. ~ d' erie"'d lPn. . 1ilMIiIII1G'" 111* .... . -"Y :-w:t ... ' tl . t 1 77 ..en dOCDiI . ...a poaIriwot ~ '>OII..OUIput il lho 1 .... io ~ ID ....

.':..in at 1MB U 200 M c:....~ JN I .1. . . ' 0(1) pt'.. p.. l.:ZOO McJa I'l'om~ ..hc Importanc ~ of rod udna r<o:<lbck uractlaro.....l...... and hu ... lII... few CXUIl$lle.1I:a eatI I " M' !I • • IMn in 1 -' )4...ECT£D PET SYMBOLS AND ABBREVlAnoNS . .. _ _ ftO. .... .........IlIaPfllic&lion fo r. ... l N I«l and l N I 4I .!---4..m » i.. .... v.nacmcn l h. .c and IhlI 31'1 140.. typk:aJ p..II ln IUI..l nlli"ll bow thew dr.l~H ~f' . ~ ~" ~u ".. be ' ....'" 5F...u.fl . l)'pic..-T..---+ ~n UIIO "' ~ - ..... . • ..~ ~~ ..ut: l'O Wl .<od CImIn. mulmwn foedblck ""'P"d!..--I--<~. .e.. 01 A em:uit diq:l'am of. '"" caoc:ndc . . _ JN .

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11.... ........ " _ _. r...#.. 100 I _ I.. NO type. LaoIo...... diodll ill "'-Ql'QliIOd. ...... I ..~-.... -_...... . 1be U1T rdaulioA -=iJbltar hII l n 01111"11 J1oR>od up by I k>oo-cool I ..-......o.o. • .. __... ...l or .. II w ~ ..... • TI S "3 ..... • '01. _ ..Iun _n bulb d U. _ _ ror I millII.I b1io:..loot< 10 pr'OYlole IlIuhiD. _ _ ""'Co .. til " ~ ... ~ 10 IwItch l he ~ o/J duly "')'do «on"'.... or on)' n( 1M many slmiblr _ fo< '"'-" M Uef)' ~ 1'.. _ _ . ". .. ...lilhl.t'..._ .... _ 0 _ ... ~ r---r..- . _ . . .. Ill~.... 'I ' . w _ _ . he diook io ~ood. tho am. .lbllOf ~ -. . L I . -.. _ : ~.......-+ .- ".. _ . " . "' ...• i ' --_ _-. _---.. - . It IblI meIe' iWl re/IoctII lhe l"IlIlly ""I ~..- l'\a. !=® " ~. 0" 0) -... "'" III _ (A ir 42(bl).do.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ II _.1... oc> .._ _ "'_"'M_ _ .S IH IC O ND U CT OIU " breakd own oollql: or IhI dcvioo under lOIt.

. II . _ .. ~" . ... ' " .------_ ...-.. - .- PI.....-_..."' . ._ ..... -... ...• . ."'... .... - __ IlCA_ " ~ .-... A MATI UR R A D i O T l CHNIQU I S -~ .. 1lCA ~ • ':g' ...-. ...._ ... ._ _ _ ...... _ . ••• _ . •• ~ . ~ .... . _~ _ """'....... 41 .~... = . ........ . ..._ .... .. . II -_.. : " ..

...... - • -. poial 01 0.. IRlsht thruulh~ ItJI'1lI oI ........ _ ._. _ _ 5:: _ Io _ ' ''' Do' HoI ' ..~ BFY39 ...... 10 to.. lor .qI... ~ . put ... .... _ _ " 0 .1'.... ....• IIOool' 1 100# . .I1.·. _ _ .... bu bmv&hC abc>ut the ~ r". of the tlDlte mh::i:.J ilapplied tc> _ 0ICil1uor flWquecw. Vllriolble 00IJl'W .. 1Dc1ud....~I n. applk:mono.~ • t ...--... bit .~ t-~ .. ..~t 01 1.. Illldlhe 1oIo ... .. ..- 1WC 1 1'1. • f _ i . 1IeeIl....~ .. . MOS I' ET 10 be Mt eoorr-=t/y. ~ .*..' 4 :::I:: . . _ _ _ u _ ..~ ....'''''' • 00II ....'ET 1lI_ . .-.~ i' ~ I .. .-------. 1..... IlCA JH ...._ _ ~ ....~ r. Uld ..lier CUI be aosil)' ~ All n... _ ~_ L _I ~ . a . I 1A7-H1. . u. ~ 'K H ( ~ .wItch alJoowt tile ..a . bilatenll ampli/Iero in which the Iroput IlIld output .' M d . " ~ t-+. Mc!.~ • I> ~ I " I I I • ..' ~ " ~.SI H I C O N D U C T O III 0 0 0 .-. .. • O _• ..O.. _ r ::0- • .1« • Included to allow the -'in....tuN..._ · Q'Ylcimlitl of OlD ampI. 0 . ~"...." __ ._1.""'" - ooeuolltll1 in jrlclloft otdIlll«. """"te -aut of audlo p lfl.4... " HO. .. '00 b)' I"" 10K poIetIl~ . _ . . • o ... ... n..y 10 lhe . I... .' '"' ~J .... ._ _ • '" --_.."... r .... .... ..l pte.. . ·... .... .

..." .. _ . I:l_'.~ ~ • ... V1..... ~ r...-.. . ~-.....•• .. ..1 TJII 10 _ = ..~ _.. . .... _ _ . ...:::=::... __ . eeee " . • _ D . ...... ."." '" AMAT EUR IIl A DI O TI C H N I Q U.... I '':.I !~ ••• T~ l .. l~ ~ . .---------.. ~ 7_~ ~ ... . -_T__ -....... ( 74~ .... ~ --.. a ... ). _... . .. • . ..... . . _.. _ • ..._I _ _ LI "_ _ ___ tI llJOC .... ~ ~ ~ l~ ~ lo' ..~~ • ." _ zIOn l). .. _ _ __ . .'" . _ . _~ .U --_-......--''''~'''''''' _ _ to ' ..~ .

..._ _ _. 10 connccl 1empOraO'r an If>o ~perI om.- ':'~tt:.. In l*1lllel .1 u....III"_d l p .. - <D + @ . (J) Ntr>w ~ . ' .... indicator . ..~. 100 help doKk 1 lpIIr'iouo a nd lIarmorl 00: 0 _ an inda lor ... ' .... 1ba~I... owiIh a low "'pPy til .. w-t"'1 1M u~ .. ....una: of junclic>n '-tInI.•_ ..-..". . r'r T.. 1 ... 00ItpuI.'''' amf'liMr . trI 1 •• _ WUlU'" !My "P IIIUII:b . Vwi"l alianmml 01 • .... .. J " @ @ @ @ 1 . ............ .. )'1 Q I1'Y 0U1 Wllat thcd.Iloo 1110 call)" It> 1_ It> III inc:omll.. (21 II In&)' be adviu.. . ~ .. One r.. .. IUC_. ..t:. IUId low ~d . bta.. _ bla d .dYillbll lO k""P' COIlSIIn\ IlrlIba ICfnPIo"Ihne oI lba ~.clf_ = . . ... 10 _ IadinI 10 • .. . ~ _tnI ... .1 The Indlcat<>l "'. ":ifr: ""'=t.) <8l @ .r... (6) ton ilor colia:Inr o:umnl conlin"""""' : • climblnl COlf'NIlt II the ar1 ic:al: .wall ty. or • 10 Iba """'" wlIII pYl ty.~ ~ d <... ...1or dip 10 _ to _ lim r.. . .m ~t "'""" ImIll'da IQ lhan ~...1 1"""1 . . 2N697) 1nonkrlO. l."od'led A. us.___ . ol !hi liIiDoD tlilla dlaa r« CIIllIPle Iba ~ lbiI . e :-' IimiNIry ebeo....bawmber tMlllIUImum r.. 1Wl fIOII coIloo.. ~ 0U1pu1 ..reuin.101.-lilt .in' • t!ltnnomo.:l 01 ... _ _ I. OOCIII" eunt. ScMfaI 1_ 1I . SI"ICONDUCTO.. " " lot.I@ ..... boCh 1"lIflhcr. . . 01 Iba IIIUIRIal (10 Iba nhe man) ..........l... ' ..':e M fed M 1M (I( luni~p W oo.....r. &I (ll Em lner . tnllNt1Clr (. r -rr tlllOll..._ . 0I1OmII ~ an:uilr)' io lha& It ~ P<*IbIa 10_ al_ lUI..> "1' <.rill pn>l~_ duIiI>I pr&- oiJ::f n . ". <9 Il . di6it k..... lin. ny n.. ...> <.. ....""-i -'aI...ioIon ClIfer ...

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SIH ICO NDU CTOIU " Quick Guide to Integrated Circuits .

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ft.I I H I C O N O U C T O JlS ... . _ .. _"' -- _ -_ "M"''''_. • - ~ ... - Quick Guide to VMOS Power FETs·- ~ '" .

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..n... diMoe....I....... =EJ• I L I . ond lho l In'CfIt ~ utcd IQ 1M _y can ~ Cl-oo:aOed 10 prov"'... . oq _ ."ram :t>. o 0 ...... _.. ... ." ....tiAllonL It ..._~-........ . b I di'oido-by. ... for ..• .nk . _ . _ _ . III "'"' th..... n • .. proyidin...rn.ymN>k .. dca<le M .. ..... ell.1 di&&fam IIILIlINnediatel y dcc'Ido... IPPU"lliono ..~ 1 .I ."....t._. il'C'u.....e........ __..• =EIU llIIIJft·. >. _ 01 block odlcmol oub-foY'lCtl'• • nd mnduleo. Of ... _ ill b 'O " • • • • I.. .... . -_ I OU T ~ U T _ ..t6 . 100 in<:l udel 'ho! ~ •• OIylo " r 1"1oi' oymNlo that .nc: . ... "'..."-.....to ..._... • ... Ilh<.... ay>~1a....M:lLIII ....ell ..... _ .... . . .-.. the l'unclio>n of Pflrl' oI lbe equipmenl ~ ul dv ll'" ""'"" lbe ... 100 kH. I numher of """. • • • f- Im . ..• =EJ- ...._... ~l""k .a/ by . T1Ie 74~ TTL I... Incrua.·fl .. 10....ym bul... . Fll.. "''''t . from 2 .. -. ... J-t Tht IIMnI <Jf ~ . ... hole numt. ..n u_ lhe.....nd In~ dIcWto hu .p... B LOCK L OGIC -{>I W\'" ~ • ~ =EJ=8- ••• L ~ .. 1 -Ef.. ~ 11 0' • • =D.. 'l:l • • .......II :::(}...-'.. =8:[).. -@ · f il _ til _ 00 • -@Groo"wc Syon8oIo 1=1&11001 lbe tNnd awly fronflhl IIllW. bc:ro:omin. gan hi wood 10' di• • •....... input o..)' it 1(1 th.".. .. IIOd 10 tl W1l1riI .__ . _ .... .. .. ""1< ........11-&_ to thol I"" 7490 deY....... d i.e.. -._ '.... l un<O _ ken " from I MH.. . hat i t _ Il l ........... more and mon tIM: ICn<. ---... lAoo ........"'e . __ of 7om> I.. I I . . ..U ulremoly '01do 1"111\11 of d.• 010.. . .-.. S look ...... CLOCO =D- • filii' ••• 01.rI(.. .I I H I C O N D U C T O II...

-Id h1--ud low . .... n. _ _----_ .. ---_.' R . .. .-t1 4 i~"""""" 1 to 10.. K" 0 .... .... .-tw. " " " " to..... ... _ _-_. - . • . ... • • • ""-...I Tlw tolJooo. In . iT • • .. • .. .. • ..... DIO T ICHNIQU... . .."... .. . • 0 M " ..._---_... "'MAT au a ...1Id PO'" "01111... ••..qllbio' IIoh _ ... 1 11Uth1.I " ' _ " " ' _ _ l"' _ _ " . . 1 _ piN 10 _ . _ f ._. . t..... Iwqulnd 10 _ 4. ".. .. . .. No. l-~- ~ 0" C]._._---_.. ss....

SECTION TWO Components & Construction " .

ia<a thai wben dlo:><:Killl <H" rcr "'".1>0 oompo>nml <lOI. ia Ind uaana:.t wrnc at bat or the ral lu".ilOrS ha .. pInl l lerodinI to a dud ~ Itor.." pboirHo. number "r . B.oed r... a1f toJ . IIlM only of the tlOI'T'tIQ " . A. r Ctrcu ll o<JD<etned .....Il>lc in wh ic:h 1M ind oa:tarlCe II mm .. h.F eaprld.mic:ro1111 ~ to he e>~ III a g.." ... '" • YicO<JU1 ..m...ucrfaao<e IlIPfII'C>U<In and T Vl 1IltttJI\I. ....."" o...Ab<wo • rAirl...k>r fa.r..:nla&IO ill 1M d ... .. c low _ indac&&DQ! (1)11. as YlIIltilat ion is nor......hl.. _ioco ind~.. d~ 10 the fact till..111.. tcrn>-.Dr ."'" I. a <:Umtn<XI r"u".U.F i... .. " U 1Ia...... A JUkk to the '-l<&fc Curm>' in ..joril y cor . wi.. lIHvol~ ~ H"CO _1... Il\CI' tha )'IlIl'l.nlletn pcno....... d<o:>upli bypuoi.......rr"""" Boih ~ _ _ T.. T I C H N I Q U ES c. IUId )OC¥.... n.......a.l ta pen In common _ ...bout 16 Dbms at 100 MC/ ... the clect rol)'lil: Clll poot:.. e lin a ract&nal <II .t 01 It.. 110 ". " dry out.. v. POreJ "~ lor ~ ~b . rou&hl) . radio . Ma carw.' rac:k jK>lenliomlPt....tton c. I raul l of ino:tc:aJJna Icable <:urrml..ution _ oYer !>OW ' " "'"'\oCt 00CIr... .. th •• will tend 10 . Iha' .."ph.IUd ".1 llJ ~..\. of ~ taJa (!be problatl in the delilJflof lbia _0l~0 seaJ _ _ iD rat... HI 10 IXI2 mio:.. .... idel.... " alld " a .. a al e • •• .. OUtput ••1>... _pr~ and lIIIl.U trY to clar'il')' tlla . omaIl I pw..miI: l'APllcilon t..lU1eII ..e. ion. a pul<nIio... ~ impr<>Y«l bc y<>nd )i'an.her ~ I II dc<:' tol) tlcl 1'*_ lII'r_iahlt Ieo...'" ~ arc ." I n...ol dilC4YPll ~ IIlb A fIIure t.. o. 51railbt _ Ind l lclwlll 0123 ....1 111 .... --oJ low _ 1II<Iuf.lpcr "l. I'l<CIilIor .p...n Sef'1o. F« IMD1 applical.. imts called .. arc_ • coniidcrahlo 1Iumhcl' of ditf. II...._ M "'''' thia iD t W'U .. I. pllcidl them lroo eknc to hoc-Mlnin.r• • nd """"" hJ...c: -. m Ilia ... !lAd Ihno: eJllremcb low .mull'. mo taria1l1 IJccn DllmalOd tbat fot C'Weo IO"'C me in l>pctI... l .. ==11"0' oaIuc. Indc<>d Uw rorracr ta per io gf'I....... Ion " n T\' I l. hoi... h : tbc alal:lrol)'le ma. l'oI'<lI/II" I f..... 1III.ic::h-_ oriPnally ~nd fot ~ _ t1CIIi ... k>priI h~ (1IlIl1e'..-d by ~ per ('Ct1t l tlln......d or ... 1bc raataJa taw ot ta per JJ.. of """" IlIl pot'euet mean/ n....nic l ub\a1ar no....'" n<>W wi<!cly .. no rcwiction 00 llw rnountins pooit>on of IIIoO<km typca.b.'h ennr IS "".Ih.hJ. ron...ly r ~y)'Un (Il i.l.. " ..."""""'iate ')'fICII teeIl . " .. &1tIi-loptitbmic ("" ~ x l. and ' UlOIJi in.OlIDt 01 .... _ . ind--. to .... fu.a.-s found in lhe ' b1 . • nm&f b.... lhen: 100" "'"-.. '"." l Yf'O' "'01.t. taper " ).n> of adequate "'Int.:l mI)'IiI: Clr-. D I O . en M. udi J ma) . ~.. lhe leu/.. ""'"' in tn1\ll heal lind UI... ind&. _ h". . For of u-o ot'tcn .rooo l ila ha tlCl"1.eru tcmpctatlUU..lIon uoed ...adlot 111 . At Ie&oI o<w btnMJ · QOI rooo<_ ~ 11'-'" of _ hin..""I! . "'-l>tJ dctiMd u ll ical \CmJlCI"atUl1I (wluch 'oVrc$ wjlh the 1)'Jle u>d <bien of the componau l.h Ihc i._ A " " TI U II. thcnl .. .. udy III pccuha. 01 di rt'~nI IYI'CIII. . but abo hu lhe appf'l>JN"late ..r lilt Iwl "' . t... lcakap C\I1Nnt.OM ouch n.W*l vcr... " c !W. too . - aU . porla nl ch.. _r cq ulpment. alld bJ nor..11 ronll'''....IlOd..l.._ iII .h'".. lor td t .._ IS the condlllDn IIr .. It It lh... rehab" or all thc Ctln"''''''I ~ uood con>J"""d'b.... al l the ..00 ~"n. the)' 1110 """ M I l1Ipid inf... cQ'c\Iitf.. lion. blo: OCfI'ltalio<> of ~' .. soma IKMa • .IJ ~ (in " FI J'... liven by D. "'1Ia1oII the ok! ~ ~1t>t1 hIld to> ~ mounted u. kw . IIMd for •..... becm ~1of>oN wlUcll haw no _ b I e e tcr.~rten etI. ' '''' inIl . hilhly a<!v..." n.hl.et!o" h d I I >..lhr".....1 lhe nlfIlCnu oi an deClml)'iI: far and .. ablo: apluos.. T _ f(ll1llS of eleo.c....pcct&nC)' _ Il l(lh ICmpCfllun:l I""J"'OCC the of the electro1 1M... . to tha wo<c thart the pnc.. he" a CII..un..t. with """lion of 1M iIlatt.... .or at 4 ~ ~ot .f(>ho.. and opoa. _den who arc a Iiulc hazy . c..t1lClCl" It 10 IIlICDIafJ 10 ux a component wh ldt ..".:. T1>e dfllf..... ida). .....c<l....Icun aj'lprll.. muoe ""f*rton h.•• low .1at applio:... I><"."'11. hiIh t> of t lcclM )'Iia " hal J"l'I by .. I nd u..k law t llpW) lot !be ""rtiaJ J.." than "III): <II"a dlclc>:'tt lc may m.y <leapitc al l the imp~ u. I ill""" the baio: ta."'.... !be """>alIi. arod tineaN opcrcd." ·Ioc" "'c..IIypt'l) or /H)j " C " V (for tIdled foil ltpeOl."...irinl .... oion WlS : 1 lranoiolo r may haoe ~ F ..ullJllf. includca ••"'i1ch the finl ...o." I<> . ".Uy in r. a....o:UIra .. Il~l ~ Iod.. aI..l apocil"" II ' 't.. lonDa of taIlurc . no l $0 Iorlll sinot I ~ ..ubJll'£l a lin la u. '0 nlY !haw bappi.... Unli ~t "...... ~ "'" w .... 111111 be ..r apac!.h. 1"1 .Iry'''' ""'..n i... I"" in4 _ l. indl>CW~ Cft ... ""0' .ion in • "'oad<:a<l I'n'tlvtr I I G l VA .-aenol O.tudcd In Sect ion S.. /I ~ be IIOIed..ill be .f..b p cv=nl .. l"""-h 0jlCCL01 '1lICIf""""'""'\'f'-""'"i. Howna-. panic:ularl y in the <Ii .. (cm1 01 ceawur.. lhe tnIN* . lhe llfl a...&. t noA for a 16. more lreko"..... ~Iy ... unen. to keoq> cIDcttoo Iytica a& cool &I pouiblc by 1TICf. of ouch I<! rm....nd '01...

_ cbI .n.. . .eo ( ram 11nIrtMk """"'1.. 71 1ttI... .. ON INT ...".. .IuD U'C -sed.... . . ....... the ..s eI the ~ . '...... IUno ...... AND CON STRU C TI ON n V . an: _-s... ...... •1Id .. Ind III Q~..... Hi'l l" . _ .. _ anoI ~ ' ''.... no.". . _ IN ~ _ el l . ( f .can Dftly btl I dj\l"' d "...C O .o all ) ~~...... _.... I" C ..u tIl4l In __ ~ QUII ~ MJt I t..iqI _ nd">_"'"" .. . It 1>tuiNd.ed b...lih .. I .....Jill llllill .... EMt._ '/. ...... .. a-rlJ.-de tN . ~ C&'boa. tlIe • III .. belaI ' I " ..... ~ R " IIIal cenmic dI. All " f~"" idaI .... II _ -.... _It..s b..s and the ...-idloouII d\loIIIofIc ~ CIOnI .. "'1"OUnd _ J. "" ~... ..... ldIIA . ... an . . ~ _ ft71 _ '.."'' tIV /~' " /A 1......u.. _ .. .. ..l... ..doli>d. ." 0/ ~ . --. In \1"• . ~ . 04 ."" ..-.t val." .nIL .. "" .... "'" -..-.Ic "... luab C1ClOh cI po For <:oaIIII*....... . . IDdIiCCWKJi eI... "". ... ... iI _ _ 1<11 "" • • 'hr ' . . ....... .sa.'''UIl· T-I-/ /)~' lj " LOG..oI. cnt.. \IIII d ". IIS""N"'........ ._ Clot"... ~ eI. ......... Oo. 00" .:P .... ... <IIIJy ... ' ....aAionelly... . . . --."1 .-.Ind.. .. .. _ t _ _ r.1. ~......100 bo<l7 en.. 10 &I.............COI~"'" of .-" JftIDnt.-d.u. ... .... 1t... -..."....-. oed b..... ad~ ~ .wo eI _ . --~V ~~~ ~ ~ .t COl " ~ ob.. _'-I ....... I . -. ~ ~ • I Caw .... WId 10 _ _ eI the "'" 'nd. Id .I I .... /~:...u.....d • 'Itio -.dl ... ... Uo!lt... . WIa <ICI t7I . 104 •. _ '"" ... ...t • 1 / . t _ Ih=I _ CIID 1110 1nI" ... IT is rllrtr .. ... ....

... "'1&<1 .n .tl i n' n'll".... caM f"" " . I•• 0< OIh....-O~ .... .. l ontk>n... ..... tel "......'"'l ol"'d !'<'f Go! I'fti n I I'It.ter mod...Pfl>elU ""'" 10 bit ~ Iu ...." of .le oomchnlCl h 'ah..:an otI en IkhbefalCly . _ la .I... .... <>IIf-.... _ ..mh to bu~ ..ian .. homcbr-ew 11'*I'.... 1\ ""'. .._... ~ .... 1'<'' '<1'' control of audIO ". Iphlda phol """'""tdi.. ...... it _ . on........ n... ~1Id bou1I on which .ltbo lho ""!llP"S fftI. Itw """'" ""'fltl'Ui. "' y .""". toenha or b" UI ~poo.... S--l\Implon. . h""'I') thc'n' for b."'onll'>O: """" ra..WJ'l! m. .. "' t>.. Qn pro. ..... I' i""...lh _ 1o&M........u -r r.... .liod. rlJo>... IG """ • .." Ind pennanenl ".1'~ W l'l d\An&5 In d f&lk h> pro w ..I. .:n " oed "' . lIoch.hinl m<d\ ehcarc:t tU n II . It ~y .. rc bonded 21 ottipo or C1I>pJW foil ." how 11>0 a rctlil> fUlly work.. I::IocttollIil.. .anc::hed alonf !he oml.... from 1·. .... . '" L I . ()uceno lI. . T il h. . >UIJ .hid> .. 1d ha>e QOnIm. .. Tho ""'.. 1.... " loobof:n' I" _ ""'" h ..I u. on the tIIrp1ut a.. ... at t he Iinol ""'' 'ct at .Ihroust>o<K " IDIIcur " 1_ naJl ~ """""l~ .~ tome pan in Ih< dccioi<>n.-p tlolw: Of . r.... '6 All t bote OIhct corWd<nlions_ lhe "'M ' 0 .... . I .. "'" compnny•• nd whoch.... .. 1'0'0 H .... ...U as ~ fKt<>ry unll ._it.. ...... IK.. J.(t) h .. pri<lc of f.. mplet ocn"...... """'1. can be l1\Idc allO ol rnfon....p".ppeal 10 .. ....:m b«.. I.... 1>U one wanl> (&n<l r".....blc from I'" . I lo>f'ft... . When In need "". than bu) ... . ...he tooard. .thin the ind ....in <:&II r""\.... of 1M t><>bby.\her a... .."ldil\l. Ind linn ... b.. ( ". ra.......i . pr_nll...o...."...utl to ....... in ( in ...... ~ n>qUlrina: '-"::ally d.....onaJ """. .nl. ~ ~ mon dw::llply "'-" ...1>1"...~ " "' .. r 1<-..." ~. .-1... tonno of t:IONlf\IQiorl..'" .. ...... 00 I n b&ndo to<' c.... "h JOk'kC II ..1 Rold "... .... h. I>< fW1Ul' '' io ""..11 ... by d.. the 1.""Id COOl lho:i......"11 ". """> or• . TekYtlion in I~'''''''''' !t' " . lhc other ."'" emtred p"""'o:aJly .. '" gWmo~ m ..... C.I ril l. rKililica in ""'ich to> it.pod ly 11'1 ~ A H A T E U R ""'010 TEC H N IQUES S..khIIl aOO tw.""_ tho......""'" of ...o... ... 100 tbe undoohlcd . '111m.hat (>11II ) roc_ ~ II '" . rhotoconducll"" ..... 1% 1)' h .... poiRkd 0Ul llw pro(~ Idnision qlnwR It'It rat ~ n 001 ('r ~f\OQ"" I few tit. when """ c:al!n<>l cuctly .. \irnple I)'~ rut 1M eont.....w............n.. '. Thai old '""""') " IU... ... I<> ..... W6D1".... u..I mo li.flIfbmatt""' P..'" _ .tal .1lI 10 ~ ... CIe. ~ ...al"" 1lqf\'1l<l1'l lc . lhe ......._ "r •• ..... IIltcl"COlinl pGU.......1'IOn"Ial dtalll/I'lI in .:atdl " p . . lhe . in an •n on ..fIdel... . t» 11 in ....Amalcw Radio. .. bill ...ld IP' .. &1 the h<>rlw 00<l. daifor to otuill at ~ .n d .I h II. lhe .Ifd prinled panel tlquir"nall 10 ind.... eye"'..ty of ........."lOt .. .- ... ~ ...~_ ""-0: h<n\ _ -.."'.. . I~.. .hl.... 1 « .c.m . o:own..boidiuy """.."".00.... h .n l he ' .. 0t'P"1laf 1oDl w-al bw>d... . .la t>le . Ano! IIw rioja" <lO'tI In 1ndtnIr)o_1 . ~' ......... rem... frwthn' oboI~m for lhe corw:ru<1<>\' .lf.. price ~ ruM'"" inl0 lIundred ..he -=.... ~1 1wI ' ~ ho...s ~ a-.... il&bl y CVf)'.pa:i/Q1ions ...rkct no Ion... ho le .. larf)' in"""" ed m Of'tlcr 10 oimrJify lhc &... _'.pI. (......S WI <flOdarn ~ equo~ lhell 10 .ct ....".l "y _ only..... . 11M: fi l'f'I'"" 1M h".. the "'11 of llw boerd. lOQoI'WIT'C G7' M """m. i'II '<'~ ... .. hllCl"" "I l im ple In Id " of .. To ~c ..." t> 111I P""''' C -....... 10 l'rt """ '" men twId_ fi1la' net""..La.~ " M.. oa:lion of • Jito<ardcol otllce CQ pmctl dllrpencr filled 10 .. m....1'P'c'u....Ior okpendau " r-t Worid W. tl>\' t ho.......1I .. 10 luch ..y ...""'.htfl (lfW ~ Iluo' """ build I/'II! .tfe . t .hO:b 1M Ie&' <:a" boo I. ""'....wd . ollhl '-rd.. Thr .... m..hl! bcl_ ~.. nho . no: dt ... n poeled...... conlrul "'" h ".""" .. IO oj" or obl P" .. ... ra. 11\1.1M: rull in.. . ... M ..h nucd 101. Ih _l>lc 10 -......ke <....• ".0 "". in . ""l' jpal {kxibjll/)'.-ry about. II It...tbaI .I h i.. ~ _ rM:a: .bol">n rll' ~ u. lun....l and in II» Iabo llt C05IS 0( aJipunenl..' _ ol I ~ ~ .. . n1ftlt lIVoI II" .t.... 01 t>r• •• ..U ..Uy in a U.. wvd .""........ rorl.'" unit-o bqilln"" 10 " ....h 1(' ~ " PS"dc: . ..n hnmc co. ho:ocn ""l' vol d ..... .. CIIIU..... ol equi""""."'. ..oint: h lhl . kct IlUCh oct. hid> d il1cn.... •nco:.....>f .u ~ "..'!X. "'''7 ~ .n rnmc: coo. .... 5otlI1I M ill Ro-d.110<" I ny d wnllcal We i\a."..1INe 1»1 u. .l<'''' l<<fO'.o~ct . '• • .........""" uocd br n".n IIYl'oollO: lIllIucn<:c aOO 00 .11....he can Ilford. .. oa:ondly. h'h h... P_0A4.. n.I.. ... hid> WOIIld pilI rnlQY POUndo on 10 I _ nc ""'h .l inlCfelt ."-. tw J1O""'Ih . -= -= 1""" _ "'fi... I"" I'" cOrOlt""'I"' 11.n: "'*' .. f""...lhe ""lW.nds h " OSn o f lhe old dooJ'l! of ""IIU'.Id _ 10 buv 16 tno1Ml an enrcmtly HI"Ol'IJ MOlM'... "... ..11 f'IlCel "CR .ly fo r t he tut.. dc""k. H ob p.....-.. TIl.'Ituct0<' .. . not ~ rt. m::.............~I_ " hich would boo fAUCIt _ ~ to ""..dl ... .eH 10ThePUI"".. h..r...!""" T_ D1'bl KftlIl0 <& . ' ~ .he . '" lIo.-r.n .M<kNtJ]I t-rdo. .. "" In.'.1) • •• . bulk of us. . of pound..3tl ~ Fom the hcot pruduo:tioo liM tlq\ll.kes • •0Dd dIa. of ... I'\:rr""" 1'It " "' .. . lruc l'on in 1M 1asI few )\'In• Modem faclory. . """.. ....orI ..... ctII_l"""iu and bandwidth.Ied onl O . io I • • • n.. 11 bocrd fOO' lM<lClnOtf\ff........... I n. the o". 1 1". " IeU ..g.. jd.nled . " da I M ullard Olll"'" .t( OQuopmen' """dI ."... of lhc o:opfII'I' tlripl lo H _ C _ tr ~ _ "bout . ........h . . ll . . lmoot . . lln. aPflC'al'ed _ ..1 ..IOf It V ~ (<kWh from \I "". y h<>Id lI'UC loo1&y.... iI PIon "".otance oIlhn1! .. .. he who ." top perl. ~ torm ol _1 pnucd .. TllC y "'... it i.... . . ll-cf'6"'" 1000:I . I'" __ u.. . .(1 i n .. 1n'1"""l lhe .-... Iid""lion of operalm.. nly ~_ Io.rv<100....... laIfl l~ . ith _ ICCIltIaJ deood.. n r ' "..'h ~~JO IIoukt.l\o::t.Jr.-en Ihe .. lil el)' In "" . 10 _il too tkmInd 10 ."Ilf in O~T i. L~ ".. 1:1 _ _ ~ . y llroadca...~ "rc.. The lint j .... '1o.. a nd II rer< mle<! in Rfldi90 CJ«... : I iI .

COMPON EN T S AN D C O N STRUCT ION . _ e-- _ _ 4 _ _• _ U f _ . _ ... • T_ _ ~ _ " _ _ .... ~- .) . f.H' ..

' ._""". ..LC " .' d • s i • • M " un l ( b) -- • ('J I.) . n. . ..lU I . . .

ed l)YCl' . . cspc<:lally .. It. lin k wil..miller <prefer.ith t t .ach oearly filii ~ bdon limitlnl .. one 01 l. A. .f. aiYm o n pap 64. the Iam..da. ..-d• • .. mult i·bond h.. One lum _ would o nt t>riol the ~i.. 120}) Oucco SltllC'l.. 11l67) daIrot.... OlWW wti t.. -) yo lt blIlb to 1tIduc:e lhe 10 Meao/t rna oIlhe odl down 10 the 'lOOO ohms a( 1he ami 01 m y microphorw pin with Ole .... mudl oa Ole .. awi ldlClll. si&naIa. Thi...p briahU-a n.......hl a ~ It l'lrllllabL W ~ DPl\Yinoed ttlal thcy wtIl oonw to RIP'" oon-..-o.... ...." ...luc ~"" ma y I2UII! the _ 10 .. and m Ul should 004 _ . II no t the onl y _ y in IuopecI thai.lrMdy ...men.mt1 10 be plmty of IICOPO ror 1qlCrimeNm.rc lOkI by Atrd.i"" • V ..e..-1lato the nwtal . tilt I~ can oi»iowJy be an op:nti n& wn~ieno...ON INTS AND CON ST R U C T I O N A..>nt ao. II mipt _ 11 ~ worth conoidemll lhc UK or loroioJl In .boul IOmm In ~) ~ Iik. AtI ...... ole r-l 10 likel y 10 be lli the form at Aickm..lion " r lhe order a( e...!:::=--N " JJ N I. By VIt)'!rl..t is not ln volwd). .nd<hanp w . omalkr cores for low po-r Illp. ... the W1K AK ....) I. ..tice it hIS becrI ohown thai the life dependI .lcr.nd the aUlhor or • . and c"'" lhi.""tdI... YQ/tqc.-lu..p-e..t a ny IDOdcm lrammit t« . 7'I'ttc No .. it ill dliaxd that the &11ft c:an tie chan.. d..ad. nd other ...a.h IIlPplicn • ... 1I'J'lCCl 1h..ncr only.h' ... bct~ uxd in lhe eo.IIociaI4..... I"'IIedIn ~ . u101'Mtic Ir"Cl comrol can a1Io be UJOd 011 tranICloIi'W1 to ira'e&se tal k ~ wtthoul c:a1Ai. drwill (and om .c small con.rtk ""'" C_ _ " While..uodul artidoI ~ ClIarK1eriala and Applica tions of R.K 10 keep ItIt ma l.. dcvloe tueh .ondw... F..ve loid di1I". Laf. California... a11bouah mIJI1 hi.nd Gennan)'.i1.riw! frum the racr lha l lha loroid Iel\I. II daimed .. .*" ton.190: tawoe: inolabilily.J Contacts " (E1«'trluI Vol . t I n ORP·type eel COIIld be \POd withou t d iffil... Imo... .11 IllOW"l the trarnmiller 10 IPpro. It eat. 1"" 10 ....1 delIil.. JOO and 1000 _ Ill.tly on • ceramle b.. of tlM I.<. loop oe>upled to lhe rL OUlpvt t&nlr..T00... 1 1 volumetric ol.1 I Mc:jo for IN H80) but low pow.....1InOli ('( the odl down to bdawo 20.. I .aJ o. and ttIuI hel~ to elim lNIle the co nven tional lOll of dflc1cnc:y with COlA mounliN elote to I.... POI" IWltcll i~ h.tdIin1: up 10 SO Mc:h 10 ooneideftd prKticaI.:lion oa:lIA. '"~ .......~ IIIlIn mi..a the po ten tial on lhe buc.m..Ih unl . to SIUlllIIft .to-nnC!.. and lhe dqrw ol epu'o... l'IlIJu.. r. It 60 oolta...-cry rapidly. o I amp.. d i.COH.1&u«... 1963") and it IOOfI '-'"e deI..r Ole Iart« ~_ (....e. Carll ohulIld aha be wen dUrml w\n411l1 .. . YlVuld 0IlftII 10 mal e them ilkal fur QOm!'*:1 II• .hal _ sk in reoi..hc lcad ona cqab in ~ mayo .na ..nd Mill hiaher f~ can bf IWitc:tIed with tl1Yer COIted c:ontKta.... and there • Mm..A ~LUivII ~ fOl" the STC Herlt.nl. Already there ITC varioul ~" reod:I in ma nufaalll"e . II It pointcod wt t haI Ihe tuloo Q tendo 10 mlie lun . cold weld beco .wer..r tMllhere II • Ifl:al dQIl IIIffl'C to l he dqn and u ~ d t r . boul n cao.. .Tron A. _ FII. : I . . l..l'Wl io: "U~ .... .lIQ whdl OYWiep ha. ~ tde)"lll ..."". The cdl m thiI cue is quoud . All u...re qUllC lnapmll...1 fr~~o _ _ • l. wln." Hcilu Renodl of Standard EJcklrik LoftnZ. iI:I miDd pertil:ulart y Ulotir uw fOl" . Fun~ IS the ~ to lhe lliament u.".h. 4 1... a( InCUlmtarationl and lhiecan OCCIlI"lmmed iale ly or. .. lk...ed in 7J bill found it nco:dcd ~ "'na of ...."..u .. dnn.clf"'" (olthe Ol'dwcll oItnl~ r-iotance . .ia or Iron n lfnponom to.r...00<1 N N . In IIUI circuit ( _ Fill:..nochcr . Y<>ltap..ti~ f""d~k . p ~Ycr !hey l... n..t.nowd be _ Ii lnw lated ) and i...1 p .nda).... W<tBRS mounh Itil. photoo.. T..... wtlleh the 11"\ o f an MlpUfia' can bill ronlrolled ranotcly by .ko fonncr may W&t more lhan U ... torC!I diro.on 1180 . USA ...'IH . d ..l. 1'1.he lizc ... . ColIo An informaliw ana by W4BRS in 1J (JUIM..-ltchil\l lina 110 tha i they can like hiab -s-I k.odD witb llIllo:l distortioa or oipaII from 100 ~ to ~ 100 ke/a. 1'tMn bas been increuin& i n _ in the dry-reed conta.t Lo. Brit it. I n:la yl '" many ~lQllOnl . W2K AK '\lta I... 1 iN>u1d heIr 00 noduoe . 'N " --- ..lllct" mnn: a ll. full t.w..tIidl miah1 01. No . rounded mann« rather than ......uhy .....-llChinl to.ROd \lOo\aCt$....l of iutt one..1 o:>nlrolled ampliflror wu IMXCId in U«rrMic DnJr! .".ll.dvt cell.... anoc1 thal.... ~la:trooic lelc!phone ~ oa tnallO Britain .l.... r.!i"ll I. . 1'Iao pointed out lhat .nnciPllIed.IO " " repa ired wlln ~y or houscboId erment olnoe elco:l rir.tridL 1ltcnI. Il'i lll AmI. IIqea cl lOO. 1) Ihr control PIlot bulb" JIO"I'"ft:d from . ) YOIt 6ulb poten tiomet er to " Mh.n y Itra y Ind . fitted the: Ql:ll and bu lb (6) volta. " M a( ooi1o wound on loroida l fonnen tor r..rpl y.ire in the p. _II . ~lJ'1I1. ClU1 be IWi1dIed "' Ilhou! ~ucinI !'eUabilll y too areal/yo In pra.pcrimcnta q..l Wl'I6. In view a( .1I4 if uocd OOfnICIly . ReI<I ...utiono arc ~ to ~nl nav. hal c:urnnb and vol!... - . Nonh Hol ly. TheM .. He provi<lel an impRMive IrJIUTloCnI tor toroid•• dcapilll the f""1hal' Iln.r....ndItor. .inl y doea Le.ely to pro¥l! the! InDIl 1DduI. in their .c.urmtlA..T l'Oft T-:zoo. nll auef} abon .. "...... w"b Il\II\1 II'IOrO operatiom...... 00 lhat the peak l ITCdipped in. !he 1)'pOI! UJOd by Ol WW) bill...."...l>out..... " 01 the reeds. a( ... . ~uoud 10 tNl . link wil Inat.. ~ bein.-1od OIaen. '" " .lu....bly by ~no at. ~ .. .. for. . tr. W4 DRS sivn f. . mad~ ITCthe IOOrtCl' 1)'p01! .... The .DI-. ehut.. llll:/udinilbole _114 on fcrrltr *'Is.n. deIlW or rel ia bil ity . and . i..f.. 9'lO6lO9 (and Ih ll .. _ _ "" 0. nd "'"" tneful elO'uroI Prwito carl be ....e for ~"in&..Iina link whldl . f_ operations if r-.o.lb' ~ turmlli . Two tuna WIll brilll II clown to XlOO 00. the _tiona! . . Imuot en "ft!1y within lhe ~'Oil.-co and otM r I~ ~ c:qllirmcnt.. _.. capable ol aMnc ' far ftIOCIIt'r "* c__. qllCftlflinc..... j is It Ieut a million operalloN when ~ I amp. ) ..... t Ole t1'lerma1 ~1I of the turlli len ft1ImcnI 01 I"" pilot bul b m combinatiun ~t h the 100 rniUiteeond doIl)'t'<l klion a( IhI: rt>oc(lQOfldU(:t ' VI: "..<kvita ha......".. deal 01 I n _ in UoKtly . boul 46mm .. Ilnoe u n.000 ooms.lIdio pin i ~ on low r. in frrrite lorolds can be app«dlNr. (wlticfl may be due to..

. _ _ .. "I'1 A T lt:UIt R A D I O TEC H N I Q UE S I - ~.· -----<P-.:>......-d -/ "... ._ •••.=.I ' · a ._ --- .~ _ _ _ _WI - . . _ . ...._ ..:uo~ ~ o _ - ..

.. ~ ".. dQard tbe diode . For .. be IIIUf 10 n'IUt ~ •.lninl an dr. Utct.. _ _.. Ke nt) U"'Ct COJlpcr cl.K . S... Pre... d l. for ctdlinio depen din. UIu&Uy (1) ~ I IIIKI"ar.k-on ~r foil Mvina Ileal . ( I) Delermine clect ric' dreuil.vy.h plU Iic. pbuic l~ . " rnlob" fo . Ia. Se. Then. M~ny loo. ha!l-potnl penal_I'll (101"".h I lqallY'll maY...ilhoul e1cllinaIS) Pb olO-lI11lCba llica! l\1C'ih" d. • .ne-Off boa rds a llla'lll pr<lprieca ry kit ')"llCm (Ambiltal . UM'I I Ii. OIl eornf\OflCn l Ildc..ene and lhell to II"' . ...... iq IIdbcaiY'll baded copper p rjI' <II" \I"hdl ..Ai. dr::c:>ibcd ill deW! in H _ nt T (I sum up. phntll~1 or atllucnN:n Pnl : llI el irdudc : or r-tuv... .hl. -. ( 2) Or lcnnm.rUin... IS 10 4S minuf.U _.:hniquc:....'l" ..COM PON ENT S AND C O NS TR U C T I O N ..lith.11a_ drop Ia'OG the d iode Pva tho: p.n ~ a".rul.. ~ for cr>mJl'lX"'llIO ) Ilk . . (211 Wu h o ff flu. (2) tbe 1PC t>I" Ileplive.jth pI. (41 U.. I ddin. he vo1!me1« . IC.Ih ~1C'1ll lacq uer..." n.ouatd~ Q-I lima (10 PC' cal l) thiI 1:UI'ftIl' \ 'oIUl.....-011' '''''I' .... hard 10 ~I<lR! 1~lrc .... Wl'(\Cf Iide up . pical lhllt a rc to) he Ol'lIincd i l l Cove.rl" 0( trw. lea~lnS 10 dry ..__ _ . fllliJ....LT IIn.4 CJraHt BooN.. • (\Irrcnl ralIlISo . 1Iid. ~ hocn dcscnbed for lhe proolKtion . . pain l Ipn..t~ not eaJlin. • fe'" dmpl of liquid .. bectl wpcrjmpnocd upon ct.. he ~nl <1f FII ... 1 "1' . wi ..c I upphcrl ).cck localioll or all p1"cic-l:V\'t'lN . lin pIale..hal lbe rallnf.. beeo m.lIable rrom dnwinl offic. t'Ul leadi Ihon and IOkIc. lid (J ) the 1PC t>I" ~ti ~wor l in...h DOl nox:nu. Ind a numbu o r U II he...d t1IIt <1f itl-... rubbin.. "".... f. __ IU _ _=_ .. rerr ic chloride....... for ally . ta pe I..2 lD ".::..rd .. inlin..). ""l h I lJa lo pell corn . Ind uw na ll-rOlish rew a.ilLtllon..pea.1Url"1QI! aDd nwir.. allhous. . lli r lil\oul d a HlllP diode ~'" .mp ra linS... fur lmall--hatch "'00 ... end l ur " unlil d.... p hm omhl with P<'IiIM I~I devel<lp.. llo roulb G I'llCn.n l Iayoul U. "'.Um:nt .seoeTFnf 10 mk 10 ma ke II now ca!.tcio...:C'lh. n. . on te mpcl'I lWI &lid II rcnl'f h of aolulioll and amoun t of COJIPCf III be l'IIlrnlWC'd.. r). o:nr>ush easily 10 ecve r l:iInlil-board . ..talc). Lifl rlatlir: pieccl off..1In1 1I<1hcooi"".. "Un.. I ~n.. [III ) Rem o ve bo... II. ( 11) Drill <....rk ln..iocts...pc. pril:k IIu'ouah vapb ~r 'II nch poinl omrre holoea for compooent wira ha"" to be d ril led . W ....lId dl)'-t. 10 CDl'J'C' r b<.. ~ (l) I hr IIV u. (5) With ohaJll lCribe..l . Pow warm .. o r homMkloisned prinIC:oJ draliI bo. ... l~ 10 dry.n: ~ lim""r 10 QOle .ph ma rk.. c. olvel ("". nNol: ' blK.. ma rlr." cr . ( 19) Spray <XJmj\OlMIl 1 Ilidc .I clsner. com". polWllnI c:oppc. To derj.rb to IlUI . a hlorlU4h not aU Ire CSIIfII~: Graph "' PC' . ma l rj ~ ".lIo ... ral!n& or . : ... blue f<>f 00f'!"I" . ""mul sJ ..."l pare r)... ( :!O) Thread rompoocn ll Ihrouah bo le. .. nail polish..kward aJ1a. The the lftI ooo ... h kul . _ (1 I< ~ _ C.. Cln:> and li me .. . . ...bomb m ck.... ribc. Fo r t..1 ol ldenlK:al boiU'dI.... drop or bI Ilv. C mallit U I JUidc.n..h *TIll methy\elcd spirib .... A ... pct. /~ . SCp~ber. Then... t41 Slip ~rd un~r JI'Iph PlflC1'. Ca. ith d olt l&<:qUo:lr... 00 firmly.. _ __loo_.. "" kmI ..I d ina al ' M OQK1 <1f lhe rlp.. rub OOS'PCr arc ilh kitcl>cn ca ne. h. ( I ) Pallllini the: QlWi I f'lIlCl"ll dIAd oa 10 tbe laIDina. de ""lop and ttdt. tnl:thy . (I I) a... rale the illUde al 400 mA o A 14mp d i<ldr I¥OUId show ..'U1"Il'fl' <'f ~ n ampo lh roulb lhe dlOdr is 1·4 Mil.....Cl rcuil boud.... QfC'Illtl 10 he rnoddiocd wilhout major d lffi.cled IlIIIu: U .L ...h«\. ."""'• .. a...... Il\iI on and . (I ·fj lmmc l"le drcuil boll rd 'n ooIulion.Another I pprooiCb a1toee'her . It..-bloc kcd p~liI... it In ligpalo'd 1<1 hc'.. . wilh kil~hcn clnner un til t-hinlJ\l br ilhl too no l louc.'cnal Id rau shtsmall 'i J. (il i ta ina badJ~) I nd metal ob.e . ( 10) Pft'l lracinl cloth <1f HoCh pIallk piIcce and ~ti<:k f'ia.i<k . lac:qucr... III UI lnl dry lnll$/"er Iymboh (.u k or alau 4l1li. . . _ 1_ l.. 10a cup or "'11.... fo[~ : ulld« Iftl .J boards on which .0.. .Io.n el<:houl l·rni>1 mk .... Dry and OPl1l ~ corPC r . lpil ""..... ... k cd. Dry <>II .. and colou~ pens ( 11" . 100 h o ff na il po lio. Allc mll i"".ed lpiri l" hackill... lul ion &hould be i trollll if_ or throe hcaPOd teaop.Inc.._ :: ~~]... (1) PIaoI! p \aJtlc tractna IlIItcrW oYe' Ia.. (Ill Add 1'... _ pro. Add I"" .JlIvam.lId with bllI-poI nl pe n traot lhe coppe. boards inc... wd l ~ the .. with mel hylaled sririlS. Ajn .1 irl.... drop t>I" 2 Mil al ) amPi. file.y . 1_ . 0 1 __ _ ....ible lraot 0( cop(\C' ha vani.. "."noau..inlS. _ . OlM ' Ihl n wppcr d i d bolu'd till ~ll ~riboed b~ r l"C<l JohntOn.rd . IT (il . lUC'd allO I I plnu... I. nt It udl dirllO:1ly on 10 unclad lIminale to II"" _ ". and ctch W1cb cICIwlt t!w 'iii _ d-. "'lk ~n Ind phot"'lfaphic Iedlniq~ 10l' no:ro:u..IYC<! .. photornIst 'fril..ril~ l'el/Uirin l 1M usc or r>!IOloanphic ""lUiprllcnl..workilla pbotorftist ..rd "..ea or bllerd on dManrro... d lhe: Y'OlIaIll drop aaou lhe diode il pelO l.-/book 4iodc""'" H _ _ oIa P. . 1] rum. _ ...... R._ .. (U) Wilh [lldian IlIk ma rl compoorat 1000lio nt end Yllue.oordw-e .. 1'1 1 0000lioll and 1ak.. (6) R erno'AI b<. IMn ) vt>hl.>onful...ml &flI ph. ZL2AMJ in lh. cn li.. if _ _'" ulin l ha y.:tOry a pprtlKh aDd ..... lr¥rn. 0 IOC~1. c bm iNll ma aU cl~hiDl and dri\lin.. Ink .. Utrful summaria or theoc Icchnlq\ICI wert alvm by F .. I I') Lca.. (2) Stir:kinll la pel (1hllI lI«1atc 111m) diAd OQ 10 lbc 1ImilllIC:.. 1l.. I' IN: boa rd wilh an alphanunw:ric' srw. Itrip l'ftis. cldllnl.. 0 2}.ird....... he: dIOde I pJ .i... rd il the n l\c proc:caed by irnmcnK>ri in I diah cootlinln... _ . Tl>e bo..I' on~-<.lie IWCIUr"Wu/l rhoroul h ly in cold rUMilll ... G KUBOin 1(Qd1t> CtJ_ " iNlliott (A pril...u .m l with llid-on COI\tar.. cthrJdl.".. UWl' . min ule. ..t• • Hi./nJ can DOl 10 I fnl... p.. r<ll" 2 llmpI woukS """.. U !he dr op wilh a l.". ler inlo plaolk or • • .:.-buk I"laolic i hc<ol rccetsct paper) lD pru\"kSc the ....... the """'t UEfuI ~UCI fOf tbI_teur .. moo... (9) Tum O\1:r .).:k.. lI.lution fo r I fe"..h ""'Jlpcr a~er clcanma).. HII IDlllhe fo llow.v d'J'«1I ~ " n l<' It. I97 I ..u n. ina cquipmrn u. I~r Y/!..:1 "'flC1'.k-up. 0' __ . dc-ooclop and ctdi. I nd aa:unlely locatll under .1dC' liP Ind agitale rl'l>nlli ~ 10 l imC' ... ... __ _ . WI or lao drop al : am.. ..rcr ionaac:a.. " (.. .ei&l Item.cd a n>WId lhe ou l5irlo ...-.ocr.... board III . Ind ian ink wltb p:n.hed.. or . mlillru.. C<MlIJ'l'f'O'Dl MOl' holet.th pooiti¥e t rart'J'lOl'nc )'...--oul I. .OIl 10 board. lI cmha"'.:1an.. dCln W 'l" tciuon. Kocp the ferric ch lorid c ..:<>mpnnc nl wire ho le!. ide wilh pLulir: IU lJIOOIl. . nrI tofIPe1"·d ad !.kcd up by lWI·pol iah 1' r"""ina oomplc~ al-.. lhe usc or IfI<'cial l lir. . fine d n l 1'. by Tcchnoma .J &lJ"..war from ~ you r finacl"l I nd d Olhe . lml ll run.iudc .. j f will bl: advM blc 1 ~ it II hlIYin..n " WIlli al ) Imps: ..-..e 1m .) (b) ' . 01 Cui bnvd to li'e and Ilk cd"" r. 11 willla. OOM'C't . Il'Id wilh ocioooom CUI (>\It &f1:.rkclCd.

.."""' • • • • • • ~ ..l iU MS IInel'aI muM be 1-.. t>et_ ......1ioll In 1M tdldlon of corn.....:I1D~1~1Om..n CQ'lioo mou. pnrttooct and ol. . __ _ .""' .. l /\an I .- Good'-p ~ . Pna_ ~tII..._ quc:nda......1t' and only 1PoI up .... u thew .. ....1"1.p. A . """ A IIp from Gl\\ n • fOi .d 1M d1e. ..I nd _ . • • • e • •• • ...hcr cimIit ~ mow ........ tM"" ..'e~ . . I • ..... 1"-1 ~ an4 ~ Ion ohould hi opented 11 bdo.._ .-ded. IU~ 01 ~tI" h«t'! ~"" .. ...-. an oftfriduliI lXIDo &ido:n. 11.~ 11 .. ....... .. _r of .1 M ~ boud.... on cl lM .... of Itn)' ... ' m . lF tWc ~ 0 •• • • • • • 0 '. COQ:IPIe:a .. --.Ihnr " ' _1 . .~ II 100 pi' ap-ritDr b).a- MY _Il boarolIl.teq". • <rai1at* Of anpr &1..11" _ 100 _ . .............. 00 ' • • ' .. "'" IIICII lI'II H ~ No Pell""l wnaia rail r...bou t l m. M I " .. ... l' apparent -an.1 JOO M<.... nw....

...ru plalC.16 in..h t he lu blnl .n. of the \Iore .fl*KIalll pa1rl an lIpaoed alonl • q ... in. Thfto _ m<>QOlilhic llIten MCm hllhJ 1 d.oc. .. ~~ a drill b. oU1« dll. 1. win: P YlIC). CU1 rr ao 2 ill. thai IhilIl'elIOCIaI'a a.!ali l)' poor .... he 11Ibl n..L " dc1ai t ... ad"l lll.le : toe "1. d em '" .. COUI'Ioo.. and noat II. ' ' 'I 1M).. of the wire ...lend I nto~ "'..... t r.. here no::ry " In: ..nd tarocr n lf I t it IcT1 lJ1 hcM. for lhe ..'1 nhllr. .. h it h the toal iI inlc'll. The q llam lei' ....u-d Y Olulil...l.bout . bul rernai. It _ _ only • few r-n. into the h....n1I ".• 10 prodllCC • 0...nlOO1 "'Ill aurd. m inute< ' work "'.nd I.n ( UN""'I'~G TOOl- ~: C. L Holme.."'>lIt .ouploo.. equ ipmrnt eo". IlllllOl1ll:Olnplco. of Ihr A in ..f. I.. ".-Jrablc with no fllfl4ammtal RUOIl 'Wby tha price Ih<>uId not W<nCl down 10 arNleuf w.. .. Mi ke !he . &iDol one .:oc riPt-anab. h .olhm qUOlCl 16 : I () to 60dDI r I. W itll a file . .. Inl" TO ' lra nsiotor cues.ln ha"C bcnI UIIed' .. n~.~ ill ~l PKb I'" by 0..l ln a Ilf\&Ie end ". Lenlflhl II uoed . ... h. Iba .La: 10 tbel l lem . down 10 2 : J from 9 10 20 Me.l lool iI in lended 1 ~ rilhl-handled 0 M tlul help' IlIape lead l for In. in. "'ra of 1' . hiatal rq. filwa..-ye1 a1rudy pk-nly of .:e "'C. 12. lub lllll unlillhcre iI . bout • dwcn or 10 p. l\1it • r>oIctt halr.}t · Ut iOt.-i11 _ r hut .. TIle ent ire muhl~ fil\Cr .. rqioa . ra n.''''''' ''YlI P 10 .WlR. flJflll It...f 1\ in .l lcrs "..ihc'y "In Ii' Ih rou J/l the hula: in I'lI nted cin. It> iI . nitkel• • llImini um or brUI lul:>int a \o'lli1l ble from bobt>y I~(tu i:llnl of 1\.l .ap beI'"ftl1 the lWO t llhrol..11 Iont: ooou-" f. The n llO' llio n the Illhe ". COlIven. On the lid~ of .C O H " O N~ N TS ANP CON ST RU CTION . pul "'Irit .. The quaru . in iJimto'in.nl f~ of lhe Irllll _ l'-r _ . are~· led 10 II . tu bin. in lhe pblled fe lP<>nt o nly. llio:l el ill pref. tubi. .. on IlS'PO'ik IideI or the pI. WlIh _ . ~ t Ihe lt• • modem AlQuircmntl .. .. ..MJ Id ~u t I'Irt il ll.IllI " tra pped " Ill\dIer the thin met U film cloctroote.. F irot. 1 the dtillod bad..e. lhc inpu t Iianah iIItlllJllCbaGi.re Ull rIII9 M C/I LllUti In .~ tool .. and '" in.. a lUmilllum ). of U COIlpied raonaloq ill lhe Colli.. fin ' or M root'ul. f po.".dl.n lHQ) In. a l the mid·po. . lhe 1O<>10 . for ~'Un"l hcfore at km(ltin.:I1deI eui1y OUI a l the bad . b ... llh t llcir .... fonnod on a a lllle q uartz ple le rnou.. 19" 1" K. .. mo&. 1. Then.-nliMal ayotaJ "ndp.nl w."" fKlorl : C. Ion. tllod 10 ..I ..bIc a ll iI ha rder lhan br a.mal 10 I>e 1<'1 pu t In pn:. ll nrtpLIn .h inc a pro.tlni..implool form.. It and . rd •.in. 1. re..-.bout a . .. !'Pin.7) by 0. ou r rilhl and race! II u fl"'.. a. lId ...p"""'1 L-M S~ Wilh earl y ra diw now Or\cn " cuI_1on' i t«n. d ri ll for Xl "1IlCl'bn .. ." . md uctoo 01' other dlll:ftW oomponcalS " JNIn of the fihen. to uoc .-rt II IntO tha It ill. ys t«lIlI papillar.oo inn pmoll.. l utTiciml aim... Ild I ~ in . Ih r" ullh the . wtre irner ted from lhe fl"()l\l . tu l>inll a nd card'ullf' aimp _ cod 01 IHOI....lplo tha i It ~ou "'. ~ .*1". oolleeahle .iII'l acr~l..b..l'""~ drIJlod boIe :_ H... ckcIril: transducer.... t he M XF ~ 11 of • qu. p rou chl y " In.... .l'fIin. ... 1 n abl .."". J'IIn ."".tllrm..... .. " bi. into A In..""'" a.nu..leUn. ef'OAY I in . tal lin. ITIaJOI" In JI. ". lor tlw t\ in .in to bend (l()mponml icadI illl o .:11' .... Tbc . an MXF CON"" of in pul I nd a ll OIlIPll I ~lOI'. The lI". manua l wi_ wnl'l'in••nd un"'''PPlRIlooh made from 1fnI1l-di&mc't. in . YS .... l ut"1n....Jed C II e u ml'lc iII.. lcnlJlh ... ...1 Ihr Ilan ..... I t in. of the I<IUln:end <of Ih ill iii In.lPCWf. IlOl .n..• • lId the 1 COUf'led rewnalOl' lInill ha . III III o.. d be . I<lClIo 10 ~ '1-.th • tile. The metal clei::lntdBI Ic:rwu the reoon."'" . 0 f_ ionIIl . h"m~'Cl)nlln.hol& filler 11th". In thl! lIcld 01 M X F.&or 1 ao. ~ b.. Finall y.. ith the 1!opIt 10 .1 %10 Mc/I willi a bandwidth of 20 l C/l and Ilopbud ~ belief Ihan 1Sd Il-«Ic ob\<touI .. c:al \libn lionl• • nd \'W...... l. e n-t to you ... . ..he f• .rta pc rao.. w_w..1 h. 1 lhe llIlI::k oI lhco crimp: then don. 0nIt end of . 110 Pf'O\<ldIs the couplml med lllm beI_ tbl: ...... 11. On the prinl."rt lOO in p ~.. nd re'frend icula .... Unll • hole tJvooah jtm Iha Is In. lub"... In f 1«1"". .tglo""" 10 macha. li mol hcfON . Ih il lime I() tJwt . . (H~. t><! r"rm a ' Munterck>o.. hole Ihro ullh lhe p p tc .. ltopdlllly ....st fllle..... delaibes t. t:l'U \ " the i in.r. iIll1lllll)' "'. Md:I funned by !he IN n clcctrod ft 0 11 oppolIllelldei of the plale. . lub in. p(Ilyina epo \ y to.t boI..olQl II... their "'JNI1II lIon a nd "..n.The IfOOWl det>th .. .kvriw an>o""C lh ~ ' ... In ClSCncc.y l round the loo lft&. l noJ mup!mp . equipmcnlt.. tubin . ..tu trirlllO fl>l1l'l lWO hanoJicII.. .t ruet ion iI . pjero.. Ilea\<)' "'II" .j ...lclflC.. 1Il'Ilh tOme m«ha nil:al mupliq bclWllCfl them.. knlPh of ...tot 0( a oo lll . can he reformed euily YoiI h . t llbona imide the '" in.-Ind...lndle. 1lIc slmpleal ftlten Ila.->nan l fihen in lba h.. mden l Ii"".... o f the Men! ins ide tht tlandlc and ... te use..a ' lI1IpIc jl. t hroll.hen wmiMifll. l. but eilltt o. of the cri mp I() tha i .n.trnne- r>JCC_""'. M liller In IIp<01l. de¥doped ftlwn .lhOllI clocl:rodeI.t t he I i.u.nDUll oIher faclon.:.ae of lIMN uniu.... alpedal... lhapcr tlla luhi"... ... for suc:b deviI:cI . nb tt.-" .. l otl brill! Ihll 11. bou l aood Cf)'IaI flIter1 . I )(.l'C .r.. Tooll Too ll ' hal cnat>lc ..v1z _ fer Oft til '""kit pai n of m<'U1 clcct rodct li fe dcpotued...lJ!tl .. P'iuo TedlnololY.do no! ca ll for tn llu/onnco. tomptml " i1h oon .f ...

..--..•• . .1... . .. . _-. _ ....." ""'AT au ..__• .. "'-_ ... 010 T ICHNIQU I ._. .._-"'.._.... .... ....._ .~ " u. ' ... 0-1.....-.... .. ""-oc • " ':r I'll. -.. ..

.. '. __.. ON ENT S AND C O N S T R UC TIO N ..c78: )i)Y J__ . t .... ' - .. ~ l~ Q5 ~II ' I .....-. ._-- .CO . ~ Ij ..1... .P . " .. --... . ' "" _ _ "-"..

l end< ro be boo _ .... taPl*! . 10 miL "."l1·. hlah elecl rical n:si~ and I~al d uraboihly.k hard n..1111 ad hftiw alld coJl. Oo:taik un 1.llly availabll ep».. 1)...bo¥I .~ " 0' ~ . the reu < lito: oqUIJ'OT'O'Ql .. """'" haN. Thio io rcrrhll". . ltoo: ..atoto'· rrou>f.-i_ in onkr of l..... .t ..... _ . avUlabk ... . ea n bI obtaJ-t ' mon O RA "-~I. almo. 'ot ... 11 hao.at C..""-"....lIIi"l Arald"" ntiouo a\lf'lo'ioN. bu l imulallld lrom.rh._•. . adt. 8IlSn4n.'!kanl a4'wantall'. !hal.trot Ir. 1aIIP .*"iool and h lotally ...."..-1'" 'If tmnc-. It it aloo a wry PO"'r.. Wbh ~..nive .. • for r=wu fll' 1IJ TO o ..-d 10 be ri>. and . ilIdoolftl I"" """. ' '''''''''' Th . . .rtt lhal <:annOi be boh ed <>0' I<' kk ~ tn:r1oke... add"fll"lW'l' and ripJ..". ~Dl 10 plauic PAdd.ld l"l or h...~ ..'...w P.Ih·O'Oltqc I ulalo..re..n_ "".ronpl of any 0' lito: rnal~a" bul ab<:> lho: mo...... ~ .ald h... _ .. IMro:l 01" _ _ .. I. . It e&Jl be d rilled...>td prow u... b)' acid "". indil:a'Ion <JIIw OUI~ UIIlliU" ..y'''''' a· r. madtlncd loh .. 1M .... _ lid.. tOt 10 ~ '. hll for (lDiilronnt'nr .

<W..mplc .'" li. appl i<:alio n : ICC rill 19 (h I. ." OllUld be: 11. .m ecr nne h r. lhe dcwice mnaim adequatel)' prol«ted from Italic and 4u ite erTecti'. G ~ KO. a co il.alin~' It i.:... ~ls lI llnJ u ...'t'a~jll a nd botlun C'OIlII«:IiQ!u. h~r l here i.tem r" " n Illll " KI.1'5 ""' I "..... H . mICrohenrks an d picofaradl .1>lIIilul ro fo.e a rc l"k:my or CX-eq UipnlCOI and 'U'l' I..1 'In ". the <JOI..r<>lc.lp plled 10 prot.. il. dUllhl... noPJlinS lhe .. I CO l - . wrtching t..o: componenl nunuf. e umpk relay w nlo\CU witlt l oo locr rdit)) as In 19 fa). hcumner i ~l. 1)..o.. 1 " Ally il. a l'l'h~"h"n .. (If a I«1ltnd before II\( ".J>(1 K: licld PMlCS th ro ut h Ille COI1I.-ct CUll"" .'en a "" "kIng jutICli" n " I a d ud l ran...Ic.. "" lillie fo r hpane>iC ooram lC ca >'(lCiton j. a p te m1lhl ltt damaJed "....II.1 be...ode or e. pltlh inarII rlllhi llP II'IC bod) ' or l he fFT herore n:movin." he pul led in aOe' dn>ppinll OUI .<1 nl. " Wiln . tl<><. _ ~ ~ ". hid.. Slllo:C M llk r ctf«t would then dc l..."Cl. Ions ... ". .ol>lc a ppliation of he...l1rd . climitW1Ct 0 II\( t.J t . I lie "ode T'ru.I"ur IX'Idc .g.\\n IYJ'< when t he . n:lay ).CClrTU$i~ . DI SC C( U M IC lU LU J nc l'roprer..an . P . lhe COIl. r • quane.... It:t.'1( M._to. ... VDCJ.. " II '" " " 'Q~ .n . 1 a liT)' lhe rel.h f1Clncnll in industrial o r couIII I re""..c)'1C\ in (lh""." I.o1 ".cre tllen: ma y on ly be " ne available: rontlCl ...Z'" ind. II..il".. " -I. potenlial ofaboul 12 wOlb i.. he pcJk l l"'lUtod. y clitTenl : II .nl 11"llM'.ficanl : l ite numin. . thfllw ~wil . h . a l ranf..ilh one f.t lhe pull-i n 'oil"...1" rerillng " "lIallC (t n ..siblelu o btam Ihc ""l ui".. hk h K'I:\lfe lhe IOlalo n and ho. .1t My)... a pp lic<l '..l. A 'Similar pcllC1 co uld be: h'§clted when catTYl"..lnner SIr« I... . YKf...~" . When Applial l<l MOS rr:T. ol U 00" _ 11 ...... . .~6 Il...nd a 1C'\j"'(>I" lhe idea ca n be read ily adaplold 1 thi.'''''. 1) 1 h~$ .. ~ ft " w " . h. fl(Ilh lite Wiler a nd l ite ""... " IQS T. t.l" tnul'" lhill il "" poo.... I C I) .c.ml' uter bu.h.m ekmcnl~ I p.. II oon.1 cha rtios a ClJUC:llOt lO 12 ' 01" ano...~ . ~ .'lIl tl'lc wOf ~ in... lhe atT_.'11... l o" . C ... ""'"01 atn he l Cl'I _ .. 1 ~13 ) p. the no rmal metal clip o..at: . ~~ . way. i. IIny ~ h"""M ) n • • ull" l>k finnl ... fo r I U \'011 d.t Ii""".l. C.n ir ' C<ju ircdl r.lblc. 1 " II relaY' hll\e th ree l1gn.. . from Bob Koh: . red a nd bind i_ I! x 10 o r 12 " H It Ct:TIlmk: Clt pacilor with the ma'~in l l OI K S ' Cl'. in . uhbcr c.. IJ wolt Su p pli.. 11"..1y t«harli ns of Ih~ capccuo r.k pulh-!o-Ialk appli cat ions .'h'ch II's PlIO " Dow Co rning ... TIt~.on"nll a~1ll hcfo..... ItIIl1IHccd~ _witch ing in mo bile and o ther " "" llCall(ln$ if lhey ('Ou ld bo: peflol. 16. In ~no.. In co o"c nti(lflal I<:1:lY' 111<: u mal oJn: mOWI apins l • Ilop IIMnl tT\(\/"t' o r Ins cer mam C(lntac1 I'fC'su rc rel...acmcnt . l>c".. wilC I'lcI (f"..uon. fo r f'WoI a brief pui04 (loIy 20 msl. No vember.'s itn e.i.f Sol"... Il>oullh 'hit tsc nen IlOI cc ovenjem fo r nlOb.·Od.h. fI<1 mk " f datll&~ fro m lhe wale r llllcif all lhe n . which can be ' lrt1dl<"d In p .' h..'\u t.i dc ea rt ho." "".i~l ur. _.('ly fro m re...1' . ~ i".. Semlc. rd ilyS _uil" altle r" r 1..j_ ow." all: ocalcd. lIy ap plyi nll owr 20 .llly pU lblc !U pul _in a " 24 woll rela)' ... I diode a. and K"... l .". id".on ind UCl '" mar~cd bro wn. . un R) 14I KTV. H ...nll"""I)'. IO The ..! 1!ten aUdin.. " (".. Il. ed .l4 nd...h$..... h~h prol oxh . ou l any 0 cha n. iSIOf i... 1 t""l lt~ "' n:d uccd e<tnlac1 p ressure in r«d "" relaY' when: lhe ml.. W ITem u"C<I in lhi.cful bru.. . I ltd mu .'>( lhe .. lly b<:lwccn 15 and 20 volts f(lt I 24 v.. he ITI..... ili"" lCIlli.:o nd'ICLOn ... GJKY i""" rlt a '"""1 P111 1C1 of ".1. rbe devlcci when Oul of ci f'(Vi•...-..~.". lro coi l I'l'lO'fr.. . (Jul by aol<J in...h ~u 'C'\ In " Inullh.le.t. C1<...due . of .ctCnLS I ~al"e "r300 pF.noJ lI<. ""ne.. . be It IlIlo.'.. T... G 38Y.b y ""._ . .l i. lite co il cv rrem.d p ull-In voI UilC from I I ~ yolt iUPl"1)' by 1i".. ) •••• _ J.Jo n " : lCI AC~ l<J!le If".".. "' L I '" l....... r>d cnfa!"" l.... It:":h lhi.te relia bly fmn.r<J IYllC d.. il II I.11. An ."e q uickl)'. ill Il\( n be I\(ld in ro r a....... ru.SII Ilscr" lli p when w lderl n..I <1I ..'hen remowin. and J ". ~an he ecne-ce. [ili o n. 14 W oll R l_ ..... hi~ h ~-a. (rom heill.>(I.. kl t'I<I.. JOin lhe ekmcm ""'lion . 1 EI""I.'1:l . u!>I'ally ~ Wlltl un~~ OIM t'Wj<e IMlCalro .. I crma"' Uffi IYllC. paper ha ndlen: hicf.'erl ar &Ito1lld be <::lean to aWlid lite fIlIMibilily <If lIilht dCfl<l$il' ""'nl \crt. coma infosmlliion on 1 10 1«1· ' inll t>e. ..ltu" l'ly-" dherenl ru bbery ..r-i... M .et 1 the clre ull liOl...l.. . D2 <:lilt be a ". . t\ll!:':I~ '.or>d C'lJ'&Cilon :.!n ..ilchcn ck>lm. Com" on. the U·lin h .i .1 .. 10 ptr cenl lokran<:e an SI~) ".. once dOt<. The idea stcms Irom I ta:hnique uwU by wt>tk inl JCW'..... Ihe relily lak " (lnly o tl -q<wrtl:f nf e ilt r.-l f.. 12 w(l IIlI"'lcad of t1lc1l rated 2-1 W .. ect ion in """ """Ion w. Th il ca n be d om: by .lrtl ko. . poi nleU out t.le. the ...omst atn l<>sphf rk corrmi on . n. ~ Ihcula. tQ" (b ) 1 . o r I.t.'l\C """' hod by ... Il<! """1 aw ailal>lc Icn . kin I..pli• • ~ ...l"lcd to ol""'.' I.h IS the I G FETi M O~f [T fam ily.. d l"'iCl poi nls are lhe ocrew... lube.. an d lhe lhn:adcd end. dec\ c .. o r clamp' ..r " '- ~ f 'a. .lon hf I po. . Nco:l 0 . erf ul eflCmy of ~lJ(. A w. ".CO MI Com bolhl . 0. .lion o n lhe way J.:." the Icad..n + .."" R. whic h cnuId he.: . It ...his 10 the 12 VOII su pply.hOllld be tKJIed Ihal there will hc a tklay ." 3 01 . and t he d "'P-<>ul w ollallc (a boul 3 10 H "VII.. hI' CUt ~4 yoltt ).... whi..tlm<. mllon wool .nly 12 WI ll.~ (0) . h i ltl1...~ 10 protect vul""rabk tmll il pari.. IS.. I ISI11U d'g 'l !>I <O"d ~'nl 9Rl~TOI" Q~U 'J .:atCi l."...1. 141i<: 'lCn. . for ":lmple.

.. ( M Sam 01 blm.. "'C ~ 0Il1\lnl 1l~ .. .e:fi tf? >tp 1s e-_ u. prcMda .-t Hlna D. ...11II ...._ _. IS .... """... . ." (1) I"oDca 01 foAnl plAstic ~1 adudcr Itnp . _ a' .O.. 0 : lM _ " .1ol " ~ ~'L C- .!1.. i _" t c .... . he Mys... ... iI . '" " c. .. • • ... (I ) No MOd 10 worry aboullhow outaide l-'or conneclioN and ltlo like If lhe)' aft buund with Demo T~ from plUJllbtnl contfk1Ol't. . ltD. _ S. a _ ""t L .- . . . I .rnlnMa baM.. . _ .. ic doG't 'Mf ~)'el" .. } IL " .. ._' No#). .- o . &0. .. . •• • • _..)'. and 10 on : 'heJ Mop I Mm llicWlI...n . onl y d nowbld. for doon and ~ old: r-l1iJ 10 tt. _ ..... .. . ..... LM .. ICD.w. C- .. .b... .__ •• kdo_ . . tended.. .. ..~l gt _n_...IlI. A.. _ ~. .. le l n ._ ... '0 ' To . t. . .. . boc1ornt 01 &Iu.. . .... ""'" . M) NOIILk-.I . m. . .bou• • nd . DRSJ4009.. .. --_ . ..lOldl .._ _ .

. • L .....Othc:r broMll'.. " .. _Io. their d fit"imq and I"nitin.r .. Ii<>". _ :.... billPt rroblcm in Ulon.. .. tnLn-.idy of Impedara 0 --- .~Ilda.UI.... tlOW« handJiq Cl fllbi lil..nf." '..1.l Pf'licl. II 10 ma inly I I lhe lowf""l""""'Ye nd of the n np lhat lhe rcrt'onnance of the toroid hclconlCl t learly IUporior..._ .. 1 .. 't (.-n 01' nep-vp n llot II prohkrn dilcuNcd earlier in lIICIcnr.. Ind h'" ~ lou iI • U tlal fe-I~ of ~I.'__ _ .. or hl&h·lmptdaooc amal.-_.. 11/0"0 toroid! cd... In l udJ trantformuo relaliV'l:ly rew lum .... ldths and "-"". ____ ... ~ ' t -:i'O- t'-' I --.1 1. . .1. IltKh " matchin. e .a.t I ~I ""-..l r ..... '1 'I -.._1 . ad1in'ed by r lac:i. iIe .. _ _ '.. So tile hith-f"O'Il'C"" 1.....-. ''''_..!!... - _ . vtl'Y pmmlWlllcdlllique Mtll. ..cype oon:oo. > 11+1 1 -•'b 1:. hith-r.-.nndom'OCl".a by ll"IW'IS of tho! form fador ~ ... 26......hiIe mi nimiLinl ~ mdudalKC and lhunl capkiUn<:c: wra can be rated on Ihiol biI. .... . _.. powcn or over I kW• .ma tdlill' tcdw. .tucrv.... tbe cora'.tional or . is lCiII room for funber in "elliplion or Q>R' lIIoIleriab focl(If>Iiclliom In....o.' .... out tha i .. Idea lly one need• • cere IIIapc tNl rnuimiza lhun! inductance .. ..c tmlUer ~ .. Perha..>WI). ) ".. een be achieved wilh rod-lyr'C CtIra. !he ~t tuilable. bowoner...former (eilhc:r 1f+ 1! _-.. .f .3. '_1"""- ._ _''1_ .onal t.1.s =. .. I'• •_ Tn m misl ion .••_ . _ _ .P... F I.. . orWI.. .n. . . ..nd maldlina dc'vlca-. ulo-trarul~ J one importlnl fador is the shape o f 1M ecee .I U . .. n . . ~.m itten to low.ohin.. foe amalew" Ind pror. ._.. In 1'-' 1.. . ~ ori ai nl l c lrocrimen " .P-. tliab ohmil: lou t haral:tcrUeo Indurnon of the ...uon. W2F M I poin. 1 "1.. ..... by edae or lIdc by side .1 Ii'll wound on loroid or ~ltrill ioM or the tQroid.. f '" tran... T..!.J 4 .. Ih is 00CI00nd ~1 ii_fly called I ba lUII QI:Jft.In. • .lrlI....ique I ~ to be. . tun'CllU I I IU rrcquenclta and m:.'I . An impmovcmcnl 0\'Cf !he 10000id can UI.. .... ..\cl mo-I tJ.L. M.... huntin. ~ u . J. _ _. 24.". ... .." IIII . . Y .I v • " .linc Irl ru!~ Ii'll widely used In doublebala nood mlun a nd mod ulalors btU kIT)' ScvicIl. ...- • • . 1.... _ _ _ . . ...le 10 prc:vcnl .ia.. Wh. and it is • miuake 10 th ink lhal the loroid core . " _ _ .. 19 76) .-kd al low fn:o... "' .....:ted freq llftlC)' ranp) O\'CR ~ t rr-ron formen : _ Fit. hcchcr nccwo rh of ca~lon Ind iPduc«n or (0(1"""1"". eoapt t i the >Q'y Iowftl end or 1M unF. 2' Novem ber.-. hi••hown (1:1«INHIk..t .. Jood wJde'bmd d .. or (O\'er I mora . WlP M I.'+ ... il tha t or adl~ .... ) . ...91" .n..cr 10 murlc.. \ bl taoe4 Q I ferTite ma lCl' ioIl l>ul W2F M I ' tIUl"'U tblot t ile.. • ... ..... W2t'M I hu. _ . .. ----:.1mCt1)' .-_ I. • ~ .- . " -I I '> .1 In m fO!'Jl'ltrt _ l\I.1 • . 2.. this toehniq ..d" I . ..... necdrd .. _ .'+ _.'. _ _ T W ... . 000 rctIult.....formallon TIII~ : F. .... 1lowIt tM I IIIl' " " be uoed 1 prov.u. tly t:. __ __...I. ..C OMP ON ENT S AND C O N ST " U CT I O N In 1'-' dcoip1 o f. . -.l I ppI ic:a tlom.. t _ l l ..-.. . . reduc:i".. .

.1 .. . Rf:F ("'b y.__ ... 1""_ ... freq umeiet around 9 or 11)7 Mli.. _ I . rormed from I" U h <:ryll.4U. / -~. _ H.C...~ I' '"' . "' .."-_ . ...b OOP C()"o'<'a . " _ _ ro..... Whi le in the 'l\. ' ohm.) _ _ r . :::: It") .... ~ item. *' 01' Molt"'... ."Uell and ·l i... ) . ippl<l QOt\.... _ h •• " " . Ihroe I "" rour o...m ....(. 1nt'Vllably an e.. .. _ _ . <:orroct tetrl'linlol>on II moal iml'f>l1anl .. To p.' ... I... _ . T Alll._ HIli . ... -.. . -ua .m. ...."Oml\:\ Inpu l and output lerm inal.. I\r. HI H.."... T _ _ odo ...1l4 ._.ii' "" ~ Ill..IT.~I ..... Olherwiloe r... "" ''''' S2no "" " " 2UO ft ...70 Uk....Illie not t\I.... on U t" i. N O' 4 n. lilteA.. .. 11_ _ - C<-po.. . 1.Hz g'}"IlI ll (...lteB .-...rn Of in Tll<-'CI~I'I have been ~ un the baJI-bmiDI llf lall a ronliau ra lion... _ _• • 1_. b .. 1'0d lC1._ _ ..ble 1 ICftIClI lhe filler Ind 10 lay iI ou t tarefully.. January. ... .._ _ of " ' ...m. Im l and by J...'. 1 5 fq. A .au".. JI. ·ff . AU Illldd ftJIen "'. K>rt labonlor)' equipment . irol aysla~...t... 1'0._..L I 1I~ by FIlUQP IftMrl iolt I<..-_ ....~.m 04J ..b. mool cI U.-a..*.. or the fille..hie~ wilh four a)'Ula I liller wblc.1 I nd oul-af-bo... ._1 _14 -.. II "._ . j ! 1_ M n. aJlhoua h the o..Il h lin I'tcrtr. Ind ral her JO (but lIIil1 u.d . _ 1Oo1R . -(.~ ilI... l'f'OIOIypc lilten 'Im'e .....tclian and ~Ied an u llftnely useful u . . lhe XAlA ....~ ...1 _ _.. Il.... pllted 1)'' '''' Itdl U lhe 11<"-6U (>I" IOXJ I re ft'IOI'C h kely to ... _ _ _ _.. _ _ T.. 1976) or WWku ll"..... .. ___ 11_ • . n1i lali"Cly fnt seern I" CJ!'lrM to taekit the «lDIttuCtlon cI liltc:n wilh cent ".. . .apt~I"""'" "lllIn a nd imped..9 ) 10......• ..~ flvour lhe ~ nf' to 10 M H ~ ladder DeIW'Orkl a re 1100 _II $IIiled to nllT'O'lll'-btnd <:.( Ilw r . F 6BQP..1 lea IilII ar ound Ilta filler It II il... 0 fll-17 indica l../J (J uly. built thrn . .. .. I... lwo. . " a..j Impedo . H .a1 liltcrJ UI8d AI . lilter. .. I....H....-.iJ...bla In ~ l>RQ P' .) n.. (b) . -.) '" " Co_o.:cnlntll'I'l'd iDdlllClM CflfTtrollenll..b.III I.. -co \ loR.. __ 100r --.. I• • I _ .. chtrKIeriuia on pred. • 10 "'"' .. ._ 1 . An a lter na tive to IIw lallQ ll lhi ladJcr Iil\ef Ai delaibod toy J ..1&... . m. !ille. . .. To form Nndr-sa ftlltn in th~ _ y req UlRlO I ~ U of I number cI CI)'IlaII of cverully defined ... )... HI. I I IllY freQuency from rou&blY S to :!O MHl.. ~ tha i il . cI o..-l..Ide p>d I .. b..._ I _ .... _ .. ". . .. imply hoo. . f or many y...-. "'... ... 1mp:da1llXlJ.... "... ~In be made In Ihlll _ . .. lleI.... .... 1>1.FlJt... _ _ " • • Il..I_ t:.. ..l ly .alio ' n..." ....1.nil oI'lm the ...... " • .b and ~lureJ lhei."1 ' ... lind d i/fCRllIl r~~ncic:ll.... no :... . ."I 10 per ~ I"- To hnd "'"'I ua l val""" II IS IWa'I&Iry 10 <>:tIl ~erTed val""". In ... H C . U 14 . • 1 ... is I ft"ecled by the t ype 01 c:ryslll.m .-.. lh_ 01' rOUf iM".. . these ha!"fleN<l 10 be ..... I re oblai..w. II h posIible to WIt the _......"" " ""..m . IIlle l'l..._ I. ..a rH in.... ftJlenI -. 0rICe thr lho>om...._10<" __ l' ... al¥ _ _ ..• ~ "' il ..-_.. 2"1. ) TIT Co_ I (:1 . <:omlrtIy . . A1I .. Febniar)r and Scr>tt'lllber 19n )...)() n . -"'" -"'" "" '''''' "" """ •= 16 100 "" "'" .. .hapc rllC10r . toea horn H:o. tbe ratio 01c:aradltllCC"I lues In thr form unJllldan..nd ...-. ..... .. u YIr. q ulle l och I toad ..anber... ....9.. I-I I'" n..( d B) RtppIt (d R) UII<ItIooUl. ill he seen tha i insertiorl loa&..... -H .n< reja:tion l I U IDOII .b .... ir !'''' .. _ _ . He lo.I..1il1t of ~ f~uellC)' a nd could be deaitned for 10... fihcn Cry_ a... ... om e (Redo Co""'ru"icDlioll. ~ • IIirnflle c::irwit IMI ens ures lhe c:olTC'C1 lermi n.IT ~ _1M.. He ill..-.... _ 1oIorou 10. " '" .. (nnl ~......•• e- A H A TI UIt It A D I O TICH N 1Cll UIS " -. ~ 1~ """' 1I11'" ) I b " .ll'l'act nry wilh four Cl)'IIIII . . ~ MtQP b.. ... lkl ~ .I "'hcre R II 1M impcod_ 1lnl.i11 ~ ~ n1pio......{Ifl/ II .". ful) wllb t1ll'O and lhra: ~tall..." band .. ar". "00 "''' .li.ryua..b. lie min" OUI thai u... multip/J Illele coefflCient l ~ I/fR ... _ Ily 10 Itr'Id up I>uyina I com plele lilt". Tbc acoompa nri nl lable aiYft OO<npa ra li"" detaib cI hit lihcn Ilonpide lhe " ... --«.lcaI va blot' bee n found .m .1_ II» _ .. ~u......00". .ruo:Iors .. _ 1 1 ... t lC'l many amoIl leufll. lIanio u tle . I to.nodl Imn r""" the <:omblnl nl or .d mudJ betle r ultimaI<' OUI-uf -band re. ). CrrMoI __ ._ _-_ . _ .. bictt c:oukl LlH ery... IJO n... ___ .. _ _ ' _. . _1 ""_ II I _ _.. . ._. wo d. 191(> .b. . . .a H (d ) aoa Tho band pa ... ....._ _ 1_. lI......oIc:Ik>n (d R. *'.s~ bw11 and lesled Ia<lder f1llOr'1 ba-J OIl two... Id>cd ilIlo the I... b.

.. lhe ItI. Wlth .eqUl'nf. alk-td II) let in ~Iy vc:ua1 laboralory I1us lu"'n. lUI/i1Iftl_ rNlII.Iue> (>r 1 ( '0 I nd Cl "" U . Ute • o. ..y arJhcsivw alllJ jip..: . loI'WOIIl-f.r .nh 10-...' e loella>t flllcn c. "... M H.hen cum:I ... .. t -2 I'f"l . .'" . 11..)f' imf'lda. if rcq llire<l..)it .....ur ep)ll y ~jnl : Ih it.. ( " Clu" I(QI'r lll' I<"'''. flbricaled lItin.... hereu Iht produ~" <ll" lp>Ol"iltlOe QlI onl y be life by clllln':lI .c t ~. cl'OlQ' Ild lln i. . a ny illlJ\Mo. 110 lish 1IOrnC " pr>enl roqulremcnll " .. " " Ia 01 .1".. 1M ma!erial ..... Ife p. . in ~ZS (June..... II is ftf)' ..n cpo "..ulf"''l<:nl t.f.-apphe$ to the cu red.r"'ho l'.lDun be food for Ihou~L A relsoned de pllnurol'rom ' 1M book ' may ofieD til' sa tisfactor)' . ..t _ !Chin.. CIl"C Ihould til' eun:is«l ll nd . .h".."ired up In J'OIlnon. ohnwt a wa y 01' conn«'lin.le tl"..j".... " ean be "". OO. (~ erected .. moot im port..f ' ill. -_ _ .... ZLITB H... okl ba llrorn l pen to p tllal h... lha l tncd in lhe filter 10 provide the carrier oocillator fmjuo:ncy..... rnay til' arrha! to _ Ihich cu of 1... l1Ic P . m ide Ir... both amine a nd p<>Iy.h III polyvi nyl . a re 10 t. }'.. f"... alOlloSy ftnioh whir:h. 0 _ . nllhe .00 II .""uv : tion pr aet iol (1frNk.. ilh vam i!ih lOin. March.. Alumln llllll ma. . 121 Sl:1ccl lhII ri. n r".: or W .. '-orne increasinaly OOfItj'>kl d Uoll IO lbe ~Iopmml of tort'ICthint lih 2XO dilT erml curio.~ l1..-.!eIian imf"'d a "l'C.C O M P O NE N TS AND CO NSTR UCT I ON . . When WI11M J!ua was broken . ZS' WI' notCli lha t e rn.n Ic m.Or1O'I or C'YCO ._. 11...iled JUidol lo Ntil ".ior. nd )'el malin."" 111 l III '" nun 10 pro . nlnl ll"n". iml'lY I and 2.. lhe _ ... ~ .ohaIt ·lx\f'ne polyam ide ClJI'Ild epn ~y .-r... 1t. r po lyunrl h..t l :IOll 011"".9" rF (ot . smotl .. nd note. a~1 "". e.. lha l Iny dan.!ementa or """..w." h. Field..I flFj : C2 21Z' J( l ) ..y _ In «M'IIll'OOJf>f1$ ...4111_ '" 'ooh ... . in..11K1I'1 1 uted cwin..... Muli lply Ih.....J CII.....'If filleR al 11I 4 U h Ind ...nd .'r'olyI"d pb kk aJhcolve and lhe" Meurea into poti llon by bo llin . • tiller Inco cin. 19m ~ rnct lCil l informa lion on the U!lf: of "POlY raiN .ilh B lot U h cryoIab ther boI OO I"'M ill . ilh a n ~ I~ ue. .. t~1 10 add more cunni '"l!Jl'I"1I 10 lI1lI kc the ma~rla l ~ q uicker .._ _ _ .tulc a Prfyin. wilh I..l he l ur lee . wd'I I S lind. nJ 41 p" I nd II I nd 41 pf I"C'>pco. '" 'uitable Allen kcy at>d lrnmen<n. .j f/()()f' t't>vr1'l"l.1.... ".h. """" thne.. lQ/or~• • ..... rnao... 1916) : ~ Some polnbl rnay _ pedanl lc... resister. ]. 1 im plies e "" lha l toy u. in.M rnoo. 1 11 8 ~ J( IIo-UI} J( 8 )1 4 " R .rn ce n 110 t urned in _ Lolhe a OO Ihraded...._ usma IE....inalod .del ._ ZS~ W P norman.....1iom. pro perlY_ 'I' mT!O'o'e area"'" if )'OU " ... it .h.".laTi~ly ktw-fmj ~1IC)' CfY'tlllll ". Thil . by lhe . • black. po lya m idoM:ure<l COllin. . . TIl.. .Icohol. lhc'yam u. rm WIler. +1 1 V n... I: pol ylpo ""'lIlphido ad heU_can til' uoN 10 """-lai nl ""'" .. 1.anl.... heen r n:l\ llal wiT h low ...m in" a nd po lyami<Jo..lc_d o r weld in.rO\Ind lhe ftlt. ma .e .... _i lh a QOIl.n rr. for lhal " la:trica l prOfCl1iea mil)' .... nd one OblJilll r. vam~ a.. CI ....k: and prolorlaod Iltin con i"" a n Jive rise 10 iknnIlil ia. po/y&mide cured compound . (2) 11.. lin-".. _ 1_. Importlnt Ih lnlto 110I1 is thaI the \ilIUlS I~ dele rm ll'H:'d by the r..l'e'O<Jrwnl frcqUol.. p:nll.. or can be JUSI . S.m n h. .. a nd _r plica llonl . IIoor c<><l h nl for •• hack eM' . S«kdS c.."~.. (1J /lMflJlt/lJ...'n<."1"...m ioh I n a!lac ked by ult. drd ~ S«. ighl Job . ' J!<"'" . ithOlJ l IIwn..mc" .. W P recommends Irom perlOlllll eo perience... upplied a nd do no l . Ualn.. ' cer tain IhlIl Ihe lillO' IS .n t. a nd IhI uw or thl ~ . A d c. Uo. 'll'''''''''''.. if usirla ma lC!ria1ronta inlnf tolvcnta. M .! lhe inl rcdanoe In order to obt ai n ... im pr O'l'C <:crtain rro l"'f'l "'" like tom pn:Mlve U=tll ll. .. nd l kel t<Men ma.. T _ ... ~ to 4Ile rrnine lhe actua l . t. t.'If • rOO'oC!Y'1. C _l.. lQ mini ma..... ... d " . made in lCreo::n<:<l cnckN. .nd eec__ 1)' 1(1 . . l"".. 0 (>hm~ 1 ' ...')' 0 the cty\1. t... ). t1Ni..Id Jive r>nfCl'1'eo.h ZS . 0 1 I"rcr-n: l un .."n l(t 'OUnace prcpan lion . . ~umrlc. provid". 2 . MI ... rreq uency tTY'tal.. in lhetop o f a n ~il'led. a lub)ed whidl O"'et !he)'ell" ha . ~). o R 2 I~ life "ad1 I . ..01 10 form a mouldin.i". ny rnak'f1al tha i does llC1 on 10 !tie !-kin shouIdt. mUll be. /1 ortJ ..a . to hCll:u rllll a1 rd cu O'II!I' q!Jl:'tions o f e jeetril:aI IIfd y Ih in kln.. .ompouolls . Inf_ l ion on n. lhe IIlten ohoul..re lhe fo llowm. . U. ... tnllIrtI aood w.._ I"'tI.. &"". n !he 0lJlTIICt na ute.ote OOI.n thm 10' ) or fOU. followl : (I) All req uimnonll mllsl be mel ". HOI'Ilknon. ..l liller a ~ 0-701.. '. 'ltl .. 1.:: rlll r• •1"' : n • p(WI il>lc 10 llIC II..... 1ea.. /l illmin ium .110' pf lor. idlll r" r • .cond llClin. " llhouJh 1p<lCia1ca. cutin. beyond 1lM1Irtnll tion or outside the bounds of pl>\Ilbilily .l t. 1\0 ohrM... 1l1. ZS'WP.th low <leol. RL is made eq 1 10 the filler lermina llol'l 1mpeo.M r... H ClM'YC!!'. ThI rodr ic'nl. rpopri..f . OO 1 ..... me frllClUl..114 M l b ... /1"1 ".. you mcrd y "'1. ' 10 " .. tiw QOl'I'Il'Onenll ..0 4 141 )( 23 ..in.:otteCtlr Icrm..... Ide. are te lf eviden t . 1.".!..: >mall rrinlod cin:uil boanh.. 1'0 01_ l hat ..:. h dc1etm l..'lde I non ..")' " f the aystak .. Do nOi let younpten play ".'OCY ..bo lll 8J 14 1 0 Il lfl kif.. I I<"IIil)' u lCh . Fi..u . Iptllicltionl. l lIlln (:0 .. Th il . .l... y to orick : roa.. (6) 10(.. In II lUlllble tbian tetmilll iion imptdan~. Amon .: IeaUp of lianals I...." 1 ". lhe <.on lilation a nd do . . : ( IJ 0 .. .r <ll" l ucb .1>.hl. (Wlhnn o r li r~.. 1 ..l.. llU..I t Z J( 2J • 41 'J rf ( 01".lier.01 uncund opaly o.. r.1. poi nbout in a det.. AI.t ivcly.1.1fic.~" . nil)' be O'o'tl'OOll tN wilh a b ituminoua a lumlnlum paln l... NY.I "'-'/s.lbod off .re 1 hlnd \c: : but oome 0 aaat h are !OJ.1ures 10 form amateur JhiIl.' vcrti(:ah etc ~ Id _ til' _1e<1 ....-h!C'VC'd : II I MIl the com rou lllJ in lhe ral io . ...fe.fe') . pan lCularl y fill'" v.'hi!.. A . fun"'" m lta l o f lhe .er alII <ll" the handflll •....00 2·121: for a 1" l>-<l'Y"la l nn . se r fl..itb _ p a nd .._ iol el hllh l and dIould noc br uoed OUI of v d Ol)I'I. (lJ .a Ihml rllnd&men t..y and lhe ""u1lina "POl l' rod filed to !tie dr:!IiruJ lhapc . c lltl" fi /m. An amilw cured (\'tr)I liq Wdl l)'1otm'l lOa.1 .. The ..Iu . . 1 ruIft if opt imu m reo.."'.. 7.u mill' til' Pft!" Im ed _p ilUI corrO$Ion by ooalin.. ... hl cum pound fOl" the .ul . NY..oIity retin : ZS~W P " ruphllJias" Don 'l forllCllo If"III Ihe l ey ". ilh II... A odf-letTI hn ..I«I. in... be.n til' made b)' J1N1oin.. coati la p JOIn.. ideal for 11M Cllemal prokCtion or aerial clemenll.11 be f. bul /TIlly det ract from olh"n l uciluilloctrical . wmpou nd ..idn • very u. elC. (4 ) Coil lo.l ....nt. Itooll l I ny bol" by ep<»... W hen alred .

Avo id h iJb-.e or "-luli"" marenals lhal QIJ\ he IT'Cllod around hlah-""b. nd oeha...oo..nillt"". ' lWI liyc f"MII of ClI ~lor. a bn'1Id . met a1kr an y lnt. H. el«"\l(If. (4) The reQlllmnm~ shou ld Ii.. ~ . c" r. of 'oU'It ilal... d toe lIlCd 10 mnowblc 1 (ll><'hnle ro wn. 2·1 ("f1l of cal<k wa'1 mruurcd u J p F•• nd.....led I"".. ..>1 hl -e ..Lonp <:In ""..1 1 I..1Id ll/mlinal cyeletl heforc beinll .:e rnwn . in_· .. mlilol 001 loo.' blll"ll Mil)..nchored. the I.tuflCd by ... u fol .r should be <:Il"' h'" nr ta kl".:ha..~ wtth reo. "'11.. 1.. .. : ir In doubl • void uo.. M o. lerminal C)'dCl.""'. irly pred io:l ... I<' oouth under normal op:ra.lal<'1"" n umller JMS-I" ) h•• . rea le r lha n 002 me c"'" fIIl' Ie-.pped .:d un it."llon nr va luca u... (6) No lhort -<:ircui l or an:illl ohoukl .0< • • _ .. 40 .-li nll l~ 1 mA may no.. or noe the INiTIo urth iloonncw.. leU' SI.. ""rm . 1ben .n M<.l nrc dIoold lndude lhe f'I"O\'Non llla l no r-r1 thall ruch a lem!'C'".l1Cl or l prow. le o>.1"'1:>le of fine ..... o f • ~ Ia ment lhurtin ..J .".ltoro j ad flllnku lle:. (OnSioh n. nd )'CI c.0 : "n .. "''''''''''' cab\cl o. art aerial ~t>nncctjon ohou kl no l exceed 0 ·01 rnA r -k... 0 mum raull kmronalul'I'. R~ri~I'''o : Wal ch III' nll' . many DC""" poinll...td-va h.lrit'le<.....'rll ao~il.. ...... ~ ar • ••mrlc. ...."1d be ma rled I nd dl>I~ 10 tha i ·'i n"" l~ rlUIl:S cannot "" In-red.h ClLJ""' ilm'l hIlw lhe funhc...!y).cll<:e of o lwl_ .~ 1.1 hool-up wi".lIn.:.ltlC"C"ll'rollcd OICilla. 'lriri na r. N . cI he: .. p. Slime intermittent R l'I ma y hi .) dianw~ ..~ t . hcd ICA S intennitlenl com· rtlC:Ifl:ia l .-kinll IU". r"n::e up 1 :50 N I I I Ibf) a l I'I\I."11' 'Nhn1 .... in .nin..... lhe lNI'nl c ur r. .drnal"l)' Juubk lhe fa ilure nl" of a sou nd ~. .... tha I ... ca ll OCCur dllrin..c. CilJI R......pa. la rae pu l.l ller. IJ'IooLJ am>ly . N . jtO pIlr1.4 mm thid .1 ("ilunl . m eunI knllh .. Me tal ....:tlcr in lh . Th..<>l)'C.' .. II tJU:u..... ~ l:o. "... He felt ' hilI lhe " . O'Oous 1hlln 1"'. curren lJo ( O"ff oil). m U lmum o r 8 m m ( .tin n• ... ""ill _II)' reQuin: two-poinl lhinB' . pre<. Th.. blo: n.hlc..nd meu.tahle (.1 {j.. c.hi<:h .-sl...fter rormer •.. .'aM ....'OC C nd dial a I'IlI.ol '.ame.h orn C'!I'UId 11<>1 he .not q... The c:ond/lion ....... No Ii"" ". r re-tl:\ Inmmcn due Illl he c. nut bo misle<:l by 2'T r'O"'Cr ra hnp : work II "" I r.. In:1Idy FUill' ph ywlly larllC.: poinb.t ho: -.... ai le"..~n ..houl... n mccd Inwlallon 00 rhal maina .I".. Tbe lNi... Is Ille ncc:d 10 proridoI a l leul llUlIirIlum clcaruncco. Liyc romll ahould be ~Iblc onI)o by Ille 11K ora lool I.-n o!'""-'C. ".. lhe n: II ino:rc-. I ..aoc Cln bl: met by lOCCUrm.. -.. f ur a.t>.h a ny m.'-' ""'dm. loJtClher. .j In . blc lJIould ho: uocd Inside eLjuil"J'<'nt IS "'CII ..: who ew....... and .: it""..." w>l1.J r.". Is a l'l'l icd .ilb .hN ... n': .'.. C"opu n : . li1kr ClIP1(lt...... u11 condltl"".u". 1..Jc:m mu ltl-Ium • "I' u..'... rd .... iJc In __ arc q ulCl .leo requ ire .rin l .."nlilale to the muftnum ".-'lur is 1 be 0 ea n hed .. Tbe ~ lead adrift .nom lht I. l h ll cnabla .. k . il 0 Tbe modem .ol '" on 0 . )( ho: con1IClO.1 _ .tlhr1ll WlIh eto.."U.....'I" : U ndcr-ru nni rtll filamenl bmpo by 10 per ""I will In.n\la rd rorm of lma leur .I...". h""I<1 .n . 'lwit .m'm or 11-...linp di<l nat ha"" conlo:.. ... .0:. 1 .II .oolUCI/r1I\ <>f f.o rs eee. one om. Wlm inl labdl lh... Ttl. .... For rel.ny ('Oinl ..ino.1y the taJ1 h lead l'CTnIIi nl n. p rovidin... h.. nd lI>OIlI Ihcnnor>la..11 . holco to . l..tut'll. I e .. ll'co. th lt no 1M Pi"l Is .nd -o relia ble:.. ryn t lyJ'('S ' rc mon= "....hle rur h. ~ l M poinl...rc of C"tITNYII r.. If in doubt sta y "r.. "" in. (wa. <:Urf'elll h i lUll)' no..:m.... '·"'". inl l'lict 1ftIn. • few IOOR ~ lhe poin lJo menlioned tl)' ZLZrflll : "OUll"'l·· s<xl Ctl ." I pF/l..hooJhJ I:JC me l u1lller any co ndi l iolll' 01 si....r 1 0l*tWd . lhe Ic:n~lh OVCf lhe po.-.. ' .atN 10 Il\aII Ie.n.2TItH·. nIl ou t tho t If 0""' siJc " r lhe eap.lapa ne'loe o rillill nla Y toe ralC!d on ly fill" III vol" • .-:I ()'1 mA peak .t>dity a ll wlrlnl ..i.JU. In ocekin_ .-.. ·C amhOenl . "'pal..."na. n. I .. a iil'y for '""ulalinn.dJlISlrntnl ... .e...... before htinl told" rcd.. ..I wood d... u. 'n h lfl't-". Ip mmtek •• a l"'~ilo'.. : N ever e-"lDlld an y ra linil. Remember rhlll a hea t ...../AI cable.... Iat<lc: . G JJ n l .1 adrift inaM..l"" ca rbo n... De ra l" In connoN . a..n4le rn<:d1.I\oul..ulul l Wl'f'Ort . al All reQuin. .1orion .ny ma l"" 1 ". lic 1C:rllnl . Poru "'k ..... .ed on lXld da ys). ". . 1I...urtlcicnll) . r«:ommendallon f""'lUl'rul)' 00 1 nk'l hy pIIncl-motlnlod kn). u lllt: icn( l ~ "rcd""I. ...:ul1. Th ..... p.."..... infinitely leu hu ...'. (: 0II1l""'it.." 'cl<l~11 . me'lfu..>me .."I''''' ic lu ninl d icoJcl al"..I rur pDCtJlUomtole.li.. tne1a l rl us !....rd .fHm Iy". II ~. m k of ksa Illan "C/wan Is ...J'lU.lI a l\O IOrrIlI' po lnl ' lha l .."..e...l.1N 10 I'"i nu more 1hlln ).il" "' lIIlCHla l ion IJ"IIr for oI .. a n t>c . ZL.. ir.... IJ.."".1ril: t)'J"<'a if . . lMII 10 mm iMide ' M b"IC'!l.:ted . .bould mcd ll1e abo'«: reQllircmcmla. 11 not 10 .. curn'1I1 c...ts... w h". hould prdenbly be lof....mo. I I"" "'lrin B't. f p.e.nd br~ am rl iludc pul U'll miud-dldCl.iri"l.1 n0lo eanh .hl ila l ion in nc.owu oo.ult In Ia\ of remainlnl haurda ..l u p Ihe cle ril li. KhieYod by limitin f IUIIln.n or 'he able cnwrcd by ..olt .unn. ~ •• _ Do Tt-tMIUIcW. low·. Tile .. shelYft .. ro und IhIll he I'Ol<'dcd lOme low.1l<lcRd. 1-. y 1'1' .. M. .. ... call!loed by lion of ~ II ..in....u.. . r.'<'IYCr ~ f~ invou.c 1'101 on ly lardy "T bul ...hal Men ~ wil h ..--0 tlI _ •• _ t...lnt!y • r-..m not damaae or hu ..111. ny '-hnll •• I Uop.d io OJ' f• •• iIaMc from RS t·~1 1 .CillJfll .. Il cad phones sIlo>ul<l n. . ' • . .o 2 N (O-41bH (S) Lfve ""'ron.l>On shouloJ no! c.n. lie "". CO '. '.. On ly 2»-wlt lI.1con 'o'CfS(.t W n1....J M lh liyc w. McealliIN foi l In lCla ~hou l4 rll'JI ho: wbj«tod t o tal'JlC . h...n l rcmrl" ' Kln '0 I he r lheir seltl""" ." A M A TE U R 1' ' ' 0 1 0 T E CHNI QU E S • q uarter.. 0 0 oDt fa rt<>l 1II11iniflCln i hu l II . bul wa lch Sl:'IdIlI".m knK lh lQ ...) rnA ).1 ama leur lCn"io.uin... He notes ItNr...4 .hould reta.I"m . ·rrl.lI'oCd t>y . rna/nwned ulldc r sinilic mec". ~ja""n l lu "". Noe e lha l swi tdlO!l ClI Amenolll . .... d'.e u. Amona Zl.roll".... Mob . '.. (3 ) A ll RqUlr='lenh lhould he mt't when . a nd ram Mar b..1. LJ..._ of insu l ~ l o<l w ... 10<:1..1.Or )"Clolery. J ~Wo _ _ ('-----~K _ . of c.rm<:nt or 0""' Icad brolm 0« I'.ry cu n .oukI ho: ". ralinll of OW< 6j 'C Tho..h irYCd w<lh the "..ly IndJorc...l......01 ' eevers are ~.l wn lilallon . linc It> CII rth 1 ()...-ds mu....1o .ol S " II.c .. 'OfQO or liP r...re_ Da.l li.t oel 'he """... forTe IIlllO 2 N 1<H lbf).. o n... ~ 10 G JJ IR 1<1 I. n ca P"C / I~ sr... UII h. U nir.l u!"C l uch lboI l f1a ~ or IlIIlaincd IIIIlOIIlderin.:•....."lcr (0.ndlIrd fin~ .. .holll 1 pf 1 he mad e In 'luile ...he ..ilhcr . par..r u. ko rcllil1:>ilily o ( lhe cqUirmcnl .(J()' ... " III ~"Ijyc I" ca rth ...p I" . " n. reol:OOed to 4 mm { .nd ~1fC d j"j.."..... 1 fo r lJCtI"O!O" cnnt..."._ . lmp in ccn. toe lo..l. : f'IOndmi· cally Ilownoer the .. Th.. m.. lem>illllli<wl). Prol:«:1ioo1 apin. ilh . a re defhlt'd u. .. l 1M" or .menh o.ulal oon O\-Cr ()..l.m K Iym : rel'//.....poOrol LJ:mpc11llurft..oo I~I'CI ..... hen lhe other 1eIId'1I/'Cl under tmoi<". nce of 100 p r im w hICh ". he bra ..li..Ienl J'OlISible! EYcfY I 'e at o pcnl ml lempcnllll'e' will appro. .t" Vent ilation dOlI ...:nl th. Iea<..U In mindl l'i na l/y.! 1"". .. ~ lial d ilferenoe o>f rnotil Ih&n U vo lh n=lall w to eal1h a nd rrom. _.. : ~ for in.....:reaoc lif" by ).h 100000her r..lure (c . U..ad.le tho ClQU.. m" "'..1e mrlal r" ill lyl'C" ere ""....ilh ru ll~ cncklt. docs r. "'... ' isfoed l>y a va lucs .vaibt>lc:. PIotU...om Ihcrmal ""islanoe jM"'JUrt mounlln..

ilin• .1. nl )'\'lIn lhe rt h..." I. ..I~ :.-ailahlc thrl Ql n pa-f'orrn Iht .1t a nll "'"""..>rcnlln••hrnhold 01 .nl o n I" h ..1. ..... "'"conptl 01...f t '.n.. .J CII. nll .1lk .h ~ eylll' . hil"-.<. An ...._ II.. nd 11-'1 ca n I"" fnrm 1I'IId..."t r......a oi'"' ''' .pka.. :... . .IlID •• Iorm• all ... here >(>tt<1"I . ...... "I . Pt"I'I l>If r..a<we been dl'otIl I. ... .... lty . """" unI) Nn . .... • ~~ 01 ~ I.r IO'~ ... lhe p... ....n a liaft...Id h......... .. _ he """I ... .. h'ploc1.r lln.n '".. """ porl"C" ldl)l1M ." hillhtr (tv (cl . ~."elt""" a..... t1 ... . h. ' ''' 'e ~ .... ..h...&....... a>n'-«' Qln lot ~ ....r $. lhe wt lm. Ieft . s..Ift (.. ... .. .. W s ." .hdlpoll . . frn.. '_In.......n'fy nll . R\'I rould lot •• prnrl " ~"""I . . a>UpierI : puhe .. 11. adVaA. y .'tur .u"..... N ..... ....t1or .. hel:-..ht .itwI "i.. " IT " impcda " ...Ih lime.. IlI'" lId.. T _ .... 10 10"'" """"'...""". uoe 01' H.".~ . ... . .tl'''''' .1 ... ... CIlO' oS~ ..'or..... Ormmd I" . 10 : I.U." .h ""'7 "'" h. . ...... wr' . .1o! ..110 lJ~. ' ernpmI ' I ~..n ..... 01 toe ' fIf'llC'd 10 I pplu.... 0... e ..:..-. "f • ill.il) 01.geoled fJKrrtorIks : l i t " '. n.~ lhe .. . " "«fi rm. .. .. I""'i. . m~lI ~ . """""" . pot"" l " . . d..n. O .oIoJ . l : 1M... ... ... be 'o knlnt ... U'II and 01' lUrn.. 1 (J Il hty a!1l pt~alil y . .h<_n .'''1 ''''" l he . II) -«... Jt ."f.arc q ... .. . (001 " .... U " doq .r-0'1'-.pt k. m...... 1 "".n mllhoh .30.......I pnmcT and .he .s lho: "'I1ef....a.m! _... .... ive.~ a" ..: """"""'>urWr .u r Iollic m '....: ClImf'leIe riK'lml .1... •• •'11 " urn:tll okuno .her .. ....n1....n:d ..oxh.... il .'-• __ . " . W.1'OI& 'lot . ~ . ~ N .l I.ny • ... a -.I WIftOn ( Jon" ' hr II.nd . .. Hndudo"... of t ~ . -..".-....h -~-. <JISTL .. k...10... ... . th..... t. an .<l~...11 . ..~ilor I~ 01 cIat1fDl twIok~.. porin l tendo .. .. ........ 1".d. ' II1UI' . hnr q" be ~ . c.'1 mall et _~"" " • .1 1".. for .. .' rYnC1__ : .1 ." pU.. " Pr...."10. 0 : .." • . ) WlI...e.... n""in... " n..in... ' I _ 0 _ '1' 0 ht malle \/Ct}' ..J nl.. \/lItun n«d nc>I . T1woklCf..l .rol\N ." ". .1."1 110.. te _ I ..t.. iJosh ll) 10 ruund 1101 . " 0 "'I n I .nd ...."".. Ihr _ '".. ~ho.\/'M . ..... . I ~ n mou nlaJ ~.......IIO<k . ~ru: von.... T1w pI\o>I .. l\nd wl itJ.nx .... _ '. h.-eo . COII... ' '"' ' hont: '<>dr.Ioo..-lyl"C d<vkca h~. <JItcn II..my.. mod· lra h. I I I Ot... .' 1tbrI .." 11) ." p I lhcre. to 0:1. t... -... .. "«n:1_ ...hut .. '1'IlI' _ .. .. 10". no" ')'Oo....... QlflI&C\a . . he a""'-'. '." '1Ca1_ ... rk '" can toe ' . ott .nd ...T"'l"-.' eIko.. hd'J'I"I f(llf lhe 01 • ~ II.twr .. <W>tcft I'OW • ....nrtil: rrIa..o n fM rel... 'och ' h' .. ~ 11.) f'C'Pla<-... t h ... Ckr"InIi C" _ .....1lI... " d Ihe'. Ihrn....Jun t.I t •• I nd llro. 10 d.1 f"h... he IIUI n UnlhH or eI«1. la. 0".J.. ....cllrr.' ..... _ Fl T l!e. ~'CO .. '1I " np 1 Iht)' hr.r ......" • .110 .... (lOWllI f..""ftC ...._"".nlurll"ftI ......... no lhl. . "". " rod 1I"h '"". .. _ ' N "" • .li limtl <lin . .. •\ ... .... ftI. r f....0:1 ~~ Ill" ' hr oJ. .. lhe 4"llt. ."" .. 1I.. ! ..he '''""'' '0 ic-.. ."'... .'" .. . . lI"..l. or Qlw! It ~ comru . .. ...tc:... oJ "~ to) I. " .....1eJ ~~lftLao.G--I _ . "..hq n il.. 1_1 .•••• hto.. . .... .." '-tl: " 1......t>Iod-Il.''1. nl . . ptl<M ... lu"'..'.. I ~. Iht N on" ... ml...... ..l.'01 '" ~ ... I ..ni '" hm 'tI"I 1M "" ~I 111.'t . ..·._ ... QI" C _ _ ( t>l _ < _ ."..1C PO"" m.-I.. 01 • h.Ie !'da......--''' .. have '-" uwok.. a pI\o>IlJ(. h.n tria..." ml op" .. 'In __ "'IlI'd) ..o: . \'0I~.1'DI'IIqIleIIl: rri.. 11' ''"' ''1lh Iha " I U'Id'UIIll1l0....~ pf _t. .. ' he<-r .h. . . .."I_ .ht)' an he 1<0 lrotn ~ II~..1c Itd. • • .. ..... '... neoJ .......h an • I I"aJl. h'r.. . he IP""' I"..h..t>k ._..m.'1:..-tl... c .n. .....1I A W ..h lhti...y ' ''''1 .IOI' I. "toc.'('h.11m <:ami".... 11.. 0 ...he lhot ~ ~ . lt .....ort..."<JOlI. ~ . _" __ ..~ . ~ .... .....') Ii.. lm... ..... uoc ."I..C'I ..nd a ..c-Ir_..1. ao1aNe ill a II)~ " ...nll thcfl I. <W>-"' loul " ...... . ". "... IoN " 1. ... opcnt...Ift' ~ oS...-Iot h ~ .. Illie I f n ..rd . n 1 hr orto-..h. ~n.lronll: "Iu...".c ... or... II-cft.. pmC'Il ....... In pnct""" fl. .!.h n". T"""....' 1 .. 'M ......._ ".... t>t. laoh ~I\/ unokrtah " '" .... ol....u..U.ow " ... "'h ' ~ .. ~ h dlw: iIIl om• ........ me'_ )'11 no <w>-u iI wtIh • ....ovtty "">110 f.....ll rd -......... f.. 01 R\ 'I • • nd .. TU -. 11"1 ...1 and 0('flI) Iht t. cN..1c ...urr.... " '" cd-tIr ne'.o~ caa po-...-tlnal '-'&)' has l"'od~ j"....'1 ... '" doe\o..J .l"." .<: .nn a ll. .t." • •-# . hi.. •• .... "r al' l'l ll.lli...... an:.un """.tdlinc M1W 1.""..>Ia''''''' : opt . .. : .w .I.... 1"" .nl'''..iI."" .. IC hfor 11)...n....... II ....lorlOf . It" m 0 ~ In I·' l h...: ...1. " a.htr l h. "t h.d ...11 HIII.1 f. _ .ny tftI"'f'Cld C'IIIT':III and WIlta_ Ill"'" ~ lht. 111_ " 'ho:l-"........:....'.......n " . """l.... OUI 11. IUN .'" " ctI ~ rrlal"l" . .. an lWO"Q a .. 10".n ~ ... _ . of lIlJ ""' ten l .CO HPO NE NT S AN D C O NST"UC T IO N " .. rw.. ''''''i.*"' .. ..\......t1 ..i"......'''''' tan .:m... 1 .. • "'e "''oil''... .01'. dJDlmm t RV2. and . ie> I'ct poI...nl " IT 'n " ......·prouf .. 01....crnt' .. 11ra<k f or ... ... po'mllo"".. ~_ ...h....T"l>rl C. S"«I. eer d..l."'" . . •1Ine d ll'Kl•• n•• .....'11..I dl uoo. (lp:fW I. .um • ". ..!ln d(o. . Ilk' ~ to....iu n tftI. . dt' .....t>o<Je .1loJ lhe "~ilo". ! . .hl)' '' I...... i". .. 1'C" hapo.p ' ..c " ".. """01.alV..lnd i""... .. . ..".. """..•• 1.1 lha' : in -. ......d. r or onmc' . ""'-'-" l _ 'tol.. I" " .1I' _ ' In .. • c ' (1If' .....-" ' M II () ("" "". .._ .1lI"'f" ' . t'Udd~ --. 01 " ""..... . un It>t k.... ~ _ -'ope: oIlhe ~ . 1_""""" \I""'" <11lb.J.rc. i~nl .. n.....·1I·_ ~ rd.lIoOh (OfIIl'ra'iorl. 1 • nutI"''''~ 'I Ida) .11"I<"1cd .. ru .. '~ ~II ~ doeo.".-1110 .1 ...th h. tore ..... : s..

I( Iny .Ih No )W ot l\neI' li lu . hu uld he prn~idrd on bol h Iidea."" .. l h...rKlullr aff«1 . re. "".... Whr n lhe inl ' .nd Ion: h bulbi. ·.. off"" • numm 0( liro he: h...m. "..e.. Ihd ical lh...n PI""".11 remove l >alo Inll mucll brtler Ihlln lhe rewl n:rT>O'Vt'l' . I Ih. re IJf!lm. he ..~.. q uJl1l rrof."..nd .. WIlli· ".....c a>nroco:l<lrI .. :ell' "l"'~' Fina lly.:ked klOr. 0 Ulrt>I...n. as kIOn U I h.·nch con •. lI 8 1 ".. Ih rotlJlllhe 110.... CI<..repdleo l a..I"...11.1. Where inlC'1nlled ciralill a no 10 hr muun lrd on a r ·c-h.I>c<... tu. vnloc krd phasoc-I".. l . in l l1e rormal ion of ."lclc.1 maniTo " n..I..d . tip here II I" ..h 10 lhe atu '".d il~ ""hldl .rn.nd ~ir-ctl.len llfical lon ..." ro.."... use ' h is lf oo lJlco .hal Ihey ClIn be idcn u""'" r/TlllldrcuiTdialif'a. ry Wn<!lh..1I .. rUT inola"""• .lrd. : in I\oor poIishft. .upplicd in ma ny of lhe ~i" When dT.. al50 leodl to ."nn lhe ClIlIt undcT • hot ta p fln l : ..""1c<Jrllad....1 .. rkt . lhi<. L m. 1 .: J. IU . w n." .. or ."..-.( . red " 1<' ...nl 10 dillintl. o ..... em ""rerun.Uo.hode pa per appl it'd ".. ."""h cheaper.:-Icra blc 1 uK a nu mber <-l omaller boar"....n ~ " . etchln.. ·ob..lly pu t 0I11h ree thin if the.... pn_'.ly t. COIT\Jl<>rIal I i.he uxh .. le il Is in cu rrenl limi t .n..! Mi.rcrull~ ICll.. 00 .... .<>h"" a ny ". illWI' k"'• .. coal Ir In I hw ry ."ui<:... br.......... . 'od ula.. maLeu r deli.... n1.. 01 • ". 1 1ao11 : mill ...:c .I h alumllllWll ..n AMA TEUR RADIO T ICHNIQUES Ih. l ' by I>ruoh .4 TIl" In if. .. Hc IUlU/C$lt tllal both I~ probkml can be 1alJl":1~ obvlalC<l I>~ Iho roullhl y C'kanina lbe wppr• • na lhen Il rlUl....1 "'''''l:fthihly ' In D«11'<Hf~ o-n.... ..r pnnl rd ."" lhe ...l " nJlnaf) mlncl1ll hlfl'fftll hC' . rul in lhe .rnll a hoJIo.:.h In .. A pply I"'" tlnal oo low . r.Ihr borsl.. ner<lcd III lhe bIlck of Ibe I"' nd . to PIlinl in m.. much equipmenl ia builL o n.... ina o~e r 50 tC rr'A't and ITIUI:h dtaroldc:nn.r SUrf. .. a nd Carplan a poor Illird &1 10 q ua lil~ .m ..t .IIl."".. herd rf .p. 1'J781: P\I. Tl\r 1'1..".. The .~ .ood.. (No .l\a. " In u..n Ille ..... on hoI h loid.. can r-cwl. I_ I Ll. "...1.1ler lWin h. a a nd .illJ .n.. wllh <::lIl'C.. Ilh l»' I I'fIY'rlf...::e P1'.w i l:.....e the lafJ:O"'lre can• . nu. u .hoi 111 the «111"'1 : \'Cf)' h.r. a nd . hm. Where "'. ideal 1Ia.. • " loQUl l'C "".-.... aomrlln_. .....10.... "kCuhhi n.ondtllOl'd h) mu no or 1 . nliI"'J. . ult t 1< . ilh a .Oclohr-r.1 ' -Jr.. " n":.c alld 01'C' c llUl.Illli na In l. nd lhen ru b .-. • lillie inlo I lin lid and apply.b..... bu r now oft"" Ule orouJ• .. Ihnr l:a n be m.itchrn r"..-e I>oen pUI 0 r""..rer"Uy.-. it it ~I Lo".. did.. ._ _ oha.. pIlnl or lhe "<tU IPO menl? 1 hel'C l-.. TIi<' can mil'l he .... Ic . M<>nll ur lnit.. ... .. ."""" iniulaTin.utar PIl"" \/'led for llIe «her .>I.mpk ' _ ...Ic. 1'.. &loi""...r ~ nd 1 _ lin~n!ltUTlin" Itt "'"CII 15 rl :i lllilina I\cld l'Cl'la..hin..e.. the in ill pan oompan~ .. '''iI.. hil. "" U 1CIUII •• I'f .ilh lhe copper il is t uppol<'d 10 be pn>lo:o.... II ad d...t 0('Cn1m.d runl .. rumpl.:. I....hc1hcr a po.. idc ~ Drlcl ~ uf .. a l'JPl~ • P r." h a f) alo pel'l lle II"'" lholl lJTllli bu l'th a n ...u. dlllli . l'Ia~ IIIW-U. he T here 10 no lI(!fd 10 ' rh.:ulI 01 aNll l'Cnll~ lillie UIC.. 1"1 I' d>. .. nd rhe ~1-1IWl'OK DOn. bco.i n._" I he 1"\"< "10..nd lila. l".. Jlholtld!.~ II may br I'. 11 s...he "" . hulda lhe rcaoal . L .J in 1'>l~ 1 . hen I cnuld 001 . 1""1 oee (It)CTl finio_ UI' ""ilh .. bolh fur "" Inl ...' -. rin t of an I. Toda... .. . of 0)'11 _ rot iMla n l v... U lhl<'Unll of Illicoon to ...-l In moitlu. I Alhrll ~.. ca .. mll\C' at '1~ a ny "... he ". II • to ". "~ C. lraad . I. .-rut 10 he ... I u. Of the p rno:tlC'e 01 loil ico ~ o il uPI>ur Clln ".... d urina rtdtillJ.. 12 April .... l'C5u1 11 in betli..ir.lIlrl ... . ROOICS •• T hiN J" G rey " 'all. .. .'aM .1... alt~ p". The m oo:lut."" S.helher al:ire"'..( ..... I>u.h il '"'III IIld Invol l'Cld n:m<.. lod rd . bul • prel rm.. loin. If In) PIli.. I. lIml1lr1al r-.. . .dt 1 1". . N " IhfOloPl the hole.. l'IOInel... Itu !'> liJlI. 10 4. Olt"...lI ..lI' hl:1' ''' 10 ..aJr lalllC p... " I>.. . kl'rfll he panel fb i 10 . Ill<' pr imer 10 the rron l nf the: a ptIl"1111l.. ur "'ill Iill Dupli<. lm rw. 141 ..-c~e t. ~ ow rub oJ. n lhe pa oJ. Rut for brllc.."td hy kenneth Jcaon in •• f>t> " I. Ihem . ''...Il:1o r d o I" I~ the ~ ten'ioeabUil ~ " 01 h i..""' nco.. Lahr:llin.. com l"'''''''l1 ao !..an IIr used 10 ma ke na m<'J!lalCll.""" . pru":coJurr il '. it u. ...t " . d o" l) UCrlb".ItII o f t he PlI'wl.... ~ .......nmr h illh ~llno...Il ~! Pain lin.ppl y I . jot-.<»lil1l abuullUpl should d o lWU or lhrce full1ize Ik.. ll.:cm cnl ..i n. ."""1 lru th. prio:.nlly clchlld lu rfa....u!ar " l:.." lhar a lyll . ocrl l<o:""" II .. r.)l . 1 be r.1 an d .. ICnil:cabili.""r a . nd he Then a fll'll)'ihl a oohd hor 0I1'CIlio1 in k a lu n.1 roctI un ll' rornbihC'd ......n.. Im. mini um I'I nd o ..L io II m" hn.... n IICTOIIS lhe ohurl "" . t!\al .....11 .IIa~ . ...dc A ppl y anvln..iollil ..ble 10 klrn lir. .... ry 1 . ' nl'IO\'t (line !>k'M .. So me monit"r ..iont nwJr h)' K ..h..-qulal. .. lra nl lStor: ..1 _ .. rc:ra t ure. rnt>\lnlinl L plal e.. he mor e ~d l ly iow ~ ... nolhmil 10 Ilie ~ .. "'ttll J&lTId pal"" """""hl lllmfa ... . " ".. Ik " " Ica.owl l"' ln l• • lhe: Iric k II to Jr... \l IOSO .._ Irue l."".. I nu ~ CI.n-i«ahlil." d.. y fru m bel ..( I Ci paciior. . brl'ore il-'l IlI'U u.pPr«iahl~.nOd 10 I rn~ lherma l cond oclivil y *"...mean lime 1 repa lr ~ ? So.."..vnIKI' 1 0 h<>...O Io n.. a n cr the pri mer mool.n. man. 0 K"".00 ru m un.1 required .ation ".dr · .. lhe en Tire IU r1'lk.u b . . how .. flll nel is ftl l it fc 10 UN OIV Ih~k. !>.. a 0 m:Olher-board ..U .I u.In I~ nthtli/cn : an mdi<:. • wa~ from Lhe I"' nrl .. and can u ~cn no! lo ~. properly. r ... mould be twhl O~c' ... c .. Doiloornro-illOrt "r .. ami lhl:n c. Tom Waloha'" "". IlCn~ n lrt . spare n...11C<1'/'loeO( h~ hea r or a rc... iliwnc Oll 111010..lin. .. lu l'C lithl-ftll.. lhe ernitler 01...IJr Carplan c<>I.""l t>clore "anini "..rib cou ld require ocrvicin...nd l lien "'&lh Ill .. .he ... Su ita ble a>k>u ..nd to lJ'R~ 0 ~.amun.levi usin. ~ 0 .. I1IUII hr _ II d r.. b) horvoh. as •.. I-o w. I lind 11." I... Nt"k .-<liodct ca n form ...U~. ... e cnm~n l ~-crnrn l tao"....n ... 1 "" .......'" nxcil'Cr .d 1 be ~. tu"""."....." ca... ma y .r>tl job .-l m......". n mini"I U ~ """"~ bu' rri~ an im med ialc ind""' li.hkh is Tile ncpli w ~ .. M.. ..o..-r a n"'ln.n un lll Ihc wood llartll lU 11'10 .r .. iruil~ lI1ual "". r".• o r . urr.... ...lcaI .Iinlla : " 1 .. ~nJ lhen " "" or (IU ' o>f.....h " 'me of Ihr 0 \ulncra bk: Irap.. in:"i.-ctl lf 8 .ukJr 1Wl1tla' r". Nonna ll~ coe IlCnJIO I ca n of primer and <MIC of cok>uf 1c:ac1l l..n lhe Irca_ t...'e of Ihe board brf. II ~ ""I.. "rilmh 0 lei"".... Ir ..1. Ii'" l s n ...h ..10.... b Ul ..u&h Ihis I'ln o r Icltd fl om lhe d n. .I.-or1r. c..r lo ..-cr tu""l~ '" . lurrp Tlber ...1 "roml~ form or contrruc lit' ll fo r.' h .."IN I't'll~ a nd mocroa.nto'I _ A W•• n' nr Silicone...n" u r ...-. I rs ro ... illl L pain!. h is io lhe ""..ter ' hi: lip. ~".....1U ·j:lil.shop..lher Ih. . ilh a)" lune r)..... I re increati n.wth)-I .." "'tutti.rNJc Pl'P<" " ' _Urf.. e:tAlCq>t.wnll ....llI. 11 <>IT-.. much brllcr lha n a llhmy copper . . manufa clu rrt." of . RoJu>... a.e...II theM . II Ihook! be noted Iba l crccrQn...r ' T n.. 1917. ~todly . ""'~in I Lhcm n.. lford o:bonne ..ummcd paPCl' L .an he . ..... · R" p'ay " '11 11 primft a nti .. lIl<>N and "cal lin~ . .>1.. r.ea1N a nd. I " ...rem ~ • •• m.'''1' hu'" CILa\:'ICI .11 it la ke 10 .rq! lhe: ca nl ~r k&ll 1 In... tilrlll of ~il ia .. he find$ il d rtlkul.11rm. Jaron include " arccn .. . O<lIl n«loo n "".1w ron.tlc L U) ailpl.. d ry.. ""11 11 0""..hrn cany on . pl " Of o ver . """'1 :'II C io 11..>t~ . off ... (Ill a pioIuo . 11..n' . nd raTlo~e a raul ly COITIpuncrtL in ...lJ. ln. <:. nd .... .lca d he: """ I piece ot comrnm::lally ma. Dupliwlor a o::Iose _ d..Mln i...he b". Wha t can the .-lIn photoo:<>rlen.. TIO'I' 1on..m .

n....he ...~"'" .ha . . 1 ' nl rud.luy.l . W fill..n. 1M hiJh--p:.1 sohd·II.....nl~ imrro-.nd ~ ..l1 un.. a mpl...1e . oacilla lor 11.cl .. ma _ ~ mln~ . iI " nell . Imp ro v""".. ...I.n......h ..doIilPl of the rronl.'" " ..mr -I .m...le 11. _ ""h rUrwWnenlal e. h.. ""k:t.. . ..m l... me ff1Ct11U > rcmrn ' f>It><'Cdu'flI can be frull ".t. ) p.. IIistoricall~. lll..nrle. lhal lhe ......1.. ....r.... pcrl'~ Irmda l'NI. ...'. ..col"'''''' ..he made (tn the I\lrer onl ) lJ Tlr.....red lhoI' 1M ~ ...)' of f..larly lhe of "If 1 1lI. '" ...-e.olid~I. h If\OJ'C tIclibk! ..n ..nl in ""..n: baled on . tty lhe rllyaical dllI r1l<' le"ll a 0( lhe human operalor ..hand (ulllm.'Ct1 ...... d'""ull f'" .. '''.. I....lIvan'• ..>1' ~. and lunin. _ . or f'(IOCi"C' performance lie 1\0'0' "r'en lhe uhima lc of lhe oele....II." uUmll...l... .... ICIIIII I ~1t ~.icll .. mu'lIIum .1 nn Il\It&IUre" menll IIIlt...III}• • ~ 0 ' Illl'ill' :r I n I a... hi..-mph..Il ..c . ma"".1 Iat.n .nvidc ""'"' Ia. nne imPfO\'cmm'" partiarW1~ in mahan ID lW rrequ.b..' ftllc f1ll\1l...n impo.I." ioI p"ma rtl ~ bee.i'<Cf . h .. l lhe R ' her .. hoch arc <>ficrl repNcd ' '''''''' '''''lly II fI<lrcl1 p. b«:ornoo m "". r..II nll.. aerial tlotJc •• \ lhil l'Oinl II n pl.1t_rinll • wid n~ o f fRlQucnt:ICI...."....ant .: " &.ul'll ...'e bul ... CIC A rrIlljI. .h.n.. al lhooch Ihty orenN lhe _~ r.l _ ...... lhe ".n. b."'..illal". on "0 ...• nd intl«tl ... ". till. (low. c le .. yci u hn 10 be rt!IXl$llized Ih. pa. no......""lot imporlal'll....""nrn l and C"'lluallOll .. WlCOCpllbillly 10 Imqe l1IIpt>Il.. m . 1 II r>«dI lo be .d or 0 implU\'C'd li...J II e'''' 1 ""fY much N Ih..'" II .....epIJtxt bul 11'111 ill ll~ "lend ' In II I """lea nf .hl... fflCtllU!l'mcnll on mrriWft......TU.....n~ 1J'C"'il\aloon ohuul d mah " d e..... ..h. I vc I'Cfl Ia ~ lI .cccplion... n~ of It hal 10 toe r<lCO.. 'C'd dllC 10 1 1I1en. dcw-.. ~1db. 'c l ~ " il '-"mu...... r'OIII--cnd1 ~_tty .he '"deI It""" milA"""'.. blc 10 U I'C'-'I '0 achicw reall )' . '1('1..lind ..h lcll mo".. An OUlsl lUldlfl' dc-ollfl\• r«:c. il ha l """' 1101..."..v Imlleu' While Ihe Icdtn ic.". of lhe lhennlOnic en pn>p. o m mun ..1 .• .:us l ~yYfol.t it:u1:lrl~ in raJ'"".-tcnaliol re-pt.. Cuota ha"C ~lal"" bu' ...1 """.' I>e nl""'lftJ 10 Cl>l'l: .... ..n .'" . it'n. under .nl <ini..r.a l perl"O'llllrocc or cu. e~...Iao mull .. ... . 1 f.... ha ll . rondi'K>Il' ..Ih both . llo n "nC1l I.)'.)' .incd in lhe ASG B AaIio C~.... .b..'" ...nc lhal .eloped in lhe mkl -th in ic'l... .n.. & t man.... .. in..dely .Ja.:h.lIen l lCI«ll~111 . Many of lhe d .. cou ll. lln • "'"'oc rael'" or roIl..emil• .. . .. as r~ on load 1l. lalk"... 11 ".'__ . "'fIlacemen l of convenl"' tUll honil'll nlCCkanilml .m .. " houah lhe '" Ire ' iJl'l 'hal "C .omc m". ".. le lrrequen..1 9.le .._ lIa"..teQJ lhe un" I I')'.ionl...l isp)..! . j""l udnI JIO<"i d yn. . Iy .tcri1l1C& t o Of"'... a nd d ia ll tty lhe numeuea l klrJPad Of' lhe r. 1I..popra:Ialed lhal II h r .. haY.d. for (IftIulne "'... pl.om .l h. Oetirn I'r"'~"y cl l .d. nd 1M b l'illlle dy nlmoc ran~ or CI}"tJIl lIllCn.. • . n ml.. • .. Suo.... ..icn l o llt-c>l". na!} belli ' " ...". I .... opc<:ifk pcrfonnatl(lCl 1...l li" n> nl<...r . lcp in IO<T>C Imp..on. .nd ·cicll1.....t.n:uil ry.....he .id'actory Ll.. i<..n~ ha''C boca cn<lDUrapd by the nfl<'d 10 impro . COMl dcnl hle ~~ in """ in lhe ..11 Qln he hoome· cu n>Iru<: I..n . m ic rl nllC .h.i"" . la.11..-n\ 0( 'ui li'it y and 1I. he l«hnlqUICI or mc. '-n lhe lk'>-elol'tneOI "r hi. m uld ...lb<i<JJ. 1lIc ~ do... ..w:r dctcrrninca---o' "n«: al I..ccc. ohot..leriall. evert: . (.ht~ 10 w pc "".". lI<><ld dyllamic Bn~) COU I'IoJ . '. N has poi nled 0111.ntl ll><..... . """ "IC.clerlll.tI{Cj\<C'l ·· l pco (ICll' IOI" . bocn benefklal...II'" . hd t hu Ilillln I>e .mounl .)..q. flc..... rly 'ciahUea . TlIc.:nd of. _ 10 IIw rnt'C .. lhc "...nd r<'n"c .n ll Fnc........"'lllClloC)' a re nol b~ an~ IIICIIII " hooIulely 5'1et1 '1It1 f..n.. h h. 1 J\lI'h .. nncl in'crf~.'.e" ... ....iI~ ­ ." rn.ma""".Il" ..SECTION T H R E E Receiver Topics H E <lc:vdopncnl JOOd ."CfO dnftop so . men l . ~ .'IlC~ 'tabllll~ I nd d 'll:ilal rrequ~ di..i.<:calI 10 li..' ily ia limi led b~ the ".. oJcq> . ......... The Ian".--n'<'d. Ill". ) OU''''' '''' ..lid..noS hI.oblcm ra:rp"JClI mi....f.-..:h chara. ItI'J'hft 'it:aIl'd ~.-n mcutllti:mntll &I mlnmodu..he bell I«t'I~el'l ~ i n ~. le ~ "'CB .-hkb lma lt'UJ n x commUllk .. l1~ ace ..lIcd . kes "'""" S.ith lhe ad . 1 '1 MIl. -b le oemll..'e rc:.... 'Thew Incillde ~ mnd" laliOl\ .lI.... -tk.fonna ncc I llpcrhcl hJ ..0.". ilK". h IS im""n. he . ..>rtiln l " J'C"'II r:K J"'rft>fTnll .. II would '. . e' ')1-1..").I. ai r. .. Pn'forftUlnce I\a$ «l"1..a ltl'louch nlinuoua has dllI nll5.>r1 . ~n ' .. eYIm . 1-lfH\Ill .LIQ _nu \ended 10 boo.. I'I~...n l 1"'1 .. uoc.. i"" fihen ..." ha lr-IaIlR a.. rr.. . . .... nt.1 kcy"".t. .."""")'10 ~ <:..... . >I ... h·roerf.:a...a~ R'f'. "u...hd~I.. dc-o...k.."')' ltab"il~. ir I"""" ..p perf'''mlI'''''' . h...". I.. Ch.lali""l.llen ...>I"len ~lli".-. .. si ner . flO! all !'CCCnl ....1 denol. nd communlcalion!. id<-bo.""..m portanl.. n "'. il'll:""""' r'CJ"C1"'" "r -..II '" hoc"m .11 ) . '" ".h I . lh .... inn_ .ovaa.'Cp. II in lho: laIC '~\ iw . " h .1)' bee n ..lc dKip.. i<kt.Ider till..."" h....'I or ... T ~ .." I p' has co 0( Rla:'M:R t'cnd\l:i....IIlhf."'o . ." m er 10 ItIc d ....... dialorti"" ll . AI WOD. lI. nl ~'hd~'. """1". " "I( he. The hm llin. other pmbk:ml ha.. ' ...lI man~ YrOfth..... nd "Cry _1< ' i h ne.. I" d >a..ro:mcnll c.lll'Nlve mIlCh 10 ODmlllcnd them... h (Ilnl) mil<Cl' r. n_ """"n.me n nllC" of ItIc fmnl-enUo of "".poncnll.1..·ural" . ..he deI" n of h.....Ct. 'n .1nd<~1 or I" ..• • h 1 1... bihly . . e~ccp' in hillhly eompc lill"" lilUI.1I-.. 1lCIIrcily ..n of lhe h .. "' ndr-_ c?')' I....j . u~ubilll ~ 10 uon-mod uill ion or blockina..h_r m.nd "...00<1 r..blc--. Tnmleodonll 10'Allnmod\h... rtoee lhe d.uooj rrom . ..roJ ..l.lld.11.lani.."t>tI..QI" .:'e Ihia II " mllctl d ue 10 alcina and lhe . .bi. iJll'<'- "t>tI.lI<l l la tH llly.c " Id fIIobI ... nd ...

... . _~ . ... ....' ... '.. .. .-.......-.. ••• .. . . ......... -.... . _ .. e... '..-~_ . .. _ ... .oa. . ~ ••• . 1 ••_ r:~''1' on }'..... _ . •• ..~ ~''' .= . lU ...on lf ~H p... ---=--ro:ot= ":' ""'"!~ ~. to . . . . .... ... .. ---_ ...... AI1AT IUIl R A D I O T E CH NIQU I S .· n g·u lao. .. L '0. ••_ _ • • .' )"""1 ... _ . . . .. '" 'n . ... t o. '1 t 0J-' ... I'1. .

..n. .h pin III Ofdet 10 llear a weak silJn&l bu.e.. 20 Me/I IIplll woul.. n.. ". On lele~y. ..i"..' I<e/ I . f a. t ron." OIlt al a PO"' 1 ofmedlum ".~"d is.pol'>!iC CUI"'>'C to II lafge eJttenl in one 10.. trand"lIrmel'l Of po t CIl..ldl up ltron.bow th<lt ~ opera linl witb hi.) 6db down 20db d<'>wn '"kill dmton (kc}I) (~~I.. 1 i._m.:OJlversioo Iill. US.l.. ..4. F i....." in faYOlJr of lhe Ilightl. n.I_ ... see R .. n.c.. .u. .. lton.". • C. . ud! Stlfl\llls nor nv.t tuned ~uit will he Umpod b )' the aerial. 51"". Uhra·llneAr "al Yell Wilh l poeia l eatllt>dco in tendod to n:d~ cru... the pen::c11~ dilfcrenctl I. IIgnal. litle al to lC'!het and .11 &fld nOie whether the ~cnals I ppell' to cktl n up where they <. a 'reli t impl"O\"'C'- .. boul 10 Me/l wbeee the ptOloct'oo afforded by mO$lli ilJW freq uency luned ci ~u l ll bccofnet.ul '" the fo r add..-' _ ..' 0 .. N-\<ct d rop ped the Uo tremd y low ......lO Ittal M ThI:Se o:l .. obtain..I' an unw..ilflall ara fl'N rom dick. " k. . Ita.r... .. _ . E.../ ... W hen "Ifl'al. but C'\<C1I on Ille l..iluati. .n h" ""... .. il h a n e.. f' o r thi.e dill. '_1 _ _ _ . o f on ly uao nh ml . . . could be oblllJ""".. . bocn reported under dC'lC lQpmcnt in t he United Statn hu t N-"" nnt yet ~PUrcd on the m. . " ...n..:t &1 I II on out DX si....r. _ sha ll be fortunll te if tt..Jf ~'~I~I""h B .nd mor e ~i"". Olhe . .th a BO Ih. 0."~' te l._ .l (>1' . " . n be Itiw:n by incnui".. l Slage onl y.t." lOOr ~ ..no iv shorl· baled petltodes from r. ·'l 0 11" the IClIl&-mlY be lnoocently c:al1i D\ CQ On 14. ... IF"....V R. pr obably coe of the best or the [ur<>pc*n Iype l ." is rartial lar1y t rue .".. stage'!..th Ii tnt feni'" co.Iv« will he mueh lo:u ruddy a lf. rc 50 k ~l .." IIlu..·(.._ . ncmer Ie/lli-fllimote CU t-o/f IYP" ._ 9.I ~ ...l (k.1 opa 210 kC/1l tw m the .. . de llyed and d OC'S nOt ICI It III on "err _k 111lflI1• • a lthough o n .f.. . .('......"IICJf h""J Cwulu Cak:uLt.1YC5 bu t on e: rcmc l..o:....on) l o. .. W .....J>lw'. lO I''''' 500ll kcll " ".~""n/lal~ n~. done (in conjunction with lim ited n-uu: imum .. Acr UlI cimm Q ... (&1ft ( ...inj in the W1KCS19 ~~cr """ Wl i be d ilC... b.I V . Aorord. ~....cI."" H I' 1' 01< <.. . Ual mallflC'f ~ Il k ini OOt a yollaoIe ._vet r """"" .. . N umbe. • ..tot I . Thili a '!l'(:' 1 11:f'I1 i.. iabla "".. may OOC'U.agr . '" " 'V ..j'" w. . ••• " 0 . . a... .. ll..d.. l.. ... wan lOll ' M un wanted li gnall nv. .I p..-J~~." . ..ienc:e IN-I a li ngle lIClccl ive filter fet)'liu l IIr """ChanicaI) sha~ lhe iJ . 3 l hows wltal mi ghl bappen 10 the s~ls in a lyp lCll sinsJeand double. . (iron l I II.... I J 1<</1 I t.ted than Ihal P cul ·oIl" I ~pn.C . I\n in terestirta tectt nique introduced with the 11~ 1.r ko:t. ofl Cll a tntljor oo ntr ibo..1i Yily.io-a_1\eI. liJlllb to aQ UoIWI wbe... o r -If '" lUoC is considered C$.. tioa mly req uire mo. lH .... nd hooldl o "e l. _ _ .t.. .tia l_ lhe pilltUO of YOIt Ig.1 h~.... 0 &f ... neither 0( which ap p"1U" to be 1'l1&\k o "er Me The EF8' (Of CQlli>1llentW119 . ndw. tU>d P. ::...ey have no err.e .. and _ II outside lhe pan batKI of our reeer.. .." qWJlrd/1W'f " PAJI. band width ~t '*ftn _ :tod b ~ i nlo at 10 MC/o 'OI ilh .l blI redU<:Cd b~ • fsew.... il litt le hop: of avoi d il1ll ~ . tip ... ..n would be w iii lnUIJ.. IiF I9J..1..bove ...~ COfI"Clllionl l U ... .'.. .. dth . I . 6BY 7. of Cif\... ehain ...IflS a ICJ'Ifl..c/."._ __ 1 11"• • • 11I. "../1 I I "" o .....mnduLtuion in the receivee . T Sl' UL "" " e/I .1 .r..ctl in the II..epled Ih.....:rlc : wuh four tuned e'''' U.n hnea r claM A I.n n the t....nal ' up 10 2 \<OlllI without o""rload ..... . ndwloith I ot..noJ'Ot'1nl!1'I I~..dl l he end or the iJ. IFlluruq""trd A RJr L H"tJboo/r.. "'. of f. .. ... ... Remote Rnd ~mH""ote e"toaf(" ». 1. em.. ~ o:l w .. p&rtk:vbrly in the US"...... n'Q I 61..ndw. l .g ..0". 1 the end or th e l. WhaI aile can be doflI: to rWlOCC c:mu-modulation 1 On lhe ~ f~~y biond.. circu'tI Q BO.e the ". m 'll. FOf some lime pilot...:::.. lill~ted jokin ~ly thai One wl u. f .modu . lnc...a'~ H UIlCI ...I" the ClU~ 0( Ihe ..f.J IOf aDd shotJ be switched o lf in l ucb Cood 'llOIIS. I mp lifletl and taed to c<l \llol lhe pin 0( the t l .._ ..cl. _.. l he fin.nted .. Tr..dt B.. . respon~ will nOl cmcrac unli l 1 00U... cireuil1 10 a . . ibu ." . .. line i.. I nu mber or n f l he: ""Ina' frequency IWIIld circuits.. 1oojlI. tlp".. The ma ken cla 'm lluIl the reoeiver will halld le Input si.100 ~ e/. _ 1• •101 hi.. The .. all1lOll lJCI:-lig.. mc><!"l. of In l.. ~r . . more .nl.. ..r. . .. Lallld~ ...rtieu l"' l~ . .l....11 pol co... .R ECEIV ER TO P I C S 75 O . (Iro nl lola.rQ.. In this lCCIion II il I ssumed fOf oon~en.-... 1'1.. ie ty pe of lIpprOlOCh cau he a do pted '>'Ct)' limply by moo ~inli: tile r.../"l B.a.. 10.eI only a le uilCd.. modulalion with normal m:ei "i llj " a l\'\"$ tW I D X ha...i.aid P ili luninaJ . tCl APrlicalion RCfllII"1 "Ct OSS Mod ulllu o n III Transtll ot TullCl'll ~ by Ph ilcu Latuda1o: Dj"iliion.f.. "'Cm!"" 10 a ltl"<cl ever I r_ microvoltl .. the Lg...w." p In (J irly constant.. band ...'ldiliCltiort. ...n l.t:. CN-in. rer. ble tnooe a t all If _ lUoC •• br Oold · ba/ld " t . n .lflCnI o n a bo. .>Cl<. Itall'll) flOln the I .I"" tWO a. . ~ . a1mosl certall1ly l:I"Oi'l"l.k:s. lagc( Ii). 5 " 11' il to h. Ie _...dth C MC/I) u'.III<._ . t CI"."!ff..... thil i.. y be n lmneJ y 1mI1l. .... . the final i. "" 32-) ' 00 Note : Wh ~ c impro. I)I ac/.Il ion ia m O h kel~ to 00i: 1I1 mthe non -Itnea r M m. plUliculal fl~ourilCi in the United Slat Cll hl ~ been the 6DC6 and the 6DZ6. ~'OfI..lUoo (w JUch will be worse if tbere Iii an y lAm plaood bet:ween tna IWO mi~ . amplificn :lre be t"""'fl I' and 2 t~ wone tha n wil h t:ood "..11\0.f. ..... 1600 k. bl )'. ' V "'1 ...'" tnlUlua l pi n contm l .. .. .g.. of Nllm~. i"ll la lel . S<'l"" t" l1 ~ CTQ&1omodulatlOn cou ld oocu r III Ihe early iJ. ' ' '0''01" . II il generally ...." .. Th efti'll I_ g~ IIpl:ll'. m~f rof luned ~... ... ti.... - _. nne take. mor~ rrot<:c1ion .~ . IN t(.... Thi.en if aU the stron. the!irsl Lg. If • local itation " sp b tterl" fCfflO\<ct or a ttemUte lhc: "".. Iflcti~il~ fro m er. . ><!ulalion dfoX"ll in lIano.

j .il"'" . cf p in diWilnuioa Ihtouah lho ~'V. Iic>on a nd ICfl!lo'nil.. e. .i an...I ... r-----r--T-~ m..PJl"OKh "" artic:1c on mucinc ~ l Il. 0 0 ~..---.. S6 ohm lInbrP-ued emitt« . " "" .011.t..f... _ _•••1 ..e.ll'_ bcl _ ' '''" modll"tioa ctrocu of . bole problan of UKnbi.. "'MATIU Il. o o " 00 "" . . Oa in ill unalfodld by tesistotl or up co 100 obnw.o 1. Tloio .lW>1 aood Jenlltivity .IIOf1 of .~ U. _ . by Ilmilinl lhe pm In thnc .':_= 1 ~----.. _ I e._ 1~. I ...h.. •• VU (v _...."'. T20lI mirnl&llo)' dd'hiMd uan. .. Ci<I"'D~ TbII brinp II' lO the qUCJlioll.. eqlal Of better tban.. .-in the ......._ " .an be obu iDed by IIttiP.f:." rai.. .. bdd by _ W be the U)' 10 tbt ... the bell: _ _ lOD&I valve Illnen (1 _ the entire • . ~.""'. RADIO TIC H N IQ UIS mml . have been D04ed .. M' '" " 6916 00 00 ._.:ko...lfll traMi.IC. (:I'O\A moduJ.-. ....o. No IUbotanu. ..."". and (0I'Wan:! " . baWl Ift:R. ."e.J d.=:.. luc \kjenetallve _ncr B~ U1inC .11'"1 by lhe .. Mtl. ~ . W'CUita. • 0 0 '~l ..l..... ~ 1a _ . ~ / ~ ._ . " l.~.. _ _ • • " ....oliM dYIJQ tcd ... ith !radom !'rom CTOIamodullllioo. ._ bel""" lb:ir dimiAlolMXl Ia the a... 1 Ion& . 19" In lIll in commerd!lJ ". Wh y DOl Urp l uch lien-II relal i y _10. As ." _ ~ u . 111 001 unwanted J..ll IIIT\lIll ~.r Ita.__. llUill up to quoW hip .. 1 _ .. .

' lIKC.. . _ IOS T H..sed . "' L±~--=' " ) <. claimedl d l'lo!liea lb rcd uea rca=........ F urthennore he hal MOWn h..._ 1-. I ' I o. .. the mixer . cla imed t ha I when lhe eirelli l Is eo noctly l <!jus tro the Sll ll'= i. • ".ltiplier to sharpeo up Iho c:Iwacleristicl of the input cin.. tNlI _ .crnm can readily be delb:tcd I" either <If t..... . . equipmen . ••• WID X • M H." _ .."'. lhe: UIC of 7)60 beltm deflcc:tion va l\'CI U h. _ " _ " " " . -.uit has Ixc...RECEIVE'" TOPICS " mi_ ..f. dllCCdin 1'HIll) ha~e t-fl .. mu. llUd witb a shll'pCK 250 e/. no Icn&thcnins of in terr~ pubcl to lICfU1incl)' a. effectively U I miller.._. Q......o ~C'I .l 1 ree lurel inel ude the use an unbll ll nnd 7)60 beamM n.. ...~ " I ."O ~ "'. 10 showsl he fronl~ of I novel dcsi. .....I... filter fo r e.=. I :~ '~ ..f..-.. b... ca'loN. .. To reduce ima p:...otin.. sta lJC..f.- .1..~" OUT.l'~.n by WI D X• • block d iqra." " ell'el>i t (. ..m of wh ich 1 'J""<'Il in Fia . Tt>c un . p' oouo:t.. Ik arn deflcctitm va l\U IUCb . . • 1 •• odHo .. I n (Old type Qf t "..ci""r of Squi l'Q.. it i.. "H ""n 14 0V . the " aae provides con . In I"" W2PUl .rn.....WULT .t i.. .tJn\<CfItlonal clast A pc:nlo. lely followin...0 anodes I re: coenecred in the plllh-pu tl modt.~/": . ~ H AT..k:ulat cd eqUIVa.ll rev ived wluch pillS I serica-tullCd imaae tr&l' IlCTOIS the va l\-e .005 or . m liS n ~~ .on mixer..'• .. ".o uld be Iitlle pOlIn in just IIninl an aUlriode con~rtli'l' in fronl of an CJlistm... -_ .. (a l.._ ." FiJ....=k input cin... _ t. _ Tl .. ben pres. iderable p rol OCl Ion ISl inst Lf...rn O.n r .. .lcnl noiw! l'lIIislaDce of the miur is on ly 1500 ohlin 10 tholl optimum sensitivity Qln rudily be aeltievcd on h. . I I linea. " Q..>da and ...t«:tors I nd ~ splilleR htJI lillie h. ip l freqllalC)' input circ uit.U I deBct. ..... We IlUCII tha i C\TO mi. ~ •• _ . fIecthIn M'''... .. 9.f.. 11) 1!'Ie IIX&! OIIC illat" r swilct.e " " modllial io n there ...-:ribcl I ' result s...oed u tNIllnced modul&IOfI in lI.a.I..l"" a l inSIe elcctron ...ui t to reduce 'ml p ~nMl .:~ a_ "'.f...-. miurL Thio lechniquc il UICd in the ss. re«nt technique i... sinc:e this lI01y PIllS further -'li PS be lween the aerial anod the se~ circu ils . provide whll t W2 P U L d..tl• •. OK ~.. Oobl I IG NAL •• _ .l.ith no r.Sotndcn 10(.f. : ~on • 0 .>de and I'd fllnet i" n. IO~ ' 0< ll '~ S _o... ...._Ml. irI the United Stat" aTO pn:paf'Cld tn fork ou t the ir shek els fot two ~a1 1l11en ... e.. ooise IiIeJx:erlirocc there i. noocptioa in the I Ubtcqucnl I. t .. the 7360 (which was InltOIoI IX. .. ... a 2'8 ken wiele eryst&\ Ialtice filler imrnedi. stdl II ltlve whleh II . IIl p but _ ilh a....Ion " I: " " """'" 0 · 01 a.. .... _'N _" .. I I o .... + . We WQllld """' tNil from the ~int of view or _ _ Another Impo rtan Tpoint l... 0---"i. Since the 1. n _ _' .lOCillted wtLb CIeu Lahnrll torics) I nd.. tholT the ca. Imost immWH! to CfOIImod ullltion can be 1IICd In conjunction with II pre-H ..dcly u.. .. .hcd on their ~ II recei""r In the beam deftClOlion ~. . _ ~ ~ ~~~~ J .. . bands witho ut an r... Cer tllinl)' the pctformance t1aU l'lll clll imed by WlPUL for such a miJlCr an: u tn:mcly impreW~e .the e1«tron sl rum belWeCO the two an<. l _R n:o.-w.. ftIOCiver.u boe:n publi. cr IlUOCC'PlibiJny 10 C~odll laltQll.. A prombin. • .' • .

h y bat M wit!t a t. ty hal beeo Iril inftl (by • 1·6 Meft crylli l tlller).~_· .a"'"dy been I Uga.need cimlil. • Wilh lhe .u. "0 '" i~ r }.. .. The reoeiYel' dacori bcd hao ID ~lab""llc frequency . Cl tt'nt thill pplicl l liO 10 other ronm 01 be.iu~ IIl"C1sed panio:u lerly tho! impotlatJA 0( (i) mwn Ie lcclMty ber. IUl'h U lhe 7360 or .mk:. r". ~ -....:orp onnaJ II I 6C4 r...t f<:..L.. I 8329).in d .. T o . " " " " _ " "_Ion Z .... . "bo ~ripl i .t:::r- ef _ W I D .. l i ~l the lipl is k~ "11 low I ~I II II prarticabltl ulltiJ muimunl Idocli. lunif\l W'cuit. ....... .. up III the t«1>on lM ruder may be WOIlIkrinl .a \CI')I hiJh 0 l.. 1 thc miMT1 ehc:wn Ifter • _1Mty or tnl. .......... ~ -0 0< .. '01 oum.. -.......lI ttJ".. C m. "2-1 ell pvallel-Nnod trap In the -naJ is uoed to redllCll l..-.F. 11M by ..t I...-_.....vi". ioIl o f the old problem or bJ ..... " .f.rroJtJ '1 U>eI I Bl 2') with lhe . how tba OOlllm... ... • ~Ti.1mla [ C02.... ThitI .40<1.I....1'M! " ~... II' _T ~ .._ nceiYCn..ltade /110ft ~ . . ..~ uoo:I wilh -. oac:illa. C'imlill ...&l lhe 1106O t...~ Q-rnul lipli« which ~ .ll lhe O~ I I lhe 19fil II..tapiS I '" deoiIfted fD' ' llllwn 1"_rilY If " amplc...n odn. .icahlll 10 . " " " " " r • • on." aod c.ppl...r. .o idcd b7 d\anJlll& aipll down '0 500 lo... "". " ~· I Q... TOIt .he Lt...ynt heli_ ttJ". . c:orl/XICIcd In JlU$b-puU. &trip.. _ l~ l- :' ..aodina " ul from . ConnIoc . II ha.... .li"n <'·on _ u ic ..__ P1 . 00 the dHian or. bRak'lhrouchF~ 1M h.. tIl 12" • . n.....Of but tho! pol nte OC4lCICl nod WIth II'M! ftdUCIIon oh pul'ioul reopollIClJ of _ _ eq. eltmi. I\alt tho! t... ~ .. &1 for the r. IlA U1---<al1Cl:'l!e circuit .r.~ ...? ~ &I.- M .. _ . ..li_ (millCr) ItqeIna Ihlll .t.c Cvlpilll Is uxd with neplj_llI!mpet"ll~ a psci lon to red uce drin . .::... Tho: \ln boo.:! in lhe 1·1 Me/li..10'1 ' " f lt 5 .:tllalor a hit/>..<ll l.- .on &ll. nw . """"promiw ~ linea rity and _ ("'lOr ... ... . hah. ily arnw..l.: sary n wlecti. " CIl'f$T ..\at>Qed wnlon.Il.... (......"'" .... re:... but an.en. __1_ ----_. it is inu'l'eI'inl ' 0 not. e-s v OKI ~ ~ ... amt'llflrn &I . lb •• >cad Ni t. 0( a 1I01k! c~ drnrtt wtth I m. t~r ampllftca tlon befon: the prod.It. .. Wllh Iow-n<_ m. .e ..m...he W2PUL deMlft abow IbouJh ptlClllllllob!y • I. or Mclean M ai&D&1l . ~ MO' I'w'tbct ~venioll down 10 500 ~Ci'l . ' 1 ef •••• _ - ....cJ.he IUlII ilIpu. ""'tap Ie&l<ina blIck iDt. _ _ .. he '-:... pro umi.~ bea m del\ef.the llrIt n.tod 1l\.. (ill ~11Ye . ckc«:t~." AMA TEU It ItADIO T l!CHNIQU l! S . A flOlpef by M t A..:.. +.equiva. p. n.........""" lia in lbe 1'eIUl11fl..n P1 . he NI ")' IJl cl<. t>I . _ ' .""....ble ' 0 cn-mod ulel..pow>d i ~i'" bly tum..tion miMr ilsimpler lhan .\a~ IIIiut is mlUItbbly itnlllune 10 CfOSI-ml>dubllion. . ." 0( tran.t ' '''''llIl "- ) n.- ." • 00.... \111M aerial c:ouplinlllrindinl II r«dt . ~ .ny dJr'I~ lC11 t ~ II. . ""'"""00dI_ _ _..

.. . .. k .._ nl_ _ .' II cffcaivdy the equivalelll of JO tr}VaJ.. prcMded by tuninI 0Yef 2-) Mc.. U fo£.F. .R ECEIVIR TO' IC S TrIp'" (.. 00 '1 ~ I Me. Ioded oon'o'Cl1. _ ... TnI'*: wnvcn ion provldea drift cancellation of the 6A M6 40.. .. on the eon VCfU'r are t ile ... 2-) Meja.....f.. by 71 in.cr _........_ _.nd ..owc/. (..c..... .' .' componc:ntl ln ~ Ddtahet " usi a \he . . ... roACYCUS IU. ... . Ila lC . M M . II i. de. The. Ind "E-...... McJI BlNnl ftItfl' . by 2l in..."" ...... . it be!~d to be the ftru lime Ihi' now popu llr idea .a:I.....en prtn'id ina COlltillllOUl h.nd-1C1 c1taL B) mc&'" of a Ul'pIe marne ~lan 1_ Pi. into.v ..c.. _ _ . -.. YC 1_ un il (00 a chu~ill l j in . '''''' ~ 0 ~lo l :KlO'" ""....lb ( .. WllI lII I~ I IM .rcc of J..l.. l i"OotI.ll..... ..me n l« hnkl.t.IlUlI... dbl:lrued in a Hlitillh alT\lltur jou.U from which it 'IlI'iI1 tot _II tb. -_ _ _ . I I .... -. . unil cal Jod lhc COT:l~n H . _ .hdl *1M dock>pod foc till bal R A t 7 f'O:Cel"Cf . lha t in the o riainal I'r« . .. .d\J.f..._ * . _ _ -..llIe the t)'pe of Q1'C\lit Ihuwn in Fi._ _ _ "I'Ct_. I . ~ _ ~ ~ lUff IIA"~ Mct..1... .ue ...lhiu i' ht. . No lIIlna«l e1I'C\lili or un.... oppoted 10 ~. wor th recallin.. A frolll ...or fonn of frnnl<nd ..l..".. Go..'IflM The dncription In a 1 9~9 TrrJ rkttl T"fllt:~ of tbe UK oIa " QlocOOe am pltfier on h.. 01 the desired a n....) ~" _. ' ~" 01_ fi l . The RAil . the VIII. in I Mel. .c. in.Ja • . _ _ ......I (...' ..N" ......blc OKilla. _ . ~ ldif«'lll' c:ab!In..tnlsl TWlina 4O-s-69-S Mc:h withoul ..... .._ . a. .It.1l Tl...70 Mo.1 _ ' .. ali lM I ~ ~ it 10 let IN M ~Ja. ttllllble I'fICeiYer co~ mn. hi ndi for fcedin..oc pto\'ideJ «JDtiDUO<lI . "TTl:NtJ"roo:.. T...--4 " A PIl.fficull «> a\'Old IOIIlC dq._ _ . ~ d. l l...'*' __ ~ . il. S Ion. 12. . .l lo a bou l " 14 " and thm the ~ Ki~ l:)da ~ dial CIOn he lid to WIthin IIClOX 200 0. " .. Ilolh the doo b~lriodc mi..)0 Mc/a tr.. "' 11 (" 1 rt 2.. and &UIIomatle c:orrect ion of drifl.. 1ANG1." Q')'fIa' iI used with harmonic it«'Cfttlun .1. There ill o nl)' one lip" freq\Jf:f1CY tuned cll'l:\lil in tile Krid vlltle r .... . _ ". whidt forma lhc Mcp::yt:1ett Ilde: tor.......(Inlml.. ..11) UKd it! COIIjun{tion willi a noa-erit:1aI1 1.1aS 0-1000 " 0. .~ ( 01 _ .....l)UriouI . ahhotJah iI mUll he "n:ued lIUll wiT the &IfIlphfood h ~ fLIIcn il ill d..ribcd in Radl<>.. To tune. en l...... II fo llowl . I •• _ . Ill '.... 6. _ _...... coYcI1I . A"".IClOa kno b.. m ..f... 14....waNI Hobbw~ ~ VK2AZN. TU1'<1 &lid I . .. _ . h(>Wn in Fi&.LU. ... ("....me home-buill «IIIwncn. &I1fK1ed <:onsllkrablc allmlioo &ad 1tw principle hu been UKd in .hI:h has an untuned I'l:IiIlive &Illlde road. .h....... The Wock ICho:moalic is .n ... t MOIoo/.':uJ.. _ oloo . ~Lnlll ~I ­ ..) l he 4 McJI tr..H ~'" '.. .-.inn _ o-SoJO M..

..... ~ n' similar 1)"J>C ('0( rentcde r.--. In . I r'fl'llmp....ny l itU8.. emi ncn lly oemihlc "ay 0( imp "..h<>uld not pn.. i"n. e IIndllly ~'T111. rot ttICCI""" of .1..".. of . .. _ dKIice..• .....' --...101 00!J1I OeM .. WII K.......al pr""Idts . I ...-).. .1I '''''.r. ·.mple ... r.. nil <lUt"". 'ta ntJ.I ~ --- ..~. it It "<. (lIt......dd-on ~m. " 0- SOl/pin..Jn>1r:c ..1 pI'O\iiokd thai lhe uwal d . . 16.m . Kn... must be Up! ck<:trical1 y .... . .le J FET . 19N .IC!iT AMATEU" 11..""..p ~..... prCIImp I.k -s.... .. Q -.n.' n..." :t-t. amplif\en to be rclId'ly CUD veneo:l 10 .... .. . . _ ' . ..&ulionl. receiver... IOQ "5... ....l lwlek : r .lh nne side rom"n•• IfOUnd r>la"" l maunlc<l in a I I by II by Ht In ._OU .1 ... 010 T ECHN tQU ES "Itb!.. unn "'u ooilt on. of 8/lin hy .:"C.' . II I lJ __ _..' pnform_ ...._rs ar e uted w" h • deo..he ... .-... " 80.1tl1'C't' d~II'1 lh. <k>u~ " ..nl0 diot... " ••• . ~ -.... . In whio.. ~ I - ."" " .. ..'ter "" .ll'..llnun'"111 -I " .... t.I~... A' with all ampliflCn Ihcl inP\l' an d (lU lp ll ' circuit.~.. .."'!'t.. _ QI... I I _ 1 _11_ _..."l\ai ••.. lin .~ .. r.. T ' ...._ _--J C 2 ." . .- I . win. I"' u.....b._ __ _ 100" ..1. U M Ho 1l1N" ". .:c of old 0 1 I . the'Trldi' i"n... .de II~ hili boen deKnbfd II)' K 1I K ).... _ '. II _ .. 1Iy .'<>UpI..n amp hlin in fn".. . dqcl'll'1"• •iW r«<.na . ' .._ U .. we.n.II.-. " - ~ ce · . In osr (M h.. C) ~ ~..._ Cl_ .rc 1.. 1..a....llI e I :ldB or ... IlI'twork in lhe ~ 1l'PP(y In<k t(l Pl"C"t'nl ' .."l-c'THI!ld thllilow fn"'l""'" pin . .. Ye l '~re a rc .'<C ~..... CIllO! of the .ond. Ind the: r.:... (•••• "... -- '.~h ill0 pul I n 11Io:'floUa'Of T'II [~r Il\Qn. • mpltl\ct" ptQ. An ~ dcll n which Ill .. rrl9. •• mlat . i<Jco dynamIC ra""".. .. ll . lder 6S1i.. ken .ller ~ thiro ""' h...I.1. _ (" " M . Cmw nJellun . -. OlW uqlr.Odin. ---..". • '~ ~l 11_ . .. III .U • ..c. des ral!'>o:r tha n ilt\f'>l"OWl. . ob....~ • j.. " Al l/ I iO(."U IU....tcd . (OtI'I. I L ..... " "::1 .. " .n. --J...~K'd ..1l.".«hnIqUf C'A IIOOP"" lIp 1 ""~tll\li')' (Of okkr IUd""" un 21 and 2lI M M i tt hu trod.JJ M _ _ " ..... ..lIna1 cnelJ) ru<:h. .. TOl'UOdoJ inpu t ._.

.f.. _ _ • • 0 ~~ " _ N_ T ...". It_•_ .OL.yt. .... 'W " m..."I todwcm 21B and )o Mil L Olha lUll. .. .-•• I • - ~.---..' _ _ --...lan (FiJ.. .. -- .. "" ..t ..r-:•••• H H .. .i1-1 MHI A atn l" del...... .. • boiled on _ oI llw . ll~ntJadURd ~ miur ('oId . Ind Iol:al OOIClllalor (~_ . ilQpe. M _ .IIAT'... --. a nd .1Im UIinJ cqulpmall l\ln.. ."-1 a llefMa lOl' . e ...I Ol OI.- 'K " ' K H 'K " 'K . 7 . lhe b1uaro d.... .. .. . 191 tor Nolle... 11 ___ ./M.1 1<' ~ "'lI b .~ also --._e-....lN) '.. 1)J'..... e db db ]SO . l<dl as lhe Jl. . No 1.. P'r'nodK'IOI f(W" ' I M H.... IEjOO eec. fa' l.n CQ.... 0. r • • " ' >0.. ...... SJlA I. . _ - " --_ ..... " . _ _ H.. _ r. 0' W" .. _ .I H __ .... _ non u on .e \l1UI.. _ ..I " __ -. Ca ll.. . 0<> .... .=:=::.. . _ __ ' _. ..Icl t... ~rwl'\.a... ~{¥._H _ _ . ''''' o... n. ! . • ' .I'-'i=~:... Y'l.J. . 1.... ... \ 011. 864 176} 1163 '" '" 116} .... . '" H '" .. . ~· l ... • lu n ..... "" . '....bk of load prrformlllCC ~r lhe n ...f. 26" " 7. " •• m . ._.

. _II. _ . liT .. .. _. .. ' " " . . but ......."· to hal C)'Cls whid! _ lha1 when !My cool d llWll !hey 00 not l'elu'll eucl ly 10 their "'"I$ill&l \'&Iuea.. etc. .... llOll-qclil. \ "' ~ Q_ 0. tioo. It i:l 1~ '~ u( haolt which mal. ••• . (:I.. I. " .... &I'll Ifill . ...j. .. . "00 ~ . av ' I ....cuil ror..... n 51 " UIClll 1°•".. 10'G' ' IIIr QpKitaooe).~ lU I ._ 01 _ CIaH .10 .. . " 1 14 u nn li t .• V SU A .. .. or reoei"ft tuch aa ...." A M AT E UIl ..._ ._ _ ~ .. Manr ... 0 1 ~ "'C I J I I • '~"I' .. 11.e... -.... . "" "" ~" : OoOOlJ : : ) l ~...0. ... A D I O TECHNIQUES ' ''+ =:lV " ..... the ph)'lliCll_ruo. unlea d><-n with " .... I ....~..uch poi nt. .lMCi1u. _ .. _ "I"u. co ... . • - n ~· .. """...1 K ro p' "".. .. W M T A 100 O • • .. r--------·---------~--:ii:l I . mponenu. ". ..._ " 0.... . the I. .. 11 .... O Ul _"-.....1Io.lIr. ...0'.. . tV' _ _ . _ ... I ...:ti\OC propoaitioo.. _ II< eo. 100. "..""""" . _ _ _ _ _ T1Mo _ .. " .. cui" windinl 1eChniqUCll.. 1 - I I ' ... . of tho: llanm. .

J. one 01 lhe maN popIIlaI' ~ ... ..• .. brid ac n... Thi... _ __ ' a_"'a. OvQTC UliIll four FJ'Z4) l.llOdIand.. batmOfti( frequency .. ..ry...node IlI d ICreCQ ~ fonnl (IpI ItrlI o f .. the best b)"1!"_ eapadtOl'" ."U lraIiLl n.. _...lalOl" (1685 kc.' /tIJdiA FIa... esdten inItInce thole b1 Q) M .nl ..... to... I':I _ I':I . bitdieI aDd othet' Iypes ol. somctIlIleI ~ ~ . ' . Z.. fillCl" dcfian 901lkh bu beea a11~ IBIcrftI '. fo rm of neu t raliulioo is utod Inct'e.. U~ ..1-"" a. ha pe facton. low finl lU. ncei---... A ClOIIIbiDlltloa of dJl e.f'ebnsuy... tha i .' .de the <kvee 01 reIectl'lit}' -sed today.1 ~ ad ..-_ . ••• _ _ One ot the _ aerlouJ PlotHmtl iD m&lItlplol ___ lun iRt: . (reqllO:Odo:s now thai ' 1)'5 bIuc.1iC:I... a ble 10 dimlflllll -mly banoonic ""pol'IWI fl"Om the l*:il latOl'" DII au t.antljlel of mu ltiple couY«lion. S.. id "al\es... iI th&t it ~I I p>4 K$o("Ij. of 4-'1) kc:tI or man CIIUlOt be eIlp«tc>d to proy.JCa and in . bcm.I VE Il. Ii:.ho w' rhe esKll til....~ apao:itlncq.. Indca:l lhe lrend illOWardo biaher inacrmodial.aUy appaat'td III A_...... )ol.. 4...'-~ "'Ill.... bi••ystem oould prftUm.. intn"~1«ttodIo eaplld lanl:C:S form 1M orber thow ~ C•• bellll &.... SeYenJ IIICfUI uticIeI bI. ra:ci>'Cl" not ¢:. 'C I.. Rec:a"'"" A N.. ppared iD the B1Jl. a physieallr..r)'ItII filta1 both for n:o:ei -en ITIO fOf u. A .. ~inly.ndI up to U MC/lt a111louatt the tel lul'lO thToudt ..OI. in . tiooo l ad >'e K mcnt in a m:cnt Osr dra . lao.m cin:ul1S..f. C. The only lUI I d . U ea " r:.... Bw a ~ deal ba bocn '-mt iI:l years .--:r-.(.. M . . _ tMl . l:<JnU1Ion .larr: "acted foil a nd mica 1)11(". Fi...ll : the c.. Mid to be .b.UTtNalready OG lhe defi lD 01 b.-"...bout Ute 4eaip> of l ymmetriW ...hkh !he .)' ¢:. i...li. . TO ' I C: S .llKb the «1mmtln idea thll lhe lIIOR (reqUOl'n<.i1y to bI obtaioed with coo'tCntWnaf tuned PCthaPI not 10 widely held 0_ haoe" but I'W:D 10 0f"Ie' (reo . lhe lReflll Q a I\naJ low i.l. fll1' bl lIlIoe......lUlL types 1«m uMuilable for uu. Ll . _t «01" nxcntly I. . pplied 10 P'O"'\'I" a m plJtIf:. bulapiftll thillmal be put the diffieu1ty of ... I1UI idea II N _ """ _ .k fillCl'l a..tlAlle or .. In d in.n h.Iflllinint. ~ .. LL (0) .'ll in • double coo. A typI«I eumple of tIw diffltWtn iluo ....met ima prova \'CI')' d iftlt:ull 10 ttIdr:: dow1l elinllNte opunOlll oiplt.. Jan..h little mtlIlion of the lOCOflI~ina <...... _ .. lOO t ell f "'..... r .. ttl '"~tion La what I..5 "'Gh..Uon ~ fteIlI are taken to redllCl tbeoe ptoblerM. ~ ' .. be .. l:Mio .._ .now for . o f jO.JebaDd fthert 10 lhat then illlO fundarlxnQ. " helnl Multl-<0II't ... _ _ ..... [ .. u. ..Il.en-. l.nd C• • tor...Iid'act"')'. reproduced .iC.. )( C.\'OIldiq .f.. " o. 10 q Ual tly ..)'Sterns 10 the el(mifllltion or opuriouI ~ a nd even in Ilm pler ointtk Of double I\l perMt ~ it eat! . becomilII a~ with 1. ' I _ __ ~ T_ _ _ . an.puriour RilPOCISI U wdI U ~brut..e.u inliY with hiah -slupoo r•• me.-..{. _. ... ad.......cnodw.olatDDl eapec:itot UMd ro..en l lype....>ot1 ..... " " '__• the betlet It II liu ly to be... C1 FTMJ _ aofll_ i i.. _ . U IhowI \hi cimItt. to -. aoepc lhat of C'C'XKJmy. " 0 " C> .." .. Il"id-tcr«n . __00 ra:ci __• G2UJ fou nd thai by ~ )1na ~rtic:u1a t at tention 10 Ihis poin t. .r....1Iioo aDd f.11 . .t.-e . hleb ona can NIl _hea deIJaninI all1l1oNt l:lOlWWlcrl can. eilher . low 1.t)'ItaII bet_ J and. tM lIllOOrtd oaeil...... 2S . in tele . VK1A VA wbidl OfiaIn..b1y be .anlll«'U'. IS .. f 6J6 .. I LI_ U _ _ MII _ . ~ " .. u.f..... 11 .JCl. _ .. appticaliex>...Ido a " II II Ca-. IIClwor k in whidl. IIUA . CJ. 1962).' _ _ ......Ifl""" . w ..... ("..t. . _ _ Ll. ~ about oom m unlcallOf"lS rec:eiwn.ur ...m... nd u.. mechanicaJ or I c:rysW fillet anoJ wilh a ftnaJ l. • _ I_ _~ . ohm rftiltor In t he " ree ' 'no& crrcuu .1. _ I.

lhe Ili&bII' ~ . It"DI O TI!CH NIQU .u In .. of !"..- -- - 4. _ . " ..... 'U '*' • - tU • (0) '_ _ ~_.... ..... • "'" thet iatcrf-._ '". '" A""T IUIl....rJ .IO~ '* wink _ TrIM My H_ Cryn. ' " ._' " H _ t . froqc of aao... . _--_-.... w--.. _ _ _~ud~ _ _ M"'bemI_IO _ ~ 01 .-.. ... _'.. f- . "'" "'" "'" ::"11. ~ .J- .................. .. _ ".. .. _ ... nl...I ... '-a If'O'I'lq _ _ _ ~ i. y• ...... _ . .---.... ' AD artenlWot oIl1\11 In-.: f(0) y... IU . -r uocfIJl ac-. oIQ)"1QoII ..-• It .--.....".b. .::.. ..... -.. ... .. .... !be anUaI... o.. JIll ____bill -. ..-IJ ...t U1 bJ. ." ' .. ~ 1lalf4tltlQe ~ Jl.. ... aDd StritaoLad .01 _.... aDd u.. _ _ to...... .. --. .a... .. _ _ _ _ li~ ~ fOl' lIlII tillb • 0 = .-:r =::e-.. .. _ . it ill ~ Jrr:-\'\. ~ a~~iua ClII' blockiq ClICIl:UR .

' Ie /i: OC U .RICI I V I R TOPI C S ..-.~. T . bill it iI ..~ · · · -~.."" a 100 l~. . . Yet dear!)' a ~ fUl~ C&Il be made....-i6..... 4·. '" ~ . tll'Cl' atTanll<'mo:nf usinIJ 1_ lUilably ~ CTWlJt a nd a pai r of {)C4 ' IraJlWIOf1... ~o -. .. 11 l ela : &. abw l :lOOlI ohms).-· .. " ~ . ---.6Q db (jn.lUllI.. t-dwidLb ... ~..." au UKd 10 InI.. T_trll.) l ei.. Z-).- •• 1~ ." "". lfarai"Of ...urva which QI1 bo: a<.-. .~ . tApa... l llh<...).uvioe 465 kd'I &un beiDI: b&Ddwldtb --6 db ..aled thlll only one lIftd be ~ .. .. CU.~ . _ ~'~_wl_I_"""" '...... ii aso. \l l '-e~ ) _) Ie ) .raM iJlPlil I m~... I I.. ... _~.fttIi1 y poil:It.~. ..~ + Pi." wlfa . r . quOlC'd pafOl1lWll:C licuret fOl one of thor <. " _ """" _ ' . f ".. Ilh alov<er ~lJue o r r~bkl naiIolor..hievcd lBin.. ~ 1dI1L .... ~ _II'" ~..lw... t.. I .... . tlAn - ..J.-.· · . pus c..lid beller thaJt -«l <11'> " " .-" n il • Pia-n.

~.... ably 'mil.. LI _ ......M... u .. ...... • ""'" .' wT+lU.-.. ... .--. .~ " T OOO . ~ " _ . I I • ~ .. ''' 1-. .!-. H...---f~-~H" .._ onze U __ _ U • . • 1O~ ~ t/......" •"• .__. u. --_ __ ........"..ee ....... r.. . .. I..1..:. r~ amd IhoI&kI be 0( lu&lrQ ooftltf\ll:tlolll (preferpot. j.. . .T - . ....._"'"".. Idi_ '. ..... · ~1" V . -- ''- .. ~T .. f'i&.1. 1.. • \ ... _ Q-MuhJjl' . . ~ SO Y r . . ~ U. .0 A H ATI UR 11..lT 4" " " .. 1M' wound on • ferm a rod). I. !-__ Tj'OY' ..... . . . 1 _ ... Ioo .m. OC~ .. _• _ . n o ll.." T _ .• '" g t~.. "" .... O IT...IiIIor Cl-ull lr>lio:r by DJ)ZQ ( Dt-am IMina an ~ ttanailwr L1 l una 10 the reoei¥a'.0 Del"". ... . 0' .--. ._... .....r.. '" . ..... _ 1A _ .U .... 010 TE C H N IQ UIS ..:... ~...t ... _ . )) ..-._ __. .. lfM. . K H II • a" 'NI' I. ..+"'""" ~ 0- " " . _ _ ._ . .-_-'------. _ _.. D... = .

u one ~ .. lilwuity 0( 11101 6BN6 U • product dcta:tor II cKCe1lent.""••Y 1. r..(lllnA) {] "'!l..0 O .Iol the ..... • • • The 6BN6 h. ~~ t-- .. "".. •• 7 :" CW . W9BlY and W91KT put lhe t. ...ao.or 000 n .I ... IeI' :..." ..n M udl pat« pin thall from _lionlll... _ H.lod 51. u.4" ... II II not dillicull to obt.. till . 11 K: 0001 "'0 l--~ :'~ : c.. . . prodlX:t detect .. 1.... ¥OIb of b. CII n be obtained by lain.. ...(..1 100 to the 68N6 p led t-m produa del«tOf deM:rlbcd by W9BIY and W9IHT til OST (May . • U<JW lE' .-kItJ _ ..1..7" . •• ~ n -t ~ . ~.m...._ ~ " . - WlO _ Il · ... ...Iin (rom the Un.. .1a.... _ . IhowII irI F\i.. _ . ..Uon oa._ .... of :93• • •... J7 . 1960).. ~ arid bJ .:: . O. «l db bdow lhe MmI&I bAt oote obtained wilh the "'&I oril!nally deYeloped for use 1tl broadcul: Redven... " ~... .: ~.0 ~ uc Il. :~..1... - ... lnja.. A I ()oJ . . ~ ~ _ '~ _ _ CJIIt.-sured WIth 11..... tt. ..J? ..J in • okslp by WI ox (Om.. .lar Inpu t ~~ Noillt peab...... valve u foliow.. I N" _ 01....M ":'I .. modulated 1iaoaJ..J3 •• . 1be 6BN6 cue for U1if... ~ n • . _ _ ...m " d _ o l......o.' .. lhemodulatkJo . OI MU d rew our & 11. m ' 11 It-a-T" ."LTI.. ~.. _ -"1 . ""_HT n. ed rrom • 50 per . " I" 11. _ ...._ valva .....Iy_ (. Al aD Input of 0-1 voila the diltortloD pmduetl wtf'e . ..... 111_ 1_.. 00 1' wilh t/ml.. on..... . • _. vM1 ) the 6BN6 IIu • con· CATNOOI M _ _ ..N'... .-.. • •• 'The cin:uit 01 an W1uJU&1 prod. .... : ~ T_ tL. .. """" w .. --.o.. HT. _ _1o - t .. '.0. _ _ ~ ... Goolft H -..1.. .ee.... .... an dipped by the 6HN6.l.= ~ " . in put to Irid I. Ihown th... . .. 0-00 .. " l::l' . l1A U7 IlxMe1 • 1XJn-woa pin 0( " .... With ) or .. . - ..' r ~ ...1Cd~m b"'lTl~ H I.ill lS db dowa •• . ~ .0..... . ntt •• -T~.lIOV M..m.1. Ut ' " n IU' UT " + ~ _ . olJ..

-l. .._8 --..NJ oU"Cn~ readHs • IIlld..... wilb lhe IDo::ocnina 10 the uode cin.c n lCOl eua Wllhoeo... ..o. ': i + _. ) _ dri¥ll an output sup dmctlYl and )'C'I to aYOid !he .o(O-pI!ak (1IIfficic. • H. ... familiar hall-.. 110 fWILChon .pp1y """ tate and the a->da!C>S II... pottlorl " ampIi60d &bd.. c:.rnl:a • aubodll det«:lor ... .c. .diolLn libio lka...110 of . ...I~l ~ lbe timail.n lbe «IQ... the b._.tiYll wnlro l voIlaJCl.. voIt&J11! il would .. N' .er • much lIlUtef I"UlJC ollnpul wlg ..cor o.I)....f .. ~ 'I'Ol &p 10 a. ' • ~" '" "" D. 1 """ '" \_1.A. _dww our old _ _ M\'II' habII of mnalnln.I. the L I-I:... . II Ieut r-rtlaIly ImmI/lMl rrom I t . _-_ . nOied in RMlt1 EMc"oNa. The I K .1. &nO<le .f..-lII _· ·r~ _ 1 _ .rnu. .-':".e...... o_ .. and c.) bul 1 Ihoukl \ be: PQA ib~ 10 .. IMId 1m . A <lill)euJfY wiLb 1 . ! ..... QRM/N ~ vol...1 0 ry kvd . for ISOla tion.. v. _ Fia. _ "" ~ _ ~ _ . of c:omponcnll will depend on .. .... 1962) DHFJ do.. "'PlIo_ .... .."..... o... l'Olt• ..... 1 is reet illo<l &bd... 1_ -".'""'""y. __ __ _ ~ 1 ... . ill . output of up 10 35 volll pea1..r. _»Yl " .. 1M LJ..D1 10 ...JI .. DL-UTC' (QI..:on trolJed ) Is Isolat ed from the ddeaor an::uil ..."" ... .'= .uil. .). Pan oI lho Lr. ... .. I<nCrI 1ca... . l c:hal1lClmlllCllhould be poaAblc. Sio:c 1 b.hic:.... ......~ Iobown I" diodcl . dout*'r : io the... • ... . .... ~ o.u . C _ I. IUPPf'*Or 01 tho: 6AS6 and .ued &1 lhe . .. I lha l very IOOd .:onaunl. at low '.. h& beta her. lillIi ~ 10 ORM and ORN. para'-l U .t iofW d...-_ .... an .. th-. " M id to be capable 0( proridiD.nallW (1lOf'lD&I 10 brooIlku! nIIlI!I._ . ... 0 .. 41..-bid! (I(::CW1. "'. 51 ""I. Jl ahould noc c:fI"c:d 11M: ' .r... . IiIiW 1:1 red to .. II " dalmod lIlal it will prorioJe an UIldil toned ov. or"'" PI... To -..t '00' An int ll!fftl lnl detcdor an:uil w. "' H A Tf U~ IIlA D I O T IC H NI Q U E S !he li ll.LIIlllnflpj lll lmpe4aoco tyPe or dcc_ 1M lOt b Illal there 1:1 no simple ITV:lIII 01 obl&lnin...... " ". . iD the &tIO&: &Dol.b...1 distortioa ... BIll. illPlIl lllll\&l1s demodulloted bul . YllliIltioa ollt..pp.. 1......lP\l1 .. ..".. 1 1_ 1'1 "" (_ I' I 'oJ. (-..w.._-. 1M «XItrol IleaUte or lhe hi'" .. __ ___ _.022 ... ! I l la IU " ...G..1 It... H'~ .._ {j 2 -7_ '..~ '" "" .l.... ..""1' .. Muiy . l ime-o.:b Oa . val la p WlIeM. CtrtAod"'oIloww 0 .him ""')' 01' lMy eoe N 1M QJ1ol&I..D.. I... 6 411. the <k>'ioeI ....1 lkb _ 1'OOflllII thiII prot>lenl and provldn • muimutn 0I 1OlnCI '" voItI 01 DeP..-:t" -. . 01_"'.. CPyotal 11 ..n. .. 1cYe.I. &II Lt.... .b....tober.. MH 1' 4 1. 0:. separale" ~ ampli5er Is... _ 1 ' OU' . ...t. ._ ... Fla...lo<k ctmalt....&er...

...n ~ -I ~ ~.... ~l'l. ....... _---...'or MobHoo W_ A Iin:Ipko cmuA dndc:>ped C 1imil1D& lpli tkon ooiII or In a ~ cae radio . ... •. i- ........... (OIlT "~ - _ II _ ... . CIU I _ NcNM tIMIc4. ·. n c . . I I _l O ... 0·'. RMJio. O N . IO... .. . r:: ~ f-- . . .. n . . " 6l ' INAL " Q " . . _ '" U.11...... .... .ItECI IVllt TOPIC S .. The dnb p1M:el ~ dampiDlJ &erllM lhl! primary of tIM lirW U .. . J '"' ~.. ~~/ {f . " O'OIjA " u ... j " .k C.. .. .04_ ... ...... ~ .-d with a 2m «Jn~" II ~ c:ribed by Vl0 ZCN in ..l~ ... "' C"-l 0 l ' ... .·1 1101. ". ( a . I' ...~ ... .I.

the . no..~1c . 6ct«lOl' Ioed raiat. . ~ fn:Jm _ ~ • ..e.. ar.pplic:a!.010 TICHNUlIU I ' l.u W oriL "1abDo ~ 11Iere an a numhcr of ...k .odIJ. ~ • . ~~ ~'"!----l.II'I:JIkI« 01" 0/ !he onSo:r 0( 1 dblDClll~ lOten whIr:tI lII:JhIide rtocIr M _ .. both ~ U4 _ _ _ten ... u a "011..U inl~ k¥d iI "'U'J' IIlUdlIow-Ihan Ille nortnIDy laed "&Mot. ... . --_.. _ . artlItk b)' KSJK X .wI be -.-a ~ thao . .. AHAT .. e 0...... .... ClII1Unc MecI.. .-- N--r: ... -~--~ ... ~ &Dd alIdoo .-. JIftl""': _ M Il''1..... ' .. " ....... M. .-:II fihcn h:no: II:Ddeo1 If> .. I. tbiI ......__ ft . . .. ~ WI GCbcn...l af'aIk.c. Q -. IlIlboWd.... 4.--s ill. _---....-. .:u~ fronI ..lhal thI. ~ tad of .n..... &nod lh6 <:&II _ thM In .. _-"'n&l 4eI ~.jIb... w.. ~ diftkull *np/J 10 .ln:" . ~ • t...p ~..."".. .l...

..--fl: .- • lll U CTOfI '0 -.. Ii Pi - ~ ""..." r . ' 0< T!II'''' . b . "" ..... ...-..~ .-----~ • . --''-J ..~ "" "" Ib~ • .o-...

. and Ol"'fttoJ in _ies...11 1' ...u...haI •• rntxlew. lie Indll:aln thai. 1b1r \IIl 1 ~ be v-n.. u in the q .. p . lbil .t..maJ &l>d u.. .w.. uaiD&. uc:I dcteaor. !l and u. .. 11'. loyO..m.) hawt: been d_loped rOl' Ham marlund with MJfI\den i .. ampltlkr irI a val .ba"" 01""11)' bc1wcen the a. thould be O\W . bul pn:MdJI1II ..._ M .. .• ....Iy 14 . 1 10 t el. Howcvct. ha t it could be IIIOd . RU ·.d. Tho Q-mu ltlplio:rdtI:u.Imtl)' be buill Im o a _ II _II-llCnlCllod boll .." rn<>re 0Cl MtOtI& .070 .nll the . V.tWJlJ<Aly." the mu.. blc port lOO or an amo. .t ._ ~ ..ation .1lodc pl'odUCl dC1« tor..nll III r" . bu t an e~lrandy .... ~ " ~..cr >IAi C ......... outpul 1<1 Jrid).. IIlnoo then II no d. For imtance. 1961). ....nbod m OSl... Th• ... un often be lab a from lhoc eaUlode blu.... rc. 1J IMay. (AqUlI....n.. ProdcI« o.. 1967)..BOd D po..-Ie In ~ ~.. !>out 14. tlwy Ibould be oel«lod 1 droro 0 about oroo: half the . '" lWill:hcd ~Inl>ll . 12' lr. ard ..l coil...fflIJIQ Thil OOJIIlou ohhc: u-nion ... lUelt..islor of an UUlpul IIap in a n l\'C .. _ ' " IM _ _ c:1 X . ~" In II construeuo"al art.150~ :i: " A cin:uil wbidlll ~nlly appcarina aU O'\'ft the pl.1 If. _ - . .. R£F1 Junr. recei . of WIInl1 . • .. (Ihou&h no Ifkli.-.Pflly woha..~11 l"" rat "". mulikeo.. aiven or ... .. lll m: .. 'l1 r -( 0< Q ~ "'>0< • m r...l<'Uf band. I'UMibly requlnn.. ..0'15-14... orilillllly dml.t bet_ the iJ .....v 0""" i' /K T~ ••• . A T IU Il " " D I O T E CHNI QU E S u 1 1 < I I " • u..")' bel.. wpi4 ota 1 .../~ . r. """. an ID. _ C:1..r.. .. eilbllr a fftTl l ... Xl .lope lkl«:lion. b&-.... ... "In c'"""'"' ........nd 1 ". how in.... _ 20 0'0lts... man )' 0( lhatl pnMdc eit her paolo..iv«.. I(Idlllon 01 a ~ to I»pc abo wit ll a. .... . -"Ie lhe \'ef) okl ln ble d>atvtcmtio: of hip ~l....W .. ..Jh. h id! !be f.If 100 .. or null flldl Ll a only.... "h...Mult''''_ A1lhouah Ibm: lIN been II number c Il'Iu".nal.J... _ puo...for tho! ~ blUe bl» .c.. foI' lhc val.... 10 the l'ClIplICli.. modiliclltion 10 lhc biuilll ~t. .........UoQ «)'ita! IIhm I m<Jdeot cow ..1 111· . L1. aUOIO'inI 1'*0 nll1ll lo be obtained aimul.t...7 0 1 . 4 ~H _ I Illj I ..lJI...wlld! il ahown by the d ot ted . M'o a of the cirelli" Ibow il u a Itrai&!>tfo . ramc Mril.JCOTO. II 14........ ~ In h .f multiplier c:in:u1tS pu bl ~...-e bandwidth to _ • . IlUrlnCCli"n Ihru~ the <ltLit ( input ~iort 10 t'..lpful in Rduci"" Cl'OtIHnOdula tion a nd bimini......md cryatalllll« wHh low a nCflUation in lb: W2G 11K In the 1906' 1"....:.lOOdH 1I1 lftlu&lIon 0Il11idoo I""" limits. pot ron or. with 110 0Ibe'r moo dk:'IION '" Hie ~. tl.lon ""'y rcqWI'C acljUlimenl .""pie modiblion uted F2 [ R (Rad/a.It" $IlowlIin Fl. . b. M vi. unit. .' ~ "I'U.....oon ~. 1961) In a modified BC341N II • • with Ute .tSII..~urucd Q..- lIO. A ~ CUI'YC II PYCfl r. . rron t. 5lqtl." A ... 1%1) and a WIIp1c of time& in R1IJj. be l he hlV-t ~ible Q... II has belen fcat\lnld _ 11y In CQ IMa l'd! ...t.J.. Eo... T~ Q..... and Pc O'I'CT llXl mW The 210 K ohm .. tJc.lL III ~ •• I I"' '·n -iF r-- ..w." h.. Me/s.:c n lhoc l.Yt"f" . The lunod g rwll &bouId. _... A IICI\'d idN in 11M ur~ a M1e1e II the l ugCllton 1""1 two ad! un iU can """.. IranUatort of .

.11 as lhe Mu ra la Cf'U455B. _ . v. s"".. ufficimrly hIgh VlII~ III ort!o:r . OU I Ih. .n d oublc<onvenion 1(/07 MIl l/4 S5 "' I..nd R2 nc-ed (0 .._ ~ "..or C I (.I..' !fI .. 8. <)I herwi~ ~Ironlt siltnals rnay IlOUnd distorted ... opin ill 1M "iIIrious forms of 1.Ohem\1 de!nodUYlion ia the poor elliQcncy o f mvelope det ect lOll a low li flloa l Inpu ls. Im.. ."\Iito I ha "" Cvt:r 1-.«.. .NI.U broi1d<:lIal Iran.. ._ 2 N <1 08 _ D~ l b·) ~ " OC70 1 . n in ri ll.f _ ..... I' . Since IIlle".lsl o' D. ~ 1. • 20Q11 Ir " I'" IOOV It . which pnl\'ideo some p i" . ". ..ri<cd how re ...._ V..l)'.d<. U.) + ¥ 7¥ •• 2"'" 12¥ . lince .. -bcnd detector cin:uil tall..f.. FIlllllX:llQ ir. .._ ..)..ft _ ' . f"'rtlJdi~ UJ rru eoaJ. fllLe . """. ... 0<.. . ""'_~_M _ . .. _.. coIlco:1o....." wu kl be . of an IlUd iu noi loe lim ilcT Illlid 10 ha ve been dewloped by DUX W and delaibcd al (I( the: bcM • . ) Pl• ....b.. tl>c K l l GP tbi lPl. (' ... . 9 . . 25..lui~ a IWln. The ~ual diodc IYJ"CI an: no4 ...i". a_ _10_ 1" _ " :~ " .. 455 k I I.". ' ...ovida . ..(l..- .lina: I96 S " . ..~ Cit. Iiact of t' il .. 1tIoIlcod. Somet hinl lik e 5 10 12 volla e...l(0l' detea.... LARAI( . . '1'I'III. Jevit.. IO. alth~ he """ nul lried o r n«<kd llil•..... lim iting an. ""e ' Iso ' YlIila ble a t 10 :!40 M I I~ LAR"" I'Oinc....K _ .. CI!'Kilo r .....(' a ~"'r.-e . ..1 0( ". " • '.. o n J IlI5Ci llalor .. '3 ' ••• . C1... 5H a nd If filled ... y CDUkJ nos... . Ct)"laJ diodcl ill plU1icTJ lar rna y rto.hy 5OI'I'le p«>plc an: Iookinr.r. Ca l"' cih ' .. . ". CI _ "'.<llo N olM LimiT. _ _ . 10 IU... (tAR e ... 68 k111l.e••is u:ood Wn l' ly on the VOUntbl or ...kinll!lrifllmi llg.~ibl)' be of hil.... and mefl1 i(1JlJ 1!'I2?5 and IN61A d iodes : F2£R Ii¥es O A85 ..g. .Ieu" loOCITl 10 u-o.. and i.._ _ _ .. ..gliltlor "'.. .okol ... in.. 6 1. t ony l>lh" . fn:q ue=ncy will be • b<>u. from lhe an.. " . .. 0 1..j.. OUXW _ ..)t'... J. de1cribr d by K lI G P In QST (Oct~r ...:tOtt One Iauol'I ... 1Iimr>1c . lea"'" ~ . (0(" a t 4 5..n _ t. A much simp ler approaclt......._. I lhey could alto be used fo..m.. Tron......... R I .. _ _ 1ocO_n' __ -.". rur an old rt>. 1Ii.. . ._ u. .. 'f.-.. 5 5. K _ Pi • • '1.t... ll in Noedinll.a.mic filter.. 0 " 0/ 0-00 ~ " ... .... Ie._.~n al Inw .... or aboul fI. . ohunli nll l inJ'ltt 000 nu.uil : 500 K .cq""n..... h...r.hilily.._ .. . ru.... wh ile F i" /IO(b) ia .o . W6BLZ warns dIal lffllla nil1m d lOdcll tJlould be usOO as In lhis a ppl ication (cmlrary 1 man y (l(henll d:q.il...IlJ . 0)_' C). C ...i«t ion is 1IttdN .._ ..." 11 . ... ...vcr .oUs for ." 0. harTllQlllcs I:OU ld be radialed fro m In . 1 1¥ "'P~' '2¥ 'ft P ~1 • v. .ho:.....ilhu u l thi . &I (he r. Imp'O\I'M A.O. ha~ lill ie df<\:( un the rn:q ~~ I.i licon dioodN.. . 2aKI . _ U l IlJ ..... uil . n_ 1... ~I' .llclll thaI leads be keptlhorl as o lhcrwi..f.-.:y«l"""ining l:irnli l of . b.. claimed 10 work q uit<: ".roc of 0 Is d~rablc 10 prevenl cllarJina u p and blockmS of llle diodes : Ile _ IWO 1N2981.. 1.~ food li..f. II B9CM pl'O"it!el deW l.. 1961) is l he oolkctor-bo-nd (ran- ... _ _ o.tl lhe C MOS i..:"il dllta:ram o f .. ... .. . _ r..e WW\ I JlIl1... .m . ee. rco:ivo:r. pl!Cified bu t art' <ktcrJbo:d u .... _ ..R E C EIV IER TOP I C S .'1<1 dtlcicncy. ignal input. 60 a nd Hl-7 M H/ ).. " " Cl _ _ .c.. f t _ The e il't-"\I i( ... l' 500K ~~' » ~~ . ~ 0 . YlI~ ' ha" shown .. '0 "'CHI• ..1..n M.. The fo1"""'"1 ""'r!onallon it liven rrt lhe M """ functioning o f lhe <. .n d " A8" '" SllQftll I .-ll. . t\Ol a' ."' I " . ...onna:tion wll h Ille prodUC1 detector...... 10 ...in..<> IK h .l.... 1010'. _ ... lrimmed by .... '!I'!I .. .. U .1 ": ICC Fig.

_ . . W 68Gg'. I N277). In open lioll.._ ...... .. T. 1Ien t lor Xl ohm IPvina ten d ifferent deIr. I\CIlldI j ust 11 i wa ll <:ompoUtk>n rallton..:h allenlLllOft an lIICI'u. The CQ W1it (a1 ~ AuauRl 1961) by W2EEY/lI. " .. . comment or pl'OYidei .' .l tranaiatori>ed rocei. and \.!"... . COlnl*t e~1emiIJ ah iclded utili.bk •.. I!tn. etc. ..... A u_-. A DI O T E CHN IQ U e S ft-.. po lnll 0111thal lhe cbwll prcMdeo lut 1IIbl:k. .01 d . ~~ t ?rolf r:~ § _ ... T~ ~ .um 1)'pC (lYPk:ally IH M.. .1.. Oa profaUon. the oarnrol voltqe.. WhaI appean 10 be • DOYel ICdLniqIMl lor -wlyin.. buI mutt be an "'1Wf . tuned cimIlt of liM lint ~ FET rJ... u.. . to r_ . r. ... On pa. CUI be obtained to. = "-_ ... _ bIo beca . and all wort)..r.. buil l ..." ml .-lver volume ouaU'Ol it 11III lor ~ priale MnnFh wilh minimum Ii. "F. la .. Thif.. IN497. 11I11\1 Ihl'llll d in" ". input and out put oodtat.w or .au' . . . ~ by tho: .ilor _ _ "-' and ehuUa ~ !he delay lime.. I~ lina.I. The ~iel:UoIytic capac...0<> OM "n _ .e. 62.-o waylIln . du ploted PI..'IIl' lSuuble pole dotIble throw rwitd-. :zo. ._ . AlMlUO..... Do.. 1 _ ..J.. aUa>ualor . . blJh co1lcc1or 10 tnIlltGr ~ wllh no .ina from ' " than Id B up 10 Fi . .hl lhf'DUlhl in )d B depa up 10 ))<1B : _ FIt... hich 1M faci lity coukI . ~ hu Ii""" an 1I'tefqe 0( Xld B ~ with !he poccntiomeler III muimum. _ JOme «ld B.. . 'Tho tnnllbtor t)'JllI II l'OC aitloea1 eM ha$ used. andIeIIIed on t tl. more l.l \ioon lyPe ptO'Yidm.. A..... aU.- .. i.. S. and tMn !he mu im un> .CImpla .mllllon h •• of 10... The diode CUI be Iln>oIIl tJl1 . ram.lten~ : ..... ..l II • wilh the a. AJIad4itt-1~llon in lb_ cue ia the requirement or coa uol and r c f _ 'tOIt&p but the rcrercnoe 'tOll . . unit.. amplitW.. 1961): _ Fit.. _ _ • " __ "do ' .. I.of allen llAd o n ( pl ".T1l. QOnl inUO\llly "l!r)' ~ notal ln QSTand CO.ned 10 M1il lnd ividual tulal ~ W6BOQ IUgl:ltI 40 H...a-e..... potenliornet«....-l lon pIKed lmmtdilltdJ between the Input and II...... 6J. IianaJ applied 10 Ihe bPo...'I V ~.1 in QOJI'in( wnh _rona oipUi e.elven In order 10 pc"O'OOe audio-derkoed • .. 64.... _ lhe. t hi... boll.w..C.ly t. principle 10 valved t«.-... __ r. ' ~ N........boUt H 1)'paI lrom 2NlJ..... I N " " .... AM AT I-VII.-.. )0 and <tOdB . limple _ ilct>od . OQ lhe ll5CI I/'allSi5tors as IXInItoIIcd rcaistOf'l ln !he em ilie!" cireu io of pi lKOll lrol led tranUlItor ampIillon. . wt1h the dynamic nnp IiYCtl by f"F.Ci.. _ w I••• I.--o-l lillJ ~.. ..... the. and call be ...w $... pltl I~rd by W6BOQ In 7J (F«maary. The ¥Uiablc raitIor CUI be anythin& 0\'eI" 5(1 ohmI (lypQUy 10 K) and an audio uper (loa law pcMmliome1er) it better than Un.. ¥01tqe dmder 8CroIf. ... In QST (A u J 516'1) W lDX 2m.

. " . no. "_ . .... . I ......_ _--.. .... 41_S _ . . '"'l• . . ••• ~ ..... .. .._... Mcio _. - ... .....__ . •• • .. .. -.... .._ •.. ~ ." "..._ ... ....z .... _ . .

or. _._. " 1MIInbIIlI' AMAT E UR R A DIO T ICH NIQUES AI ~l..... TMIod n : ~ I. .. )'tIOaiI). the Ioca1 OIICl ILt. at the Iynthaiza ~Q _uem m C01lJIU:ll..f.. oorJJloll oontmUOUl.... ". Basically iI .. . 1M ftnt fC:lII'nl purpoeII b. ell ! A tun ~ion of Ihil i/ltemd l'll doeip appran In GEe J~ Vol..-.--..e .ynlh$za........ ...... ban k ~ bI-e been PlIb111hed dun".If . -.. pt.N __ ... and 100 kc/s IeCOlId 11.. bul with lhe liability 01 I. ... ~ a > . " ••. I \161..b1y lnM 10 My thai only the ~ blink lcdlnlqucs UtI rudily M adapkd 10 am lleur 00l'I_ion li lthovah the " ROm bY l&b<Mo ltW.. .c. - .: y .:annin& 1'tOli.. ioo.. doulMe IUperhec with I 6 Mc.. with ita ~I .. 01 ct)'$ta ... .FfYn • • . Nl:ei wr suitUlol (or bol......Iodcod (lCltator Itclllllq ~ aN ~ mtirdy _ of the quation l.or aU_ in Mabili1y for I.f.. 1M IMA r.t or (taJeivml -..1_ • ~ II ( ...'.JI . ~ __ to IDe full freqUC!flCl' . ocrioua altempt W p . ....· ··~t~O/II v a Lyt e.-...1 OM c:an ha-e the ~ of I.. .-.million.." 1... r. . ol the variable reuo d ivider Iypc .. fRqucno:ia it ill bet ter lhan 0fW PlU1 In 1el:Hnillioa>...lllllfdlanic:al Fl'rin..:h " 1)1lC appI icaliOfll . ""-..... -.iw:r wont. Dd II the _ lime (or the l'Ii... l<I. PlU1i" .. No...-.-... h . """ could put the lei 1 M y :uJ-«XJ) M~ aDd it wiD lUI)' 0 INfoe Ii> withi n boner !han .-e .:tion at ..'1") ~ t::"~l . In "... • i 10 . _ -..lllInl l. e~:....... proo. bj hty bef1n thaD f1..... ... ta bility recriw:I" tIM tM furltla' dUtiDl. ..I-e_ " ' .._ ...... .. _ _ .. ._. il i.. oocn. IT . . The l )'Dlr-t... . b COIl~ro1lod by .. J._ ... OIJ.OS. ...UOQ _ 111'1 --XU\" QOnlrol W i"" l unilll ciraailllO 1n...1 ltl limit (for OD ..ly tuned ~~. ynt bc:Mll (.en at the HROXQ aDd PinwJ PR U ' h&-e . modm:l l'req.ty-. la bility requimnmft cI poInI-io-poia! tel"tIice. It iI I.. peru in -.... ...C II IUU/Clj II- / ~ m_ ""ITO Uf<l DllIIFlltl $..._...... . . I.. ~ Tholl G -C _ model RC410 hiP... I ...'"* -----.-m.. ...

.. and haYlil been m.turin .. and OIly c:arrlI:n al hilll eneraY lnel (i. 10 ~ a typical arranp:ment for 14 .. Fi. FlIT un il_ . pw... it. : FlI.itloI al ~I tbcn " DO iIoltItioIl .. Tbo c:W11Da: OIII:illal ot circuil lhould . • TT. l:OnW!lUl'.nl-«rn""" or pon j UlllOl ion dlOdeI at h~ fla.II oeo..f... CoIl..-CIrTidQ rcuh'ft' noiw &II the 'PY to Xl MC/I./I into 1M ulltJ. SlMraI uvcrimo:n lal fronl-endl fot h..:I diode. &lilPUllft'l. " OOC kx:abk onb' ..iona 01 ~ pOOrt CIMItllCt mlcmww. btM earricn" &nl &MI lO IZ'OU the barrier.. 1lIq ~ U\ cl'l'cd.eMn. ' rom a delilll by K6DQB (7J. C.. di tlltftfl t ~ MYlil been puhlilhaoJ Alan SimplQll.. (fl.. p.n bulh .:I tunInI from 10 Mc/l lo )() Mc/I Ia... anl planar --.r.. allllt tltne tbit cdilion IOC' to prctoA.indo. . I ll. Ylnlally climilwod mall... IUiIttnIIl..N "L Hot e:ut'iw d iodao alIo ~ to offer ~ poIIiblsn.. TIM pu lll". D.. advoc:alCll lhe UlIO/ of ~ pIt arnp ld"cn rafber 1 !wI comrno<HOllI"tC.. " 2N38'19 I """'" ~ I '" '" ••• . e. ..iliooq jw><. O)U MF. 19 jUllClio n-1'El'I in tblIapplicalion bui ll a ~I--.tion on • bililhic .Iy .II.. BRlII 6468..... .0 thCI form of a IlDaII d..:eiwr .. HI ..."'" miKl" d.....a. Such de~ abo known • Lbo CIMIWMtl a . roo. lD pndice Ild1 dIOdeI Er\Ily 1a1.... 1967).. p1 Uum anenide..duetor It In COlll¥t willi c:au1Q metal fll_ .. Iiroo and SCboa~ dio<b.. DoRy... lb.."... (BU M P poi nt ed DUI lhal • IIlOf'II IlI.lantiaUy allow _ oon"Ullion&l ml~cr diodes. t'"'O FET. Irl llllalor roo... 1M dlict' Ibortoomint ll ihal M1W't1C1l 25 Mc/l and )0 Me lt lIishl ~ allbe Ioc:.fot hJ...ar cireu it (Sa:tioIl 4).jUCfl(:)' .e./lCII to IIlOf'I oon¥elltion&l p".h • • ~ .lkd a Sd!ouky-lMrrier juDctiooD II forlne. '"'b. Olu..ill MIIlU&nlla lly..urk wil h a ny ..--. mi un. bu l I~ are bopa brina: prka down £.1ld an aI_ liYlll miMI' circ:villlli.. ...lfuood metalj..jIll ~trolkd <*:illa lOn ha Ylil proved a popu la r fann or h.. 61..f. s.. . .. planar ooenlons or lhe: puml oont&I. .l 0001· Wl'tCl'I. ... 21 an d 21 Mc:.da ...n" .... ble 0Id1.-lIef.lilE C 11V 1 1t Hoc C<orr...j lla lor ~ bul lhit ill b&nl. a smale ra np: prmidinl I II Le alabold l " M c..-_ . "'t'-. AerilI ~ o. f'1I. . MiDorlty earner &loraae I.. .n • OIQ UotilTOlt M • aU• • AlT U It • IIl&l _ fabrication I«hniq uet .-. w l H.ifioonJ.f.lr&IlUJIor havinl &II f. 10 _ _ the P'I'r1onnance <If lNl. for tIIPCriot' perl'otmI.. of 100 Mq _ or 11<>. ""'*'11 .tlal: " c.._ 0I(jJ~10I' and mi_cr .Ia10i could IIOC the Vad. MI Y..d.

an nld h. with an e._"".. (IN ) OUTl'U T . a')'lltU. in • poo:1. :N IO!28dB oYer tho bUld.2 1 and .aI and .row.• • .. _ .iILai r... an ECH BI tnoqOClll. .. Theoulpu l H .. ... i ' rT.QePIion 10 t~ Heelor CcHe. "1&.. The coih Ll . one e>.-iJ. OlO IIK.t.... Unlike IMII)' other curml1 dcaI.... ........ ""111 .:r toO d~'~ ..~ • ~n ec -ce BCl08 u u • 51 aotil1l(lM!t ~~- - - . t...llI fEll ill ~ 00 an y (""Iuc:ncy. ~. aroul'ld I w... --...--_A_.. t. utuaUy no eeuee lhan...."bolilu!irll a FEY i" lhe DlCillalor ItIF or by &<tapl i". _ _I ' ... M . ~ ..".&h betler lhan lhal o r bipolar \ranIlIlton..... t ho! vcr rar ..... _ T. u ..-.. n' u -" . 'fbi' It panly from fcar or ruirull& n:M1e value. 011 diaml-~ Alad din or Ilimi lr fOl'l1k'n..... . I Me/ .. to wlKku. U and U an ""OUnd wilh 28 .4 Mc/l ln wtIidl 0 3HtlW uon FEfi .... .. ... _ _ __ . So ir )'O" o ka . but bipoLu ltuWlt Ol'a in • eurode coo.ti. . 12 .......J gonwrlolr..1II 10 modify.. . -_ --.lor... The ~ cjn. r-..'__ --------.. FET AI .... %000l 12N 42204 T PIe. con~_dal.. cuuld abo rorm the buiJ \. aldIO... "" .~ 10 mne the MsI u. oili. ue M M or..... G 1MI W ...uil Ihown hu proved lIliahdy ~1Q" than • n IT c:&IDDdoI from the Iinoeatit)' vilrwpoinl..... '" . MH ... ." -.~ .. _-.. " ~ w M PF ~ ... TI..._ ln their r<-i ble: WIe ror the con~on of old ¥Ill"" mrl.. if u 1000 U./llllRlion in the 1'. U .-_... . low injc:cliOll 1cwI.. Mc:/I.1 . alloollih the pin i' mudl the oarne. few .IKt'u1ftonl .w'" will'"o-. 01\ v.. " ..... that of wdkle&ianed valve an lpli6en......y._ _ 1N4U<I 'IITo _ _ ... . ..ulccd " . ... _... 11 ... • M Pf 1O~ ~ ._ .adopts ..11_... ver lhal don. It . poi" ta out..hJ. lypiaJ mo<hfk:allom 10 a na:i""l" uli n.. • 10'" :I ~ ..k!o-bal." .. how. -l IIH UC"" 11_ Or'" with Pi...--r . He bcl~ lhal it .....__ . ... Una: It a11ow1 the UM or lhe mOl!llk d Piefw " cln:uil....... wilh meuul'od IlM!h or inlermlldul-... _ :1£ .. .... oil ' " l ' _ ... me"" "1 driR'1'fU!1Il val.er i•• Fl:. __ I ••• ' . to.o.. "-irdl " When IIcld effort Inlmi'llOR bepn appRo "..._ .6..... _ _ .whic:h O l H 8 W.. of .c:ndron _ver_ ill iIlllle l'&l\IIIl or 1'6 10 . Bu t lhere i... ma lCUT'f would w. but to repla<:4l bipo\8n w. on l)' wo rth replDclnt blpolats wilh FlIT. " """ .. .....y well he Yo'Orth modifyi"...__ --. A FET om ~ • very worthwhile h"". Oencnlly tod... .. amphtIcT. OIl. .. ~ •• 00 ... y bccauIo II II IlO'II' ~ thai lbe I1ln&I ha nd .t.n the mi llCl' and . l~ . o..:ilia'".... -...te......L.ri-.JI_"" _ '_'Y... • rew 6e<:ibcb lower.. ra.. ofthileon_r . . .-_""_..cm&l 0""" .. A M AT RUR RAD IO T I! CHNIQU I S --. n..ian for 21.._ PIT _ _M. ei lher by . eapacll)' of "mplc FlIT flap. 4 _ C J _ I ..

GJOH . u tbouah !hill C&lI be ckww without 1"*1 difllcull r .--_ .(U eVOI in Montfcat ~ lba ..._ .....1h ....oe l he . _~ .. r_ ill an .:J•• •• •• •• .' .." . _ _ .."T-~. ] « 1>0 ' [ """ U ] '" n... fi T..... ..... .. cI pul tlna lIeId ell'ed 6ewica Inco oldet ~Wlicatiolll 1'CQ'j~ 10 irnproo...."".4'.". lilla"_ tIlin&IY eoouah il look... ..... n. ~ ....._ .. IMI ... .. __ ._.(CA~ _ lVe) + IJV .To ' .._ . U". ..... ~ •• ) •• •• •• •• .. _ 1''''.. ' ' ' ' ' ' '_ . ~ .. Mike Bar.L:i'I .."I!C I!I VI!" TOPICS •• •• r . (a.. 0Uw1l-.a §l • IlQ ... _ la_."'la •• ILl..J"l ~I - r------. T_______ " at -......o 'lid : •• •• :=.. _ _ "'" Mao ... IC ~ " •• ) « - - •• •• •• •• • •• • --"1'" . 0CClIITlld 10 • nurnbcl" or tmIIlCW'I... _ . .----...t1 I '-!7 f-Jt >-. in the 'roN.. ~...-d cI hiI ok! Edd)'I&OIlII . 4._. ~ •• t " I '-!7 . - .... he b.... The potIIibilil.1] • ..."'IT.--_ ( L........._--.._ ...."..u lIled lNl8 19 FET..I•• l N...U .

. AHAT IU" "ADIO TICHNIQU E .. .

In_tin. 71.. C. -. _ _ 'I __ .. _________________ --J .0.. '" ..'_ 0( A. :'." . 51... boca put fOf1l'Vll by Dr R...It I!CEIVEIt TOPICS ~._-L-.. _ .. . . ~ ~ O ·(U) \ ru T :z: ~ ... Pr_ . Macario 01 UnMnlt)' Collqc 01 SwanIn.M.. _ .. " " " " " ". Homoolr. " ~ I-->----~-_~------="':_=':_. ... .~ ~ ~. ..II $JlM$ .Itll. Ideu ba... _ ..... ... .. (lQ the roo-ibility . 0 ... V...

mphlicat ion.....1 • .:111111(1).:t "... ..ntnrnodu . . ... M ... .wi'h .ten'lIl.. _" . ~IafC . ~ __". il • . IN p". n>llafC for "I'll"".. h... .... ilh ...Iftl In hom l'\'bl'ohN by Dl' W..... Monall.• ~~ .. ~ .." .. '"' ataaal ~Of'fd ..""..fD..._ ~ . ' 1~I U : .. llMo.d.an r. lI ..N In lhe ".. .uI q... " " UI Dou~ miUl' .. i .."..«. ..... h 00 II 2J M H.. filler...M . i ~"...do d .. The i. aud '" r.. ". _pun .. .ra nllo.'" • CW'der ~ '*QI .'pu l ...n..idall.1 a ...n r--· l.."l .ln"".... ~ radoo He bd lhAl ~1Cd c:amCf _ 'CR.. " N r-- . . &nd . b ~.s.'iow bui ll .roI."". doutok CdtWO -ion _ . ..II """pl ai.e hGnlC'l'..".1.put ''''1 "' n . IC..(.. U . . . .yc.f . t:lt"nlil hIt.......lido IS ~urcmd)' 1_. rafonNftoZ ~" -a' ~ . H .omW)... ' han f.. . nJ1 .t>-s)'llCnl In. MarUI 1\161.... 711 ... II II thuo an intrr· . "'" lkIa:tur uod ..." or 1'1...... _ .. ... ron u ... t. ...".... Inlet_I. lin I" " IM .. I'Iish raforo "" • . of..nd DIlI "". T lUIl R ADI O TIC:H NIQUES 11 • .b ....• .... Lr. ...ip ..u"'l"kt n.. I douNe-~ mi _ . .1'fKC_ An also be . ollhc 1)1't .. ...... ..... .bl...... nd aulput on pin l 411 Amr>llt. t ) poo... hk " S' l H.... _... ..n l"""""" pcOnl al.'". l....... re.Iern.. 2 (a"". __-teoI I" l"l'II II . in"".-..... .. I .....nt T"P IOO and the kC" C A)OIlII-... m.. ... " An amrohltC'l' Ind ~..... . ~._ ...... _PrIg.... "h irl""l .. a nd II ..... for linl d .. . t>o.. ftmMI>1e 10 olQIft <k>i. ... .. .""" Of a n u . ...-±..D \ a' ...t-t U and In doc U S ..._-_.... l1h 10·1 Mil ..1I u( ptWllClnl earrio'r. n .. T ....b f""..1 IlIIndhnal1lllll' I..n c. ..._ '*' ''''''1 lJ '" _'* ..Ih I _a f ""'I".. amrlilkali<lft.d... . I ~ fM h'~ aut-Io" ...... f.. l<.. on pon ] . h i'll i r .... <kl.... li lllif i f ..... on pln " lite .k ft1lql>lI\(l"" up I" JO Me. ano1ll>c rewm of dirt....tue 10 "-nI t . 141 A .... . I~ 01 " ok ... i lh ..""'" on th" So.~~•• - ' .~ g~Ull' ..... ~ ~. n r .t ...UOn rot dIol:on.II1I .~ . . ha~ !'>«n . 'l....! or tlR heon nrnodry ("... .-nd til... b.h . Iat drwk>pIl'lIIlC lllI I op:ual...." h I ( f .:rck r~ nr '''''10.-I.c ~ IU IUIao .. . _ ..Ile . anJ NVC' b«n the .. • r.. _Ia ("FU.."""In ~ can __ '" NM4 "'"' . lmpllf...."'" on I l ..nd II.1 t.J _'I"UII""'PUI "" ".II m:o.Jori"'Od • .. 0'" ...haul 903Bml.. dl:.. _ _ ..." .. -'. Irnpl .kodc 1M M ....n. f... r.lirn and ' ''' ibn t'...m .. h.. .... than I :' .n"".....'Of 11.....due 10 .....« hu IN nl... "'n"l. ho"'--do:-t.. "" l'unt.I1· c ooa:t."ft'... . "'f'I'I'J-volt&Jl"~' lohlf........an to..ror 1o. r<.:a .. ....__ the bater hl>mod. .Qoa _ith . 1I"ludUlll ..Il>lc fO'!' li ~ l .. n (I ll .pto SL6?tJU ~""' l.wu lI od J . c:all N "'" Ifl a h'ah-pc1'f ... ~" "". lto... . • nl l' lif..llh IoIofl .. nd ~~ II •..' 01'1 'I • • nd ..olltodl . . .tl.. h... ~li"" noi.' . ~ ~ ~ dnalJ."I) .-. uol the _ _ ha .. rn..• a"'" . if... t'l'ovideo.... ho liP I" 1 m" . of ""'" ""nlrovtl'li..ll.l1O . dc1«tioa. • m . I \ ~ .! . Tlw ('A k lllt[••• • o a-blol in 'ho . _ ...-101 •. ilaUUlll...m. .. da rl'f" b f ..k'UltllOll ...il.n o r mleaof.. ol thit !)'pI..... .. II " .I.. ". hil.n ' I for .tiono 01 . h. d naJlN carricf dmxld.x.\OCd ' n ron lUrw..(.... c_ Cnoc_ (I I Amr>l'l\c.. n. I....1 " n pon " . .id... ~"" .nd an a ml' iI/lolI 11.m ~.._ .~ I nd "_I ~l(~"WnU..". _ """'"'"II .• .·l.n.nd /Of inIcnn••. ""PfO"lI ttw perf _ .. SU10Ik "T1w IJ.• ".n:1Ul..."'-. how ..hn .".'. he JIft__ bl.Fi•.. i' h in!".. ..".. and boo ~'t:l _ ...f• ' a l D<.scn.."'" ."....:" do.. _ICT...btanl fl .. cumpk or q.l1li1<> d""" a lunln.. n"'''... ( r oa.. ' . a.atl) ..."" row.. ~ r".. .. Of • .11'lbl) ~l . 1TIOl: f1I .IOf for r..f...!he CAJOI'l£I.."lcar.. form or . hio.." 10'_ . ~ .1t)' IhI han ul. wria of cr f(Of leu arnbol_ '-. ""'.... n ra......J 0 . . ... c ino..>nol H .. " ...I. .:c .. .- CA ... mploon 'leu..... C'Ofl \1: nto ......". ..

v' ! .~:·t~":. <lIT".".. ... u. ..ICOl')' rcap""''''' "f I.I.. Ibould be kept romrktcly lC~rale "'ilh I"..!.. .I . I" • 1 ... hieved w. 1•• .'a... c I ...'kkod ocntlbk l.. oh . f·" . h """ormllne.u_ '&'!ilinnal Mm. lJtou kl l1l. ptO'. '" '" . . .1 a pplication (elf a dc~K'C dcslplcd r.. Ho) . ... ••• . ._ .. =.....11 :'+1 '" -.....• .. 711 . . i ji!'l=ij . 1f..I . . .R E C EI VE R TOIlIC S ! .. n:cc plion [t it ~"I imed lila t un lo le I" me ...m .. mcalll (>r pI'l)Vid inl h. whrre thr S L67t... __. l1tc h . (1 ' ...H. u""' in rn:ci~ Il MI la led t!la lldoqUl I'" q ualify I I t> ca n he Il. The I . YI>UI ..M ..:d . . . ._ I" • • •• I 11_ V _ ... H. . .../I.'lion : the bJ.. ".. cI . H .. the S1..nil ralher ~imiLar facilit ies. ••••• .. . . U .... a"""". ) .. ' OJ usn 10070.l>ly •• Il rne " a n...tU..:::::'~ : ..I . .. I I I._ w ... 1 ' . H I 1.. 'i ~..1\. .. H .. .ili~ity can be ()blail1C'J by . • .b..1. ...11-.03 C _ T O/. • 2·2~ " f'u I--. 1" .. ilch ""la. thece should lie no problc:m in~l. . nnd l."' ..i. .. . .. ~... The lul . A _ _ _ "'. J •• <1 . (d ) S ..b. . _ . .. " ".:.• . ..7 "H..1..I.. .w....." . <0 • . . ". 1 and 4..~ .. an SI. lwitdlcd ()tf durin.. . h .l. e>o...w ..>I be IIlraalCr lhan H i MHl. n Oll l OO-N...' ." w ... .k inl lh. .. . . .1M> irn pro ~elI imap ~)OCIl()n .. . ~ . of .• Juo. _ ~ ~. • • • ... allhiu p filter ca n be plKed bet. . • • 1 ... approach . l .. < ... iJ . H.' in a c Nuel)' r«e.. 1.(../C. n .·. nd 1101><1 eut hin • • ee ..X"" -=It· ..n pin. 1 h"".~ .'''~ .. Il\ IQ d ...•. o. "'_1<1 w .() aa in--l:onlrulled a m pliflCnI are l:UCadcd ..h... ~l- I 'I. '" -r-r-r- • hi h - . .. . .._..~cr .... _ o. " ~ . am "lof"" whlo:h . "' . _ . '" 1 .6'OO hu J>TO't"'d ... t her 1'<:. . SL 6700 C Do~"' _ · l>O l""' _G r ..w. ••<1 ('l _ ol..h ili l y ... or . " U!M:d in conjuocti<>n with an SL I621 • . 1.. llC""rat()r : Fi. m.-...•• _ of ! * '" .lnuul llme-oontlJ m in. ItCl1Cf1I lor.... b«ausc of the limifed rrcq .~ . .cd... ". a...:"'" '" ._ . .. l " •• • • . in. OUlpul.. • .. ~ p... which is an 1 "'111 .I . • .. ~'" . "'" v . . ..m. . mip. ~ ... Ie) A. Ill...umplion (J( lbr SL67t~ L I621 comtlinalion ie lyp ically 90 mW.".1..... ~Ii :1 ... Ft>r c.. ...'" .fll. . . .. " '"--- co ..S. .~ - ..ernent the I.... -.().

><I u I.. The l""J!ul."" ~ tlw<ll." '''"'' i' II (OI\IKlered lhol ooll:hl. l.. end al l"" J' 2 MU . .....hc\hrr lD nooWum pr1IlD<J _ ' ·rn Iho: hdcrotlyne RItl<'i"C't can be ma."I.hirtd ' ul'l'<"'in..hl\cJltion ...oc or • ROl'iwul dM"' k1 opt ror Ihr ~I"" "" I unca....c..:1'1 or lhe..lfTnIID.rd bi..( .. artic:1e &Mwo lhal It. Whrn 'he • .. r..all y . whICh . k : _ith 1-2 M1I. an d........ 1Cficsof m.. I>ooard II mounted un hll" nf t he v ...c lCl...ith . "..hllll{>f 100 pall ~or ror ". n . a..d 1'IlI II lll' r unll .n :uillJl y 1""I"'!ar.r-*..-ire ' 0 pin 1) and rou te Ihit to n'-'hb.. IocIII OloC'dla lo . 1110:) . m n a.1>"". r. •tTlInll"""f'1S 10.l". t1 (l hil .. Iu ' he •.• .. ClJllItanl ou tpu t locI 0 "'" iI \Nd at • bolla ec d .. I NII I~ .... un1l I' flll l!'l (2nd h"IHtI ld't .. ~ wllich lias ~ .. ZU BA f ..Pll'flII rN I" <kl..c><:r....lIP. i" pin ... ~uo:lr'.hen re-tll a.. lno:rra" ". an Ol'Iunum ro. rd d... ~a l"C' . . H I 79 o....ep <kl.. a 1\01 ton much 1lC&1 .'I"ud..... linch"."... boIIrd In . r. Itcmo Yl: 1""0 It'\"eWI Iklltlin..e. 2 II til.100 HI~ ..' lhor pcrl. ..r.. lhe •....... lnr 114' ."t:: K~ 1l«'Un".. ill t.. fi nd • 1 ()Q """""""'.". nd ).. and cn--mt'llul..... in ide: ..! ". fTlOl .... remain on IItt " bo ard. 1qt'O ~ . .r:aletl-t hmtl. .11' 12 k!J . -.1ld inLctnallpel1 ker PlIt>cl." . the k<:hn~ue (UnclKlfll by dc1rrminm.1<1 hr .1VI1'l1 no railiOf in ''''''" l'<'-illol'1 .... R IO. 1:\aUI...al1y. ~I """" Rfi . .R 11 in 10 1 M k21 R""" ... n tT IOll heK iI rood r" . diodes Iud! a... or bRal lh rouah mlO l unr&ble I.d • Il''''''''c<! 10 lUI'n . tuord .:hnique. "'..n ...r h.In... fill. T une to 14. onlg l mo:I"1 .1>...10 be in<.. ."i..iahly by ~rul uptimiaal">II.lton rcrtUI lnl .. homr condru<:lor (<lr an IITIlltrur con' emplalin...r )'" " do root "". r' u m t he " . i"n e whidl c....m 'I Ct InIk.. I.. . ' L ..\I'C Iiltn. and iilliolld lnJ. hi:: a ·l~ ' r....'I"n -... r"lat. coJ hill' C.n d l!btl lhe: Irnut>1c could be minimil <:d hy pro\"idi n. or t1q"tptnrfll .ht..'" tItll I'HIN 2 in tho:' man". I'd b ia5C!\l . •.IL Solder I .. Anti Ihr roll. 8fd.. . a nd C<Wlnoc' I ..c..Iud~ "r tlk' 11M: clwall. Switcll Oft .. Thlol l~""l'k'I. rather Ihln opcntU the IIqI! wllh lJ'Ir zero bill CUi<lOO\Itily " IoN.... "1/1&1 owrt""oJ ....na l .. .d"r....:.. iliOfl.. tI~ • .. I"'.u. I"""~ t . uocd on lWO> H .om Iip<. 10 In.... . Thi. w ilh cr ywIIII <l!iCin. I I . 1 O·2S vo l".nt o:rI>N. ... "b\ c ...... II IPpl_ a lIillh I..iuocl ion . hrn ricwoed In llTl..._ . 27 U l a nd JQ U J in 101 "' t 2. N <>l. ".I"" un It. ..' arn"tlC"lC'"" ." he ..ble IJ. flninl (Ill .. n be Increaled "" liN" ....'I '" ..nd its hiIll _il'on k l ~ 7 kU .. lilt.11' h iKh/Y df«IM: . IIk' u . Then re-aaern hl.rn<'l: ' 0 Ihf cnul te1" l ..11 ' ho\Ild 'C'l>ull in • ra.00 "" to S~ _ It IhoIJlJ.nll no lrl "v 1110: tNIker '. Ihil 00 raMO il up. . l'oard II I'fll ~'2 on the Y... • 1Id 1101" • crylUl lill<:t" Il'l1mcd lalcly fnl .. 1 tm "'" ....1 a nd camull)· ..."..r i d" nlll ""'• ce k llllu n .. p in · "')I nted ii' r rimo: t(>Uf\'e• • ntl tk¥i. 00f'lr'" eonno. .oo l. . boll. nd 110. . ilh . h llc k 16.. Prinl lel 0 ))00 ..111'0 ".. IS . II in f-TIO I B and 10 11' .'l"metllalr tftqurncy .. aJlf""l'cd fint In Brt'fJ4· ill. .:ci\en hlvina only li.'. then ~ potoaiHo ' " ~-'.. T)'pOo. Connon ~ "" Iy II 11'0 '1 IU . n:u:i"C't " ."rully ~ "" ". It ... t. Ito ha.C. l..... rro nl (If ..mll...m. ml: iT Ii) !toe "".hk' H .l~ t" ro/Itcm 3~ ft .. n<'OM: hl.. inlomnOOu l. to be l/tXtntmli.r.imil.n l'l loc... rricf .. nt:>i-.. ioJC'tI pr in led c'rc. FT 101 H ~nd FTI OI[ tTIU<kb.. il\. r . hich lhe t>a>........ lion In 1M rreow:ncc "f IlfOO' 1i..... lhe S l671JO .. lIuc.. he r" . finn llu.... Tu m o n ""l.c-N"n kcr bt.n ". $t.:all) • " H k lh cer...'tdl<'<l liller iI 1000 Ill pi n ) f.. 1:1 ror ced be lu . h holoa.-in 10 pin ) .:c to nl l in l.1 SO m V n ........ 1" .. '" o f lhil n" " hlkall"n .rim or lI....luira ill 1cII'1 (" M vol ll on ill ta'll! (_uh .. R".. AHAT IU It R A DIO T ECHNIQU E S .mil" 10 ii .. RrrJ....r ..4 Stron....... II ' 0110»: R. l<. lIkh .j in ron..lC!lU ci""'i l d ill.:. mp lln IhIIl ' hr m inimum voItl le . un il .. . h • I·' Mil ....ly (>( the F T101 . Ul a nd Rfi ~2 k!J l : Q I In tile lUI B and [.Uft no IJI"t. nd ) '\1 ~I l in IOIE .qe dror.... lJlRIOeIi. .mr-nty wit!'t nuxcn UIIn. "Tl')' errecuv. iml'f't»'ai a""""". Cll•• nd lhe . ml'dwnbl or ~r)'Il.. ..Ii nin.. 1"lIkr Iv.... R""".... t. Th ll t>oa. .. he modil\cJlt~ ." ' . J 4I lU rnist. hieloJ. .<:U "" "nd..ociluO'd bur biu fl'I.. I"'n"".".l l" m o ..oI6 &IIoJ t :lnl kc R.e. ~ K "'~ !ot'n lnJ t he ""..." 1 ~ 8 .>in.. and -.1 Th."tIC of in pulL l1w miu. Jcvio. One or lhe:q UCIliooa . M.1 '<0. hit/kI .. f.. 1\IJ M. n: ..i".. A IlKful nlt lrl' u. ......nflC\:l .. s.... 11 .'I\' 'i"". ThiI 1)'Ill....hich I.. .L ..xn.r'I... rT 10 IL man . _ I.llIC Q. brou. TM Sl6 7OOt: iI .. J o... . Fo .11..." SL671 ..t.111.t. 'illlfic dfti8'l ..rd rtidWDoe "'hile h(li"... ~u..o... The boIIrd II t!o uhl.. 10 1 M k2 itxI te Q 2 a nd biIIo n:aillnn.nd <>tI.. >ItJt:r.'.... illli(lr the t>bc ~ 00 1.. (uttllc:r .......l........ynlheliit . on ly prnni.. ~ .b.1 try trlN nl 1'<" lilIl d tvidr t : 27 U J l lOl !' l2 k! I .'1 Ul in 101D...... . dncribed in !he HV<lr tl f'IJ. Illl i undl' ..pt>Ult* a !bed If.. .....' in !he i. l y in the 't'! na l pa lh ..l(:Clion 10 an optunum \a1ur c..' "r ."-lihClt".. 10..11".~ .1 d tvidrr mUll ee 'tell<'\' IMn a bou l 5 ¥ol il . ...e." """". . A.....tI PH l 1M1H o n t he r 'I'emr 1..1\0... ~. bipolar l . n5~lor it 't«dIl" ho: ..i m a number or Ll. bill' (of lhe otdrr of . . ranJC ..01 lilt.. .'l" wu Il<mI:eI"Iled .. Anti "..... .... .. rrttm ~h . and Iot:aI <>ti l" ..t nn 'llfl War of bolin!.... 1tM.•" ... GE XfofI ... On thl: 101 MU Ihf ""ioe-h1an h . w allO10 IG FETa.ira mnna.~ ... Ho _ . . band..-iill l i.... k . tlr soroer.... ' -"" I le rin H on U .tl i/i<:alion ......*: reUllOD €<In/llit.f\l l hr lin! m il«<. """".. .u .utn S-mclc r n""I'1'11t I «lIle S · meter a dj uo:l C<Wllrui '''' i f. as Q 2 ..•.... of I. bUI lhe lechnique fA ptOI"id. 1lw .. the modm. ~ Mntl iflut liom 10 Ihr FTI OI In cu .ud inll.1<anJJ" "rtta!( A. • djualmcnU. n...nl bias ..If Ihr •.. I«lion I" . 1111 lhe S IA:?O ~1O'd pIn..o un it . t he lra lbi. &li hence d it Iltndl\I'C in IemII of dynamIC nTlf<: and ~ r.r..~" 10 he . 'Iron. k1vc 1 ' .".... lnn l lt lU ll. hllO nol .I<'f>'tI) . v..m."1 • ~ or f...... M.. •• .lrioul ""lpu la Wllhout vel'}' e~tt'f\".Iut:. ho~ ..r.. od ln l lhc N>e." 1% 7)." Ql ....Ito In lJlt U&IIicnf\cn SX I........! be h><l rompk. "" . and could rrpm.. I t ) ll'e .d . 1I.." "ITO' In lOt.) and .. I>k dyn...h1 u p It> ru ll ''''II'<'' '" lhe li. Ih i. rreq ~ yet 1'~'''lI conttanl hUlm . RI 6...... ra u lt ·· ~..nd intr"'h lCC$ otWn! nnn· li nr~ '.. purcha..... nke..n . il up . I' I .uit wil h:...a..... compk1r .~ r rd biM is obIal nrd frnm .lJUlI. The .. inl/....'.."""'.k. tdF c...... mOo. brakthrou&h b Ul lhor q .uffc. c.n thll 'IlUllnlion tI( 10. ...". nd d"«t"e "...". .. . YOt<1Inf Iho: rrnbk:m.C• ..pp1 icd 10 lho: tran"'1"" krra55.i'l. nd its .1T. k 101 k l " l _ i. 27 HI .hoon one '" lhe li m" l. 1I intd by IIIilIIC lhe I" ""a ble a l«hnltluo--ha ¥e beom de vck'f'C'd Ul !he the ~ IIUUt (hrkmdP'"' .o.. 1I1CRf\cn S X I46 in "... The p. .. 01 r-rt'<Il . unit w"e o:x>nn«'!('11 sec.enl a mrthod ol obt...l U .lCivcn. Q _ I ~"il' 7_~M! " " '· "'·uil h.. 1'17' .int.)' . ""iraI/"....1 . R.. n1 I'BII U (P RIN2 in Fl lOl l: and IOIBI ...I.~ Ii "n . wthl . 1>0(ettrirr dlOdel. 1IInps. 1IIleon dna n tro.o:oJ Ihe'1l'aIOn . WtIt.. lhe: ad\1lll 1qr1 of &II euI)o ti...i..Se '~II)' r..... Sc ~d"" the fm: end of _he 1-2 1010 rooial '" 10 rin ) and re-lil .in OIl"il'"'l'fl1. '.:hicvw in ~I" or Ihf tcn<kn<.. )ltlmtI. .l rauIIO'd in • rnt>r'Il dc:p n l .y "r lhe n:t:ei"t::..'. . l ullahl..e a brnrtiaIl dffCl 00' lhor in ll/l"f1>Oodulllion chanclrn.1 fill"" Cln l'to: laIN. l'in ) ftum eol1h..~ CHI In ""1 yell.. 10 br delrmlincd II wbethrr .. BA r r. nl'l<Xlor a nd illOWlll il rrum pi n 2 hy cu ll In.."n . .. cond1t1.. ldr .. rtIC'ill'.. compo'. 'lli lh .nd in norma l opct1lUn. hieh ('()II.1.h l .. l. r. Remove bonom rover.rd 't> N IC w ntl«lOf """kd.... . ith . :D-!1dB "" It...~ e Ihicld .".. 10 1II a nd 101 i'.r.:-ftl "'-rd.rl.ndi--PRVin<Aly lIIf.( . a." 'JI(" or "T 101 "'I k2..lIh"."t:: I". .. .1 ."" b y D.01 "YCIIit>lltl n. rorm or '1ft hctl. . -....u bat bco:ln uwf"ul ly aJlJllicd 10 WlI>fllliona! Rltur Dmi...• tR'·n <Ill t. C..h... nd. ..o 10 i. !"""'CT I<'vl'l....UtRnl 10 lho: ha ll<! n r 0 1. t "" ·".... • omall n. and ..1..... lion ~han<:­ Icrist:iCI .. •..nln' th l'<'lll ban<h. T«ftnlqouft rn"" m.

.~ _ .• '----i "".. _ ... I'l lot '"-.J UC I!IV I!It TOrie S "... .N .... ..-1 ..... _ . ). _ _ .t.un'l ) ..n a . _011_".•__ " _.. .

..t " . &Ad 1Iw d. 11'C H .' phi . is putl...-.pplied O\1lb... IIbould N _vod bd'0I"II ~ ~"" and a'lIIO. Thio nn.ilh diff_ . " < . O aimcd JeNil1vlly II bcn~ than 2 ...aT ....---... &ul:kel.bJ..lheeue: lhlI .. lbe urnt caJl be! po'II'CR(I from baneriea...: . Coil and eapadlor declib arc J.. ...- j ... .. The: biuilll QllI'Idlrionl for lhe l N I<lO aAl dloIen 1 proYid!: unil'orm 0 raull......:. _ " - I _ --_ ft • • _ ·...1_ _ I I H </I (:1 D CI D ..1' ran. .. Le.1_ 1 (:t H.-..e II 011. .r" ~ l Rl'C 1bc: \Irblol1 v.--.1.. 1'OcI (: 1 t . 1. _.. ._. by So lilmn I~ ree.....0:........ . SM6CPI........f..... ~----.. 0 ..... CNooft. . t !be leldo... aDd it iI aha supatod lhat 20<18 pin.. roey of . u vlty ol .l a... _ _ ... Tbe ooiM f&clot or the mIX«.. by 21 ill... lN I.._ 81) in .. hMm• ..h.. RADIO T IC:HNIQU I! S 0... 'Ihonod unl il t/'allM.. W2 D MR and WB2EOZ delcriblll. V 'Nhen 'olJ~ by • l.-ooille 1 .ith two InlerMl'Holl Nile-riel ~I"_" in. .. and the d)'lWnk .. H. 1eadJ.._ . 1 ""' " 0...M....ac be ~ TIther Ihaa difta .. been te nt 1100.. IdUeYahle wilh QA! OIl 144 Mo:...-t or RmOve a dcvk>a wtri'.. d . .DtM.. lhe a ll il"l unit ".hed MSQ l lXn C4 SChoItky t-rricI" dIodaI .11 and outpul co.lOl' ~ ~ to d n:u il ..!molt I.. bial loYd . ".. . -.o:... 4 ...... cIr' (\jib the tu ppraaion of intennoJ ubl1ion pr«l..... . U " a- lbe lN l<lO . •• .. --.. . TbiI ""'ranC Model 18 Nllef 4~penIC!S eompletely .. ~ I "1" 1 l1 " .---I--~ . by 21 in.... .lI'.. _ (w""'"I _ IU ._. .l. FUll let. app liel to an ~). ----------------_. or from a ny re&lo""bly """ll-lIlto:rod 4... .... nonc.~ r-. four .. hen cu llin.. by Kjl:1I Strem. "'"P.iXl""U iI oa (t hi. rota m'" be olMrved: kcq) In.. . _ _ . . AHATl!UlIl. to ul=nl low AD IDt_1na: ArneriQ.. nn.. SbouI4 a ooclr.... 5"'60'1 QleIltk!1lI 11\111 with BIIM:T lTI()ftl elabontt... ... _ ......elI ud cue •• ......lly nll:eiver "".. YOlla_ _ _ "and" YOIIi.. ' _ . .. rOOUT ~.. r..r.. to bill Ilrnited by IiIO and .. Sdtott/I:.. • . protlo: l.. l"'neB In the Swedish penodlc:al /tMJhJ & Tdr". N .1 10 or bette r lhan I luner haYin. CI It .. ilh lhil typr ol lpprollCh an be ~Iff Ih&n 100d B- n.ped around lbo 1eadI-.th r the QIIlomar.. 1ho followla. UIIn.mplif'ier ca pl ble of 1KJlTIC 26dR pin and • ooile fIaun= of 2d1l a' 11 M~i•.4t1 R.npl lfln-.. much..... .... r.. ~ c. IIl1ed... ill eom~.n v. "'<bldl oho .. modulatIOn perl'o nna".iYal 'or pullillJ the lIfIit on 21 or ~ "'e/l. In the oriJInIl.. who round 1M d rQIlI (Fi. 1968 ). UdB ItOiIe Rill"._ _ 1_ •• _ .. III Il CA HdIII TIl'S (No_h«.OSf£T . man lhould r-y . • •_ . H OIo' a T _ _ • "'0.'~ pJlCllc ... ' .. "...h.. '"1'\..... ..t h tills uai t a head 01 il " hut.. ThI: ocmi. applied 10It..la:halque ..""" Pla _ .:t& .w . . amf'/ffin". I 'IICW and pu ll IbI lillfl&l infO • JowooiM mUer. U . _ _ ' ..u. noiItor . Itlou1d nol be n:m owo:l UJlliJ ~1 IOItIwill ..pool:iOWfl'. LI. _ ... a comptCllnile bcl_ optimum p in oand "I'limum ~ modWatloa reUotaOOll... of hia fronl -eDd . wgp.« ~ mon::o I lkfttion to dyunMc crOlHDOduiltiocl and inlCr.

. .. 11 iI . c:r-..u " ..... cntird)' dIalinaJcd. and miMr. _ ..1 .. _ PI. . Ii..."T .104.... . No dic>doo 1 ~ 0 l 1oaIIRnltniIWf ~-vp ..r...-(o-bKt pI'O(enn..-c ~ ber:ocnina ailable ~ble png. ~ CQST.J 1I).e..led .- .. . : ..mdl Mrial (1OfIlInIlmn.. order 10 danuII. ud IN (J"oIo.. .... .ic:nl .• "~ ••• ·~_".u l a ~ thal It1liq th. rrom IN pc'OUICtJW • ~tioo ~ • e-.. J of the pwanium pn:>tec:tM diodes _ -=nI&I)' . 1..... U>d siJicorl l1icloda "'Cl'W lined In their p-: .. ....1 .. .. ill Qll!WIlOII colIeaor mo<x. bolh rod 10 ttw__ 01 tbe tnMistot..-ida buil l-m _ _ protal:lioD 1". p I . ~ ~ Iq bel'0R' doll'lculbcl oa lhill I&:XlR oould to.n.. ... &Ad local ~tot . _ be Cll:lIZIIMRd br -.00_ _ . '_.tUc:b lLu T A' UO ll "'~te MOS FET .c . fOG . s. ' ....."...1 .. 1..lIer ....-.... lIninl MOSFE"r.~ ..II"UII"d 10 • r--~r.......mctJItbe jii ubknll of bKt._ ._ .92al) h..~ .._..... ~ irWk:&tat ia.. • 2N361~ " Pradl firm (CYJ'H · HII) fOf ~ millen oc_ . as r... in pqet. .. ul bw...k ~Il: MOS FET• . ..-.. 196'11 of tt.... ptoo'idod Ulal a..: 1M.. the ill"._ .1.....aI ~ ....tIC ~..... 10 . .. BritiIh palenl _MI• • ::. .'" -.. II..1.-........ice IwO IUd\ cOOdIs ~ -sed ID _ _ ill I' )----.I. redua: ~ aDd dIlcIril:al Ihoc.....dula. tTocn ~1oIl Io>. Febnaty. • ._.tlDI co-&Il rfil.-.._ _ . "~naHlui AlliQ:I '-23"...1. "'''''' . Cl/bl.1 II . .... '" ..

... .... _. . . •• . ._ _ .. .... 1 _ "..1&1 it.. tH. ". • •. . DIO T ICHNIQU I S • • I ({f>' .. . * .. ~ n. •• ...... * . UIl .. ..... ." I .. N -_...._ ....... N_ U l /vn UII/U I _ _ W "... _... .......~_ U . -_t" . . i . ... $ • " • .. • • I • • • ~ ~ .... ~ ..~ I • .. 1 "_ -.11... .. ... 10_ _ ' _ . Sf' _ L.. •• .. _ _ _ _ _ _ 10_ . . ....:~. ......MAT .. . "" ---.._...

. _ b 10 .e blnl$ WI ~ of the prlDdples could.ble..1«l 1Yl1em over many yean. __ . ~ ' . _ GM.. lhus natrOWlnl the <MnI1 p.. swlnl fo r I 0 to ') 'lol l c:hIDa:e : he therelore c:mtrca the fl'Cll UCPCY to 70s lr..pua ra ther lha n lowPI"'" Wlen. !Imnonic outpull.X .lIp M M with _ .. .a boll. proYkIN Ill...Wn... the "K07·II . Tbeac eom plu: filt1Cn are inteDt1ed for COllUll«ClII I pplielltlons II prices wttIeb pu t Illem bryond the reaeb of most IlJ1\Iltelln.. WICl" Iype EK07-110 is Intended 10 pnMdc contiDllOUI I dju.l1 ino:Jmin& liacW.__ _ •. . In pnelice he uocd IWO band.1 " ')'1 pul ld selectlvily is nI ~ ... om "I"~ .. 10 ) .. _ I.led lMt medwllc:al flIlen could provide the llC(leSIU)' ~ l ids if lhe fund.. Spurli baVll no! t-o f<lund... witb illiidell ip uduliqllll. he made It dellr WI by LAinS Ilhunl o.i1ed d iffereQCCll which lend to im pose more Itrinaml serocnilla rcquin:mcoll. IfallL Altbouah hil unli lIIed bllnd. eYen ea rliel ill I n MeL-SO Sp l Shirter uen.. t '" PI¥I1l.. I ~ vanable OIcillat o r 10 provid... a'eUed (or decreulld) lhe passband of the eecoad l!Jler ~ a WlY from the omlI1l treqlleDC)' of lho lint filler .nd. he __ IidcR Ih. _ koo. to leak .I asicr 10 implement. . He aIIo 1. the elect ronic: tllllin s diode lIIOI1 by 06LX provkIeI a 7 kcfr.."im. ..... 8t.... h d.. W6CAB whIeh IJldIMSed I com.t miller..l1 I rt iele A Yariable ba ndwid lb lUter by II . is aidslippe4" the reo:ei. band pul pai r pi. .. Tbc over lap CI. 19S5J showl I romparab le lech niq ue ill I. W hile wilb the Gorman alter Ihe rip. wl t lloclo . ~te4 potentials. TOPIC S '" II IJlIl IlCI III U. !be aklebltnd Is inverted In 1M ftrt.her . Th Ull ' I lhe omtre frcq uenc:y (OKillalor 70S ke/a) botb filtlll'l over lap euc1ly rwultinJ ill ID 11.J II ulOd {oscilia lor n llled IU"OLlnd 70S ke/l ).... T " 1O<{o . Hil !iltc:r nshown in PiS.w '. G JFPQ ako "'IS a slde. - . Rd emll:e b1clr.- ••r:'fu -..e/I ill the middle of I lineal rotmtlomo:oter .e both rundamenl&l and.. and no un wao ted 111"'11 ClID be t -rd OIl l..nalher' unil. hich form\ lM t.. each uains..boul ) ke fl . Very can:ful scr-=ninl and byJ:uIina are reqlli red 10 avoid Ieakqe atoWld the flIlCl"'I. . _" 11111. are fairly sophisticated 1i0000limp ie 1)'1* were found.. M arnnacme:ot but 0100( .Ii1l. 110 1D the second milter. .aa to be n:tuood m Older 10 hold I.I wel'O ..I. hip lllbilily of the tunina dlodc IUpply line II esM1ltla l WM n iWftS very 1W1'tN' bandwidths..t the vAriltbJe CIIIciIlalot obould be a ble 10 IWHI 10 one aide. Since " d iIJf'reOOll " mill. witchcf.. Eo Thomu. be found . and . Whi le it II ~U.11 _ t orw _-_..IIl bil l yslem.'Jbc diode .l1y ama kur t. M the ba ndpa. similar d i-.. alonas ide .. rel. 19. I 111 10 . Tbc o pc ra tiolutl 'd anU ~ of beln s able to select I n opti mum bultlwfdth for Ihe Ii conditlonl DeedI no nreu ina . wilh the OIdl la to1" 00 702 or 708 ke/l.U .. Tbc unit leA OlIC'illAtor II buill In to a d iec:&lt bo lt. lQICd ..I I U t llODt • _."1 ~ .~H' no••• O5CIIUT OR m •• JR"._ _.. the bolletla llo CODtllln illlerDll 1l:l'tleU. b.. ny opera tional probkmi and II a 1004 de. . w i" _ 1 .....cill. .. h.lInml for bandwidlhl from JOO ell rI._. tbl lUIIC llopo is Khic'oocd wilh narrow bandwidlh .np-. 10 alrnplify the tUllllbkl o. Even IbiI earl y ref~renc.'UC EIV EIl.wl. Aorordins to I"" R &: Schwlll1z c:ataloaue.. Ron G la iJ.J ortIy !h. 10111 0 TO4n tdtl 1 1k1l' WIlIl) " srll' 1 .ryalak. 10 QST (Febl'\ll l'J. GflLX's flIleI' ~ two H kc /s medla1licaJ filtlCn {lith« or bot h oIwhkh ~n be IwiU. .ndwKIth con trol . .lISbaM. .wl y 10 I:ffO ba nd width. _ __.ryala l allen.11 010 • .... tor in a IICCllIrld... bu t thi& II no t d ifficult once the teeh niq\le has eeee muleftd. wilChes aDd tunins diode are fed from . W6CAD ill erediled wilh o rlgillltin s 1M Idea of uain. .. • u l . I problem. _ 'TlM_ "". IIleaable bandwidlbl..bed OIlt of l._ _ ~ .~ o.. wilh broade r bao dwid thl. . T. . but4wldlh of. """ft. ..ciU6to r I rra.I.. .1 _ _ .. eKh 6J~ cou ld be dellsned wilh one e>ttreme ly 1Ieep-I!opeJ n::spom. _ m .I det. X 111_.~.e. BuT" lho OId lll1or frcq~ ls iJl. _ . ~ _.rops virl. G61... Tbc diode ..l1 boo furthe r decn:aaed until. p1ele circu li for sueh I aner usinll four 68 £6 1Il.iD.vail. . doet !lOt pmocnl .e curve. Ihl'Cll .. W I _ _ DlOOI WI u n _ lOll • . ± 1SO ~/I) to 12 'keJs ( ± 6 ke /I). with the o.

... G:wJTK • • Ilh r"ll rirru.. .\ 0 AMA T I U R IlAD IO T ICHNIQU I S G4 BWl:...-_.. " " dqaftl f _ 0( _ CUlk' M1 .....1onwlu n. of .. Ir.... " II II I "r><I 11 4 (li m " 1IC'''''OIl .• .....l'ft im ['ft l<o ln lhe If I" :!lJOl) ohm.... ..~ """- < " M M . I. . "'"f1f ... 114 a nd Rl 1'1 d l ~id. could h:...""".illI ...._ .hodl Ihr ""' <kWnN...... rbe I.....Il-r-" _1 a nd ." ltIa <:ompl u .~ k ou lru t ••.. •• l. Dud n. tow . t.. mpo:lO'lltll r.. ~ . I" .. · . 'n 1""'. ... . . _bla . ~ he lIC'l'"'daled 1"1 . cllW!a lk'm ht.flll l" " " H _ .. ~1~.. .. .~ Ml."" . rroto7" I...4dela.."""""t and ltonr • .... n . .... I hcor .kfl I<> ' . • M ' .nd Ih ...~ cd " . ill lh be cornpral ihlc . non· dcclrolytic ... filum".. .. 1L a ~ IIJ "vet r..he enero <If lhe .-...Iope rhaw oIirloIy 1_ l llll Il'I¢ Sl • • .... G6CJ••"" 11....17 •• _ ..-..... nd * Offl'iItt .lig...filter ·.... ..nm • I. he . tIf'I'CIICl _ . f of . potrntial .....:. I..4 J I' f I Ik ma l " .". by WII.. II .urn. R I "..ith Md· ~ 'Mil *i1 h louoJ.mf'lc (onn 11~Il'lOI'l I IU ... ' .nd ' ..--_. The " C.. _ II. I f ... r..... 1'..houl pbpe : ... " .. ~I'.....tI'f'110 i"..1 ~ hclr. "' "1 "b" ma for th. hI.. _.plenwo>l . ... l>uilt hli U"'" In 1I 11 aH-1. rn "t. " ilil-f'QI -.. _\::--._ -.nd I"" .Jco rU)"lI' ITlIJOI' rok........ . Ioco.""'....--1 ... I....:l pod. ...hed (OflJun<lion ... .'l"hnnn.l 'ii... d.... r".. lhe """oJ 0"..teh : ....Ion uf 1M eon...... form cI 10 tN ff'Gn . h. ' • • io 1I. h 'f'I!IIlCT... <'vct.... k.. .. for P&m.. ....I ... ra:o prnen.i\ 1 ~ ~.cnc.... H.....ny Io.... _ . ol ~."l1Ofll1l m~ hrI_ 1M rD.. I __ . ... dlallnod . I"""'" ..... a nd .. ~ I:A ~.l....... tll'c....1Iiwr and .. lhe 0100 R' ru.. lUdI .*." '*""'" '""J . . _ . .. H .it h lbe.ad npcrimeftt.I ... "-'ed C"'C1ttl) .'".d.. I ..n fl'Ofll c( him . · tI l""*'''''C ' " . .. d ' lia.- . II it .lc: S2. .. di....do •• " " _ till.... 'lOft. ... onI. io...w ...._ ~ 01' lim< io urodoubledly . "..... k.. " at.. CI In tlnt ... . ._ _ 'l' de.. 1"'" of ...11 r 1 r. . .Im ~ n. udlO ""'"..:"" I l'I¢ lhe ~ rnedlani&m by... J'f"'<CUMll .._ _ .. in........om""MI'lI ~ . M I)".. 100 lllV\'idc . --_..Nt 10 dkl rlhule . • hJonp.. . nl) 10 .-'C'I1Ii. boolldMdl h 0( 1M ~ ~ Ilpotl m.... C'phtn ~ (.:h ..fi!I ( . SorpIernbcr .'-"'r)' ...... Th .ol lhe ". ~ - ... ..... in • • "". o m~ .l."'. '10 ......".m If' ' hat.* lhe cia ( .." . 0.tit llnOftJ illI" rIei . from "..".. ' II'U' and . 10 . It'" oIliller it not inlftWied for .... "" tilt. """nude' . _ ...~_ ......o llo" ""llh a..... UI Clltw.. IftI ) - u _.lI" opnalor ..•..1' ....."..... I\aIln_opled • l'IlOdI _ pIa" .... h ~ ....1'1 C_ S~ /fl " . mililllly....m M r.. . ..:"r-..I .. • • Ion..l It: I' n>~... . t" ..nd .. *'_ . " ' id dcm.. ...tc low·l _ hea d l'horw.10.~ l'ohft' bJ ... n " IIdIOf'l1In ~ "<K l """""'....'~"""""" .\ '-d..:apkilon Ih " "'.._... ~ . "' ·.... -~.... h "01 "'"'1 .. ilil l hudrb<>tte '11 ' 11 a lIi. 1CIS'"'.".ll:l .. Tlw " . 1 " IN "ur---..... ~DiblC' ckarol~ I'" Qf*l1on 0( l ~ lYN lnOd In 1oI>d000000lei "........ ~ S....-d for (.. so:ound r'lJITl.he ...rtn· ....ny ....-. .... lho>och 11 NI_ t... T III .4"""" ........ or . 1«1''''). SI lnuoll ~ k"'Jpl'loneo. h.. .".._ .. . .pamlcd In .... ' M.. ~ net* ".t Cl'Ollb. hov.... C2 ano. roo"'''''' I n . -..hen d~ .. Ileadl'ho_....... H~.na l .r.. 01" ~It. out 'eoi Mal.. ...._-". 'l'I¢ .1M> tN' Vf'4'l11..... __. I..hft."r I RON" K) he Il ~ be" .. F'I..r... ' <'>nwnriy • •he left I... . '......I . ro:-l e he rt e.... ul... - - .m of h. «".'1 ..n Ihit IfITC'\.fiorl · 01 SOIIIkl i\ it Irve.

un 11 'hlnl .o.1 Conv.. ~.ng the low· pass a ud...tq[....noi se RCA 400. ... t)'PC . . eless Wor ld (Ja lluary. U> Io H _ " 1 LM.hni'lue " by Wes Haywa rd . howev er . The: OS /" a n lele lilI)'S : . T he.e.( l. C: 1 ~1 . receber . r".imllie . .s.S n..:<...1111rlled wire...ac ~ d lrc<:I-C" UprcJ hll.:) II ~ lnr lind a Ih ~l. (a bou l lo in. filler is c ll"octiw ). r~iViln ~iIlK dlrect conversion rrom .lUCIor (a nd valve) .. U40 O u.h g.1 poin l con tact dtodes i.... W 1Z01 and Dick Bin gha m...1 !.'e.m.s .. 11 _ . . The bea uly of th is ap pro ach is that the re is only a sim ple prcseleclor tu ned circuli. . /o.f..ked bern". n e l<kquat e. rl ftoen 110m .. n "' '''• • 116 p' I. eU1l1plel ioll or ~iver (if necessary ine~stflg va lue o f decnuplinc resislOl't in lhe fil'1lt IWO slages)."'..1nced linea r <!elector is based o n IWO small I" ruidal coil form ..w.) is SUI:~C5ted by I)." RI'Ai. 1II "'....l! pro blems is lhe linear detector with iI.-a .. "OUt.. _n ...I.f. 1%' o n wa rds in QST...... 94. . ud".. ." rai sHille 1 ranee.'\-mod ulatJo n pllIvidcd lh at the a.lI. lOn cadI I<>m i : .. ~'.r..!M r. L4 S t u.~~f l '0 ' . Dira. in~ lin ell oh m meier.. ' . n=led [or s. Il iJ poinled OUI. .fI. etc. even in the ot>senco o r I rc<:civcJ C<\mer. o The on ly slURe presenling an y rea l Ct' nstrueliOll. _ •.w... a re lrimm ed to abou l nn in.-..lu n: I re . Fig .0 '. This p resen ted full eee ~U'\lel ional det a ils (If a 3'$ Me. b.. illo. 000. wb le. on 0. hoo kl be chc<. held IOgether.. . lhe back-off diode D2 ca n be rep lactd by a n approp riale rc~i~ l<lr wilh 0M in perfo rmance. 'lCCli()tl. 1Yf'C. lha l if lupply volla &c and ambient lem pcr:.<0" H M . ollor<>l' ...10 d ra" ·n in Tedlllicil/ T"I'irs 10 the a1traetio n. 1I0k.( flag(: !U61 plus lin FE os..11'" .f..J117 '" 'f' " " car ii/li tion intcrfo:n:nce " ". (Ihis is 0( no COIlSCQUence o n C1"<K. ' . udio lrandsioti." 1%9 ). in WI. calion (about l00dD) need ed for hud. oarlhy ••" ..-idc:d by the lransi' lors 5a 1.. ' II .l=.33 . ' . After windin ll.. v Their a ppro ach is 10 use rOUT hot-carrier <. TIle ci rcuit i. ull . Th a . 01 lVo ...-. 1_ a .n<od lIau. hown in F ig. . TtII. TIll' I. di ode sh culd be of t he ~me lype as t he Wlunt d iode (0 3).l_ 11. 70 Mc/~ lrons..i~lor reo. beginning an d end o r CH nr lhe three wind lnll' '"=Jie«s " HOlte:trody ne:t O<1 t <1c to r -r' Os c ill a t o r M PF102 •'-"" '" .t Wi lh the AAZ I 7. is no Im la h ility in Ihe high-ga in a. I\e. baek-(llf diode" (02) in a r<lrw~rd. l... 101'Ol. 9). low... dia mder) winding lciH lar ly o f No. .. l'C:lu llinll from the article ."n"bly 1OOd1...10".. hak .ion __._ J M.. l...I . no pnted circ u ilS. .. I. o f relnl iv"' y ... 1 M. 140 ..:h in lenet h a nd the e nam el rconuvcd.o fille r which delerm ines select ivilY: see f ig. ""' ble o f copying c.. r. been made ill t his desil[fl to over. u.. r...b...'!Pl... U. n an d illOOrpo rales an extra . h. I.Jk ts.do ub le ba l.. performance.h. ' ' ' ' v".:1 Con· ." n a..e nUe mlllS 1 achieve m. liJllo. .:civer. allcntion ....ogn ilion for lh l. .lt ~ . amfll ilier (o llo"..-(lnly operation loClecT ivily co uld be sllarpe ned up a 1 / 0 hI' u.I ..r. 0 e nl lt~ hi Uty 10 !li e rca. .. Ll . wilh ~II fine luning by conlroillng lhe FET mcilllllO No I.. ling on lo ud .b. ~ ec ted Icx.. "r semiconl. an d lh is . ~""". W7WK R.u il with convenli"". Ih"ugh for 1 ~ .. .le._ Id .1. No a ltem pt ha.-..~ing resona nt D lilt~ ralher lhnn the I. al il. !1'f'rfOmlnnce o f Ihe c in.I. Then .. • 11 lie.I 10 a udio fre0 quencies u~inK linear delection . n. in ferio r to th . U J ' a •• li . pro'.l~ . two lomid wide-ba nd l ra n~· formen and (our liewlW J> ka rd 5082-2800 hor-earri ee ac diodes.hiued del«10r circu it in o rder 10 brin.."ed since IUlom:ll ic level co nlrol i-. I VO. u • d~uh k ba la w. Not e""n nn audio p in c ontrol is f...i."I •• ~I.RECEIVER TOPI C S fl Nf- " " ~~ " -~ '" N ~" 4·7K .~ . taled to have ltiY('n excellent suppression of 01'1 . Some care ma y be needed 10 e nsure Illa t the r. 1-101004. 0 /...f{!i.f. J "''''• • C 4 I.ls dnwn 1 hdn'" lhe miet"ovoll level a nd o f su!flel. Ihe l"" d.. nmenl. fl«3U-~ of the hi gh . lunc r ". the clippi ng leve l rilhl down 10 receiver noise level. ~ver rea:iV«! powerful llI ppon fmm No vember. Ton . 4n • • 1 M 1<>. bOy..w... . Fruin early 1961 onwa r<. _ .. 28 en.. 'I he e nlin: ampliH pllone u"" i~ provi ded by Ihe lhree high·beta.!! i ~crlprud oJct.... ~omc lhe in here nl r m blem or lhe au d io im..

. . ..I _ c.........m"._-_ __ . _ - -. ---_. •• . .. TI U ... .. ...'. _ ~~8i"'.o-oot ~. noo .. - -._100 _ _ 10 .....O J .lO't ". ) . ..~ ~ -... _ _ _ rW _ (IlS(. • ~ ".~ LfI ~ :'/ ~ ~ \ _ "w _ _.-.. ... .. ' $ -. ...•... ___ ....• - . _ .. 10 II'"" .1. ...TIM 0 "" _ _ .-..... ..t. D I O TIC H N I Q U I I __----*...... T1M-. .11 1 --_ ....... .. ~ .III . .. ... .. _ . . . -··_-..._ ~ I.

IUpeI'bcc ~ The lrnporuno:e ol lbe IInearilY and Inter...lon fo r e.bocqtJen l Ji..m int: In..1to hilhly bencfll:l. y half lMoI oi l 7)(. In a combinallon 0I1biII 10ft..... l lhe det ector..uer-.. W<lU1d nW<e a u. In lbe coa-enioa Il'f'OC'aI aDd 110 Impt(MI the etfOCl~ of t'O' t-<klOClQl' 1l:1a:tiYit)' fll1ladvt....H o... thI . ldl..1I 61H I . Yf'O _ 100 _ _ u-..nmo. Sueb . to be for col DUJ" dcmodu. . WbiIoI IiDe&r detactJoa 10 _UaJ to dJRa<OO. nu. bul 22dB _ . LaICl" (QST. What II PeW ht 1 ' .-... voltqe • delirable. u......iet1Ioa I(H V) I t ot66 te " delirN . Within • 'I'Cr)' few yea n. Almos t euctIy the same CDIlC~ .. AtIOl~ l vallabll beam lIet'Iectioa ..dittortlon.dio nll en IDCtn f. audio .loa ~ h 1t.c.. ferin. I"1"tIm l'lmctloo oIthit val. b.o.0. ma n)' H ¥Ul1a1Cl over sim ple IUper!leb.... Proreuor Villird d CllCl1bN • bUanoed M f req.. Ippean... by 0 Q .bol of U . . April.. thi n for . R...odYllt'l Ilhould Ih .cy conM delCO.. M _. ...t deto. . mlcrmodubllion bet_ II Ind lbe dcaited 1Iip>al QlJUId p. I'M&. ..11$ (u In lho COllvetllioNJ pl'O(IuI.• and..e. thll\tuIa Ii_ and . audio lmap. very 10001.ll.... 1 malO yean " 0 10 the d . . in}CCIion and two .w..:>r It DYal It'IOn dcUable for c. tv. In \hat artie._ •• ..).w.latloD and bunl-ple ciraaili in Amcric:an eolou r tdcviIlon m:e:i.ill ca lled .It ICElVIIt IIIId MIoodlv!ty .llable 10 lhe UK thfOlllh R CA who can IIIJ'1'Iy I da ll shoel (wiliu the 7)60. when u .. H. 15 vola..b WlYcIonn. .1o bolb teeel vetl and Irammillcn hu been II~ .. 1961 ) J.. u wilh 73601... (ff) dolIble lhe anode dlalpallon (3 WIIU).>'eIIIeI thai wbcn all ml«. Iad~ In UlI ctlm!Ql R C.-.... (.... ~ by Prie... 'Nhi".. tloq (I( • lOad pox11. hicb. 1 Thit illUII11l11oft Ieado to t . (I ) and lbe IUblllnlial rri< c &<Ivanl ...1 MormDnk: dis lOrtion n:su lun l from low level ••1.ICr and alto...• .o lCdwith the-al-known lYre 7360.. but aimoII-=1..... aa:pl ra. filler COIti _ than I IQOlt CI}'IIal fUter-. lIIOd. lbal.. val o.. .0)..• • rcoeption.th ~ ~).o.u.. .1 more 1m-I tl1lnUer clww. . the n the \IIlWanted Iloamodulauoa tat would be II 1 kel. complIlYd wi.r.) delIcctor p/llcI. OJJOO.na/)'IIIlndbtl!l lhal I hip \eYeI 01 b..tor). I arriwd ..-. TIll In. ."..oa• _ • aoI...ltley.. May.'aivi l. I1lt lo or lhe or-. of dda.una.vetaje dillo..1 detClC10r aod L f.In.iI1awn fint came illlO use. II.. !ow-d1'tonIon product deteet.. whOe lhe . . IectiYiI)' bocomer.. 1 o-boIb. lDOdulItioo perf..-.I 46$ ke/I and an inlcrlcrinl aifnalll 464 l e. lbc cootIdenbie value cl beam defIeo:tion ." (&1110 ..-d lbe 6JHI .. IiDll prodLa:cd will be mudo Iowcr thaa peall... a.b.. ~ 10 btu 10 pt.. prOlluct dcl«lon.. cond Ull... W6QYT In lhe Yet)' flnt I<. lha l an .b . lhe I&Ille U lhe lbtRIlIlipl... of • diode det«tor.e.fI-ctJooo '". ...f..1.Ith 0. "*. t .. V).1k also prtlInll ... to be tl ken <>l....-l anodea Inruoonduetaoo:e (4400 ... ncelYlltll Il1motI ...ttl Crndl.......lCOUI\I of wtwIl becatnt lo.•. . r more dl"ceti~ Tbe oombi . Bul when h COInR to e. R~<Yt>UW Tw. InjoIctIoo:o ~ 1101 l'IlI... marl)' kilt boob IlIIIOI Ih.~ ... it loccd DOt be Imp(*ibl )' biIh fa. provlda lUI a...." u.. Y(th. hiM/pk..5 . He ..ux:. a nd QII uldutt.. (c) l"OIlahly Iimilat . Th....isnaJ (5 V} . tbo ptoducc detectoo"'" ll l lhe np...~ U--J}.... be .lll a. • _ _ 11.nal'" In 5 . if fltlcd.' ¥OIl lI. Btl! lhit bit llIllaU.. ra:epUon QsT.. Iad ica~ lha t illiermodLl1atioo hct_ lbe lOra would be 2248 ItTIlapr IIwllhe '*ired ovtrul l H~ duc 10 the tarae pNk 10 . II.. Villani. troubk..1 M TO P' I C S '" veniont" aIlowlD. e.. fully II I mi:u:r In trl..-I M pria: ...oown U oroduet cIcIeclon ("" Sekaivil)' in • . balanocd rnod u lalotl" ete .. .s... artie" M -= .. OlJGO .-. of 1M JllO~nl ank:Ie.l>o-...teriltic:l .. buicchlrldcriti.... Mrio....ty In In -'-1arloed fann. of lbe 6J H 8 .La l l be teriouo anempc to redUOl IIOCl-llllearlli..' IPOd in tome tl/lliaM ... 0 .Ollmiller drcuila...." aaEptlIt*I ..... "... for """ II linear mIJ. OJSYC lisU • n llm ber of corrIJlIlritom oritb UlI 7UO: (a) suod dm.. u... 10 con¥mtloaal rood The . lhe cornrlele cquiw.m.. er. ScpIol1l le bele rod )'llll deleclon ha ' . to_.. lile the 7)60 it . l~ it IIkI wortby ofl'>ote fnol lcUt bea. n)' . He hat..'tof and ooted lhal . m:el mi.. opcnte II 0 vol" (l .

.. -. ~ In Table 1.. ~ "" n ..--r~ .. .-- . _ a..... ra. .. .. .ADOl 1S mID )'Illow IUfII ...._ V Induded In lbt _ orindifll data rar ViU.. ..J. ...----. .... vioIerI nztaI I.. U210) u . ..C_ ..1' --1J ~Il ......w . UlU I 3S IIInI ftoiIil ... 1In1... .. 1... A H "T IUIl It A D I D T ICHHIQU I U AJ.~• . ~ - . &1a' frDnl !tic M uflanl 'hIt._ . ' .Al311 IS _ V606et ~ lA24lJ 11 ..... '" e _ .. _ _ TABI. u-.....0 '" " m '00 '" " '" 21 Q N . .r-"_L__--'_~_L__"'__ ... 1.. " . SWO 1967).... "' . A lIfI*. .....Ille f. H.___... " '" '0 n. . 0<71 .. 1 0 .. ..n..l. .. • :10."w._ .~ ~ - {I.. .-U"#_ I-. r... QlaoMd ~ iIIdode _ w. tinta.."-:a= _ 1'1 • .... " . ...YMa .... ... L .A2lXlZ .. - 4' _ 21... C ....E 1 eo....I.... a. _ . _.... . • • ..oa..... . _• • _ ~..cw haft4book : 111II .. ... .. _ '.aubly ( WIno..• .. ... '" . .. 11 _ . UUMll..

IoIloo 10 6J1el"I for coa_ opaatlcxl. I I -4Od R down.. op.. ThillarldY 1'CII\oOYIlO!be ob. 10 rel U.. n .e ill ham.... filler ol lblli I)'pe 10 a roa:iwr goIy modo:eIlf. .i. _&IeP fwthef..n ~ U " If U O MlUMW tIM abo de .." ..M' _ iii ~ . I_volt f..leIy ~ &1_ "'Y «ImbinauoQ m......do 10 cope with the 011"..)'JIlI u.»10 al 10 kcll hlP'll Ie.bullOftl immeo1. kc/I .d IlIppftlUioo _ U.hole projo.JebU.i«t l &n<>Ihet OUlllClIIN unil in which "'II puaIl .. 1000..-.pll faetof lhan I'" oIhen.. I II IPl'""""bl~ bene.... "'-.u.. '"'" 175 cJo filler .mod I\llel"l I '" .... lbout ± )(l C:l l t 6dB down and ± 120 c!..." kc/o.n' ~ ~ ~ .l .r. _ JU_.'"I ~ ::!?' • ~.atlclloll 'lritlloul ba.m.....:z.b.". OperaUoo&lly. OYl!f I balldWMtlh 0/ abouc \lOll eI& &Ad . lime "I willi 'IlO audio fl. The ". ..l _ oflhl k'lM d .<iIl Vinkon IDd lil ver-miol QJlIICiton.1.4dB II: 110 C/I ..4d0 al .loped (u pari mI "' ".....b... pol ....6dB .au. ~ a.. )llO C/I TABU: J .. . I 'iV1 ~ 1o'''.\ed P.... lI ...d baMwldl. kcplacinl !be twlIHriolk PfOd.mol1D 1 KlI . buldpaa Clter Ir-fI0 9" 1. 7X1. '13. C&tI ~y punch up the ~ltI IiIICr OIImbinatioll.·-roo...t llf\« Ihcl d ipper ) . He iIl ... thcl l1lOlli_ (' II AI. D' ..... _ 6dB AI J-2tell ..m. .... . COlI alu iUnp.t U .... til &ad 0DdI .... 'A'lJcre ontl. .M ...!be rtlQum.-..124B I I .1248 at 240 ell ..llldB aI 160 cft .. .. _.. F1~ I-..r.""'" rnom ... J UO &ad 1:lOO c/o.- :- D' • \~ • • OOO KI 'I~TI ~ ..ll dtcuil 10 !lie a 0I>U9I& 0/ FETI n ·l a....-. be" '• ... ahl. • • "" "" • IOOIi\ . '" _ l lIdB II 6-0 kc/I _ :z.1 ..... 1'Ihw . tiaI... I a K.villa 0/ ~ and _ I. CIOInt. . .'!l .. The IIUie& l..IUC I!IY I!R TOPIC S us " ."".. 0_ .&. pro...:l o n 600..101) ""'Ill !be lDCUUftd perflll'1TWlDt IhoMI ill Table l . lI\a.." .r.. ~tY I'IIUIII ill aD 1lpplIR!D1 iPI::r-... Rut :zuAPC hu IUc:ll thla typI of ftJ . Ao:tM fIIIor ZUA PC hu paid IribulCl 10 !be uoer.. Ihe mala ~~r .U\led with l'QiIlon 10 p. . . He hal ada ptod !be ofiIin. apin 'lrilhoUl 1oudUn.. aI'Icr rl miHati'Alioo\.... llllen..

..11.n _4 10 d_~I­ should noll hi..w. iIdlln. . mode ... them unnllldable with narrow band'ltidlh._ l ... .n be _loaded ~ Yft'Y Itron. mode ..c_ U... lianak alld ptll ouI of halalK'e. rln.. wlth.11on an4 bk >ekinJ.m... .. III IIVoIn fcuu~ II lhal II ""luin!l no ..¥aI... " Man y of . For _ mUll ccx.... nco. ".1Iid1 elIn read ily be buill into the linal i. hk..Le... .ke... _ 11.. n oI'Ien bo I&tiitac&oty.... ..- ..w. .. pin conu oJ actin. . _ .. dmrla allcnuator lilted I' the . ~ ''' I L K (fi)[J W) who I'ftlric:h lUI bandMdth 10 ._lOll..Li. .• .... bu t If Iba r.. itcllin.. -• • - _-..1nr for up-d.-•....b .. hich ..tioM 01 to man-mad\ine . Input ca ll o(t ea remo\OC mud! 0( the trouble.f-------.. Itll.. ll ~ uo-bltI lo red ual tbcllian.. GIll: urect. l'.. " • •• • . .. both fl'Ula' mitlll:Tl and roociven mUll ha~. from Did . thai the detlll:tOf Ct. .. In pre:u.. . and lhl. till ..ound bu t (lid recci~ " G """1ft : MTIll!.A1I .. . .inJ the bcod\lI aI Dal'I'l:IW-buld NCepfioll..:-ry 10 to ... 0 I0Il It""'"" From R... 11 wort h IrylDa-s-nlcul.c..jver c:rou-mo<lu.-here one <IJleR 1. ..f. " pu t into Ihe R«lver . . more . o...ej \OCr h.....n... 011 the flnt I tl p. r- ""'"'m.DO!Mr il~ rnenl lIdlic¥ed by red ucin.... M M IDterfAl... 11M! only ... one d oet not CYm "'ve 10 modi!)' lhe fronl ~ ncI to IndU<k a ny new control.. 1'" T... '. by man d rlll'lk: _ tricl:1on of ~Ivel' ~ bandwidllil broqhl • not.. _ I _ _• ._ .. e.. bit normal ."' AHA T IU Il RADIO T ICHHIQU I S """'" _ N.... ....o hm PQICIlIJOIDeIOl'''' '''' the Input (Fl. ._ D _ . ... • _ ~j. ud ilOly ')'linn. ... 'Pf'ClIr UDOIbmld 10 DOiI8.. in lbe nonntol e. Ho ~ thai InlOffcnllXll II one. .... Wllh the l'pW...IUI room fer uteIuI PI'Oll'lU In lI.... nd ba..1rY ... a nd llndt tha I. u_ _ . b . c:omplr1e 1)'IIftll.. bandwid th. owtlookod. _---_ l N M . (lid . . 00 10 ~ bloctln.l'CICqltion 0 .... b...boon ~ ~:I .r.... H.... ~llon..-----. 'able DI(:lnaron... IransrOl1Tlrr Ct. C Amo hl : • •imple-co-ad d .... ..r...... n o -r.. ._ . Itch on the b. _ l U"""'Q "" ' 1 . bib!)' 10 COIli(:CDlnlC on .. wU \OIina.rty it ttl<: reo.. I' Illn. ... thou sh lt may IKJt Ippeal 10 the P111'l1U.not""r "..ed. Ived o.hI c.... ./I .... all 1M Imcohl.. pin II bKklnd.id« balll No< oetver "not operator .. . there II ._ _ _ _ r _ . TbClllNlJ ~ band~ Illter II dTa:tMly 1111 amaleUr' 1 OW'II .. A rclatod polDt II lhal 10 pennll tinter na rrow-bul4 operatkm. Some open1o:n have • . very simple ell'CUiUy . It sh ould be notGd.. thlll .1. mi~er <:ll'CUil (Fia 10l ) can I'C uoN wiIh VlttUll Uy .. ..t. ny of tho. _ _ .. "he The: helio:r ......tbblc .... _ _ 101 .... .ommu nallOOl RlC'C1ven.. from the . lOO e ll filler 1 ..."" atlOOM I '-r on c....... limp\cl 2l)G. .Cl. '. - w ill be Rlrovel'eIl. MIn .... ddol<..t..h In • r~ _ a..u no IePllI'll te' d ._ _ U_ . tIw 0 modem jatJOft.i ¥ft&1I whJctl 10 0Iheft.sv.. II by III) ~ tlllly IlIldcnIood ~. InIodCI Wl'Y mudl W(JfW by r.... .. 10 •••."""""n"'11y-o..li. AD iIIl_ 1III cumplc of 11Ur... 1M ... noted durin• • vail 10 • ndlo sutioll . At JlI". bed drlll or one IOn or .. . and .

R..urty ... w_ ...ta...._ atl«nplir\t: to _!he lWf.Il IC I!IV I!It TOP"C S '" . dU!ia...... But... . IIIUl KII:lOWII I faclOl'1o that llt'il cIIel'l dWqankod : ( II the fuml 01 d<mod......antiiM . _~... full.... _ ..~ _.. ~9691 by J.... .::::: ow . .I-....-bo Ioob Iftlo lIlill -. J:taT&.. :. CIdI IW' .. .. U. 10 arm..II :L . _ .b.... ..oftrIIIr_~ II • f. _ · PC _ _ T.. R.. Llk. 1_. PJJR" pointl lIUt tilt whwt 01 thiIJ e-cuil: &&I P. wiDdiap.. ... iii..full oirtaik 01.~ 1IM.oa ~ It II l:II........... ltICJI7. oc-M.w 1tIaI the til the rU. ' 1(11' rot a.. 11..n'rd." .. til about I Mch 10 I'fO'Iide Iimple aod cl'Ilcieat dBala .. n. or q.. atltllc:led mucb It*ltloe f10lll am&kuI't" lJIou&!' k hu tumeod up ~ c:rirniDalon illhr ..f.... lou . .. u_ ~- ... _' ....lomr:n 0. .. __ 11 ilDOl much p>d 1Iyi"l. A-Mf CI '. ~ do:flftiti .. _ fi&. ':I' " ...i--......... "'.WIiaaIor wil'-'t ~ !tal Pfol'olei. • '""_ _..--... lra. . I t _ . .. .. . dit- . . 9 dB " adwantqc 0/ u..I C = ..Iu..w • ':\' . and (2) petfOl'tl'lallCe under conditiom d random '* all.... .M.. _'...'.. .. _ ' " " _ .. .. .1". '.-:l \liplDelll but _ _ 10 .S for ~I~ Lf. OIru t ' 1_ 0( 1M ~tiDIlllJ f.m-nbet htl'r' muo:tr. 'J'IU... . . .__----------_-....' "B D SB N BFM AM :I~ '~I ' .. .t _lor ..."" Bl- ~--.• . A form 01'.. l OS.... . . __ _ ' ! a _ ' . UIeII r. T..... - * _. .._. L1 Io p .".. ~ ---(II' _ . ]OU . w diI<2Wnia. If..m. .nb .. P'obIml . ...::-=::~::::::=::. " .IIl 10 ani . _ •• L1 _ . limilcrl IliKrimiftrIOr ~ boola .....a -.... ... ..'1' IlI QUtltI ..0 ...1Ila::.. . _ MaooAro M&J lbowandao/~.... booIa .lnl. "Ill... U .. .m. ~ 01 mo4WaIn ImnlI vi eummun~..-..1 f\aut'e cl ment ." CIdI&I...nb IDOM W. _ ..no... .. _ 1_ L1 . funouI debale UMd to «JGceDUate oa that ... . . radiatiolI contpUWd wkII 1M IlION COD~ ~ ~ fUlJCl'"A'~ Qmoil.fJ)JIJITIolIIf1' - ·W • ':I 1'.. dn::uSt..ctioa .~ion ~ In the I'l ftha .b.

..he .<Inli. and lherI m ly by . the dri ~ Icwls .'1in..T a nd d.>lJe wtd b¥) low.. d C... bam built in li m"" mod ulat form "'lUnl VlII'Obo&t'd (:OnIlructiOll ia 11M <tie--. 0 1 0 T E CHN IQ U I S " ... is pvina the ~ COllluUCtor impurl&nl _ opcxonunil. ThiI h&r.. ... ~'S. r.a...l mu.. imI made (or J'1' .1! all clllioft has been ..t....lancod diodt rniAen "''' 1 hot. 2NSl97.In le l1t'll 0( quietrlesl and 1deaiYiI)'.cy SL600 oc.. of !he dllhcuhy of llCb~ oimul'. hy -orne I .mlconooluctw Derl.. '" b. bcca.."". r r-<h Tbit t«tion hu lndic:aced lhI. 1a liOll ~ ._ion... 3 1011060 __........ of linear inlepalcd cimul.. al .......lun.._ in I'tlOMl YQn 10 lm~ the frun l-end ped<Jl'll'l&lll:e 0( h..~ . .*.. ' IJ...• . hll equipmenl _ SliD iacompktc lhct ru:ci VCl" -=tio>n .umcr dioda (__ a.. Uw ontl lN mu&t rno<km FETl. ara K luaJJy MY leu nu.:IIOO de\om) ".. " boNt ."vcnen. . con......r. VIII. . bout IOdS. .1_ "...lN4&16 and TlSU... ~ is lhc lP'owin & _ 01 ~ douh le-m. 0 ( _ <:>l IM .mpl:ir'lc:n..n"iK ftcld. [flan JXJOd ~"'.....nc>tW...b. ! . " flcn In ca... TIS U. r or OOl -QIrrler dioda an '*"lIMUf l1l1.. .. ......>1' . outpa1CJftlJiq I1iI mai n . "oed in 144 "1...ml'l" ""nl 1_ n t l ).u1.. InI .". 0. J ".J S. OIein_t".'" by red uctna the lime RIlI uinld 1 llneloJl and put l._ !'!O' ~_!~ ~'! t· !-'!~l _ _ ~ ' _ I • _.. ""'"' Of less ujIlIo.rrCOlueoc:y pin .'1 .I· I _ ' . a vailahi hlY. 1Ihou1d be 1'!lCOInizc<t. _ _ • "" ~--:-" U.-n k W IKm. ra:a~ and oon~ 0 One of lhe _ """"'lUll cl ~ unall .....~uad n.. OWlO RY.efJeo:t lIanAlalor . "".. boNI "' .ft.ich may be pna:dc:d by land vtuall)' r...II.::rnWn.. 1. oc:mioobdoo." COIl ~2. 1'--. '*' W ally B~ onkv...rlin. >I>irt' ..... pXId Y. .II . The IilJu LIIJ. bk prio.."'" amalCW'l conaidu t hat lhe f$.wla blcl for QOInIIlunQlio!ll ~ utton. 0( li _ inlqralN a l'ClJll• ..Ilnc ~IO D " of F'ET ~ .cr 0 rd... biah-pan and aood aot. a modem truteei_ buill &roIInd a 9 Mc/' l:I)"Il al fillC'!". This point has Ixcn Il~ by F ... 4d B . ul inl "'" PIc."". . a minor reYOlution in low- TblIltl<...n crl ~ tn di"l'potnlrntal wilh act ual : rcsuh. IlP ~2-U» 01'.l."'.. T IU ft _ . f<N' boIh fT.. cum..oodc l.r........ and. ... I..ti¥eJy (lOmI'Jla. Ioj~ .U m.he "Id~ 2NlUJ. _ _ O HIOP'. A!thouah• • 1 the tII1le cI writ in.h r.....ImOd.. ... and prd"er&bly h':pinl li... bouII. 0 . oqu ipmmm.u. _ _ I' I\.. . )'Cll f -eo I lt&rtlld bu d4i Ill I404 M IIl FET co n~!In.. pattI..w. who hu been build ln.'..

..tI ~_ __ . _ _. ----"'II" _ . . • •• _ • .j. . _ _ ... SL020 1 ' 0 . . . .-It _ _• _ C I . . .... ....: I . OK SU~10 SU l1 2 k_. . ~ I ....... _ ~ 0 :. Sl. .. ...p . T 0 . . .... M _. CJ" a'... ~ ." IC IIV I" TOP I C . ...~ " -.. . et . . . CJ...... IIUJt _ fl• .UM . I.&JO .:0 ._ --".~ ~~=t .....LQI _--... ._al_.. f _ .... ca. ...-.. ....

. .._ .F~":'~ •. . .... .. ......lklll ":1 . . ... Dt. r llt ..• _ .~ . ... .. _ .... . 8~ $oI1ft Jj.. U . ..~ I' .11. ..nc.. .<loo_"_"M'... "" "" .. . TIl. A ~~ . ""........ 4 '''$ '-"" ~ - '" .. l..~ o-em " ~ "'" " '- .... .5_ ... _ ''''''''8 f---r'-" ~.• _ .." "'~ 'II OW :... It.'C M_ .._U.. ~ ...1-~rt.11 """" d ... _e..

...lh-oelcdivily I I low lign&I.. _ 10 .._..l JlI'Od_ I reduct jon <If oianaol-IO-noi-e ~tlo by IOdB... tbe IJ... b<mJwidlll ) Ihen the front~nd p in mll.i.II l'Jl'Otot)'Jle havina "'1-' c Jemet. dwin II nol quiel (mea n inl lo w oo io<: and _ . baruJpau filler .. ..... .... So:MIin wnlCll: .lenl palh by.-wn. -~- I I A term eew to me 1111"lled up RCeOtly In I [ect lll"e by D.. .1 IIwoy from wanted Ii.ned. When properb <k_ i.. comins th rouSh the n iter II Ie.. lip l may not f..lon-Jc.. Ill. .tu..!cally II is a bandl)Ul tille r derlvN from • Tbe lo w·JII..n ImPOn&lll ~ndcr lhat II I le. and a1t1wl¢l the lIltede. In o rder 10 ceerride lufllcicnl ly Ihcl Lf.10 rcocivcn. He uses thb VlI lid I l'JIUT1Cnl 10 jllilify wb4t II ~leafly I complex I nd elCpeltlive I~h to recefver del ian in<:!Ud10. tiD .t fbl...ffidl:nt to I chieve hi. 11 2) to reduce lhe Innuelll. .e el ion ..' or th e " Ie rodyne. .._ . When . IIlI an equl.:c<l 20 " . in a. ~ • W-pole lninillll. tloi U Introduoe Je\Iele limItallont on RUMr perfOflTllnc:e. l d .. si"...Jly p'netlted bctcrodyue Iipliis. 1 ' .. I RUive r...:llit._ U . ... 1)42 10 1343)..... Onl)' YeO")' few m:>eiven hive !his parameter better than 7011 8." to • I~ of tnlIIbk! to IT\Ilke tho nclse bluKIwid th of the Lf..Uon to u...mllCle with I broad. RUMr with I blab IigIIrc of roeiprocal mWns ...-. Ill. _ _L I. ....pw!n... . '''""'I'''''''' _..".... ud tI\lUl)' eomlderabl...:.. Sosin on the del illl of II.ll are mixed. He polnll (lII1 Doe of I """'I In. band ~ilJllA1L U oli" C Nlu-madlJ<Jtioll stroll.. de_illT' .nJ perform ~Il $omIl 7{ldB redproc:aI mWn.... ... This '" called I"ff/pmnl/ trdxhw aDd ill InCll5III"Cd by the amourol o f noilie inlrodliocd Inlo the OIltpu l by thil phenomenon. bOClllu e the naTmw-band no i".. (and U ma. ItKJproc<Jl .. ~ ••• to . ' . noi~ i.. ta. Unde r DOrmal cooditlon.e laler Ita. e~n is more oft en arasped. Illite ioterfenna l._ -W.. jllT'. "..l l ppe&n 1.ul f" r Ihcl c. AUgIlIl..Fi).. _ .. It II e vident lhat ooly . " fo 111... in.....1Of' will oool'u".. fooo nI. . T .... . the n OM: 10 produced may be In-bll..... b. idebanlb (_ Seclkln -4).. ..C of this noise by about l'dB.. C _ iC4 _ ... _ . band. inoomin. il il l triple. dc. II ' ". it will provide Ihe besl pouible Rjeclioll outside ill pusband : ". h iah ' hilS ' ~J I nd poor . .. Such I rooeiver will Ippear noi!y uDder operailit& cood illon&" ud an o petl. .I0 WI" " I.. tMd to coYI:T tbe elted of . . IlOioc bandwidth at Ih. ~hain only sIilhtly wide r t han lhal o f lbe ayotltl fi ller.."'I "'''''' t:t· •.... Ho wever. .. 0 .R EC E IV E R TOP ICS '" 2N4416 Cl_a_ .. .er il will a110 mit with the no. .r.1I 1n the I.w. Colm ( I"m~ IRE:........... '" Cl rQ _ " M _ hI'. Un."-.. when In faa lhia ma)' .w..r .. ope~tor) II i...f ..noilivity. f""'lyo-y- .. noise leve l : " Ihil prllbkm b ~Iy IIClrioll$ III e...lInal ~ kc/S I.... I b le 10 . when /noe l (d B lilY> 0( Inle01erenoe .. Ihll wilh lhe rec:elYer " '.~'I~ "..idcr n:ciproaol ml.. a1lbo11sb its IPPu. balll\C'Od mh er (FiS...... I b lab noioe fllCtc>r...f.. Le.... B. and t hen 10 rOl"Jel l bocl. wllh Joc..dinS receteer performa. \IOOfM ...d 'W : and ... _ ..._ ..1 Ind '''''lIl """il Lotor lM.Dd... " pol .. l poa<..""... 1 be inCI'elUed.. _: ' . . _ tbll if lbe I..nented by thD Intenelioo {mWnS) of two oul-of'. i • ..r. 1959.1y rell tively ~Ily bas I phenomen"n called rociproca l mildn. nee be too til .. M.-. B.. .... lilterinJ. of thcl roceJvoer. The rewll II ... be the MIx"'. no liaual ll ooiK free.:..." ' _ .."'" 1"/ntlolo u It ... unkladcd roil Q . 11_ _ . 11 " {l'OUible 10 oon.y) Ihil type "I' fille r ill" tbe propcny Ihl t fo r I l peclfled numbe r or tomod ein. " I a " " ..f. and ftller fIOlle fi«IIn. ~ 00l I lilter IJ'Pl'OlIl:b lUll' lI'CIIod by S. "'I. . In 1UpeT' het I':QCMn the n dio fn:qucnq 10 wnvcned to inter modi"le fn:quc..~ . ppl-=.. .~1 elfl)' ... 0' I ...nce... . He 1110 deliven -..nled Intermodu1ation p roducts In reeeiYI:n rd en to 1be Inoband ' 1aDIl1s whieh IDI)' be ... _ · ~ A _ . Il l . solid-lille commllllicalioltl l'llOllivcn.iBJta.._ U ..ic1 in vl lious lJIiJtcn..IIoII Il... ~n I ppreclated.. M..1 the mi.r.. .. .. 1101 .. ..... Anolher term which ttlU eaUJeS I01TIIl conI\l!lIon Is 1111_ ... M -~ - Intel'fOlooW.ned" bottom<ouplcd 1I11Iy U inll l bisb-Q t(}O'gjd if!"J\II. u il doeI lhe fllrthcr convcn lon to .l between u ri&! and lint m iller ill unusual and lillie kn own : _ . J!P._ • .. . This W illi rw:1proro/ ml..

•.....11_ .. . <1' " _w..."..".. .. V '_ _ • I I .. G _ n .._1' . _ .W .. .-. .. . ~. _ --I . .. _""" '-0).'" AM A TEUR R A D I O TECHNIQU E S ~. _ .'t::'::"'-_-~."".. _ _ .. ....". _ _ I _.... . .:.1_.. ..~ i_ I . .~ J.. -... 1 H UD':' X"'_~ ' . e . ... " •." . .-.. _ ..... __ * .. .. . c:. .. lj2 . c~ ::--:.. l/ cce m .. I:: -::. _ "'"' . 'I f $ _ _ .-... _ .. . -wi.. ...nloo_ ' ~ ± _ _ • ..

.tehin.~ C~ I VU' T OP ICS '" " rIM.. . h II Irnpol1al1t 10 ronnect the """'" in the co~ PI&. f1:POI'tI 0 IIIlnl bPth OA 811 and unmart... 00. _1 .641 double ba lanced inlelll"ted<ireu.-d c:are in coo. b.-0vpN. UP to I to 3 volta r..ibebo added to tho: llOito fiaun: of l he lint Lf... • ... ~r.... lhe bo!-eatricr dic>de Ihoul et be a ble to cope with lipllls 0( 0YeI' 300 mY... ~ from or the mlaor ...cl:1on or fundamcntal lnpul frequencie.. ynunetril. malChinl by mea.he third W~ 10 obl. II.r.he more C\DIOmarJ diodo-quad doub le-bal.. WA IFRJ indic:a1Cl how the bala nce CllD be Improved b)' outpUll 0( IS 10 30dB (and up 10 . dilferenoe freoueDclee In t he output clrcuit..... h.. The -=i1\.k1e1 are " liqle bal.. _ _tional mlwr..boul 12OdB... Impor1anl . k Ulal coow:nioa p " Itu.. wt. 32 erwDdled .. 1r.. _laCe II uaeo1 To obtaia optimwn performance lhe re must be IUIJIclent local OICillator iojeetion... tranlilton and F'ET... baa pethapt _ r beelt the empb· .1IaDd-drill and !.. en.f.. Co~ ..D . In the abeence or hot_rrier d iodes.)'SImII. IpeQ(l.. 10 wind 011 10 tbe loroid. and lhe use of wires ha. 100 mv linearly. E. Wbetut .. 1Idl . eoaw: rsiorl I. or crosa OOIIplecl pcDloJes. 51. . a1..forma~tb tbiI ' )"'Item the iDput and output d rcuita C&Il be thoae of any Ii" " dIallaed. The f01'1Dlltion or double.. anothu II the .. If:IlCI'IlOf1.. I1rur lloa if o ptimum pcrfOI'lT\lll>CC Ia 10 be achleYed.e 1.. With femle to m idl it II pP$Oible 10 make the miur e1f«tive OYer lhe wbPle m . for t he aJ)... d. "with all balanc:ed .f... " .. milleI1l&lld modulaton by ~. Powdeftld. amplilW:r 10 r... (in lhe use ot I : 1 I1lOO biftlar·wovnd inPul I.u rlnl forw.u JlOiae fiaure -.f. ....:oupled ..t.. and • dynamit. Mcc ba1anaBet mixen anet modu1ators.f ."... owoer !. I . ".iodee..ued tbl:a the --. _ ' 1_•••• _ . &lid other frequency ')"IIlhe... and J . Pot Iooc1 wido-band pcr1brmanoe the couplinl bel_a the U'atllformer windlnlll IhouId be .tI1 require atoUDd 4 mW lajectiotl : oomc: dco....Ire. _ .l. : 10 minimize ima.. a FET nmercan handle .. .... 1I1e.. bolb h. Hodatinl.22 volta acroII M ohma).f....11y lUilable due to IIIe n:1atiw:1y poor fl>l'Wllnl 10 bade raiswlce ratio. 1bIr.... For 3·' Mel. ~ ham . 'Tho: n:jc.ill a liabl lrifllar Ialath of Ytife before mrtiD. Il6. 03E1F.. tU I .m. '. bul ICnerU!y fl>t hllb-perfonnance applications IOlIlll 9 to Ud B or pin III WA6NCT SlJ&IQb thaI lWO wita IbouId lint be lwilced toactller ~ me&IIl 0( a ..". broW-bul4 I>~tion. of coww. • mplillen. ran".IId OUtpul II1ln.lanced uail' )...116..... direct oonw:rtlon ~M:n.formen.. pom l1IIIy be IDlerH plcte brOfod·band moduIcI are Ol>rnmerdally available buI are Cl>I1 ly lleml whc:a Ol>m ~n:d with bl>me Ol>TIIulxtioa... a Jle&1 deal more ooctIlator powa than teQuinld fur aD FET RUU.5OdB in can:fulIy t. !Of and IianaI .f. Thll CR-.llf.. hc:a no r.o. b.. lemic:onductor receMt'. thiI apprweb al_ probably lhe best d yrwnK: ilia". IXlIy the Pinal lteqlIellC)' and lhe NnHlod. compuler diodes can live Iood perfOfJr\allCle.. but convenlional If:l'lT'Inium diodes are no! re. When pru:cdcet and rnl10wed b)' load Iloeat ~ d . ' _ ...lg"..II.he plc ' I. Eac:b windin..f. 1ta ae: It Ia poa. Dd rewna resiIIIIICCI on • tclat meier. It illmporWlt to remember that if no d . and typial ly o:OOdc: quad. '"""_.. and . liahl U . nd I : 2 Input aDd ou tput I1IIItehin."....---.k whicb it _ITII to 4eterve. thai II 10 "')' Ulal 1lIU&1/y the OICilJalor I'ft\Quency Ia '-1anced OUI IlI lhe OU1PIlI._ In<:reaslllil loaaJ-ooeillalllr power up to about I mW fo. and . triodeI...luable for moduIalon iD ". • •. tl1lnlformcn .r.wountl I1III I~hina IfUIfonnen.. can COlllis l of ~lwtIeD aboul 12 to 20 luml (accordinll 10 core and frequency raqe) at No. rnIu. addilitlNl l complbliloa II l'Iot of\eu usea III mlRn but _ Ill be .o hiahly attnctive for heterodyne v.114 otber rpurious re ?: ee It II uswo lw pul ooe or more tUlled o eltcuil_ in frolll lhe Im.. . lp h or up to. C'Vea ....ed ..troa loroidl are DOl m il) capable or ptO'iidin.ud .Ih in. II proNbl)' dclil1lbJc: .:a1 Ia)'Ollt of the unlta . a no_ IIl1\lR of 9 to IOdB. IhlI helpa 10 ~ the illherent un balance P( trifI1at.beo repealed WIth !.1• • .ibIol: to bui ld a 144 Mell Cl>IIw:l'1er withoul r.4 MI• . IlIIY.. rwilchin. IlIe re II no IICllld 1 .. ovamuch. Good doublD-balana:d d iolk mPcn ... III addillon 10 the usual 2 . . pP"O&Ch forms lhe basil of the ~~~ l64O and.Tb ll...rmanium.f. _ . In • d oobla- _Yin.Ie&d III k>u QU1 be acltiewd ..il One or the advantqn. plK1.. .llmina:tloD III canoflltly balanced lra/ll.-..... ~I "'.. ranlC of up 10 .tl a~icatlonl.. tboM UIOd In .. acroA M t>luno.U iIIcIude the COQw:nlor1 and llJlU 1 _ III dec. dilfel'elltly tim ed enamell caD helP. " .h..

llot h . in DL-V TC (N o.t 2·7 Mc/I bcKh &I I ~ impodanoc o f $0 ohms With outpul ~ .d hcm1 1 ma y lliftl:h .. ple o f "diR!cI.. . Cr<.i1CCfS.. pn» Icm$ lIS _llll$ ad"'D~ ill the ~ mUer COlIflcantiol:\.. il leftdl lo Il(t iU .a p.".8 (XW I) lyndtrotlOUl I'ClCCiYc r bricl'Iy ~tioncd (aIo.:c Is the pmp"rty of double ~ I t. .ta. pointl OUI Wt ~ . T1lc firS( amatcur 10 CJl.. or ~KUlar tmport&nl.w. several other fOllr-dlode miur ".. b.1 _ _ ""."UI I)".1.nillean l ~jeclloo of both the Input freqlJCll(:~. While lbc diOOe-quad On. Iligh A1pprnUon o f bo lh Iouol-05ciJ. l his pa per!hll Ilstod I number of .oo-d how a " two-phasc l yndtnMOlll rcceivc r. . •• D. Tbc buic pentodc circuil on_pIIS'll 16j lI'IIly be • laSd. complele . 1970. 11m : popu l:u armn ".. thaI . f':lnlc>llarly 01lC that Wol:S the u h! na l. have IlIC ful app liclltlOlll III superMt . " ..dd-on Q-rnultlplicr. Gardiner. possibly with ..dina wblcQuenl or the rt:UM r.e.... . But Iso .. and l ipll1.m.ics..t Ihl.illOl')' o f dircd:<OI\vcn!oa..iD caD be obuoincd &irmdlaDctrlnly from lhe IWO-lnnsmor' Cft'lM-CDIIpled ' miu r cl mb er Is dou ble-balanced.lQ1&Jw.in ly Ill... Y"eFY90 "' ()'~ 000I . ha t WII tbI fiQt l'IIbUshed uoc o f the tell'li tlir«t-Nn rrrdDtr '"'"~ is the nporWlI pa pcr 00 I ~ communicatioal by Costas in the f&fQOtl& &.. "'" I I~ I 3" ~~ . ' ~.moo. hich are of J'?1 value in lhe <ksI~ otcommunicalion equipment.. faili lo proYlde eer!&in real~' o f per formance . is thlll .1 hishcr intermediatc freq uencies.Dd. An . _ hal a tendency 10 iDsu.. brOllllbu>d " "So b.. $imp!c ) -. transfo~r to proyldc the reJO/Iant cin..Iypc oseJl lolto r systems . . G JJOO. dclCrihcd by Adlben i Hugenroth.:.w1 OIllpul..s .¢' In the out· PIlL nc...rmonic:s ol bo lh !hew frequencies lend 10 be praelll In --.Ia -)'ina the h. recefvers is bl:licYcd to ha ve bccu K. ~Ily recei'o'e. 1'l'bidI tI rudily .lanced and double-b.>u<oupkd lBmjstor mIle r. le-b3lance d. CosIU. .... m.. ) .Ithou.p fOC" !tiP' pcnormaaot: rt:U ivcn .e. Proc l EE:.. _ fu1 QlQlitlo kJlO*.cd ill ~ cl bo lh IipIaI and OKillator frcqucn..a..11_ " .l b. II.h Pf"ClIb tup... I . Hist orically this .. one comes up apiIKt the A N fFRR.. 118 II lh e circuit diav am 01 1 unu..ploit 1M p rirx.. ThiI pe per provideI u. Since then he hal builI oevcBl more RCCiY Cll.~ '--. Fla.11 7: ' • simp le an d moro .. ITKlre .. both D~RKi>lu".. 196 7). . Thc cLc..(.o TECHNIQUE S . .. Mel.. Btn direa~nioD aM offers ady.uit.. pproKb is IUpponed by SOC'l>e oI\e6O\'eriookcd wort in lhis field by JohD P. how bett er dynamic ranll¢ than DOII-b11 I=d m.: Slrcn. • """ .. Wlnina roillt ror . Fla .. houo of " " I R£ (Dccembt'.II..~ SeAS ~~ ec "'" '" ecce . Doublc· blllunccd mb en .. ~~ $iol:e the tn nlillOl'l are QlI oIf ilIlbc ablenoc of .iI1 """ "_ "" ''-- . W2CJtR..... loom the: ..-. .. aood dolibk r.dvanced. III. eo.mcnl... ott the possibt1ity of bi&h "". olfuinl II l il/. IllCI(a llltbly .b. _ _ _. p l f~~ and lhe OIci1lalor frequc lKY a re balanoed OUI. .1 modcnte COlt. . ~.laIor and iIlplIl Nanau &I !he aU.1 or MOS FkT operation ... hmiruolc<1 from lhe ou tput._ .sout* t."lIIIIla phase quadraNre tec hniques. ilW.llblish fully lWilchina Ktioo in t he I~ : 0 Iypically froon JOO 10 900 m\' for 'Ilicrwl e. lot of l'l!CCMI'I lind lramc:cm:n tha i an: fitted only with .: l!c n llIld the I.. ""'-O-W_ Ita'" Fla. de lCriptioa o f their IJilem II 1 broMIbanll-bul bycompa ril<ln wli h c...ni1aWe jg the rin!~""" IIliMr fw instance . NQvcmber. o r the Ol'lkr of 20 10 80 mY . eIl. an d IhlU larte ly .1 ••I<a... the sln&le-tramistor In j"" . It .. IYtlic:aUY 6dB (wil b bot<arrier dWobl.. .-k-¥o: inJl'" sip&l1 u d the local 0ICil1&loT from overJo... and diode ~h l1nl wnfi Jllrationl are only sin. _ _. I I1. DUNX.. COD~ " for fully·lnnloislorilod h-f. The rina llIO<lulalw bu!he di:adftn. so tha t hll. in many appJations. bin the Pf09I'ttieI (....1]anced alTUl aemrnts .f.. . 1 es1... C..1ula:: aDd usefu l coave. Convcnion pia ill these c:oodiliom iI aboul 1210 1)d 8. c k ~ from a 6·) '\'011 hellIer Hne. (Of iDPUL 8uJy Priestley.f. Thl! W l inlcnded for 46' ke/I o pc ratloll. in .ernn>l. hh ill own miniature powee p.:!V ' Ia.. 111 IF ---_ . The IOQI 0Ki11a1l>l' inj«tioQ eeeds ro be bish-.Dd .. IIllcn (.. rran aemcntl. Sl'Urptcn PAOlC Slt (£1« . .. Thc a rn. d'illJttllCl of diI'ed<Oll "CTlioa and induded the btuit: outIiDc of wbal I\as become the simple form of di~_Aioa recolYC" .de dn<:t~ ~ rt:Uiom. 10-' Mc:.pjll lheoedi>adYan"'aea il II . but could bo: used quite elfroivcly. such u 11M. diO<k sen:. b&w-d a rnn. il cc m.n !be dmAt is l. 119 outlines.ke. SuralLl aDd J..teI" The re ere ltill quite. 19$6).1Id direct-convcl1ion reeeeeo : in pre-miur and belcmdync. I • . Ute WI i'I introduoet Ucnibnl eotI"1'Iion Iooa. (970). cl t hil tJ'j'JC. G .t • loc:all*ll"'Ior freq uency o f a M q. " I ~ _ . could c\lnl'" ate (OClC l idcba.bilitr.. D U N X .. ~ w ll ' In.pcrimc nla l multI.

....... rruok. ....... . '-.:1& MFET bipolar tra MPF102 t'tc and 1ION:~ devic:a) II with the " .. _ K.. • __ .""... .. ..~.. • lIdio-de .. ... "" ~ ."".w on '~ i • I GoI •• •n """"" . ' . to obl."I C I I Y I " T O P" C S ...l ""'- -~ ......... -: ~ _ _.. r- ~~ ~ I- .e • ... """" . In.. ~ "" """ " .-....ain .. ....~ '~'.'" '-V .no. ..." .

"_ "" 1 T ~.I " ~ T ~ 1.. _ . --'~:"- -. P l and P4 a djull the phue shin \0 90· a t the upper and Jo-r end. H_ 1'/"'1 2 T .0 .. t- .. Wlg . lo r U IIC as the '11.. --.. t ' ' ' IU.. .-. lt would be idea.....ledp the linl-ever" IUgestloa that the ~<OtllvetUon RlCelYet miahl ba\1l ~bt appeal 10 amateurs In l>J"eIlln.IIer n tlot of time cce- BCl09 The rtrolol)'lle receleer U!leI • 24-voll $UJlPly 1Jnc.. "lI U " IN .. CIt M _ ofMIfI.. u d the lirs! facto ry-bu ilt un it of IItD ..l. " " ..... 1% 1..!ity eliot. lI munilll from Cbrlc!l Ury..inoe tbe nabk oscillator ncodcrd for dil'llCt-oon""rrioa m:cption It tuned to the frcqUl:l'W::r of t he In<:ornlna: .._ .. Itl . ~ ~ 1ft _ _" ........ ~ AMAT EU R RADIO TECHNIQUES + ''11. .: """" :J._lnl lhtt'e l«Ilona In O<Itput t of OK let of tbe network WIth Jma. .W '~--... . "" . T ." t. of an auodated u a nsminer.... ef_ T_ T. .....~ """" ""' " I ~a . n!. the WI)' to com pact traM~.. ' " -........ . roceoo » billie Dl"I'ftt-C:OMef"JIoIt RecaWer To the bel l of my kDo". of u. 81_ '1 T eo/ u - -....... July.. . '2'0' SUb BCl09 -. ""_ m. -HU' W1' .....1"""" ~~ r..n ...:::"-_+ '"'- ~ .. 10lJ1l .'" ...... . .. 0001 .(" . The JIOSsib i." . .... ru " o f t he IlClwor lr.Jc:onlain F EY• . each . o r the fRQueDC1 01 1M n ote.. without aD )' additIonal hctcrod)'nina ... ~. II I! hiihlipted the fact tha i M ~'I( I>OW ~ ' R F~ . ~ ill TwdWm/ Topics. c ..... l4... I!<lI 8A/ v r o ... OW 3S8. - ''0 "- . t .. I U.: U "" " ~ -. This JUAll'StioIl ba l since been followed Ull by qu ite a number of arnateun. 1M. aDd PAOKS B • In proceA of mod lfyinlllOme of the delails to p m nit the usc of U V(lJtJ.i&ftal.

.. a ltd that the: 6·8K obm resistO!" may Deed I djusuncnt to avoid positive or /lC&illive clippio...I'IC '_ ......1. p oootao::c. John Ra Mon. There are several reasons for t he increased interest rcocntly in au<tio filters.. witho ut theexpense of in'lCrt ing II na rrow-band crystal lIlter..' and 7 McM. ... The I OAW DWIOTHI '" '" Input 200 k ~OO k m e "1... pen•• t .... O JSZW points out th t the ()..<I"ul .f.' .. Iilten.. vacatiuns. GlPAI indiClites that a value of 27 ohms can provide . Swl. bo th bands. One is the appllcauo n 10 directeIlDn:rsion receivers ..quenc"' s (rom abou t :J. such as some of lhe aerive filter d" igns...47 . lbe ebseece o f chirp and transistor J).. / "" " Out put ' l ~ t:rl. _ l < ~ "'''''' 1. ftal <o n ••<<1 . The rel'ie~ rs suggest that this two-band (3. each control beiA.e 800 cis ocDtre-fRqIIC~ .-.._N <I.OO to :rooo cIs. . . able of pro viding numerous..0 . or ph one roccr tion has been developed by Ron Wheatland. D. recepuon.. GlSZW has D ot ITlCUUfN tbe Q of the filter but SIIggesh it provides bandwidthlo or appro~ tely 60 e/s. . .. 2-\VoItI battery-operated c..o. Mora 011 A" dlo f llt or.w. W I'" .........-. _ I ~V ( tclf Oll W ltw 0l0JIl1 ttOCIlWlSt) _. 1.... 130 .bl... l. __ ated to tIoo . ~w• • ..>l ble for c. r " •• • ~arp . teII No" " . a.ilh bandwid ths suil..w.n ~ udl... desirable . are suitable onJy ror use with reo:eiven hiving . This filter looks very promising far e.60_cI. Ml'S 6' 14 bipolar t ran sistors.". taking uti to ..... _ _ _ • • MC1709G PI ' " 1I01 _JlWUII'" """ '1 "... <0 do. " . It is all ba'Cd (lII the popu lar 709 operalion"l mnplificr Lc.. Fop . .. of the waverorm./buffer usio. I110 els III 810 elsccntre-frequency .F capacitor across !be OUlpUt Wl15 added .. 11. tOOk _ptl...a..11$. h s used a pra" tical varia ble bllJ1d_ width.a.s. ln p .. The unit operates directly ota !2-volt battery with no zener voltagl: regulat ion.. etc . another Is the desire of s... . u'iCful sla rtins po int... t1'.RECEIVER TOPICS '" type.. " 1.. An Integrated-clrcult audio filter ". h . ' .w... LO. .. sec FiS...lmc the bust .. Rife.. harmooics is noted by QST.b...r-Q sellingl for I. For many or !be rtoeelvtn wbere It is._ l • PI" _ IIlC' lO W S ~W1 Ol'l'O~n . cs.. ri/l is an excellent compan ion for camping.T--~ OUIPut .. GJ~A I' 1 actl •• fiI. _p.. .. This operates from a single 9 volt supply and has a centre frequency of 800 cis.. C.. . '1\.... .. ' OM 2M FII. _-. CA30J' intcamtcd-c~ uit hi!f!1. .sng potentiomelc r.Uy t he tra nsceiver (a block OIdlirle Is l:iven in Fill:._~nd~d t ll _ I S •6 k '" --------. ItO </1d ..ptlfi••••• ' 1.. liI. bout 300 mAo Basicll.I'/IUiD1 thai the really narrowbiutd eo.. The sU lUlestion is made that the receiver should always be tuned to the high side of the lillli l to fllcilitate worldng to conventionaltranscefvers. .. and 2N4427 (SE80tO) tnlml'l tor p ._ elL T1'>o f l• • 1:10. twosure v.-4 pA7~ 1 =:.. circuit a< shown is suitable for ""ntM f".. and 300 ell to 3·5 kc/s 10 switch position 3.rlablo centro frequency active filter. In QST (September.T"'''-+-. tI .s.. 1971).. • I~ "I ..w.w..... trnnscelvcr operators to sharpen up selectivity for c. The Ten Tee Power-M ite PM2: ' WlL!I favou rably reviewed ill CQ (Ap ril) and QST (J une ) ill 1970. l imp•• "'''·. cpcrancn and po ssibly of usc lisa In the IOl'.. on. 124) com nnses a 40604 dual-gate MOSFET heterodyne or "diroct conversion " detecto r ..t . v.-.--" " .. r ..pin audio amplitier ... n uoi. to _ . filten .s. ..~~T'"'!!..t. "P . very Mow tu nlna: (ate. . Gl I'AI.. prov\dcs detailed ilII'o rmation on the design of low-loss passive bllndpul e. to t.b. in the fotm of a dual-s.. G l SZW. WA2PCA.. Rc ~h"uld be adjus ted experimentally 10 comllCnsate for lhe finite outl'Ut impedance of the 709 and tracking erro rs in the 'K ohm dual·pot.

w. tuner e o:! • liltle i.. only cee el<\Cmal elemenl n nocded Io r tunillg .m ..in • "1"& 1 alld cope wi th otdllator drift : thou ah the aUdIo outpu t &Dd lbe &ianalJno~ fll ti O wu low. adap kd to enable int... N . Brentwood. " lhe level or lhe inpu t signal doesn 't ma ile r as 1 ' as il e~s a certaill Ihl'C5hold and II below 00 a certain mU't1 111m t llat wou ld latUflI(: tile input IlaJe. ~lIy associated wllh \lI'lC n" .eley or q uadraNrc delector •• . down 10 7 Met. and f. Now. and . DefKtlOll An inlel-nued ciroui l tCChniqUCl which po lcfltially oIT en .-pw up l he selectivity for o. con nCCliolll othe r than Iha.io o componcmts.qe devices for lhe I'fIOCPtioli of 1UTlAt..lockcd loo p. is ba'led 0 0 the use of 10w-<lOSt surplus 44mH lo roldal coils in conjunction with standard muc lOO-yol1 mylu capacitors .e sho wn are II in lhe finn '. • voltqeeeetrclled-oecllletcr.'" AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUES 1ST Elcaronil: OompooealS LId.--.. il is a h. E¥eQ aI t his hish U . Ihoo t h one mus t add a word of wvnillll.e.--1 I Inl>l/t ~-. 1 Coptf old ROIId.tlte price in . ~ eompouator.M. &sex.. . anoI . ure elloull:h the Jianal-noiw: } .m. Phuo Iocb n.m. To quo le the t1~ ctro"..m . Tbc i. am pliller (CA 3028A) at t:hi3 freq uency. . OUtpUl at 39 Mc/1 followed by an I.. TbR fa nn of f.m. demodu lahon with out ally elliemal runed circui~. driver stille is ra tber dilfem> t frolD that sugacsted by Signelics bu t t he Lc.. ill8ll _ the ll o.. Burridge continued hill InvestipJ.'l and 1I1~~ a . phue shil'krlsp litler d rivin ll lhe NE5 61B te .cw" . ma ll quanlities is (or was) fairly high.f. the . however. ~Insl The NESliOB is described as a monolithic signa! l»llditlcrcr and demodulator ')"$lcm compri... a nu mber of bandPlW desill:llS.m. h n." <10 anoI l I 111 f -"'DrL .rJ artic le: ..-... iolesrated Nned ~ irculu ma de easy : ' Pra ctical.. The v. Fostcr. W AlPGA 10_1 . ~ the II. 131.U t . This design. )'Item.. dl:tottor to r lelcvh ion IOUDd (un ike tho: 405·1ine wlnl 0·' Fir.se... <above the ~um frequency recommended by the rnaken) he fOUD d the un il Would Jock. n. \ out"" t LIMITER "" .pass tiller prod uces a selec1ivi ty comparable to lhal of th n:o: i. wlLhan n. ~ --""IJ I . amplifier and lowpass tiller : Fi1l1J2~ 1I allo. WA1J'CA incl ". the 30-year-old pbase-lccked loop lCIChniquc i! hein.clcvisioll transislorized turlCJ' luvin ll L£.. To un den tan<l how this type of uni t worb reference should be made to Eketrolllu (28 Ap ril.. M.uh. For f.o p YClI in the noles supplied with the u nill by freque ncy Deed 1101 be pan k:ularly pn:c.cvated circUit dc:IlJ':'CRtoachic:vc the type of re. Bunidee of Sout h DeVOll recounts some ink l'C!lting cqlCrieooeI an N E:l60B AI aD."perhet Inllut RF IFM J : .. re-eeivers u th O'C uocd. sUilllble for L m..jgn uses r. o perBliOlt. 5OIIIld). M.---. one is up 0 the problem that tbe tun ing rate then makes it diffio. 1Wiea1ly Ibis il ln the form of a do~blc (Fi~ 133) with a modifll:d t.e. thresho ld problem.c.- '" .. a centre frequency of about 87S e/s an'" pro vklin.._J'-''''::':'j Tim ing C&IlIIel t<J. TV IOUftd never sounded bl:ltl:r. Amon. For «ample._ uolna" _ he wed the N E.SIAI r. N... the .in. siooe once it ~ c1~ 10 an Input frequency iI is dI'llwn lowards that level and held there .. it works: ' He no w feeds the o utpu t from the phueo lod: -Ioop de feCtor into his hi-Ii X I-up &Dd says tbat . Subsequently he changed the inpu t l... a bandpass IUJIOMCl of the order of 400 cia.. ampIiDc:atitl. . deta lls a. .. r.--..p... . detection bas until n:c. .:ently been confined lar. .e....n. 1% 9) : . PIwf-'odl F. H e pul IOICther a receiver for 144 and 432 Mels lncolllOrat lnt a $isneli!:s NEj61B Lc. weak ~d atrQllI IIiIl\llIs..f.. initially 1 ! ha.--.iso 01 sta ble. H """""" .lionaI l....nc tlcs ilItroduec:d l'LL uniu such as the NES60B. W. elitninaLin.lIdw. eollYell...-." Later.. .n taSU ia becoming aYllilable in t he fonn of complete linear integrated circuit modules pro viding a ph..ll &33-$ Me/I. F ig.tlo became quite III.. . p~ )O\. with an Inser n loss of on only about Id 8 .i.• lho pb&sc-1ock ed loop performs lhe l'unt:tion of a demodulator.tislaetory on both local ano:! distaDt ""'00_" p ro vidi ng the ro is • lipal tho ro. L -------.r.ull to tune a!XUnllely eoough.onvened 10 \·6 M el.liDe Icle yj.. al.ly 10 such co rtlfl clI.n c. s bcTll of p reci<. we ll as ~I ltations.F IIIOI " 1\O ~. . imilar SiD ratio on .h1y selective cUeuil• • simple largo-tolel'llDCe RC lo.. ! lanals. for l professional spac:c-tT&dlnl and similar appl ications. in." 11 all worl<s on a whiff of a liana!.i oll!! Into the practica) InC of tlle. tio delec tor. transformers • • . In 1969 S..S60B to follow ..1es o ne lu"..m.kin& luis IlCVCrai mtereslina f"\IIn:s. Brit ish 6:zs. A letter from W.

1913. _. " wo rlh)" of . I. h lhe filler R ' tC3.. Kl aas Spaargarcn .. IWlCd cirrulta .. optimum resuhs Ire I chieved whl:n the ".c.. is lower andthc: tTaC kinj range o t the p.... I H .l..1 lhe: fundamcnt:tl bccuust uf the bu ilt-in autumat ic freq uency C'QIltJl>1eft"e<. lion.itI. po$Sibly by a lo wer 2nd 1. 337) Rod ney K.b. ith (l.11 . . filler.. I~ I 1. .ation Iype oscillator voItalOCOIIlrollcd by the CllTR'n l ""uroes .. o ne alsn hu to consider choice l>f i....bJ..l7 1) as be ing panieular y su. U . a • • M ..... 10 pracrjce there are no t man y loca l signals t o eonlC'nd w. also shown tha t it is JHJ" ible to use combinat ions o r the much lower-cost SN7413 and S N7400 with even better ~".r " (QST. With C I 22 pF the opcnlilll freque ncy is about 10 Mels and tbe fnq"cncy band o ver which a lock will be mainta ined is . ..h.0jemen t sUIII.r I mphller. th is might be taken furt her to the I pe e cent bandwidt h l. ~ If..t of an f. ev y ol ••• o owi.wamped by ncee. "...ol " is 0Ci1 tlu. ce n be 1. On .' • .cd the NE~76 ror phase-lock ed Lru. llI. n..nge of Ihe ph >uc loc k ..'..". bird ies. For o plimwn fe\ulu... eft"C<:l i ~ne".. + 11v N . T "" . the aud io ou tput ten ds to be ...l t ha. Its o utpu l aoes via the low-pass fillcr fonned by R4 and C1 10 the osc. .l h lhe 1 oscillator locked to lhe incoming si._ .. . in operallon pia 6 is high or low dllC10 the osci llator l>ulp ul ./f.. bu r lhe scll ina is DOl critical. =ptioo.. might "..f. -cJ . t he NE56~ is dc<la:ncd for usc up to ~oo kcls.1. however. deoign n:'lwremen t is to gel a nice balance belween oclc<:livity.ls lhe tnl~k i n l ranl/C' b)" fcedinl pin 7 from lhe 18 volt pos ilive su pply via I....m. lill'u ffin. Ihit. Jul)". ... ~ d • • ftd III . WIth p. Althwgh lhe prectse eharaclC:ri. Tllcre are still man)" varia bles in lhe de.. -{'kd from one \. .(..ctcetil>n bt.In. r e C<JIPlJI A~d l o .at when pin 6 is bigh il opentte. . N I!MI ..kcd.. Too linle ..ow-coal Ph""". .1. oln H ' I••• • • i. o vcmc:d bv R6: if t his il 2. fo... for aD amateu r in an urban sitUMinn.ell do wn 10 Ihat on T\I or v. " . .UUCS!w by Signctics. Whereas the ~60B/36tn arc inten ded for Ule up to 30 Mcls.. H oJ• • _' '''. and fnx:d"m frum ." ". .in ..upplying pins 10 and l3 a nd by lhe value of C I.. or e ~tTl. direct con ve"ion w... I• • . l'.rK:e<l until loc:king cceurs bu t nl)( so fa r 1.t.. .puni and . u.ro . On " . bUI .~ 10 be adva. " (WjN'l~u WOt'Id.t Idea.) 1 4I£f:1 '"' ... ~ I• • .-ed in "a lII'COnd generation MOSFIIT rco:crvc.Il E CE I VE R TO P ICS ...e.. .r." ' .Md'Oft modl ~ "" o...'Ut . Tlle o peration is liS folio". 0·001 whb llc. signal leV<:ls at both input.. ." "'~ 'one• .1vo ••... T hc JHJssibi lity "f using de vices of this type for ctreet-convcrsron receivers i...~ .. signab. This I UUC'II IMt work «>uId be do ne ia applr\ ng l .f.fatto ry perfOf'l1WlCe for mostamateu r e~pcfimental lpplier.... stroD incoming .. pin lil I..b...~ \0.f.161 4 • • .l. 1 t he l igna l is ..." .. Adlllitte dly s..I..tics will be elTected by diffemlCn between 7401 devk:cs. 1970) and ~ful')JJIfo. Imm .dvaJ>C:ed j". G ate D Ii amtn&ed 10 Ih.iver wilh a Fo~ter-Sccle)" or ralio de tectol ••When tuninll a t. '.nl" one h... 47K o hm "".. burst of noise when the amateur ends his 111Immi. ii.f. $lenal input p ill 4) hlive lu be l>f the hl ht order. al.ign of such equipment.'Csted in QST (Marcb.fl'ecI the a.70 ok""" lock Is mflintained fo r abOlll 2 Mc'.....c.cas one approac!lcs II~ central posltioa: tltis cna racscrhlie ~v<: s the impre"iun tllal II~ recetver <:an I'KOVl:r moduluio n from very weak ) ill"ah ino.m io ~ .'ls. . h.!. Ilml t !klO kc. • •• • "' . .i.. 1. T hb SPlliI'st.n. iM • •••• 6d .. hll~ appIiatffill!l notes. /treate r ~ I<'<'tivi l)" would be O«<ied.1c 7401 intC\l:raled cil't'llit. . .. The CA302SA first i. pre pared to pul up with I.. The o plil>naJ R1 . might enco ura ge the use of double eidebend supp n:S5Cd ca rrier whi~h is an u lremel)" crr~live mode) .~ 1I . . lhe .h • "".ioll inpul pin Il and a . 0 m .... results are much as descri bed earlier fot T V WIWId except tlult tho i.'10. One ~ti I gels Ihc: wddoffi drop in no ise as thc ca rde r is tuncd. .. lhe:..Bnal .n.lll but d uring openinss sta tion s M 80 00 ranee wme through .m... in effeci.7Ot m ..dc" Loop Demod . .. SI ratio .. .. too great sekctivity.. The mo. B and C form a relax. Qolrl ~ w look _ ~ of. . ~ _Ift ... p. /las b«n deliberat ely Intrictod. provide< e tow-ecst pharoe-Io<:l<ed loo p desnodUlatoT usinll a ni)" a sint. 10 the CA :102I1A. .:illalor 10 com plete the loop..~ k "o-cr sec ....nv.. T he gain of tile CA 302lIA ha. uf the f.... l. Iock.l. amplifier is been foUD<! a On f.Jut. Audi o output is taken th rotl.... f..m. ..m.-.~h. N ~" "'.tions : Fil . I ~ r . f I . if 10K abou t 300 kels. V . in TCMll15 in • hekrod )" nc _MIle .~ ~ M P$ · A55 .c.... it (:lUI ~ot: IIllti. 1. d. that wmc Wit o r I«lICkh circuit b needed unless one i.. mont f • • ~ .") If.. 5i ~.'" in'proved t>y bav inll l. MId $I> sto Pl"ng the + I.. ua ur e N£ S6S ~ C C.." He rcstn l. p te Ihus IlCII as IUl am plifyina: ph ase detecto r. ... IOQI O<Ci llalo~ even fo r 144 and 432 Me/s...r enou gh 10 pcmlil loc:l<in....lable fo r n.1 .I. (i.m.r" tor In "Circu....".. ~ i ..'l L~ a linea. . December.u u. would represent a ditficult cha llenge (tho ugh thi...bul it is diffieull to be sure whcther this N reall)" Ihe case.c. Fill_ 1)4 shows an aml.n ~ .islur .. Inloctl_ of • I . rcu.* . ~ .~ '" '" C5..m. PAOKS" . broadly D o pti mum sellin&.. .. I>.ates A. ""ina the lo wer-cost N E~ 63... and trackin.f._In "" 1...ianal lbere is II fairl)" lIladual drop in nol..4 _ _ -.tt•• "" " . ~ .

. 1\ illiw ally pcssibletc obtain . down in freq uency.. ~."'IoI.s.t.b. This is fine where tbe vJ. silJllJ. ..ltl'llC1ive to II1l»c: ronsiderin ll oynchronous demodulalion fo r suc h appliutioos lIS broadcwlt recep tion.. It is ncocss. The essenti" 1 req u. tel.. . tuning rang e./ I. Audi o (Iutput swiol is ju st over I volt. ..U The an~_r. v. Ma ro. I found that when CI wu 22 pF .t ':' DC control • . can be connected up to one of lhcsc ~ivers and induced 1 provide & <. the v. pim :z. ... e. is tuned to n:ccivc on 14. lIS a near.tinl t""ltlftlCY. . I.. Thi s o utput t hen 1l0Cl 10 lhe CI input of.. I'o r mu. \be 0 rreq ueney w. If the v.o .~ . .1 the freq uency uf tilt: trnnsmission . l1>e signa l fro m the v. (1Htt . H. Vo ltage tuod iolP witb no d . fooo wi'" fi• • U I. ..o. " . up the band. l 1000 pF 10 p:I near to 4SS ltc/s ..hio. ''''Q Y _ .llilal mi xer ..". .DL as his lOOn:>.in 4. acc:ordlol to F. etc. wn tes : " I made I>P the phase lock loop I1Sin g the SN7401 an d il _ "'" 10 be perfo rming III d llimcd.n 1 "'''. "'_ .~l . cryslal-cootrollcd bJ.hich the receiver is tllned .. In... f or examp le many Trio eq uipmenu use A ~tlln i ng mn p o r S9SS to Sl SS k1b Of' SSOO to 4900 kHz : so me Yaesu ~ivcr$ use 8900 10 8400 kH~ and _om<: 9200 to 8700 kHl. O l DY. ' '.) . whic h tun es tile re«iwr to 7000.V ~ I. • H device. R. "' II..kinl ana:e wilh a 4 4 1 ban dwidlh in tho receiver..' Pl • • IJ$. pilllJ to... in freq uenc y in step with the dccreas inl f:e<luency...'" AMATEUR KADIO T£CHNIQUES pro vides flnc adjustment of the o pera till' frequency if required. I I an d 12. 0-9 volts.000..) ' volts.000 kH z. .~ " " " '" " " '0 . . 10. .h..li b" 'I h ·o I_ti n 1••• I• ..uy to know the v.r. . piltS I. 3 an d ]3. are usctI in a familiar crys tal oocillator arr anaemem with the Ol>IpllI passed through I Ihird gate for shapin!: lmd isula tion .* .on5 of ccevenienee on ly o ne IJ".plays with lC'!!s Ilt. .r. Fpr this rclt<un there is lill ie pllinl in providins ca librat ion di.w (ound in many . T W Olll lCS of a standa. ._ in""l 1_ <l... . l 16 shoWl thel:in. (I N '4' e) . ohms pre!oCt) essen tial for aclj. l"" "' Owe' t .• •• • .lOO kH l the digital m!xer provld es a lIQWlr'e<wave output of }()(l kHz whit:h b fed 10 the co untel' to provide a disl'llay o f 300 (Ihe Rlt:phertz being indicated by ban d 10 which the receiver is l uned ). apply ing tke nor. ". .o. reception t hat is not quite the cene thing 0.. variation in ellaract eristi". . "1 1. 10M'.!2l- One: input to the: digital mixer ill .lircct display of 1M 0 kilohertz calibration In each bao. ~ .. is ill the affinn lll i_ at the co<l only o f Iwo TIL im C8nlt cd cil"(Uit5.. and c. ~ ee O'v'\al I can co nfirm tit<._Iv<I 1 !. .b an externa l freq uency co unter. pin 5... . ._ "'. '~l> •. Aanler.s. l.. i mp l..1n I til>. Joe Oopper./ucncy of the v.lWtC1\t i~ a crystal for Ihe r.: of inspinatio n. 1·46 volts . t. 2 1. and for •... f ~ +1" ~'( . few millillrnp" at a reawoohly stab le S volts from an exi~l ing supply..Y output : tun inat"" !«Civer up the ' ban d rt.. il in fac t lun !n. ~ through the fo urth ll'Ite of Ihe 7400 device fnt sha pinll and then.. . in lhe receiver .1 "... I ·S volts .. __-!.oqUilre . . . . wh o in tum acknowlwllCS CQ. .. cilhn direct ly or from a volla ee-<!roppioll resister and sl.. 14... . Thc usualtee iq~ is 10 measure the freq uency o r lbe v..:.ary t o rrtctlon for the intennediato freq uency. .o.<:<......\ playo indlcale the frequency to .. a:Z Mels l00:.. ._ _ ••_ 100 1> u10 H </.n lIavin... aDd 1 per hap s lhe chaDp: in Ihis value WII3 one reason fo r the chanllC in Open.w.f. I fOWId R7 (4·7K. T he:d iai ta l a da pto r is in e!fect a wbtrac tlve di.celver. ~" .ow-aoo..'''1 h•• ln•••_ w i'" ~ .. stage II ~ ilUtcad o rtbe us ual two but the sensitivity ""as on ly ju .. reverse lunio.r..! .. a bout 4 Mell and I had 1 se Il nOOl ino. that is to OIly thai lIS one tuneo.n.l. ~.w. I'ig. . r.. etc. 1 beluw nomtal .:Iutts in In o utpul from the dig ital mlxe r stead ily increas. This 1 0w-t:05t J)'Stem coul d pro ve o.. I . 1977).td 7400 Lc." . Most digit al d1. 0-9S volts . ken from the v.c.Ollilt the question of u. ' ~ .r. mil .-.m .o.o. IllnCli in the same directi on ....nloao.. • ~l 1 _ _• 7401 1.t.b.s... • . wilh each sho wn.. inp ut were: h..o.n.uil arrangcmcn!.. b." the t iso ai freq uency. 117 ? '"~.u..ess. tors ' . "ZOO".i. to am~ II I tbls you need to ta ke . II CT)ISlal lUld • fe w n.Jsunro t to a definite frequency . :r ~ . sz vol ts (13 rnA). .d "r... 6j' ~' 9.r. T l> l n n.. • • • • • •s . o r the beat nUle of tlte e:. is used. "1 ..... the other is provided by the crys lal oscillat or• WI1cn the two in~ul ~ are identical the su btrac tive mixer produces zero rreq uen<.r. ~ COUll!. it ut with many of the C'ltrre1lt gcncrati cn of doubje-ceeversto n receivers with """eke w l .liu ble zener diode .. ZSlFX (Rad"11 ZS._ 1 ml. . 7474 device which form~ t he subtra ctive miJtCf. tePJ!. I made R 6 10K ohms since there _nwl no po int .. • • • . h thc«l any way in ..hck." :r ~ an d capacitor. oscillator . ). TllC problem with PLL Sl"tems wben app lied to am ateur t«Cplion il the tendency to jum p to and lock o n the loudest signal a~nl!: at its input.

ct"fprodlOCC lkIcctor for \1M! ill d1rtlct. from powerful mterfmn.e.'liOI tbe " bala nced " a rrlnplmenl lPin.k o. 10 a 1lI!Ip!..) a.a&e. f~\EllQ' wunlcr. /fJI 0J0d00 Pflk 1D RiMJio ([). The opo:ntlOD of tile miJter is d escr ibed by RA 3AAF. used. one ee od:lo:f of !he d iodes conducts Illd the s ianal lOUl"l:C is coono.. RAJAAE. 137(d) ovv tbe 11 mpier ochcmc o r . (un"'" an n ..tice it . ai. kss u.II:>C but iwI. hievct1 wilb IW diodes.ppnn simpler 10 . Wop: I..n pan il. caIilnlion ..~ 1'.b. the OICilllllor . OufpUI rrom the eul (abouc' an by 7 an) and acc0rnm0d2ted in~ the receiver or tile COIUIICI" T o iMtal.RECEIV ER TO"'C S n\'e. Iirsl dlcck !hi: hand-edl:C rco.uil then: is 00 d ir«l culRnt (i. •• nc~l\he\elulln p• .er by usi o g d iodes providinl lhe vo1ta8C" current ch arllC!cristic shown by lhe: solid line in Fill< U 7tb). reoeMn. preferabl y selected for ma. suio:tly Iyrnrnelrical dllIr&ctcri.l. ~ rvzM:n.. ~ .... u .1OI II uocd) : (2) d inxt m>dopc tlcmoduL-....... two cu bic elements (i. 0KiIIIIKN' Irimmcr.cr works like a ..:rn. the dmI it at a freq uency eq ual 10 twice lhal of !he local oscil. .ilco the ai.1~hin . iioll 0( Pl""eI"fu l . R odiol io n of the local oscilll lor vo ltaIC from a mixer is much allenlWlcd w n on h inpul clrr:uit tuned 1 twice tbe rrO\lucncy ur the tocat 0 olcillato r (alt hou lh JeCOIJd h.nal: MlCOOdly. 10 the 01 Input of lhc 7474." RA3AAE" delector i$ in te nd ed to providc an eue mauve to I b.hich mdcI be lJCl): if Ibis is DOl qu ite n. va nl.1 000. the fOUl" diodes).too..J V. RA)ME 00IlSidcn... Hor-. obocnc the ~-oul of the ~r ".f." RA3AAE poi ntl ou t that the advan lalfCl of Fi•.bt Wjlat tbt "YlW 1'bc adaptor be buill CD a SlDolIl pece of V~rd. as lOIIows: " W hen the local o<Cilb lor vo l"'l:C .n " .ymn~lrical eubiclll pllrabola and een btl ...e throe main <1isadYllnlalCS: II) doubliHidehand mri.. 1J7Cc ) It Ihal it OVCfWfTlCll · tbe loss of "' lfIIIl po wer In l he COIl plinllo the loca l osc illa lor : this d l'lowback is a vo ided by lI.ith an in~ or w. AI the pc" h of both positm: and nc ptive half· n WlS of this vall...-lc MJ1I. pras. II beat appcan in the arwil of tile dilfcrcnoe frequCQcy (2/.. COQlKll..') _..1 ff'tlqUftOC)' . Yet a furlhcr prao:tlca.-enion ~ ue ClUcmcly attnClive for amateur.-ilh cubic dlanoetaiw. Th ill R"l'fCM'll1t the Io-t:r and upper siddlands ltipCdivdy• ...h. and 1M an.aF or hav in . i.i:I i:s a . re _vt...! O blKk--to-back .rantee ' ideal' ehara~lefblics for 1"' 0 bat..l .ide 0 <:C freqllCllCy f"...witch dosm. When the .mno nic content will nu l he similarly auentLllted). 1b. troul.Ihloulh =v both d iode:.e..·n ~ ~ . Ialor.witchin.1. For mixers .--/ ) v.lllnccd mi . thai diftlCI coo.o tlricc the loca1 OICiI4tor frequency: or (/r2/u» .beek diodes than 10 achieve an aocurl le balance o f a ·t miller hav inS elements.ICd 10 the ioItd . ".l c:a1ibnlor: awitdl oil" lbc calitntar.&qucndy produce: DO no<sc).lic . " ee '00.\b(>mc on \be 7M Hz blind) : alld () local osallalo r ndia tio n \IfIbs all d . bn1lod • mio. frcqucocy C2/LO) II d ose 10 tha t oftlte lianal frcq\lClll. wliom aK" nOl detected and CtJnI.ular!y pbasiqdcmoduL-... but there a re man y facton tha I fIUIke K d ilTlCUll for hOlllll conSlr ueton 1 ac hieve IroOd balilO o' e l 11. are open cin:uit. Th is dearly iA on ly t fUC for.. 11 lofu.. Both (2) and () an be m ini miad by the use of • aood blllanced or d oul>le--balanced m iAlrflpr odllCl dctmor.d an. tli: ~ ..Q this ""II)' lhe miJ.iUI' app:an at QI . $q.-hc:o !he sipJ freq llCllCY II hi&hc:r. if.. ..i•. " I. ided foc rcedin. PolyakO'l..:cftocr ... 'Y. .nal."oe '" " .. io tbe Ic:." 1_ ailltlfkanl PI'OJlCl1Ies en>o:rF: finl Iht: local oso:i11ator m lm be luned III a rrequency one half that or tbe s. 1976).l nll<= (pachgcd d oub lc-bala oce d m iAen of aood perfonnance are iflCrCa singly avail able as complete unil$ but (b) are " ill quilc upcnsive In tenus of dir«t-eonvcrsion receiver a><1$). or " .eoember.uil allTeI'Il "Illis hes.

.... lI ."n· " .' nl ·end of a simple 3 ' ~ ~I H7 d lrect 'eo nve"i" n =ci l-c.. A d ilol.. _ OpeJ:l1linl: a l 1l~lr rne sigun l fr "'l""""Y is lhal lbe re c't: i'er in 1'' '1 circ u.d llal" . r Ihis <nil.:ep tion uf s. ce o · . k nt o f oscifbt.l" -:. nli tivit)' lie pllrt K:ubrl y important. p • • .n ""'<0'" ..' . 1 ' 1 . wilh lire v. o_ m••or ad U I" n".sc nlia lly 111" "" " . I ~ "...~ ..s.I a" t" " na e.. it' lho.e th ro ullh sc ppresston of local oscillato r no ise sidebands. d b.. .to ." (No ~.he . rn ~..n~ l. var ies directly with Ihe iDput freq llUlq' over it s))tl(:l fled bandwid th.. . .ng ("al ll.Ili"n . .. .l rl . f..: 1 n.....il". re " l\fIer· ' . Sla lLons... Ihe ori~inal d tell il m"" l.. m i. inn .:d by the: use of lnll_r (\ln i nll l. vol~ o utput wlUch. Th " f"l lo w. _ . . a n<.. A re port " 11 ~.. ra • •• " • •• 1... m Ihe f. p .. .r f(ltIn a nre rema in.no . 1f of tho •• •• . ...·u II h .. ""e11 o bc.)rn"'".... ( . ! lor 0 H MH. " .1 la' lle peak inverse vollaltC bUrnout... h i$ .m. .. d~...~ i la ~..' OIK....nl. Thi. "'UICC fo r """ol}(! lr. fl" hllf1l nccd a. TbC'. . Cry. oil""'" . imina tor nel wor1l. .. 13bilily of the !l'iCilinto r can be imprm -.1< use f"r a ..t) II.. osona toe 1ll.. . 1 IJr .. .~ill " l<>t injectio n ..es . rn"... .m impro ve Ihe note of e. to h 1>1 •... .I LUtes on cmtal I!lte n a nd d iscrimi- ~u ppreb i nK O J Reduced ~rc nyc rsio lllllSS to o lhe . f". . h.-"" II ~· II<...nl/ inf"U1 n I Slllna f•."i.... ' .. harm on ic rruxc...\ CIilio.1) ( kHt l ( 0) .rimina to r llctwork p ro vides a d ..e result...... :t1 ma ke per(....l l0 I' .·' ''"... crs toe 4 lind 12 " C Hz ~1l0 W1\ lh" l lhe I.tween m. . II.. illl""... !\ JAi\ E ~"""" up ..' .... 1 ' '''0' _ •• ib ecl_ lb) . . ' • • •• 1..ir.. .....l an <od • • • • n n ... 1 min .1"' / 1 -'- II' f l• ..lmln"tor for NlJ'''''1 na lor d raw~ "lIent /on to lhe usc: o f quam CT}'3ta1s in n..f.I".h ••• •l"•• . CUO'C with . •••• (d •• to .n. (4) Inherent self-protecti on agaitl. d . a re o bta ined a t m icro wuo wilbou t the use or ei the r lillers o r b\lla nccd eirC l/ils emp loyinll hybrid Junetlons.h I d_ _ ooc lll• • • . 1'1'79.~ illal or inj te l..:illa l<>r " ".. and in t um ... oils. . pe.. . lb l k • • ••10.10... !'>l p -" Ift:"l 11~-1"L. . .. " ' n apl'lkaliolls wllere hillh sta b ility a nd ..~tl n). <- . n:o:::ivcr il ceu reco ver (w. ...1 a . . () Su ppressio n o f d irect det ectio n. i.lh low dis to rt.1• •• o. l ilfllLl . For i:<'rTtIan ium d iodes an .e ·10010_ " ..... Th e lIiihly .. p .n) lhe a udio signa l from the lnc"minl (...~ b.. i.. I.'-bk 'f}'~l i5 a ble to mainlain tbe A n a rt«:le in TUM. .. . (Ulle<.. ..0• • . l • • ••.... 1 \ 1>2 • • • •• / 1 .l tll<: ro:>.. " Th e ".>le eon ven tio nal lumpod.. wh'.. ~. ra nl/" ". Th".n mlnal ors.o n vol Ulle. is opli m um . .. how" i.t<'C1 10 1I1 l'ICl wcr n I a nd 4 ' ~ .. in~ ncal toe a l o nly aht HIl ha ir lhe signal " frcq lIC"c-. r. h .J . oI ll 1_C l l lt I.f.... idea lly. i' lua lly inJ"pen.ilh Q .. '" " " " a'"'''I1''' (2) Lo we r nolse fillu. C'.II"I/e l~ mIlCh h igh"r nf lower the .... y. . 'l'I)'inl! bias to the J in. ..I t i"n which is It'!. t>J. d In ~ '" . l .l does nOI "pull " lhe oscillator f rcqlXno:y when it i. a C'l"llll is 5upcri or 10 ...." r . ~ .... In /1m!.' ptim um pef fo m. imc lll ..r ".. ( oil a . """.o.. t..01.:c . r u r . 011 0 thU I h ..... g f ... 1M 1. .IJu" "... ..lcs II ~ l""...~ •.. a..m AMATEUR R A DI O TEC HNIQUE S '- ..: .1 o>r . il> le to HoW'e'e. itles 1l.c. . n10nic ".·"r rs sho wn in hll . t".l. 01111 1/" h) be ni lio.! : .. ..b. a d ''Se._. When uoed in ..... b)' the fulldamc ma l mi" inll prrnJ ~ 15 . i... m io will he red lleed . 1 3~l d ). I.. d rive "ond iIIO" • .. p~. 'n n'_ ••'u•• lo' C? 71'Op " ~ ~ .. 0lL a~ "':I wccn tHi ()'7 ". . ...n~ a hk It.1f""'1_ d c" n Ver ~ i l.•• n • • bI • • .. \ " J \ . b.n .1 iw l.. usin.... c .e l he ". he ""... • . T he art icle ala tes: .arcuit LC type .f . r"q lll. ...... On I '" Mi l .

p mo ld" "11 ' csl..lnr C3 hu II relittlvely co nstan t imped:mee o ver the lWYOW band offroqucney de viation. "" -... Tho prin cip le of this petwork lIes io the \'Ullage divid er formed by CIlPllcito r C 3 and the impedallCC eompri1ina: Cl")lTSW XL. ~. " ~~.1 0 ·1 - u • ".. . l'1:Ct:iven adoplinll " 1()<7 MC. ~ ' (~) tu''''' ~ •• n. b. l'<'t "' ~ d I O F"'. 11.. nctlded to t ed uce the slope to suit operational requireme nt•. T1teeircuit sho wn in Fia:..quently.II finali.. " It Is feas ible to cu~lom-dcsiJPl 10 an y cenl re frcq ucne y in lhe ra n ge 400 keli lo 22 Mc /llllnd fo r II freq uency deviation from as low as S kels to moo: t ha n 100 kc/• . flJ....'e.. 139 (a) was designed SO!Ilc while ago . 1Oo1M'1f H 2 7 V .u.tli e II5C:I 1I 2N937. the lenli tlvity is relal ively Iilgh. after QlInsider ilblc $Ca reh.f. .L 10 " void the p robl ems invol ved in muh iple conversions . O COlJCJe.uticul:ltl y valu abl e fo r " oy n..f. • .._"" i_ .1'"' . endorses lbe view tllltt th is aflflro~ch is p... voll1J...-. depend:! o n the inst. . the ' voltage acrosa the co mbinod impedance element. e. T h l..lIlCOUS freq ucncy o f the lneo min.--. Co n.... Fig:.. 11_ . <11. whe reas the reactance of the combined Imped lUlC':' d omolllS chlUljtell ra pid ly fro m o ne end of the frcquellC)' band t o the 01 -... ina: the limiter .. The remainder of the d iscriminator nclwod IId. CA30U A amplifier which is fran srormcT -couplcd 10 the ve e +1 211 '" -. 0... ... do:>$igned 10 p rovide a d.. w · ~ •• <1 r..lo. N ..'\nt. " ".~ . o..m..1 " C/o.i rcu i te d the C\II"\'t becomes m uch st<:t:vcr and ""me care . .. voltllle d itl"m:nee acron the two IIm11. .f. ind uct or 1..uop . wllich is especially desirable in tbe detecti on o f narrow-band sigllals. 140 (a) shoWl! II iicllemalic diagram of IIcrystal d iscrimillillo r net work..f.. 0 6.. .. CaJlac. t Of" _ . performance. for lowt:1" frcquomcies tend 10 be la rgef a nd m Ore expcM i..c . o btained u...m. AI 0 6JP p uts it : .I _ _ It ..cri minalor (0 with in very do"" limits over tile ope mliog temPl'rat~re railS": by virt~c of its rapid chMgc ill reeereeee as a fu nct ion of fl"C'l"eocy... (0' _ ~ _ 10 _~ -. quart< <ry.1• '" .'" .RE CEIVER TOPI C S "'F0 U1 P ~1 ( .s lOS a balanced rcctiller .. If th e res isto r Rx is ~ho rt -<. Tho e~ocllent cltarnctenlties of th is <llscr iminat or are sho wn. ...2 an d capacitor 0 .. 1"'1 • ••0 . al 107 Mc/s inclu ding a cryst al select ively filte r fo llowed by ... =j~r whieh h M a $COO nd l. ' .-.h . ." ~ crossover frequency of tile di. • !o. 10 15 U2 (h) sh~ a Iypica l outpu l voltage w"'~ freq uency respu nse o f a crystal d ismmi""lor. 141.lni a Polyscope . signal . obviously no o«linlll)' LC circttit can aflflrollCh th i. ' _ 14) _ . f. .. N ..lUSC crysta l.' -.. <Ii i < . . .. I a m con vinced thai th is type o f d iscri mio"tor is "bou t th e o nly o ne good enough fo r real narrow-baed cperancu at 10·7 Me/. 141. come' from n STJ u.. 141. ~ $_. Fig.. .C ou lput rep rescnlltive o f the r. . .l ...1 1'. The second d i$Criminator is shown ill Hg. C. 06JP says ..... I~.... cryMOol . cen tre frcqUCllCics should pn:fcr lbly be IlOO"': S Me. 141 1 _ 10..

~&k l VP_P--" ± 3 kc/s an I..lo o.• a ud io and oscil latOl" lI &1C1lU1d find it admlrab1 su ited to aU a pplica ti on" 11le inb«c nt y Clt$COdc interJUll connc. .!.f. tra "" f"rmcrs ins tea d of the mo re usual spect .r. on a n & rllge l 44 Me ls f.. 1972). . II UIoCl ca pacitive cou plin l! l~tead of the m<ml ~uaJ induc:tivc coup lln s bel _n the two t uned etrccns. o f 10 ·1 Mel" M odlfled Rol.tio cktector.e.t' mi~er.. and we have u~ SOfIlo! 4000 de vices 011 the _ mb ly fluor without II. l iifUlb . <1> 150 pI' •• ool. d iod e-pro tect ed M OSF I:. An InICrait. r 1'llCeiw:" and bow Ihe. I lim usi l1S 1M type fo r r. lhat it makes use of two . ." An ea rly reference to this a pp roac h i. tr .m ..( . maJn ly on t he ctrCC1i V<:(1CSS of the swilchinll d emen t. then a~st 1'2 fo r eero d. rnixen 01 high d ytlllmic ran KC " 1968 lnlem:l. f 47\1k¢l.... . N o . 1'1 ." " Els ewh ere . J uly.altd M OSFEr. Fill:. An ~miooDduc:I <>ll AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUES CA3014 amp!iller{limitcr /discrimilUllor. feature is the lUi~tor in !lerici with the crystal : the adjustmo.. In h is p ro totype .ve local OSCilla to r sigl1al . Pouhoc:y of PIcs. i...lio o o f lhe dURl·pte MOSFET makes il ideally suilab le for ~ p n:-amplinen .:I.ge. llI inS hot ea rr ler (SchottIo.. voltage a l the o utput. the advent of l'ETs raised h lllh hopes. d Cliip uslns RAe dua l-pte 4Oll22 M OSF ETa.f.. .Mitio ns fr o m 'on' to • o lf ' ta ke p lace 13 q uick ly III po$<Ible .i"ll leIU !lCd. .m s.I ~ J .m... Ml xe~ '" a-ae "'~K P... operated M non-5witch lng mixers (i.8. tb e do ubleb.m.de uoing • pair o f stcp-rceovery diodes co produc:e I JllU1lre. T l at><! n .f.tloo a l Solld-slate C imdU Conferenoe .gt . t o be found in the paper by R. This SUllltestS the icka of II Irc ntF. plea o n be hlllf o f dual· ga le.. Alignment Is straishtfofW/lrd: tc ee TI fo r OUl'l imum d . W2T R R.nl of lhis rel\istor Vllri~ the dev iation i1Cnsiliv. The two LC circuits are adj Ultcd foc max imu m audio ou tpu t eo llS. 'l• .i_<lm-lypc i .. This des cribes an experimental h ..a. :r0. O ".bnced diode ring. G 8llNN ... the otbeT end ! " n. c-or o-cr ~. tra n. advantaae O the Vff co nven tional ra dio defcctor i.t..'ot l l. e. aN cu rrenlly bein S tllCkled. q UlW nllUre-lyPll t . A commooly used switc hing mi~er .lII... Soa first Sle p in improvin. ThIs a rticle in lome de tail Into the probloem of Intermod ulation HI this Sfo.~ . ~nl freq uency . 144 'OC'I r N)CUdiIWs .f . s (" the bc<t o ft hc solid-. lhe &reater the de~iH.tK>n IUmod up m uch too fat ' a . .JtlC!"lItcd at lis sene. put out . .. E.. FETs. "I'}'l tal discrimi tlllto r is d escr ibed by Nation&! 10 k 1010 IF 27 0 .stent OJ NXC add s : . input to the J'3. th ird-ord cr ia te rmod ula tion prod ucb o f tw o Input signals a t levels o f 100 mV are typi call y 40dB bclQW th e level of the wa nted o utput li gnals wilh in· ocrtioD 1 o f about 7dB. J. . This UiIClI II C rysW IllI a w betitute for the LC t uned cireui t o f. .. • • Better perlOl'1D&llCll bID bee n obta ined fr om clew:lopmcnts o f the s witching mixer. 142 .IKlO~ Simon R un dle.26. DJ2L1. ..'" with a symmetric:al waverorm.1 In _ _ f.1>.f. T a m p resently invo lvod with a rea:ivc:.U'C'I ca librated fN ' wdl lldj~ted signaJ$ ' atone m d to ' for idiots with the r...c applic. fa ilLU'll d ue 10 c1cetrOSla l ic p roblcrm.. symmetric MO SFET.r ~ U 1 JO for on k¢I. Raruse.". a1lhouib good 1'I:Iul15ha ve been o btai nccf a t .... The p rinc ipal sou. N o.l th e a ud io ourput vc il a bout 20 mV r. c and faU umes .m ..c. ho\VC\'Cr.. P... . Some rq>l't$CnWi ve perfor mance figures lod itate that 300 mV peak.• so me ClJlo!rimen ts haw: been < l1ll1.crou the 22 ..h. s troo.. _". idcaUy the switc b sbouI d change illlltllnlancously from ful1y-oo to fully lofT . mlltC'rwilb l loS d yna m ic /lInll\l of 115d8 or rOllgbJy 40dB M l ltr tho A.. 1' e lcdrolyt ic C1PllcilOf usinS a clear med iunHlrenlPh si~l. It. U (I 9n ).m. trn iary-w o und 10-7 Me ls tra M fo .: f ill. pl"O\Iideo the a rcuit fo r a modified ra lio de tcc to r . 1 14 3...ol .rce o f oOlloli_ Dearity in superheter od yne I1:CCIVC" II tile ml ~cr. Du.e. . m ixer perfo rm ance il 10 e Dlure the tr..f.f. d iscri min llUlr : F ig.W'Ve)'Cd the problems or dynamic f'llDgC with ICmlco nduc l. The suggested circu lI p rov ides &djuslmen t nf l>oth b ini a nd It3le two potential .:uio n note comments tha i the ~'1'}'Stlll must be II fundamental med e device and Illat besI Te!lu l ~ lUll obtained with the ct)'ItllI .f.­ t ion fro m this id eal c:oodilion lhe hlith er the level of IPs. and u . ). uita ble for 1L at about 455 kc /s for the '\e rece prfo n of 144 Me 's n . howe~er1 Rafuse has wa shown tha t betler Jlo!rF nnance can be obtalOC<l when usi nll o MOSF bT s as tbe switch ing cleme nts .. pOlential a. He notcs: . One WHy is t c d rive th e mi ~er with a SlIM! with vel)' fll...~1 ri. The J -J pF' capadfo r s ho uld not be increased in val ue silll:C it provides lhe teQuinod 90" o ba se di fference be tween the t uned circutu. The =ond (quadrat ure) tunod cireu n is ~ist i vely centre-tapped.c .. A grw . . in HQ 1WJio. A P~oduct Datoaor--. in what a ro known as CNL or W DliOUO\lll non-linear modes ) ha ve not PftfOlTnod III well as we hooed a l h. (ORV IlMam " rodlo..b. 0 8DM N l1!ICiI t wo JrIOS-llil-pllir in tegnted c ircui ts tu ampliFy and limit t he i ..la te d evices rc r T $f1l:l11· li llna l arcuit deslans " ) fo r lip to 500 Mcls is pul fo rward by Ma u rice J Ohns tollC. n J kc!. devill.n.y) d iodes a nd O'ci l1ato r d rive of 1 volt e. advisab le. ..'\Cy Radi o has. JERE Con/nClKt .ly .f. li gllll. 1972. A final " 1~1t ' On a WQl f. ftl>pt'OVln.b .. -.mpfOYrDlCnl ln teoeiver linea rity w uld be a chieved if mlx er lincarJ ty could be irnproved and arn pli llcation al slgnnl frequency omitted . The Ievcl of IPs produced by a 011 swilChiD' mi~er depend.r..rfo. signal i... to-peak of au dio output ca n be obtained F rom II devi atio n o f on pa ge 8 or their AppliClllion Report AN.m . O:OInCll fro m a re view o f p rod uet detect o rs by G laus Sond hauss.

n IT • J 1 : : " " n n[ ' ''' 1''' w. wideband miller (~ to 250 Me1 u. 2201 La urelwood R oad ... H . Ebenezer disc:l= the i. .. ~ c " a . er (develcpcd a l MIT resea rch la bo ra to ries) co uld not be satura ted with the maximum ItVlli lable siWlUI power of + 12dBm... cenrorn!a..t_ .:UI'Tetllly avail able low . To...f.d••c.. I.to... I.. _ 1 1 _ _..... . 147..bala nced mixers (Siliconi~. iWllll w. I.nc.. ". on . very high local osci llat or power of 2-3 WUI$_This type of mixer b used in the hi..'ling four Ull O devices....-4iolllon _ . +n·5V n lJ1 C OM L tu"" to JO MHl IR2.m.. Note ltv:.. No .• • ~ smco.. M-J$O H .. ..... I I .slllgt: amplific:rl millg <.~_~g.la t lon a nd Se""condlldon N<rn:mbc~. l3 . • Ed Oxley h as developed a v..uccessrut Racal RA1 772 rtoeiver (u sin8 four BSV81 Swilchin.. onl y 10 k.: : . A..erial. " 'h1 ~ .." t il be used nea r to t ra ns mill ers. Tn it pructiCllIIl1T<Ull>"""..n. Sanla Clara...1011.. This atlowed llignllb of between ]0 lind lOO /. Vol... ... 9~5 4 .. H e/.-V tn be =ivcl iu the pn::5CllCC of unwant ed aerial input sill:llills.f.c:ssion of sinllk.h.. TIw MIo.m.. 120.I • • nd (0-$ ' 0 I t-t 1.) HOSIET nd • • . MOSFETs) to achieve • 90dB dyna mic ra nll".r.. _ .h hllh ~.. ~ . ... whereas a + l dnm ._ UI'O ' .. lance net w. g "H. .. A p aper in Prix: l EE . 1971 by Dr J.p age SiIicolliI applica tion noto : Junction FIT~ in active d oub le. . _ _ 10.. Me given in a 16. one of the bellI h. BellS and Dr D.. of 2 rolls. lhe mi ~er Ilrranllcmeul used in the R3 90 receiver..ll!iislon an d ""Ives were F' •.... UJlO MII. 11K: Rafuse mi~et (Ie<: Fig .lb'" b.. ll n" bo lun I . . the basic coDfiguratioD is 5) given in Fig .and mediu m-power hipolal" tra. A suo. " +.""".. r. At IOMe/s. giving an nvcrnll dynamic: ranJOof Itbout I lOdB." 2_3 Wetto 3O ..oIIU .. . ' . Lo . 145) used four F airchild 2N4067 devices. R.o ( C{L»-ll ' 1 141• • ... a mp lifiers as pa rt of an investigatl oll int o "active .I_ fi T. receivers ever ma de. . wl.d 10-."" .~ the Iimitinll fa<:tor.. USA ).....nuod c_ _ .. ono ul:h to Sll(Urate completely the R l 90 mi x. odoOn.. . !:lOon m to 2 00"" ..) ..... Bulc .. 2 ond 3 .. Detail!. IU it fClIult o f reciprOCitt miJdn~ the local o scilla to r no ise convernon wa..... Int ef'mod.RE CE I VER TOPI C S l OCOI o l Cll lo \ O/" us n .hly... "'I ol o.." l 'O ntr"l u lon . '" ... ... characte ristics of a nwnber of devices used in single-slage r. dalMed ..nt... e1." looloonleft"" _ ••... -"" _ - " " IU./s olf tunc. the Rafuse mi..

.. Wa lte rs and Pro f. in C Q_D L (1'10 .u .. """eon The s ubject or re. apparent ly derived from ll.e ..nd llher diIrk." secti ons.s . we n: l he 1107 an d a mcmemiller v.-~l-... m ":' ' i .-1. '" -+6V &t .~ ITl(lre co m monly essocuncd wilh Innsmi lletll th an ll<:nal p re-amplifier... _. only On two octer 7 p. I lle con l l'<ll wlndin.l g~ 1 ""n _) Gl G2 '" .. CItremely ".f.E!>M From >If " I .h.. ~iver fronHnd ba.... I ~"" "" • l AG e Gan." u f a hish-Q tu ned tille r in front o( a v.. and inspiration WlII [o und in IIIe Cacllin technique dc velop=d in Australi .lf...h. 8. two ferrite rinKS of 0-5 in.."1 1 °" . eo 0 ·' I-<> oon ~ • " ::100:. . $oc h l\lO th.l:. un 6CITlirond"ctor rect'i""ro o{ wide d ynam ic I'IlflIlC _ bll>-e ~ t l"Cl>SC d lhe imporIa n.e.e.d llppli"..p . An lIt1eo uato r W"$ toquinxllol:fl lble ... Q 4AIL.. IIe<1 . o ther imermod ulatioll prooUICU (Lp .. Two or Ih m: 'o'Ct)' sironil l iil1al.eot_ In"".:ei""r a ..ly fro m the re.. eote and u~ing IWO BA379 pi n diodes 10 provide up ta 40 to SOdD o r contro l workin....'.\: mi gh t prove the answer. Md ""' 100 K ....." " OLO .i . ~ To . depend ing llpon the ee nu ot cunenl (fro m 0 10 . W.ntl1l1y lI....at!w:r tha n the usc or a putent iometer. ....... o r Ihe Philips ......""nab ly prkod . n. con tro l ranI" in fro nt or a v. . In IlIllny item.lTaJ1iCrtlCllI .. of . thi.. con verter... PrImary. ectfon .lured in mlcroampe. Q ••c 1.lI.vere IClt with llYIllS eo loo".._ HNI 1 _16 h.~ 1\ 1~1 ''' l~".. e.d d. I.. II . nl . f..or..... S.-<_ •• • lI. A. . leoel Rei" '" 10 Rel:aU. ..w ina ove r 3 10 30 M cj l when used Wilh a SK ohm po t .~ " _ .I." 14lI). D L7A V. lmo'~ _ 2 1"'''' s. SiSM" unless Ihe ampliller has impecca ble linearity.. these Were SUbjected to two-freq uen. V.. fell that ir .eull eoonllgunl ti" n So urce fo llo_r : BFS21t Emiller fo llower : HfR lI> sou rce followe r: C P6 S1 Ca thode follower : It07 " mille r rollowei' : 2N4128 i\n ra ge lr• .. The rouroMCliun helical filter {Fi.ly : " H elical fdle'" wit h pin d iode Q-<....l by this filter are well oot' r 50dD do wn rel... Ipplielltions a di ffere nt tochn iqUCl lui. c:""t""' __ ~ t U " "" lW o"n<l In II g ~ O I _.. . to r type 2N4 128.h .SO +70 L 0.f. . fwtd""'entaJ Ind I" I ~V d8 dH .h .. power bi po lar lran.vanlMllC of a llen Wlt ing al l 001 of band . some SOliD a tten uatioo beyo nd Mbaul S Mel_ o ut -or-banll.'...t ""'" .es. .. _ " 01'_ I' I ~ HNI 1 .llni6cant . • _ 1" ... G. fur . bo. The u. " ""ICl"')' _2 t .:.•eonlJ'oIIH Aulal A... G os ling OfSW1IrISC:t Uni ve"'. u f th ird-order anll. di . applicallon s bUI the BA379 {rom Sie./mobi lc base slatio M. hollul fi l _ ._1 . ro up is r"..• • 1"'.'ICd on bipo la r dc viOl:!l 10 co pe wivh the 7 Me/s b>l.. secondary llIld \:OlIlral wIDdinp ~~ determined cx peri- "".:eiver fro m -end perfomlal"lCC in th e p~nce of ' lro ng siilla l.bout J 10 5.. diameter (un known origi n)..C. line at lhe SO-obm '1 Inpu l impeda na: sock et o f IIIe r""ei~. writ es : ...80 .11 10 be R." ( RaJio Rutl.. en d a con llolled nlnge or so me 40d B in the p assband . r.gna ls..t an: hi&h co mpa red with tile so urce imped lUlf:C o f the ~ko<1 m onopo le aer il l. . p asSIn& Ihrou ~h All amplifier can p roduce a Il l llC nu mller Of s pun". 1973). rc«iver pnw idCll th e furt""r all.& fro m Ihi. been dcicribed hy D..tart with.. 11 d iscussed by Tb Moliere. i d.-lous Illl1lle-stlllta ampl i fia~ CI.. . . 1 l. 7 O"' I ~ 1 ~n . This includes a p ilHliodc a lle n uatur willi C<ln<lllnl impcdllJlct: (F'i.l• • .. Pi n diodes tend 10 be rather costly fo r h. tl_ n .lnlo couial line.ontrol for pre-con vertc r a ... (or oontrol e:utft'fllS me3.oand of about ± 2 Mel• • t 100 Mels. der inlft".:rs thut eme. 1bc published resuus ind icate tll3-1 inlcrm od "l atlOll p roducts producco.lI.(rom local v. brMdculinll or lelevlsiOfl o r v.....illll used rour pin dioGcs bu t u InS found 10 be betler 10 usc the diode.h••_1 IS ed TIM onl}' Iwn aml?!it.. The res utw arc sbcwn in the la ble. 149)pl'OVides a pa.h . Hewlett Packa .+2V I"~I" 2 &l6e21 -+15V AG "! "' G c: .. D avid Spau'l. three and nine turns =pectively.m..5dB .5 Ihm:.m . and well ml lcbtll.lUI 400 pAl..g. The onginal dct.) dcwlope<l in tbe fW1l1 end .. ~' T . I". the original idea was tesled ulin. The 'y" elll p ro vides 40dB Orll. .r~11971 C:Dnfrunc:~ book ).uve III two r~lIell=ics SO kc /s ap <Ut centred Ql) 100 Mel. y e~eitalioo wil h eae ll SOU """ developin& an inplll level o f I volt r....100 -lOS zo .. bot h b<':i ng de..h ..... b an aUenUllto r coul d be controlled by "..r.i." I. Fo r ~..f...~".f...h.. '" . .'" AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUES bui ll wilh inpul Im pcda~ Ihl. 0" " !! eo 0·' i A)I..80 .

adof lbe larger rinp . Fi ll. Weak c.. lile I Wi lchina In a really good crystal tilter: ' Atranll.. On 14 Me/11M device clcanod up-sideband .01 _"._ 1 CI) ".. "" 4 7dB . chan.tronlsipls so that most of lite L". • C' '" 0-1'<.. The " varistorizcd ·· a. Ihe value of Cl hll3 to be aod CI chosen for nate nIterinl or mod ulation veneuons wilen the ~oco 0 t he varistor il half the value of RI . "". < ~I .. uses a th.RECEIVER TOP'ICS . " type 40673. tl y.C. oa _ ' .ttenua tor it might well be useful for ether pu rposes. proved bel t.pplied ilCfo. could ~ly be cop ied in th e p ps bctWQe n tile brol dca..- or lherefore USCI an alternative l)'Stem . will ad u a sboned tum (.e.od _~ .I 1 . altema. volwge nppean across RI .. .l. J.wnably eon. _ . This broa dened the bandwidth 10 1·l to 30 Mc/l and various types of FET were tried as a..10K...T. much more of Ihe conlrol ~ol tllac will be applied to the staRO.. ....l-C...004 _ I.c. (or manoa lly .a. This has the effect of red uci0ll: the muimum on wa. Results are l hown in Ta ble 3 for both forms of control and witb a con trol voltaac swina from + 2 to + S volts and sceeee blu sct at + 4'S volts.. p ~ of .. to this sla.e. 1 I mp"'. . This idea certa inly look.Je II ii rnple bul elJeo:t iVC= mean. reaifier. of lhe order of t 10 K ohms tIC altc:nualor has litt le effecl On circuit Q IUId the variation of presenled re:sistanc:e is limiled 10 a facto r of 2 : I (c. J ...r _ ..q it inc«lIl5e:S_ 10 the a.tanl impedance co tbe aerial and 10 the l'1XlCiver. ignlll le~el.. .. . (A) Cc>nbvl~ by potenlknllele. . while al tlle same time arranpna that the \flITiilor'l reslllllllCC is mill witIt weak aitpWi. liroc.~t signals.t by dual-gnte FET Ilnxtue""y LlsI ttla".. I SO..c QUI be made ~ery low: hut as tile ll..lm..c ....w lt _ .. uee. tan Popon.. .152 ' hows how this i1 used to provide II voltagedivider network made up p.. V ....l improvemen t . receiver can provi.g.. Ill...... as used for doeouplina. d.. ) witb no abrupt discontinuilY In COntrol clIanIcIer. It was then doddcd to try ulin.g. . a ltmlllltioa 6'dB 3dB 30 Mel' ldS •• When Inscned in a Io.. _ . oluns with maximum at tenuatio n to SK ohms wiLh minimwn .. 131 (e).lc.. i..w'" 1 . the resu ts were suoccu fuUy rq>eated.. "h ~ ~ ~ r . with a minimum channel resistance 70 ohms . inll lhal t he resutence of the vari.. I I furthe r simplified by usioa only a single bead.. lIfI'i.0 IIIl rf Iront-end . certainl y not the CMO with a seri<:s-FET type of auenuator tried earlier. and 10 load the a . Thi. R I will be about 2M ohms for valve ro.o._ . a pair of liny ferrite bwh (FX U U /. belleva that the simple potentiometer bas tho disadv:ultap of leavinl th e U!\Cl" the problem of deciding " 'hether 10 conned thc roto r to the set OT to the aerial (be opts for conoecllo.a.ill drop to a suilably low fl(u re on . atlenuation 10 about 22dfl. hy usinl ""il t"""". While wc doubt if this would live . that the perco:ntaac of the a .:elvc~ and . M ilt! been described recently in Eln trOllics Ausrral la.ny pnsdica.. . amplifier io virtually unatrected by the lI_ a·c.PIl& linetr potenliometer. a l mulmwn. I•• ~ .c. the rotor to Iheaerial) Illd abo may result in a very nctkeable" hop 011 " effect.a. Ihe roceivcr l?Crfonncd rnw...llacmcnl. In aeneral. of i mpro~inl perfonn ant:e.J <oJ for "" (oJ ~<I~f 11 Ill...nua] PIli .. FftqueIlCY Lon 1·8 Mcls 4dB 14 Mcls 3dB 30 Mcls 2dB (b) COIltrolh. The puril'! is unlikely to Ilpl""O"t' of lUI a tlenuator which docs not providc at all scltlngs I m. but Ihis ii lullkient 10 rNuoe inpul ~IlI&1 voltaac by II factor of 10.iJ!W ..e. cl . T".ol rap ilKre. \..) . statod. ~ " ~ . 1973) M .c... ill ia.I.. voltaac th nt il app lied to Ihis stage will nry aooording to the level of thc control voltage.controlled r.pl lt ler. pro~ ide a contro lled attenuation up 10 SOdS \IIin8 a dmtl-aa lllil pO : see Fil' 1 ~1 (1)). cin:uilty of • co mmunication."~ . SalI'ati indicales that the addrtlon of a varh tor-tlllot II a resistor whose value falll oll rap idly wbc:o lhe volla. syslem I h~ provides the benefits of delayod a . Tbe actual values depend on th e ..Inl . bout l OOK.ltenwllo..e. J unction-type FETs were found unsuitab le Jiooe they c:ond Ud p te 10 source when ~V«SCl bil' sed . _ .c. " enuation). on weak s. h better than expc:cted.hich he says can.. -•• _ • .. ~ . RI wilh silCflOl1 level.. FlIT weak lianal. "'...to . . Oearly the opera lion of the a)'item dellCOds on ensu..d fm• • ~l .u1ly of l tlxcd resistor and partly of the varill or cceeeeer betW«-ll Ihe a ..M"'~. rectifier and the a. f..rlltor . Oller formed by the vari3tor.c..... O ri" of • pote ntiometer ar~ment that provides a true C'O nstan l impedanc:e: Fil ..mpr_ •• AGe P"'or~ In Elrt:rroniu (21 Ju ne..l llke a userul improvemenl on lhe sin gle-trac k pot oontro1..e.witeh inll oll a . ~ .. Under test a complele abK'DCC of wavdorm di. but o 1tl11quite simple.(lUp$e<j to the transformer and 10 increases irlSoel1ion loss.:lIeI and the effective ru istn!>C¢ of the varillor deaeascI. v <. as shown in Fill: .a . He 1-8 Mel' 14 Mc/a MaL a lt enuatlod 4dB "'.tortion was noted. < ppll<" . ohms fOt scmlconductor l'1XlCivers.l.. This mean.. ~ ' '' b l~ 1 ' e.~ • • d .w. ••• I II ~ f ('I f l•. . it i..e.tor .. 1 1_ .." I .r. COlllrol ck mc:ntl to Tefl lace Ihe m.. .'..l. ' Ok+ tllk (. The pu blication of 10lIl POIlOO 'S idea remin ded P. The threshold control can be a<ljwted so that the all enuator ' bitl:5 ' at lhe desirN sisual level.. available at lhe a. « )._"'" ~I _:Cc) ." TA BLE 3 Rewlb "ith Cachla ...g.r R_/Y~ ..... voltage i. A word of warni n~ : do not encl<»e the device it! a small melal sereenil11t can nnce thi.tive.. Tbe resistance vnluel of Ihe varistor aDd RI arc selected so Ihat t he varisto r is about half the value of RI when the a. Since tile time constant of the '. imt>edancc aerial inpuI. n llte.a . t he r.I-C. IImpliflU atage.. 7 Mcls Wlll much qWe!er and clear of intcrmodo lation pr od ucts. since the pcrecntagc llpplied. VK2AZN fT. A gate-protecled dual 'ante MOSF!: T..

.---~ . b of no ise:.. This mea ns .. DJ 6HP . O I T ~. . sUl"JTb " c_w.e lio na l lllllp hficn and cce vemlcna t co mponents instea d o f the ra the r speciall.. up in tbe Swodi\h QTe journ a l (No . W2ELV I Ullm RlJdIo..ple and energy-gllil limiter ci rcuit wilh pos t-flte liItl'l"inl ' u*rII the emitter· ba.'" ! AMATU Ii R RADIO TE CHNIQUE5 r------.' . I. given c~ in input lcvd ... etc. . It will cope wilh inoomioz: signals up to llboul 4 .: Opelll tors.. using sta ndard 741 L .n tune thro ugh the broadClllt section cr lhe 1 M e/I band an d redllCe these slgnab \. .. V.- I ..r.. 1914) r. adapted the ideM UM:d in tbe Deckman liclipol Mode l 881 un ivcn." • "' •• C. ian als in the llUdio stal es o f a m::ei\'ef 10 c1""n them up and reduce \be effeo. 1912 and September.. 1972 . j unction o f ~lurn .~. r-'..-urtl le Admo Fille r Des Shc'pher d. <ltp pl RI thresho ld.eiver's absolute outp UI \eYel b y 8 10 12o:I B. o pera.. tltat he ca... transistors (e.. Th is Iype of Ind uct o r-less lllier is no t o nly useful 10 c.-"--'·""i---"""::r.:. ~ I .dl details of an acti"" filter alool ~icaIly similar lines bu t with Ih e ad dilio n of 11 notch faci lily and eeelinuo".. G 3LCS. and illCrease the: n:o....nae me nt .. leavint P ili in wltlch cw ope rallon is feas ible. receiver tile technique can imp ro ve rou: iver sens itivit)' by 3d K. .-----.: 'N' ''''' .cillti~ t o switctl it in o r o ul of cil'CUlt: Fig.... an d hum. hal ve tbe dllCibcl chanjle in receiver out pu t for. provid<:s in CQ-DL ("'eb n"" y . ._ . H.W.. A number of lll1iclc$ on vario us fOl1l1$ of th reshold gatitli combi ned wIth ampl itudc limitini a nd filterinlJ bave beat written by Joh n J.. for example.. T . j . incl udinc fa... lTlWtimu m inpul iml'\ldance o f 20K ohlm and o utpu t Imped ance it abo ut 500 oh m•. .. 2N 414) to p rovide .~. t.. Ampl itude limitin/ _ usua lfy rock-to-back d i«lcs-i.. no tch mode . With a two-stllge a rn. IICmlco nduclor . .'" It- .. also 10 ph o[J<.w.arou nd hi...... 1S4 tJ!OMi a a .. VariowI t«hn i<jues ca n be used to prccess c.:tJon o n C.-.mes of canien each oocu p yin& o nly a bou t 200 cit of spectrum..I .1l mvone nts of lhe Hc:cknwn fillet. S M1AYB. .-. Mo rt oomplcx syslems. Th is venalil" filler QUI be l uned nver 450 to 2700 cis and t ill: Q varied o ver II raoge of S to I withou t affectin g the resona r u rrcquel"lC)'... '" PI• • 115.~1£ b ut. !. e lTf'Ctlve in gr:t1inll rid 0 tpiltes of noise: tho: ~·known Ihreshold p l iog cnu 0111 the fuzz of sigooh ~Iow the level o f the wanted signa l. ..." ... Duda.. ia.. W2 HLV c laims that a1mosI ccwnplde immunity eIIn be achieved from the sideband melJ)" o f m091 phone and broadcas t signa .'. U 3..w . 1913) by o er en Nib w n. can be b uilt .. m •• .1.. :: :.- . h d l"" Iom' _ _ hy I Ml ._ hoI4 . ""..y impu loc noise and ~ back. with it. ·· > ' "* ~ . No l•• R. ' -... U S.0 • . liller.."' I AI ~ ! FU U I~ . <><tr ! " • 4" ~.. : Fi ll.uitable d iodes.. January . c. includ~ for I:UQIplc. Pieuch.."Ola .:~ =:=t h . An ot hl!r version of t his approac b turn . o:nt hu.. 2.I. 1973). ..J ___ C ] • .. .ly varia ble frequency and facto .. Fi ll. both . tho UIO in caICaOecf teW ral thte$ boId p te Hnute11 with Cr1ern· p ting am plitude limi teR . II is claimed tha i "~I\ included in all the controlled slaps (al ong with the T a mp lifier stl llC) o f II.lll lIctiYe filter to p rovide a ..l!.._.. p ik.' te!"". Ma y....

nt . ~ ~~~ . fir. CTY'tal lilter .boY(! abool 14 MH z In 0\'CnI1l oond width of 100 to 200 Ht is a bo lll the limit unlesl high-sta bility eq uip ment is bein. ..s.. A .. usin.n f'ctcr Eo OuI d wick.6dB or about 640 Hz al -5OdB.lten o r the car . hu been dC bed by LA 21J and 5Cl"i LA4HK in A malO.. We all lit e 1 Ihink thai quanz crysl al ll1ten 0 x in~ po int of + l5 to + 11k1 Dm. !lo. r." . If With Icss tlcxJblllt)'.ivc. _ tv ... 156. • • lIl ••• d.. 0 fillel at lilis spacin• . . W ilh the co mponen t valllC1 indicated lhe reliOOlwt fn:q uenL ...W.s.. I n practil:c ltley are 1'NO-llIIfI llnd pa... " " c "oo ~ W ~ ~. I"'o. Ac1in C.SOdD). Tuminl il round will often .d .~ call be il\C1"e.. prolhx.. poi nls oUl lba tl~ dllya it is fairly easy 1 aclIieve the IOn or inlerm odulallon dislon ion 0 (i.an l-"n/II . ill llave an . bot Ihey Dre rar rrom linear o r reciprOQOI ~ Typil. reci pru<. provide a +37d Um a re p1Lv.. Abouf l5 1 IlidUrn is typical rot a 9 M Hu .b...4 LA4H K. ...ally an b..m..r." IIodlo b.. wilh + 27dD. s. FIINr A ~rsa t ilc filtcr bas been described (Fi& . ' le.ill have al. " 1 '" 'h .fter o ne or mo re non.':l. I S' am .. ")' lbere are acouple o r poin t.and Ire more of I problem than th~ rcmo~ed by 10 0120 kH z. pves tbe II$Cr II IlC'N coooeption of the need ror h igh o rden of rmjueocy w bilil)' ..d In Am • ... ~ Tbis means W I u is D 1 Ol 00 difficult for II designer to cod up wilb the lillen (nlll>cr t ban the: mixer ot t.. '. rlo:t the inlem:pl poin l.d..' . ~~ . ~... .al..I.' 1]~ . -£:fOY " '" ~~ m m " -w Top~I~W - Pr .d <i n: u i t b<><l "'.porl network s.linear ~tallC5 : some of the lldvantaSCI ..m...d . r ------------------::z.--~i~ w .1s in the pIOw.oad q ualit y Schotlky-diode mixct l uch al lba t in F ig. tha t alwayt need to be ~ reMCI1 wbt:n d~i n ll lbc \I>C of • . md lit the present o n the Il.l!otd to aboul 200 fu (l5SO Hz III . ha nds . Ct In . lU.b. .""t ~trong jnterferin.." Qt1J If cr' ·S/Illfil/rr..t to eXllctly the ". double. -u.:t t)'pe: which ean be adj uste. 741. J5J) but 1l00d resulu can also be achieve<! . The i. pe rfo rmance..m .IU C£IV£1t TOPICS '" M' (103V 01: . R.1 limiti na Iactor fo r tbc over all i.ll. used IS bo th ends. A pas. ...0 l--.b umped bandpa$S chanoCfeti~lic..dio filten.M. He wrilCll: .. Su itllble de'lioes indude the vur. -:. ln the 1i!'!1 «Iodilion the tiltcr provides I bandwidth of o nly l boul SO liz III .)·perfOMWlOll you .D• • "" CrJ''''' Fm. slaBC) prOVin.i lllll i docs OOt d rift n ibl OUt or tbe PII$SbaDd d urin&" own " due to d rift in the lronsmil ter o r tbe local recci~"r. ror c... receplion : full protee:tion a~. One. i pt.1 I" ...sbarwJ or on ly SO HJ... . of .u w. Radla (N r 11.r. . l C 2 . 70 . ~. 1 l Loge i.. of O!ICil1ato r "rive. 748 o r lOl A ... The fi. linea r.. only t wo re.. 1974) : Fill. ~:I~---. and finall y lhere is the I'Cr)' important req uireme nt thaI the wan ted r. Insread or roc-.. D.. ..ive... wltb limplitlcd forms of mil t)'pe of hlter . ~i:.me I'C!IOna nt froque ncy as lhe first IllIge o r IUcrnalively ~lillht ly olf-sct to pro vide...h• • ~dl o •.. Y ~..\ LAI1.. (J3 RZP.~ . up-amps.. fi ~ luned with a reson ance determinc<l (in p art ) by lhe: value of R2: the cqu i~a len t ~ i"wr in the !UlOOnd sialIC is I p~. V " ~g -.d y been ~icvcd by using the l'ery e1fCd ive bo ill -in ICloctive j. . hould be abo lll 8110 Hz...ries.iII not be achieved if the filter com es ..... when offtuned lhe errecuve ban dp ll. .

_.. D~ol..OOul 12 Olm. td'orc lhe miter.Q o '''"I.orlll4 o ut .dctwmd noise..'C heard one dil.. eeee noo." . thi rtl· or der in~lf intercerol poi n t. _ a.. ':1::-.. 1'9 ...1ct the 'I!IS-rs to . .. ina the Pl llCI icIl per fo rm ance of ~y ama leur 1'CI. ..'..w.:... ' .. I _ " 'OOD. I-- " "'0 0 ·' 0 ·' _i_" Uoriol .. -. .. _ " " 1M... .. .neOWJy·. u unfortunately is rreq uentlJ the Q>C. lnCd in !be trans(orn"..d• • nd the like! ~ oee linal point I would ...illu~ <kvdopcr re jer 10 • . I. 111m I lmOIl CC1'tain ly the ~ hu TUlONI b ly JOOd ClosHllOduia tiool lnd intennodulal ioll clu..... .. t\'erun&. nmplilier : such II ' the 2N' I09 or BFWI7 or nrw 17A.. 'Criul madlinc : prodlla'S all rlaluc ~1Q . ""_.....m:eivers ODe 0( the mm..*.-... ~I'JI .. Twu or more tuned . ---~---- :J I ~ • . h QID my llwn u perif:rn:c J would "'..~ .. r Ul rome sdcct i~lty in fro nt u f Fia .......ed loop i!... t iT I" ¥ • • • ••••. .1. l1bo.. eo .. 1 ...r+.. --. Some alcua.nd . Ittr. r. . has prcscolll4 a conIpo'iite diaV*1tl bPod on clctaikd in tcnnodulal_ muwn.L......m _ .. _ 10 ' lIUUf" G I C "I'OUI ... .y by 1M • br . u.-.. f'Oo. . ldllU l !wi.. ~ ovt '" I o..""' i"....bout + 2'd llm inlClUpI bu t i• • n )' .. o f ha lf·lall icc filtc"'.. I _ U • .U at t he iow.ol. II . h ated wit h iCItlt -JllCion .d uuNlOOt .. is the ferrilC=...tn Whid\ ""'"' IUb._ .u .. + 11' I.. _ _ ...' I ...'l:l'db lc 1IJ amplitwe ·moduluion n orse on the 0 1111'''1 of the 1 0Cll1 oscillillor .lpt or e.t.O J"'-" ! '1 I . .c " ''"" '" ...unple . _ . ' 0 010 Wllhout l iJRal 1iI1cl'ln.. ~Ill)' po...) you QlD p:!. i t.ynthcliz>:r as ' . and h«c thc m nd I~ rrrq~ .Ct¥er . it en SOUDdI I honiblc II'1C5S then ... "'L -j-~f-' ''G • ::: . _ _ . y 0( aiIeSo. Part o f the problem with cl'}'lla l lille ".o."0""_ _ -. I"~.. with MID\O UIl-bYPlU-ed fl11lllcr ru i. . DK 'M L. 1 ~9 . Pa-h l~ the bcot.. run wilh "hI'U I 20 mA collecto r current...ccl:ed 10 • .r. U1nl potn t. and later N'J'Ubiithcd ill OlJ M . ..... Icnt cece... 1".... - D IUH~ ... - UIOI IM .. _ _ 11' _ fernatj lt CHOt _ 1 . . .. i!l"al Irequency r i. If thll i.. 8lronll signals from l 10 30 MIll. tOl' dira:11y I ' till a erial 10 tIle ~.. Sol ror me ..... atlcD . I ~._ _ _ .o _ t." _ .. •.... l" p UI I . .. tress-do ""'" he SO earrie... .00 ~ 1_ ...n mmc:nd I lownoise bipolar ITM M j' lo r of the type tlc vdnpc:d for C A TV (wlre-II" .or hi.l».and I _ k from lhei r ~h... lra"'.."..JJt _ _ _ ......mCIIII or IU...lod ....ynlhell1rrs e ees nOI heIr ...11". .... .' H __ .. 160.. r.. " -' .h-pIlrfonna..~) ell" Ii•e . .. d due 10 . and ~lly I'IlOU lIwl Iw~muIUI....-.. n. _ "' WI. .lIow you 10 UM a Sch"llk y-di od ll mixllr. the pha-e. .. ..-..""'tlon of Tr . 9.tiom ""lla oUy w()rlin& bctYo'ccn the broIldcllst intnlden can be docmlly -.. l U ' U: P ' . ~ "..f.. if..(requcncy end th e lill ie P01....:. _.. oce II..".("'--1 " '" _ ~:~===4=< . On tile otoo band..oca l mnin..1 ... lor . I . _ _ f lo ool _ 1. 1.. ~P _ _ .. l PO/i 6Ot! :JD ) 'J. AHA T I!UIl RADiO TIECHNIQU I ... o1o'i ..'l307 MHz : see Fia...-f_ _ .. .tioonf. •• . Io(" al + f7dem 5Q. .."'" Re<:e l. ovioJc I ""'If out pul dur"'l th e oilthl ! Th ai lIllure co mes from l ummm.. _ ... ' . first n:sort may he 10 If)" .u. all t. it the: question o r tfCi." _ 00Cl~. Imul Sdunuec:l.. . ' .... ...._ _ I.-ide 1UI1l1 01 inputt at " 2 and 1..l miur I I-i. tclcvlslon sy'le""') " " lin fl . ~ _ • It 1 • ..... dual-pll MOST'F. I. 101 in Fi ll. by one firm indicucd II"u a t1'lom bic poi ntinl towa rds [ u ' ''PC could p. l. 10 tl)' it Out on' MHz in the early inEt ...r. ... " loul sa ..... Ev= . afl er i. " . "*"'.1I1 r .....:uib arc slill a good kk:lI. _ . .. .dequa lc ll" in lo ..etcrishCS. ....l impol. . _ . pbz>c noOse. . III C DL. CIl:Ilnparisoa rt'Cq\lUlC)' ~d l"..

~ 'I U GOH .. . " ~ .lO Ok . m~n l has a sr i<! return resil.g.C: m uil which . C. _ 1. If'O/I'l urlhY'''d "" dp F.-. H i 1>1.n M ••• ' fir plu.. \ receivers . d. . 6BZ6 or EF89... h ~. nolC!l thai the a ..I '" '" _. F.: l:>11~. !SI.lallCe via the •. lnp u.m..ll•• ~ I. ~ lor r?GY I.. _ '" '" "" '" J I 1." L.e..-I. ll<>d-'lEf.eo l00I'H . I. many modern dlrcct-converslcn (lesigns.-'.. and mOR: rocenlly illookcd IU thoUIIl we mig ht he Il:lur n ing 10 such simplicity la nd low cos ts) h~ means o f direct-co nversion designs. is relatively hia.11" .ar... ohl . the Iystc m)..n tot ._ ~'<Ih Q To .n .. Rct.""" .o much easier to use a 61lA6 docibe15 difference (the gn:lItcf the <lilTe""noe the more liou r which can be d irectly substituted as it has Ihe sam e base t. CIII...ra~'veJ Reee'verr G~B FV).lu<:inl Ih is resistanoe ma y IIlllkc the e/Tect of lI.." L3 . - - • • . .(Innedions as the 6AU 6. However..en . 1II'lI': wed. '" ~ ~ • 'i" •• - ICC" .1 On the hor iwlIIlll uit and the vertical axis shows the inlcrmoou lalion products in terms of 61156.llSCCiveu eveR higber va lue resis lon.2 . Also on this topic. .. ~ '~O ... l ur".. LA8AK (nSt. 1. <:ireuit in sorre Heath etltl i~ Ma ny o ld -time ama teu rs mad e Iheir first nx contacts by means of simple o. h.sl solut ion would be 10 change this valve for II The input levels ar c im!iCll lc:l... • .1 0_" lu k'. caused b~ non_lilll:ac o pcl'lltion _ In !>Orne of the eompany'l bl.rid C urrCllI less important and thus Improve t.. - .. " " . bu t 1 1...-1...f I \ ao.. L3 tapped ot 1/ . b UI il i.. ". uch lD the 6AU6.0 .. aI "".. . 11 00 1t_I. iI applied 10 ella rp-cu lolf va l\es .. _ _ I . &..hl (R.d . 10 •• •_ _ ~lm ••lll u . _ .... Jan Martin N~in&. ' .h. though less co mplell ~ n...v .. CO p. ..C. eI I' . . .

". Like th e ori l inal . d llalor an d luni"lil nrr allllements of the maio receive r..../ el'lOOl1' rcr fe ril...s.. "... ' r ... "wn 9'''011 hillery. mrc ' ro nlro l.$. Wilh Ihis lechn ique.r. n...><1 ant enn~ .U1 ll~ w nd Pl'''' inp ul crrcuuj. J"}lishoo 1:ftTI " : t' 11l. " Th e h..lnat il from a pentad" valve 1 a 401122 d ""l '~a le MO St' I:T . the .ver can pro. live rece.nd l and 11·5 Ml ll (fo r 21 Mllz ba m!).'. lII11pt. " . . Id . n. IOI1i a re . rece iveI'!..I -.!«'lH. lh. b..illna ls k:. It hil S II total br utcry 1:<lll'. gc. II ' A N. kave reported good perfonn~ no: " n bolh l. .o.I I!\IlU I• . ap plication il muy l.u I I lhe retu l l~ lha l a re "". . '1Il aeria l IQ p in I M I.. ma ll e~l"ml l oscillat or wilh ltnod ban ili. .Le.C o f t!le coi l a li llie. m A yl.\ a t""<Mln. 1 L l fur "" w rag<' "r 1 1<> 1· ~ MH Lwith the " I'.:itn l b. hip · 5iabilily conve ner a mi lD: MOSH iT s.QIl or moly a bout (.1 urc r fQf the Ra d io Kolor Mo.. ....er " "'.d 0 .. ". " Ap .lh it.ll< inll f'.. br• •• cu co l".ll . la Me v.y switc hed 1lI1 cr suc h lIS Iha l ".w....f.I<.." can 0'11 '0 pro vide .o..O . a lllplitie r. Zea l.\ to 10 o 1 _ <Ita ' IH. ..l!o<::i llalo r w. 'e b. f• • <10 1 . A hhough 01 usn a. U~ alj.) l'l' a n a . lInd C. ~ .d . sw ileh 1<> 7 MHl nnd adj u. Uo"' evrr B' .."':..l "i lh ill a few rccl "f the . G l ry Molrs.O.. r~nc li" n i" l\ <o . .... F" r ~. K(p:nen li\'C detect o r fo lio ". . 1970 l W1CSn re pott ed Iha l.we. . .... ""tl~ pf the bctrcr" all-wa. . e tu .. MPFI05 than D good ..> it is ~ d ifficull I" ri.". lhl1"l/h lhi s Can be Qverc". Th e UUil II hn u .. uflic ient inject ion to rhm ina te the need Io r baads wil" hing. It . 1 Ihr hl'oa dcast r<:<:e. 3 of th e co il connected to ear th. a l"" plffiiblc by c Of1 ne<:lin ll pio 9 o f Inc coil to "". . M. Wrs . ol io . .lla b wil.e ~cel l ~n l s.o ...l. . .. an " c ces no t r"q ~l i re ariy mooutce TIon '" wireu ( u uphnl].. l o w-eo n H. Once: .e " po rla ble ru. the Ii. ""'.d L2..:e pUnn ude» lhe .rad inll n ne of I])C o ldc r h . lind lite co ils mouo loo on ' he h" ndc hangr 5wilCh.s . FSGY..'n . ire uil etTr<. alte r the Iue of C I hy .nillo< Ir.."j 10 Ihe ""·o-k. lrnc<:l In "'~ ... h...al os... "'" .:jvisable Ih""" c" ili Cltll .ing "" I"" th ree o<.. il i~ we ll wo rth rr mr mbe rillj lha t ca.ldQll:n a Nab" L1.:::~·~~' ~: '. Co n. """. 162 i. a~ . J and 4 II' a elllllio UBlioo of Ihe m a in luned coil. the re arc eo i. l ~...1 1" ...'.h:"~~\~. <lon I.. "hsl iluli" n '" para lleliltg addil io nul ca pad l.ge whc: " s wuc ncc 10 tne 2 1 MH ~ hilnd.n <y a . we I a.t tas k is ' 0 en'\U n: lhat Ihe cr}"l'lal i.. lly mllCh easier 10 bu ild all exlern . il..olar tr:L n. 'a pable " f e l1 ec lively u. I. . T IHo .f. by O mo re u. in3l1y dc.. A. ca n he p aked 0 e h~ lit" r.. l1 l" ""ble . il'ht " .. 1M .i ll'" fo r scmiwnd"c' lOr~ ~nd vulves."" F i~ ...." . lind c. p ic a UIl'u l fo r hoead pil' " '''' """'rtion.s ll.()fIlItlunil:atiOllS rccci... a'" a d uaH ta ' ll \. ua l Lf.·c.*.d o n Ve~"l ...ver. Kmrli !ieT..b. both •. f. ..s. I>oul.o .. Ill.J<: l IV hu t il ca n 'l u il~ easily be b nil l III ho me. lo"'ers lbe frcq"e nq ra nf.C3•. l ui hy Y.1'1 ". 1e sitke. silJ.1 11m slm ple r. c.. s witched »r.. Oe nco C I' (va he In "' ) cn ils may be u". TC<:CI' II" " lhc " ' traill hl" ". 'll. 11. 1' .. ertio ll i. nd "' Ie rocr. up. r._ va " I.". ".-.. lwcen pin. I'o u iblc. .. . '. h owll in H il. •• I b 14 .. ide quite ~ 1 . cous for (jIlT~'e.o... uperJld .cilla to r d rift nr in"uIT. 2Otums .d a hsorp lio n 11. lie ha. a nd th is can be d " "" by usinll l & . _ I<u 1 ' -Ilty. .·... 1 b~I"" (thu u!:h ~oib ~hnu ld be = Ol'f><'d to prevent . a. mon ~CY-l: ha llCT " " "d theu Ibe . II need only be p!.'IP'lc ilo<..T oscillat.. i1 tho ullht j""..h....a lve h ." Cd n be pro~Kkd by i .. lind 1 «:pre<cnl a hJghcr st. E. for F ET Jenliconduclors. has la ke n lit< desilln o r u 1 ~ 62 .. " f .t pro vide. th is lime usi lll].cd wilh the e.o .caener.. as d .o h h m" . In. l he 0 c1a-. i~ja:li"n woul d (lthe.... b. . II hilS h«n dcs iIlOO<l .f. 165..dn ped for a no lhe. hnwn the in put .I!I() be coIll'leClCd with pIa 3 of VI connectcd 10 No..27p sllvt e mlca T .o. d I I MH o. . a n .. f"rn. ly fo rOlI a eupa. l<'C h nlq. .ssa .'n ' ..:lo ry_built <. Iurc co ol roL SWi lCh 10 14 M I [z a nd a dj uSl l 2 for 14 1<> 14 S M l lt l. Ia b lilly of Ih~ roo:i Y<:r:~ Ioc. Id . If thi.. ..lIla lo r C""'" .""iw rs ga~ res ull' II()<)<. OIlC H' iI COl:ICode-Iy~ rege ncrH ive c ircu it.. a."" .. Scl·e. llw em k:a C2_3 . it ive_inp ut poten l~llllelcr. 1.. ing 1\ IXIsslY<: ~n d lXl s1 si ~n.. .. Such receiver s shou ld te u.. "onvt rler a nd ada pled it.o ..·. = rlion o n ma ny "I lhr oMer h.b.. if no.ade ~ o ullem pl In re-optlmize C lpo ncn l 1H1 values a nd ha~ fo llowed Ihe orittina l a .<.1>.. ......F. b.d wilh the windiolil b<. .Ovcf1'l ge. u gel ". II..d Oll ..t .i'~ l'ly and "' d iroclly a.nl\ thi s a ppr nach.. TIle ma in =aV<:r is IJne4 10 ma umum ..z. MH 11 . _III . ". ..F."" for """ill. .ler It i ~h' p a ~ ~ nllrl ...ndard of co nstruct ion .. • •h 1 ~. ..rier n: -in.h a r. int e nded for e."'.-IyT'C o scillator is suita ble: Ihe one ... " . I· 1 • .j of perform" a.li" " . (a.. lil·d ..••• . w 1 v...wave ra diQ" lly R..r. I n Ihe-e 0 d ay'S "I Il"" d H . F. 11. h ile oJj ust inl': Ihe slUll co ..<.f ..8..u. $. lIlil l o ""01"f1 . ll>es two ..sa ry " !len USillS a 1:" . I. ..noJ liab ility a nd ea'l)' tuning than 10 imp ro ve the h-r.. 1 •.Cd." unlil 3'! 1 4 M Hl. i1nd Jimila rly a djusl U fllf 21 1 ' 0 21·. niac. II il perfla ps "." w lod a y. In scll in.~d in on o ld IcHi n wit h Ihe <:. e~eel'l for so-ne rej igginll of Ihe mi.b... th= -ga nll luni ng ulIOC"ito r neree 12 r f = Iion. off.. receive-s where o.rl h 10 eon . 10·5 MH z \ fllc 14 MH t rn... o ren the ha rm o nics provide .! . lI a... lh. ilO""l ellilh . Carner re-in sertion III oigna l fl'<:q U<:t>Cy "'a l quile I-"'O I' ul1l ' in the earfv da >-s of a ""' lcu r s.f.. are lendiD to use more com porcnt. s.. m hl...~ ca.I~::·.a l <:"II.. I (o f the p" " w nd .Icotl_..."d ~ lIluo-tlJl\Cd l orrMf" t .nc by u..'(l Ihal H roth er s'm l. II I far lo. ical .•• ~.v. o...j"" I-iMC MOSH :'T. f ig. 1 i . lhere 0 Can he " prohl ~m of breakt hro ugh o r W n ni ~...I ~ '" Q"C.. ~ Il J ha s rc-desil].. tle ma r m u lll ..Il. 1M 1m! l li2 Jhow rcp resentll ivc dc. Baird.:i1llilo r lS fllr ~ ~it ica l IITo'n . t ~ ( irc uit amm ~'nen t ulC<l by a [lule h rrulllufa.:e...o It ~ . ..rth llQlinlll ha l l hc romh i031icn of .ing a " C C1_ lil p ..s..~ blt: 01 rcce i\<::f1 ftC'I"C.tl . T hi.. 1'". (i1l'Y Mo l. """.. 1 . Almost a ny ... 'iICh ' 0 l '} M l iz a nd.r=:I~. &abl. u!. u p II sn". ) then: should be litt le d illleulry in a lignmen l If ..hen a n d .w.ly " n J'5 M Ill (for 1 M i ll bandj.. 11 '1<"" lwo Iwill·l ri" d e valves.'Ci~e r.1 "'''''''' rrom an ar1 id~ " Si.la pIo' d """ ibrd belo w a rc 1"~~l he .. 1.~ k.'" AMATEUR ItADIO TECHNIQU ES \V 1i" long uWmal".. . N<:.n •o•n ~ b..frCQucnc y mir<. ruu nd a pre·"d cclOr fI!ler (I'il' 1M ) n.. communlc. 11 ~(3 n. i. pca:h resolved by Cilrefully lu nll l' the externa l """ iltolN .•.. lrll<:l" n.' '":. will... lUll-lUlled imJI.4 "f u» wll wilh No.h ick1<:d cO"'J"'r1""'" I.~ f ."i':~:!:.•.-".f. lhe ot her ll... re<:eption on rtte il-ers n ot ha. Z l2 115.. pro vid inG the iIl rt of ""rfOfma n<.. ..f..-IlInal j'N/II'nry a. too . .><I h lS . _ "'Ido .W.f . 51<18'" to ...~ M ll z COl" .. no B. a mp lifier ""'"' lWO IiCl 09C b ir. not Cri tica l. MHL.....:'~:':.. ' "" ual " Ilh these coil•.ve d CICl:ln r upproocil." a. z ::~ : k '" .y'I~1 os: ilh"" r 1" ill " W it ".. lho ugh il is seldOOl m<:n h .Pt\'ad IJn inl(. hUI layout i.. Anatole.. W7CSD (7] . Th.. _. ~ co il lap n:plC5Cn" a l>oul one-quarte r the tu rn! fwm Ihe earl hy e nd .y. h ui llKlIIIl a couple d to m id. srnce mO<lcrllle d n fl will no t a fftt l . You m lY be Ju rp ri.f. t.r. ~ .1. Ihis w¥s ur i.ed. 1 ~nal. loa ~ an • . '" •• • I . 16. . It is U....l _frcq uc'".occlver . a mi leur re<:q>ti<>n. il1l " 10 usc pl " ~-. u.r..r.lI:lled il ". Iw com po ncrllS I re moun to.. to 1. a ' Ingle·hand na iver for 14 \0 14 Z MH z ~ ptjo n bu t it wo uld be ['I.rBllgeme n l. o.. ihlr at .

". h... 1. of wiring lind Y atve. ..nlS a hilj1tly subversive v~ (" HulTllll n enginecrinIJ lhe slulion ruei""r " ) On 5Omc: ofle""" n<'l lo..d Ihem) t hat lhe hcsl dC'lilln5 are likely 10 uSC h 'lI. nvencne. . h' ... 44.. an: nol el«In....1.(l<' lion wilh r«ent He gives fUll <:rcol il 10 the eareful a ll""Iion 11"'11 tIM Ixcn . ca lculat oo 10 dis""l any om"l I. 81<' u ailabl<: lotlar wilh a dyn am ic ranllC of over Wd K and Qlf'lIhle or cop . u. .. . in Fil/..c<. 1. . MH o. ~ ~e eho <_t of bo<kw• • oI ....100.. 1 . i . unlil the o"Cilll.. .. . ".'•• h. ~ . . d lrimmers in th e app ropriale sw i l ~h l"'>Sillon ~ .. • U""".rs.f. .on 1C«lvt n '! li as a ll the impol1a nl innovat ive ".lily n<cillnlCS a~ i. as lhe dial is cal ibr:l1eO SC. .. ""rfonnar"..'e<! MJ.lhe pall dcatle 10 improving fronl-cnd daian...M ~t-Uo~ .1 ·~ M il l.solld'1-1alt ruei"".h •• ••h ." .2.i ~ " . ~ .. 1<' =.. PAOSF.. '~~7"=(.. lhe " umhera ".n en. .II._ 1 . .. "ul ' M " I.. r M H . . Th is is due 10 lho: rad 1.. """'Io _ ~ ' <.. n.. ""'~ .. 1 ~..• • 004 I ' M u d .1 re". : . .. ." . of ...1\ mixer could lie "... no w been done ? A re "''0 in danger of slavishly follo"ina: fashionable In:tllh 1 Are Ihe " roreu iol1J I dai.'.:a l harmonics bu t ove rtones or 3 mf'Clt"nl"" l vibfation:' (" Tl (ta mC Tl . "m <~ .. " b. .. al.1 MHll he dClCS have lhe disndvnnla ge IhRI lhc ~"iver lun". . .. ..1s wllh my tunable 3'~-4'5 Mil l receive. Tile 17-5 and J(l'5 MH1 rgon~ n """ ~ rc elft>l: IC by ndjusli ng llle . .. .I •• l .m the 'lnl)'. ~. ~ • IUll"J 1 n ...b' . I . '..ng e«e<'l ively wilh t he sill-nail lhal come I" .I )oJ MH • ••• • " d d . r"..i"r Ree.... ili" n the I lug in L is ~ <Ij"'l e<l .<1 " F.~.... ~ 1 . tI. af ..... U.. ... H"I • • .•• J' b. ~ 01 .. inl/... backward s onthls ban d (i .. n E". 7 Il CCIl2 1 ".. W IVD. "'l"c ocy . u 11_ ...I>I. ..... •• _ ~u II " "'* -. a . ... .~ible 10 "I~m l e a slIita llle 3 ' ~ M U I....i nce llle n vcrl" nc r~ lICnC~ or a erysla l are not exact m ulliplcs or . . _. 14 ...10 nOI . helhl'.".of rommunica t io.::illa h>r nTl Ihc 10 ~ ...ti N • • ~ 1 . ..~. ilho ul nny cdd ilion.H • ~ . We accept (even If we can not always .. Ori l:inully Ihe eryslal was ordered 'l'C'Cifyinl lllu. '~ Hum. 1. ...llcn"lcoJ .. 111711..l' _ ..1 '• e... wril"" : •• I can ~" n nnll lha l .~n . "''' e_ . I l ~ ."u. I... ror 3 ' ~ In 3·6 Mll z will not hnld lI-DOd fnr ~ Il bands . •• 1_. .. . • •h. ... u. . ~l J. R"" rove... f. ahhough II lhe os... il Yla~ rcqllin:d r" r overlon" ope mnon o n 10·5. U.oat " ~ I' . -. " """....me " r seekinJ 10 improve 00 t he" l pecirrc:al...• .h· Ie ~ I . which one ha< In plly II lidy LIlL dnys for n new h.Ii()(\c-q"nd <1oulll .. <Ioubly·blllant:l:d m i~.t a "..~ .c pnd desIgn.R EC EIVER TOPI C S ... 1'f'21-$1 . .le cry.....oj• • R k. . . lI .r.rous ..d ..~ ...u ' ... " dl b .S. lhe co il rcsonalinll 01' 24·5 Mil l . ' de<! ... s MH •• ...uri...4..II. 11 d' • • .' e i...e<! ..101.>cy : t he difference ca n aITKtllnl 1 st'\'cral 0 kiloh ert l on Ihe hilj1t er overtones ... .. . as r"..16.. Ihe Dutler a rrR n ~eme nl (.. • • u..._ 0 I _.' e b~lanccd .. ro " •• w" .. Since 1% 1 I nave lI ~ed :1 _" nverler for II. i... . u.lu l for l he band1 28 to 7 MI lL. ide"... 166). u ~ . t.. iven du rlnll. 11 ~ houl d also oe cl'pred:lIcO that a single C11 li bo<li~". ghl$ ure da n~".. "lC receiver. 161 ~d .....e.. 'd pa" l<u'" n" •• 00".'.. Ho w Iilood it lhe prcS<:lt l 8Ooc".... ..1 i...h. drawbad . _ hof.. T hey make us look <:. 14 MHz .h.-::J'~ ~~'... u••• . <.. .C ... . .'... TRlcly r" r each .. .. Iion o.m. . .h e r Un "~ tllCnla l rn'ilue .~ I~ '.l off gootl anlennas .I . loo aspco:IS or ruei""..<~ . II'O.... lhe atnalcur wants..lh.. w l>l e~ eOft b..n l/. . ~ _ .... However. '.U . In QST (Ja nllllf)'.inl/. . LI. ilK:ally lO l ollr current rueivo:rs..inecrs really aware of w.. _. the figures mean unythint/ in " racli<:e ? SlIc h t hl". Innes J·5 In J'4 M Utl" r«ei vc 7-() to 7' 1 Mli z).. For Mil l iTlJccllo" In'QuCncy is used ."""". " The ct-cun I 1I. ..Pli.":'~~ \"..IIe<!... .. ~ I . G.cd._ _ . " I . Jay Ii.on " or eom""lihve models regard less of .lnr " " rio reliabl y o n lhe scvcnlh o verln""... u.UOS l+ S MH I. k.. . .ri"....! ! L ir-::r::--"-::r:--l i • • • _ _ •• _ •• • • • ' I• .." nd ..e 2810 1·8 Mil l 1 "". .... ' ••n • • r ...1 t llc o""rlo". Th is avoids any slm ng lIirdie nn 7 M ill.. . . ryslal Oil ill seve" ll.. Dick Rollcma. .n.."o. •.1."" 00''MH ..1 capacitance IIp'''' r". 17· and 24 '~ MHllln . 12A .. lllis was ntll c"n.II. . " In t ile 28 MH1 owill. MH ... f or urenrcr d yn ll". or have they I l1ll1ed playin.f '" 00'"u• tI>o .o~e<! I .If.C Q . •• _ I~ ~...

r1. . . ~N ~ .'011. .. Hi~ h h um le.. nl 1 ''' 11 " Ihe u. ~ to .~. n.un ".h e. .le d " ct:l. I.. _ ••• 1 •• p .v """ . itk.. . id" a .h. h" .' 'n. o u tlh. ' 1""'1. le . ..g1' 0 r'''1ll" Ii"ea• . • . B. T ' .. .<. ~ I •. flile r (1".. in.kl hum .-e ~on<xrra:d ... Ihe IIlCfca.. . I. liller) is .nee.. g.uu~h " n t he fron t-end ... __ m . N o Jl • .i(y of d ... f. .I .l ..on . "" V .: ll pOjlular ..~<:fl:(lmc by uSlIlg ' wu ".. a l''''''l'ria le ....I"· ......n he: . bl.1ftl .". ." ~ a '''<~ " f ". 16'1 10gethe< .. ky pr " hl"". ! I " .. I•• • " . " ~m e .r. .m • • I> . ilh Ihe "lca.n A G e . I ...illwl it .on . . to.. y. . U1 I. ft<! n p . " p • • . ". p V. v .l ue {i.l~.o..a·e. critil:a l of h um level Ihan ' hey would be o th<:rwise. b..1 n o ..s.. " rry : ' 11 <1(11....."'" a.. end of Ih" ' IX"ive r..ww...u " hc.d lh a l . <~·" "m which 11·1: I:a n re~ d lh' be a djusled «l " " "...lrcp.. any 1I·It·e.. H < n" tes lha ( Ihe us ua lly r""o~llI . :.. . ..e. • • " .. d hy good . .... I ~O)} using H I 2800 hOI-<:3H lcr (& ho Ul yl diodl:!l..nellee... th e form of " tess th~ n 3d ll chang e in nud io l>U Il'u l r. He re<:u.. l 1 1• • C · _"" ..:ni n:::.. " I aU.e. yel \\ IVO i.c .l hat .. ' . -1V l OOk "" ~ " s Y '" '= .e'.jo:<: liun . ....n ' N · d i od ~ d . 1 <a . sysle l11$.e. . It .-1 . W I VO 1ft Qlr... f"". J " f the detec tor.. l jo n mo. .""" a. I'm~ i dcd I h ~ ( .. M P f"1 0 ~ •• 1 ~ 0 ~ rtf 'M [ . .f .1 o UI of " 1(><. del eCl.. a s rec lhc u lI" n n..1 er)'••~ 1 la. ill h i. • d. " f a .·iddy u..i\l'..... " . no'" I'""" . sY"em fOf the roro""" Il. ..h ~nd ktckilllt ". .\l..lu "l1 in nn " nduly " l1 at " ~<'u"t1 ...inlle m'C may I>e defl~len l .ntl r. h.. o r from rauure to " .. ~t~ g«..<.. ...C' SYil~m? MoSI In an ufa<:i urers eq "a ' " Jl"Od " _ ~ _C...'. a li.. a llll c hic to wurk cfTlXlivcly in hull! ba nd ·pa"" a nd ba lll. slope lt be ~~U" o f tnl'lIt s.r1 ....~y IUk.111" p... wi lh (he e ireu ill'y jll' ( ahea d llf Ihe Lf. in.. ( r uhi ma le ".new e 1 ' .. .<1 uea e u' ~ powe r '.a nd orme r.."h " ~a "" hlc·l:.: ' He b<:1 i<:.om""..0 .g . circ u ilry (h um lo ops remai n ''' I'' "r Ihe Ifo..eu in I' n . .. u!x:""K iously l u n in ~ il ou l . Th i~ [" .s ihle. ... TO e vercoree a \\al ehnr aele n 'lie h" d e~i..Hh. f..ra te tiller<.. pora tll1 Ba ..• • ' dB .. . lmuM ulw min imi'" osd ll alor .1. ro"tin. .. . a nd Ih" . m u .. Fo r example .l. . W IVO " .."<:rs npt iroro.0 0 .llat iulI between porls an d rcd m..Il.." Ihnl n~tll" lI y prt>tlu~e th e so u nd 0 ' . I"f'" .anl .. ..1 " I f . lth lilt "' "l'So< rw ly " . ' ~ Na ~ . . n excessive a mo"nl (If h iss a .e.l."IO' he.N. Ih" . ~er." .w. ~ :"-".I~. b.n n to "' ha t hap Dens in .. .1JTlCSI a nd "'''''I nc~ i bk: lilt er a va ila bk . ." lhey cn n i~n<M"C it by . I". .1/... a _ .1de.. c nJurs ing my""' '' 1'\J'll·hd d ""tier th"l ".... ~ u l l fru m h ".k".11 ofa lle nl.• • • 01 10 o. A (ca lure " f s uch a n a rra ngeme nt i.lu<:c .. . h. u_B . ~ ..~V "Gen..kb~' limes." t he add.. " itiea l e ye "n :t.. pumpreg.<Is to male 0 PC. 1 .. ""....e singl" I'o im ea r1 hi nu lh ro ufl!ou i Ih" .. It rcw" r.." I'r o<. goo<! iSl.. flal ·· a. \ IS rlX<lg ni..... <ui . d iSlor ..r1 "I. fille. T his dou ble lilie r t""h nio. lLler filter..... '" an nlll"l e" r ' '''-"<:Iv<. ... .. r.v o ·.. D G~" G ( D o." l 10 ~lId ip OU I ~'ull.'~p J..C. hilh-ga. I _.c... (F ig .. II. '~I Ctns....""h a ~h~ mc l ens ..loo bly· ba la"ecd dio<lc ring Illi"" .l "r~ that far I"" ma ny ra.. n nn " _ . • • • d b.e bt: m. idd mnd noise)..g.... .... "" ..1 huma n opera 10 .. f"" Ii. I" ".. 1".ally loca ! <w:itlnIOI''i artd have " r" I'<" l>" il1 dis'ri bu lio n. P IN ~'<>d " P I" " 'O~.• i ~I13 1 in the s tng...". "--<.. '" Ih!' .. brca ll h"'''llh IiI ...I .. <""". W IVO... in eO~lll l'n ( i Il8 SO . '. he c"ns i .. Ihal. . " In"._ ..e.ltrc<: lly wi lh a ...g.h" will he ve a bou t a &l H co nvers ion lo u ..nd!. I". g.. W1Vn pa~s a 11..ed 1:. e1 mny . f. 0"" .I. Fm the p ro duct <1"1"" ' '''... .. rco:ei..iull nl r""e" " rs hut c:m be e." ctlcks..l.. faclnr y a.>< ->< "'0 ".I . ~a.ling <... ~ ~ b..." have in Ihe ir bru inl"'" IUt>~y ~lc'" pe rlln p9 Ih" .." ""ho u. " n uUp" Il.." ~ .IN ·d"" le alle~u· nl" " ( 1'..v i n ~ aud in bcanls.""'~ c .. 1/. ". 0" A M AT EUR R A DI O T E C H N I Q UES I" ".. ari " I.>pport u.no. .-1 .:! eno ugh abou l w ha t h" ppoe lU 10 the .. 111 11. sysle ms a re "' !lrsc lh... bl I .•• .... <vcl'.. Hil i W1\'1) notes nnu " U nfOrlullat d y IlltKh "f the wor k end . n i..11. . It . 1k co mpar ". i. j. . d y .1'· n_Il..-.II.."!ell I" Ihe fille ted S I~Il" 1 " hy a se rk \ "f t el" .... .! un Ih" l". . I'r o "id_" Ihe lUli" I h~lt .I. CO"~i'. lh a t il pro vid. ~ .ed a "e ..e.. _ • • '0" I Hl_ . . unl "_ . p" o.. he r"".~ hJ. i.io n of Siro nil s illl "" l.• ..ivc_This .. d~si ltners have 1 1V1 »'orrie..... W.. to .n p ro vld mil ~ Il t1 o:.pen. f. n HP 2\lOO Ool.. Y.a n all he so l. iJeban d ... .I. '''lind '' of' e" aeh ined wit h .I>1• .. .~".e. willl. E\t' n qUI~" a .1 i . l(10dH e h ~ nlle of~illnn \ Input ".."IOR I... V..(c1 .. o ver...·n """ . umphlier ( H ~ . ilh an e ~edlen l e l'}'~t al Iille r nul far II" wn Ille cha in.

:' Pflt'.slllge "..110..iti _. " idcly rccoj(nia:d .... 1I.Id .1 1I In plif":1I Ii" n '. an d r..e. In I/o ". a bando ned i" tere<t iu lbe pl'i ncil'lc is '" he r" untl in " T. r 11m H .. " r a ta pped tm " i. Jtrml t l"n~ ' tlddenly hemd 1I .hcr. hunl ina.. IIr<lund lhe hills and ' alleys of b moo r . II H ..in.·all... Apart (rom hllm. I ' ~!I '-'Ill '0..t.rea-~i llj.. tll\:C can ~'ro.. role lI" lO' a!'><J1Il .f... tinl: ncl".li'.... litH it ~ NJua lly impo rt nnt tha t any d .. rull I" " d""."ing th w uilh at a TI.ICtCCl'" when Ihe n"..12 1..int: t be SUper· reIlC n. ~ na • . in!' iUi good slBnal-han dlinll Cl<l?'lbHilie1.e was 1I re' i. nillllcS(Iypical l)' . : or I'o:.'i<lcnec th'll nOl ev. .per· rellcnerati. . Th e . bmadcn.<"Ceding s..".ml.i ii" '" i" Ihe prese". range.e ha.1 u . udnplin ~ cin:"itl')' fro m hi·1i p radi c' ~ 1 (lI<\'Oid d i..1 Ihc ".1' 'ow . No ' ember.l ""~ u n. .t i ". ror e" ample by uflCratinj( T R3 wilh .. . co n 23..e.ny ur"... In the v.<. tlrug " rtlr tne'tlium·w:l >·C t.c rs up 1 abo ut 1000 M I I ~ .Ito _ o. . TR 2 ~~~ '1..g"t . ~ "' ...h " n thol" 1 000d ~pe ake l" ur a two-valve I".....• • ".'l. Th e apr lk 'll" '" ur mode m Icchnil]ue$ to its des iJll and OOMlnte l ion ca n lIivC it ~ dded perform ance a nd . In 10."" If. s w.". . "..m.. for a SO Mill s. I:>ci nil inlrlJlucd by the 4S0 MHz S·phon..ren An ama teur ". rca~i nll ~ta~ llII in.\:in. nt " " "y from T R ~... .!rive upplfcd to 1l<." Il." b.44 ... iw lI.. a'lll a ....i l:nals).. "~lemlllllo 2 ~ M I It N"rth America n ama tCl\l1 i cominll throu.. the I>a..k I"."t "me far hey" " . 1 ~78 . al "f illterest ' n lhe 'fifl i~ when r· uropc ·s firsl v.. but " illl illl' Ul .n . a t " .1.li!kr dlo:><k fOI T R3. l1u t had no idea "' hol t it me" o t. J .h.. W "' ~ I1I · ~ rlo ... IIi<amptitlct "' a caw"..C..te 'lSkm ~ if I could t<:ll him . " ml '" pull ' n sc\( .. ". . ""r iver "' "S.al p". ..G.·. ~ . 1I ' • •old T. A... t}' :t nt! e<>"<c\l"cn l ... :.riminal io n :tll~ inS1 impulit no.d .p. H... ~ "" as .0011 a ." 'O.r.III .. .. fCl:t'nc rah"e .l"y (lI." ZLlVN dOC' no t attempt lO suggcst Ihat hi.' cxtcnston uf th.Iel. won dc. an d he lJ'I:S ..~. a ualion in tho: fJr.11 sUI"'.ion o r "cal.uni"l:I the superregclK'rJ ti_" det""t " r " t>y NIII Ilradley..o. "'<Irk 11" suddenlr turned a n \lgly d w:kling into a bea oliful ..rey Nea ce's IS9 flCOpl~ If! Niimcgen In I'J.l ItlO klf l..'·..~ihl y by l ul)s til utmt: a !' IN diodc I>r "-'l.J "" O'OOU -... J"..1 "" 1" ''' 1.. or I'l unl jn. rOCCIVC.. pp4 l o.r. biased oft·.k circuit .tI_.. tely lhe inelcusin" numt". ~ ta ."unie fre ~"el'lCi1:< of IIle ord er or. deserit"".·c Ihe wl"'t· rc~e n .~ y.al ".. I. ... ~cross lhe ~Vlla l .IM ) and foO.. '" ~~..nn rs t hat the l ope' -I'l'I'ell is n rasclnali"/1 alld ulln=" rlly m"lillned device • • .. o-ot p..".. ' "n. Ilc " "Ill"Il . (:. a n nrn' II B llIcnt Ihat hn.• . n rurt hcr possibilit i"" r"I" imp!'u . RtJ<lif} IScl' temher.i llalOry ae1l0 n is interr oPled (q uenched ) . role rrom Bi'out 1'12. Such ". "". ... ole"'''''u1. I" 1 'l~ 2 RC A h< ~. wh.cs...t rulillc stumblcd imo su per-regene ration hy a ~" i<len t . ne 100........<...·c ur ' t n> n ~cr sjgllals."'1 i~ . gootI in pul/<><ltPUI Ol"k h 10 SO " hm. I" rrorm.. 1 '!4 ~ .... .\:. that carer... h.i.'" t1l'l'k nller).. .. TlHo I.. . r""eivc r mi~er or wide dyna mic ra" ge ... half-mlcro. .00' A.. h" tune cuecr: hu t "illl i". .p.:~i... rellel1cra li" n " :oS <l n".... l LlVN ( B"·. m..'"C o ne uf lhe . d paid to <l ud io de. hid .. fi e pI'CS(1ll$ lhe resuus of pract ical eweli· men tat iun with simple recei.T. ~ ". it pluy".RECEIVER TOPI C S '" '~ ~ ~ :!.." JO MH.~.ti "l: .m.b.1 up m Wcst (if" n.. k tll tll n """" lhe I" ine'~'lc or whm AI " h lru" il .« d . I . or by .. . . 1"" " I ~b t .." . .Ie/l.." II " illl widebmal hn.l. a. ~ . While T R3 i... lhc efT"" t .m<"I~. " olla~e it I". .t means by .. Ampliflar The vaiu c of 3.. ..I~ . recd n.-cr in 19)6-37 . WA I HU .. d".~ic w nfisluratlon i~ l uitablc f"r ot her band' .' . i"' pn.civer...1I 10 sita ' <'l< ...·jdc a minimum po \\er p in "r "Ome 1Sd B and "'" 'nt... nn ((l v. ~. in a rC j:ellcrati "" .:al1<-.I •• su per.. My im m~ ia le reac tion "'as ttl f<. c" n prov ide nn ""' I'hllcallo ll limn.>ro"dcMI recep tion: . The.le !Sl: HinB up an " rdinl ' Y regenerlllil-e receiver. rn:lus.m. ~.""ir. W neti"'I... i" a sinille st:lge.c w.t as ~ ud. or b.000 "F o..." . .-lIat a sup<: ' . .""" " hen . re.ersauluy a r cos t.tronr $ up ..olt se nsitivity).''.~ ·in. th..1 an "" li. he uls" II j" v""." inabilily 10 h"l d a " c"k .. :ll l " u l ~O F-' '" 0.. a stalle shuilid 011 Ita . .. Since tl1en il has surfac ed o nly . llllQ co lleeto r· to·cm ill er current bi.lytle in h.1111. I"dlu.n"' i<1.lh It'I tc and SOu". ampltlkr 1. t" . : its lack "r"" Iccti. Ilunk of my youlh had sud tlenly d ""' PJlCa r~ . •. n" t a 1 M 1 1Il". "'. In irs Imsie f" rm he n" tco lhe (nll"" 1 1l1l .' y.\ to 1 9 . lind .f. R.. design i. Thel"e rema. follllCr: Fill· 170.ker Iumc r"".h ilc tem!.. pp&4 -M ) C Andy f\o"".ta liun. ~..t .n. nd Ma. . SIlOrt the su""mc... Il h .l tw" ~Ol'" J fET.I simIlar . ( '~ ' ~ " 4 4' 6 .'..hlrl ion of the si ~ n al in this pa rt "r thc ""...'ra rily work Ing '" nh A... ind plc. S<1" 1l .0 ..C'C . h o ~ ld ~..I" mina n.". i<l i" ry hut 'l il1 imp" rlan.e term i na '~ by mean."..lI01" of a ..h••ltH:> at . Over the rull K . ~in\. I'''.h. ... l ' t took "eeks tlf intc nsi.r L. s ill". ( -' . ~ .u.1 ~ . .. . )"S tem til 'J Mill d.h.a l uther >tatk."mal vult.e.00 ' . ."' " t .nd. w il h H lgh-p arro rmanc.~l.Idili" n.~ I ~" Na"y Y . h" ulJ I". li e h:o d limc " nl)' h' i"enul~· n .I1.nlo prOlllinc". the o nly 1. !>(. .. m"re a nd Illorc nf the ~itlna l eur". fi"tC i~" 1 smoot hinll (he u. .. p"lent r"..... Tu ill en:d lt he lists liS u!le as a sinj(le. 0 .... 52lMl..· "aile receiver co uid l.e " Ipe r-rellell ~"OI'K-" .. h . a g! in cont rol range of better t!wn JfldB witho ut d""l ro. U1 lurn on .hJ . Arm. he had come IICrOS$ the lei ".Ill.he Wlull"" 10 a ll pru Nem.oml'\lter' lImde cl":ltt. N'd . m ollf.C.blelll' tha t ha ve al". . 1978.oco....tiktl a' a ... l<:para lcsl. ~i"l! hiCh.lcnl) as il ha.d II~ Ihough it ~ h ll i e . c" rt in\: /I •• porla ble" SCi M Hz rece!.Jea.. dogged the ' Ul"" ·rCj.•. simplc t". Altho ugh hi.f..i.·"..na lly Bnd lill ie ~e rio us wo rk hns teen do n" o n .1 inpul If:lIl.

1e commenu : .eq"cn..ro o ~.. Ad .h i'e ".h e no il'C problem in lhe .ved.-l"~ tr S.. lad . . le very .0 0...._ ~ • • ~ c la i"''''d .. ll 1 summ:l rire a ll rhe ideas and """"""I WoS or 0 Ihis lktailo:oJ i1niclc.. ..$s rrouccd 10 plc:Isam I'fOport"".l."' 1 h.. ly o vercome. . hl .nl ).' ."S .. _ ••_ ..."n<'C of a n i.. .. . SCl. be " . : ' " 11 is d irr...f.. ed rleql.. as . ... ' n. te.. 'i Y1:rS a m UI..' . {ZL3VN he is silen t o n Ihis I"' inll .r. eno.k ie~cc.'C".ti!.d &. _ r e_ •• _ 001 C.( im ".-. C <I 1<. . o..le. ""'In \Z siJZ"al '·.. lcch niq uc el imill.w.- """"a' ... u ." " Ja • • It. .'ing h" w the FET ca n b" lJ>. . j cn ... .. ---+-.. . .rence silln.. i • • I.....e "". c hs:td\~ nla.eei~er 1 be 0 m. e ..... f. in hl nd ·wid lh e:in he i:" inc:d ror ti.."..n> ~'CptiOn. and 0 •• b d.>!s a nd •• dcl"-cry . u go ".. d cl.l ~uelchin& ­ pcr rUfm" .. 1M: d Ol$ ill .coocc " r .. 1_ p P b u' ~ . with lh e p"""ib ilily o f fU rl her seloclivilY hein!: a.' "._... o.•• 1>.. he u.: In the "t>-. !"'or reception n f e.. . 10.i ~ts minimi1C."' .. . h .b.<c 4 . 02 "..nd1 1CI he hrou .. • no ' " . " " scnsilivilY im"". M .ft<l.•igna1. rm'" WOfl hwh ilc r"ll"w~ up is : •...h. sq uck hinJil . lable carrer OI l carrier r.. th w.l lll. n:ma . eel from t he ha rmon iL.'C n l .l.e""l 100d IOll O n he la 'l. by a ny 0100 meaM...>"..· ' ..h.. h...j-ch~ .<le ad d ltiun ...." .. w... •11 _ .I CIln he made 1(1 C(lfIC " ilh roth tilde moon . . . (of ' u ni. lI. he OOIl>CS u p w. II fl'I rl " (1m . h" Ih.t. (If a I" " 'er freq uellCY O1Cllla lllr....e-oti •• <k . _ Im .... ' •••• 1000 .":.• • • • e . ..... r"e l .. c-o ~- - ~ <. ad '"od b • •• p • • ..l' I lh.'C h . t ..:~plion of n . since Ihi. 10 2. .m . ' fT • •f .!: """"' .. (I...... c "4.-<I ""c.. II. " PI' . ".. ... i" ..... .. . .leney use". Lower frequcnqo ..n.l•• c" .w. C o. ... ~ inJ: : •• H Ih is . lei• • '"ft.... as cffc>o. :..t'ducli<. .. o r c'-. uit.. _.1 .' be a pplicllble 10 lb e <J cm(l{lullil ion "r • . lh"f: a ~i ~ naHfl:quc~y ef)-"I.... II t he correcl ~l .. a nd 'cry usd u1 .' i.. 10 7• tee.. L l:OIt inll de~itts 10 pro vid e rhe SQ lIClch a ctin" a nd I" key .. ... le a"a "lIemcn l In ove rco me . Ahll<!ul:h "rl~ ' " .. o f _"anchio .( aJ FI" .. oJ" ""..l t..tor OIICill'lIion a nd ' eOnll-':!nnll II "" rk Ihe in<:(MTIinll .unde r li. mod"'. bul one lha l mi 'hl .. .. m inImum . Im ply i". ..y .f. ' 01" '0 ...' n.._ _ _ . O ne won .>n r:rt n...s f""'l"""C:" " aV('form .. "' _ •• ••l.. . .S... my ta ..... ... . n •... nr _l . " 11M: c1t ocll r:rt l\lnco.. 10<0 ... e _ c .vdy os . ..... I. " la lin" IIl1d redlJl. ~ SQY."""" . a ".. - ~ ' 0 0 0 1'* Ib ) ""1""10 . 1<> .. ~o .a nd mu pu l ki. n~niahly 'h in~ .. . _ ad ohio o r . 1 i. ...f.. qucncbed nn d ICp<l ra rely· q "e ncllcd de llXh'rs ..... ed . t _ .te.....hey are lis' eni"$. Z Ll \..0..-...•. n.N ad lievcs ".111 a. .. •• b.·. ~ml'l il lJdc an d d ural inn o( q u"._ .! d. il"" I:' The il'\jl:cT ion frequency gi n he d en ... receiver o r Imn..m .<I. Il• •o non •• • In d ...: .nn l: a dvocate of sqm ra t" 'l ~c ll chinll.ing I . • • .. OSl"ilialo r. he circ urnsl. . oJ sat 'S.. """Ie ~.'" can he Lai1<lrN '0 . 1 ".. lcs lhe n!'Cd ro . ' .._ ..... ~ ..'" O ut PUI l<l a ueho am p hl.. .. prnunUlbty by P""'-IC 1c...e\l in bot h ""If. .. .r. honlod to n ." · rad iat i" n. M •• . e ••"...bI.10 mon: n M pln sq udched SUflC'h<l. h ' oll ab l.. .AMATEUR RAD IO TE C H N I Q U E S -r'00.ma n l circuit. .i.. cr o. c .. . ... 1 1 1l •.n R".1" be ... 1<.. ....... .:n lulled wil h". . Ir." a! lin 11 111111100 r.nlO f . ( "" J'F1 0 ~ "' P F1 ~ '00_ • • c "" nJ.jess f" r c.. .... y r. ho..... T hi~ m igllt ena ble im emelll.. M'<l . _ "~ . nch... L Sla l:c 1<> pl'<.' ' .. radial i".i ... .m.. Dr n ..."1. by inj«...I< inl lhe lktco." II'" 11...... ' .h. an d Ih i.. .' c io. <h<>lo . r _ He i< a .....~ 1 fill" r in lhe in p. h MSQ llclt:h 1:. In "' . h l ' "" Iro!.. ' ' ' ' .y "..tL icm I nd interaclion t'oel "'-er'n adpc.."J'C'I"-rq.If ZU V f bI u o " . l illnal.r. J "1.Lisle nel'$ ' 0 Ihc-sC ro«i.. ha n cr.. • • • ' • • . M M Y _ _ D_ ' il." if L '«h"i quc mi!:hl not a tso h..Ii .. .. " <KIll'''' ~.I • • ' '' . n I.

tie or "ny supcr-rC!l.MPFiQt> MJper-rcgcncrMlIVe " "..al osctnater (lun illll 10'1'7$ te> " 1 29 ·1~ MH r. ""'hileh~ad (Caml>ndl:e lJ niven. _.1" lIuench ".: . I'iltet ing lI( Ihc q tleneh frell""ncy I~ sl ill ne< '3 I'y follo "'inj.. IHl:'pint< tnc SO u". _ . Whilellnd'. id e lhe boo k brough t loselltcr y c" lIceli" " or .Y.. ::: ..•• p'''' . Lm. or how ha rd lhe J uper'''''l.. ' iV<: I tUlt<" is O!lCil1.('.!QI... BU I n" (he m"re prK tit:ll1 .l 0 fl'cq ucllq. All the d ~ i... (!ild ' he que''''h wavefurm still ap pearl a t til .g.. 0_ N • .m111...ell c.lt in"l " . Dr Whl1ehcad writes: " 1n Ipile of litis urere is n" d"u'" .e .icn.nj!:Ic." .. rt~en~ra l i"n (likc re~c n er... A loo k III u.-- So. The o riginal lou ~h' i " MM_ IOlI M Hr.. hoo k.. . 1 le".Is to be a cha r-.vc ~l allc (a l 21·1j MH t ) hlllet. •. and fo rms ""ro b. 1J1f .~ e" .~."1 up Wilh rome quench h""~-it is your c ho ice..> T he Hanl"y ""dll"l "r Mran~"lllCnt .·.. discrim..r.c n~ r..h l l Ihe ""..eive r fulfils its ain..: 5Uperhd Itch ni. ~ '''' '" 'oooe .e......m~ II C "Vcll'.!"" of D. ~ f -.crafl (Ihe . add.[l. 116.ably Ihe m.e Onl) essent ial adju... "pa rt from oo l uning lind volume. Ol/Iput il la ken Irom Ih" cat hode of VIII lu lhe • .e o..ill illSt> he 1'''''1. .>1". .. ~i gnll is with Ihe ulmos t eco nomy o f e<>illpOnenll ." i""r in which liUpe. "..Ill rol... T7 d . lIo ub '.~ . The e. f .f..oe M. broadcast s" perhd r«ei'-er in which ""'y a 1lnllle double-mode valve is ""'-'<I.e Itu~e.. "" .. ~• " • tI ."!". ihle."..".1 based 0 11 llle inlen:s ive wlirti me i n vC:Sf.iII ucc:d 10 puoh the feed back a (lil more HIlII!... " I Ff" S~l""') we. ly.."n.f..'i.:vealina:. t>.. .m... 'CO .n $labilill'llio n. O. loulll" r d iod c . of oJ)Cm tion a nd a n imroducliu" t" the CQ".R E C EIV ER TOPI C S '" 5 I1p ."n "..oulCl.. h"'Ullcut receiver Qn be mad e usinll II " ! . Olicll iator .. "..ng .-. inci utlinll lhc .n ord e r 10 uVe":" 1tI<' their rep ula lion fur unr<:lillililily. Luu!:hlin.-ati. M H.unl hle vol taRe wlth no si ~nal." p<".J. Lid uenslein " rada r-type receive rs: Ind theM f-"f\'mooyne l.l !io.n."lcri. lhack is k ~l't 10 a minimufll.pel-tellen . Drili. f.I.al. ... ac tion of Ihe lu~ r·rei'<'n. k "'a~ pUI inlO a nalysis of super ' regen cireui ts . ~ OOI' ••. SimilRrty 1 D. 01 " n Abov• •_ 1M _H• ••nd II <11 ~ I bu• •10 .' or .. Su po:r.. nl ll. Ten> ""' ~' ..led hJll in~ capa citor a nd r"".""de in to super..' tahle «. ~ . 'h ". WlIile the Frcmcdyne d oes rild iille unwa med sigl)llis. ~ 1 . n 1HI ep.rctJiu. ...m. erator you .. clln.r.eo .' T~ .3\'1' i.·tk tcellnlt am plifier.." o deli""".. n < ~ ~ .t econom ea r. det"" " " " ul.." r=. and in so lvill¥ sume of the q uest in ns It:t'l unanswered hy the early ' Mea reh by Arm'1ro n ~ II ml " Ihel"" .H . .>i1. lind a lot of wo ." I~ . hu. the dele.c.. _" . Vi" 'h ' 2An ' OIl '" .lI ip" lind ai. lqt" "C'llll.. The •. till . . this radia lioo is 001a t signa l freq uency alld is o r lu..'..\Iinll.lmh od ' SO . / 1. While Vlh fo.. lind a kli of Ihe pal CS a re .. ra ngc is limited. (he pml>lem of radiau ion I ' signa l freque ncy) ._ 2' HH.n . D..:.ty is opnmum (an d rad ia tio n k:asO . when man y lllm..e t:>ascd on SUI"'r·re... d ue 1 the relatively In. . Why d cmodulo1e in . li'ed 10 ot:>lain very-high-Ilain d .· followl.). . transceivers e tc. vollRge lO t lhe det ecto r output is cone . Frcrnodvn e drcu il (which has al'~red III .. -n r e " R eYj~o ' A f~II· lc n~lh 1. \ ". <. f<>r recetvers. . r .h freq ucncy is set as t ll ~h as r>O"s ihle " nIl lefl al that.1!> u .' "r. • __ .s .·(' . 171..Icl.."perhet form of "!\. ."un.lel. i. . q uf..... The l u""r-tl..II rise o r a q ua rlCr of n volt o r more will he found witll a no mere Ihan a'l1ma:e li gnal. b UI I" make U~ of Ihe inhe". in Ihe ho"k ar e based on va lves. 2" 7 ~ ~.on al T Rh (now Radllf '" Sillnal~ Res" a rch I:slablimmenll.' a nd loprilhmic mod.l it IT<>-o!> .('('('1.l Ihal lhe i.. he ' Ilr>cr· regenerative stage u11l11 1" H e de~Cfl hc~ II r..-crned 0 witll the au d io d i~ lorl i(tn 1. Ill( Ieed back co n" o l ha\ p ro \" l h.:l>Cftin.hen lhen: is no mCll. d o wn the 11I nk co li as fa r . mpliti<:alio.al des ign slmuld I>c: .. receiver known ". ) is sllown in F ill.. Nn c rthelcu.." Tl'te boo k not~s Ihllt It m.n:l1o r.n wn cm ploy a s.n ~. mll pu t Ill g". ' em wilh rel ia b l~ " I'".k\'<' IOO to l h<: mat ll~malic5 o r linca.h e OUl PUI l 10 a cOl\ve uli" ".><.t "..~..... _ / -±') n > 10~·7~_'21l·7~ /. " . <kw t) r.• II~ Dr J.1 nds of p~lsc TCliponden. 19$0 ).. in tensity...l hy a c<ln Wnl iona l r.nc : ... S111i5fa<:IOIY. n.... d modula led by Ih" t1ucn<:hil1 ll... amplifier "noJ olf·!U rn: dlscr lmlna rc r.('(111 ) valve . "hich providn ~n . ~ 111e f. R.tI vo l'alle. f.'" ". though mOre complicaled .1distomon d ue to no n·ltnear.e""..m .. reIlllir.. .. feed back comrct is set. U.. VIa form s t he iUper-re..L " 1l1l ·.~ .lIcn is self· quc:nchinll I I a t:>oul 20 .h 11'1' and Germ. . Depend ing on whe". ~.ily r'res. lind then: ". f.al..m. Malve rn.I. I'his is sho"' n In I' i. (wbi<:h o~ n:Oflla.. aparl f' <II" Ihe a udio F01 r .:dition sof the Rad/(J H"mlb. of providing rtlCCplilm o f ( br. n.. ." In a "".. f ' • ... pllj.freq ueneics.. f----- ' CO " ".oll al lol. ~ 0-0 2$ i ..• eeoc r-t" "".lct"" l. i. H•• h ' ~ _<I • • up ' " I H Ho . IHa nd uses I 12An (1:. " .:"'1. -Il. ZUV'" .era.. ~ble and fCI''''' duceable. .Ie.'epl " f K ul nm~lic ~... 'od... e"d ..ene ..onr. io" i.. S"l"'~~('M".o nini simultllllC(luJ!y as miser..nodll' iden titk at ion of .30 kH z b~ virtue uf R l.. n be IIllpl. Sensil iv.illl 1."d .

. Uf..../1. M>unoJ ra<.I... >tI1t cmpltu i..1 ... ind . It i. _"g..al palhli of l'OICOivofS 0 intended for filIed_S1a tlon operatio n .n ' he nll~ncl )' hip ".cll Iho pricu or "aW equ lpme n ls a rc rilio..Jlly .in« the audio dunnrl.sty led reoeiver thul a n extt"!:llle!l.... ... E'''"''~ ~ ~ .l nd 2 : •• rcr.. "<l· otf ins" lalon.. O~ 90 .in : To Build or Not to Build? Fr>t' "".!.. upoda ting o r old recetven. there a re oflcn 1I00d rea.. ny yean lhe percen la.. f- ... _ _• I " ~. mulli-mode. _. _ ~ .". i<W'l · · l'I(lise ~ of a $upcr-oqcn oklCl _ Im!.' m nle it $hO\lkl be pou'bIc In . L.. • " !l..'he ~ ila ~liooI .. l~uo.. altl>oulI:lt many are stitt prel'ltrW to un dertake modification &lid.mM I rkel.. V3riOUS lra nJis. . fnr u5ing t he rmionic de vices 1 lhe si"..". " 0 . ~ m : u .. II- . Junc. \t$i"l ~l ... I.. :..r... ioa t~t tbe re Is DO need to '0 10 performaoce 1'CICCiVCB.-. •• - .. it ill iUlportan t . ±" . . 0 _ -.. "0" 100 ' 00-<.l)' th ai ~lOCh I ciretll' has a h " h ooi.. In _'do .4C · l . nor shoul d It he overl ooked lba l OYOn ""1'1..J. io t he 'e ill:htics..cw super'l'l:'p:n (plus aud i" amplmcr) u n J"rOYIdc: a ll df«1 i~ mooit"" .." - . OI·K ID IIR....#n-RI:t'c No 6. ~~ ~-. I 'e 1i~c1y to be otlla lncd "'i lh an A n O~ .. commWlic.. ._ M. hiJlt. 1M ready avallllbiUty o f new .. "C>( ~ '.1'ld land mobi l... • • • .. c should 001 foriCt thallhere arc still man)' valid rolISOlil in favo ur of do-it·ynunolf.. an okl.:. roccivcr as Ihe ba sis o f a now recoivor. lly it IN ) I'e ' ''XCI..Iaad h)' f..lonal dcsigMr a t his own pmo than he co uld hope 10 bu ild I better and cbeapor fa mil)' Soedan in his bac k)'llrd • •• t ~ (:Itdt is tboll lhe profeaiona.... ':':' .."eno1ohlo: d_n 10... rhe: best reol. I nler""t~ . but medlllnka tly 100<1 .o n.. 0 forllel lhe aflractlona of !lSin.r.... he " .. __. However.ily whe n buUdln..1lC1' sho\o.IlV ' 1Oil - -i}._ " "....1... Ray Moore...e fat t" r .... . o.afl. I.h... seco nd hand and O .lit' ~lal iom cl1l.....'I A..1=-..h~ n~ 1.. In USC on the I mateur bao ds hll boe n ~ry I" .. The prCSC1 rt'S~10fS ..m dc\mnilKd : o.. of ho me-built h.m . I'H)f shou ld .o r -f . of 1J.n~ lI)' hl: how a '<'1...... -. particularly in an e ra Wt. .u..s "'" d . .~ 1 1 . mlJ t i-bwtd .Wtt nmcnt ""!L1 rplul 1'CICC(~1'1 and tnlnwe iven ba5 nol m eo uraiCd many ama teurs to undertako the fo rmidable t • • k o r huildin& I'CICClvon or tra nsceivers from scratch.a lions l'CICCiver... rapidly. m..-.W " -~ " " 0 ~... in circuit wmrk:. -K Hi ..1. or 1110. bas wrltlen in f{(JIIl RDJ"' : '1bl! ind ividual aow ucur can no mor a hope 10 bellI tha pr ore. II I and R2... " . h. • • m. "'"(luld " . \ h I SUllabk l d .... ~ -.In(l J and 3 IekYision stallO<K. 'tZUY N_ _ • • _ '.. (~Ijty a ny_ "t>cre hct"«'fI aOOtIl \10 and IQlI Mlt l (re.. lID' ..)~ tw... quite apart from lhe Datura l SO llSO of achievemenl Ih:l t comes from wek projects .l'l p me II 10 dllilln the uhimalc pcrfortnaroo::e set bU to dOli.dl as lilt 70 and IU Mi lL alNlnIr bl:Ind>. toOO OOo(.>ll.. cd • • 1 IlOl whe n l hae h.c .. decoralor ...'$ s>mr'c u nJ:k-' r3..SIlY 10 tqo1lKlr R } . For c.. ~ - ~.111....1... • • .tmlkd f<al" eng.. . AMATE UR R AD IO TI!CH N I QU I!S . ".. In Ha.. a mau. on IKIn! n " lIll t>k.

.. ' . pa n i... . a rilPd wAs: and pcr hapr.. • -'" . w i'" .ru... )IOU QII dniaA (or a partic:u1ar band or activity • ...llic:aDy in5en p.nuf...eria1 for ch.l . thaI YOU call Ibm be con!ident of tNintiininc . .ccd ilems . . aftistm sud! as the oW NlItioDa1 HRQ.. and euct repl acements . • . ~You ean sun out .ly anil:l1:>le..lmneI 0( t~ptl'aIU~ and humid ity if tNt. " . hictt II5ClI CDmpotlCnts thaI a ~ tilely 10 rem:aiD----R::adi. . .l. ... .I _ _ C -.....rdlI. _1‫0ס‬o ...1[ is a..·.. P. P... Ind uct o rs and IrandOfJTl<'n DI hitthvol la lC ma y .. )'ou autom..~ ..no::h...J. It Is ~tCf 10 USC heavy PUf... r. to use tqwpmn u Ih.nufl<:tlIren..ccom~ by eood iPlItruct ioa books aild ~ic:itIf inst ruttiom.. ..D& mechani$ms.....R E C EIVER T O " I CS ... f.. .. aYOiodinc n.lt be rocls ""pa ble of l~ in eood cood ition....ubrly if he is lik~ly to be a disl:LllOC from lhe s upplien or m. sam..t in rood trim .limited Iask. bishlYcomplcKeq uipmml buill 10 colISwnc N )' J'C 1UtIdvdt. d ~t 0 e and in!iccts.sin& a m:ci-.'J:Ir enmpIe any n:u:i\'Cl" 1""1 is 10 he w.y t... humidity. · ....~ll it he does nO!Yo'isll lo bui ld his 00Il'I1 ~t ... .. put. _ wi..abk: diddlin& and ahpment • .hen lhe inevitab le raul ! oa. .urs. _ .l urt' . hea l lind humid.••• _ _ ....J..." One ad..: s~ .. ..I "' P. "' _ ... Iow-blodp:t receiver. 5""'.I. _ I~ fu1lIn or bome-buill r«riYerl .Aed Nailla medr..e .itir.. ffer from ". in 11'Klsc <laoi&ntd (0( a speeiflc:..cturt'r 000l1d :tJfor d to polt inlO ... Ray Moore poinIs out 11'1II1 _ of lt1c ckliJhts or bome-bW.II _ 1-1 nl_ . c:aa _ tbe la test compoomts or JOOI.ly: rub ber tnay dc1criora lc rapidly. LI _ 01> _ _.lype d ill<.. _ _ ... and ..no:r~llI ..=. tenai!a'.. lISin. sprinp by 0111.~ ir. c:ornpIIex cquipp>elll live wme l"""chl lo tlw: e:nricOQmcnt under whicll it is operaled . the ligtltcsi possible 1Nt.onu. you c:an U:5C circuits that fOQUlR! consider. oenl. push-bu uo n swil ~hcs by d ust . tllDi... Look fot eq uipment th..)' an.an invitc ma inlC'ROlllC'C p robkms in ' Dy OOOlnu y .tensi~ shielding ••• you (all uw: mort' staee\ .ae of buil ding or modiryi nc m:ci..dcq u:oll'...ed in tropical count"."" mUSl be a ble 1 withsta nd lhe c ffc u or hea t .. 117.a.. bich could be c.. or Illeut .C ~umlniwn p..lllt' fo r the amateu r." _ lor ' sr: _ .• _ _ ...bnI Qllltanplal iq !be p. < -I _ I.... troub le and somr comromcnu are very vuIno:ra b le 10 hwnid conditions... Often il is in the IllOlChaniail lkw ls tha t modem fwary· bwlt ra::ciYerS an: h...u ity mai ntained locally...o _ "' • .......~ w _ . t problems IN. _ . CompkJtity ... )'OOl tan double dOl:ouple 1t\'ftY stllf!lle atlll put in . or . ._ " 1. hdl iI iJ li ~dy lo be o pcn tcd and .nct ..01 1 1. Wbc:1l ])IJ.u thoushl ohouhl be gi~ (Q lhe oooditionll undef" .WO.-l.Idina is W I you c:an o.ssts a nd c:abi. Poorly tl"Ofli cali. ADd if you do ha ...ot. is aI all pos$Ib'e. YP.n<! far from idea. 1 p.... .._ . .ed rrinlcd clrt'\lil bolIrd s slill p.. Then: a n: thus adYllll\. lon.'" .mwhat mi&bl be Icrmtd " WIlli· profcssiooal" tqUipmeDt.... tha t . 5Jlyap:d it_ tha t no .y be d lfficull IDcome by.... _ .Y)" aluminium p&a ~ . Tak e careful thoulhl or fut ure main.Ih he.. reen spot" corTOSion or -punt:1 l1r : c yariabl c t )'JIC \:arbon ~omJlO~nlJ may be atfoclcd by moi....

.abltily il for Iypial ma..f.." SECTION FOUR Oscillato r Topics e cspctiaJ1y in" aro Wlh In POJ>llLarity of 1.". a v<llve with lI i~ mot ua l con. kria·mode OKiUllOn ColpiU..u imfl"l"lanl &II the circu it used.i. In bo.livily o f !he j unct i<>n.dUalo " 0 l"'ral c ill e ilh er the parallel nr l eries mod e. o peration on h.. a ~Ulbil i ly o r lhe ord~r or "*50 pa ns per million.iAl rrecauliollS. iblc to Ii. an d in many easel the m echanic:al COllllruclIOn of . I'icrce .. tdIi.t n A ( MOSf'ET) Iho uld enable stab le osc ilbotors 10 be d""ill "e" witllou t o vens. '" .. .eep gystal dr ive lo w.u ltl include the Sqlller. In pra ctice.quircd even wi!Jl ItOQd crys tals .. or about ± l kc/s a t 21 Me/I .. Sio"" tem pera ture cha. ~R'C COLPITTS 1_ + 1" . Transi. Il.ch~ the dC¥fa' o f stab ilily n.IS 100 cis.f. 1e 11. ulC of thlo need for high ltab ility there h.i lla to. + '?' + .-.el upon IICrics mode <>Oci llators. o rro oghly Ibc: &ame order o f precilion II' heplnit a watda co rrect to within half a second per _ k .. a lthough without O VCllS corolillcrab le ~ il noeded to .3y be "..I.f. 1 ~ . and the ~ry. A IIA ty belter lhan I p. For Rood "-I. and v..1. hl&h .p.b.ngc:r o f lnam istor d ULracl erist in ha ve N aI" " Adaptod rrom EEA . of as lin le . In fa Li..ard qllll.lal m.. Wlille simple fo mu of synthai~rs have been ad opted by SOme lImIteuo. stalles shouk! be a voided If l'Ou ible: due to apprc:riable build .. most ha ve IUId to depend Ul'Un adlievin . o verlo ne " r~<leney.be . Modera La To lO MC/1 l Sp. Ttaoiq S. T his p ro bkm has \cd in COfTIl'nCIcial w mmunica lion s pr3l:tK:e to th e evo lvemen t of c:umplex frequeo~y 'lnthcsiscn whiclt de rive lllel.ma ted a t cilhc:r Ihc fundam tal f~IIt'DCY an " t hCll m ullip lied IIp l1S "ea :uary Or en altem alively il ma y he fo rced to resonate III an ..mpruved.a<1"'1I<.1 !lCnsi livily 1<> temperature chan.f. In the fUlu re. bridac olciUat...Ls lln apprcc:iable elfcet upon the . should run al low f'Ow Cf" 1c\"C1s and t he min imum am oun t of r.t overtOlle Tunina Freq lleQl. o utpu ls.il o bla' nable wilh bo1l Meach. OUlJ>llt il considerably lo wer. Cry.c 1e".lIfdlns or o ther ~omideratioDl.0 ..ut 2S ~Js. lability dC"Vica.p.. of tlUl<ld circuill Bt:c. lor crys tal ooo. o. of Itab ility now demanded. Miller u. C<y!ta1{>$Cilla tof . To 2(1 Me/.leri.:tal oscilla to rs..p. ". I.u r a nd dela y time!.ble frcquc:n~y o oct. High Sp..ftI.1. • <:.. There is no one magic cimait lIUll will p rovide the high ord e.verap h. ""wer d ra wn r"" nl it. withou l s pc.es o f metal o xide lC1T1irondudo r fockl effect tran . tho Butler and wbat ill termed the Robert Dollar.ty tI. Low w modatlt_ To hil h. Po pular forml of l eries mode cin. T h_ "' h . In l!CllCral the stabilily of ICriq rnode oo<. been a marked revival of interest in cry. Fi..itehina . the redu~.. hJch may be vaned in d iscre tc Ite ".f. . ICC 1).~ '...p..HLatnu is a Il ud dea l hi ~cr Iltan tha i of o par allel typea b ut tbe .e . Kcyin l of ~.lId Colplttl filII'" Q . Pi=<: Miller T P ower O ~ l p ~ t >'!"'biliIY <oJ 10 p. Miller an d ColpillS.uk OtriUatOfClr1:Illto O _..-& requirement o f FOR manyand receivers mor major liable l1hed theama.. d uelan ce ma kes il (ka .Glli4e.. O n 28 Mc:f this is a IIabi ity s of tetter than On<: p Bl1 In a million. t<ol O ... Mv e a fimher pro lliem to con lend wllh _ the a pprt<'ilIble lempc r1ltur'C sc:o". th e 1lWlim um potsible stability fro m far lesl cOfllplc1 anarllemenU.h. dn.. the freq umq of the transmiu('f o r receiver need s to be held du rinl • C<Jntact10 Wilhi n abl ..orlThe 11I011 widely uled h. lie Panlld-mode OIeinato. f:: PI ERCE M ILL ER - .lh transmitter lIfId receiver a pp1ieabon. an d lellve n a t that . or tllll<>d circuits No tuoinS Switeh.o of B.m.y ra l\j _ AoJj UOlment Oyola1 .oa.. Q UMtZ o..ttw' lran l mitters ha5 been o r variable tuned <>Oci llato rs.m.. ctr<:uitl llfe paraUd mode types (Pier".b.cd in a e~lal oven ."ra UI = 8 "" m lGI c:ryUa1 conditIon•.nz OICll lalo u llII always bdn. StAblll.. TABU:: I n .l latOl'$ it evel')' bit . n..ell/aton y~d leas cr. Sc:ticlt rcsolliLlll ci n:wtl lllUAUy include a tuned cimlit 1llld th is ma y be inconvenienl ro r ' wilctlin•.f.". lIgai n in e ither par a llcl Of IlC1'ie$ mo de.umurtl ~lIibl . the modem a mateur can n o Ion "" rq..Iab llity and o u tput. The selection of parallel Or seri el mode l\. mllkin ll it d esira ble for Ihe ~ompkte oscilla tor WIlli' to be enclo.. frol}) • ~1Il'1c hi&h ~lllb ility crystal ill a tcmpelllturc l ta ble o ven. this type of circu it e or l ite Pierce ci reult il recomrnmded for tranllSlo n . fC1..

applicatiom.a. moisture wllh meW CllSCS and aW4/mclll l ICala o r w1lh evacuated lin.petal. How tbm cao tho mat cn juItifJ tho IIIC or tblt term1 In tho ca. othcn have IUbowltiA.:th tile -.:\lablc fl'Ul U<:llC)' driR with van.lIlJ'!:.ked red UCIioD of I~u lll drift..'l to the opl Dl and c) e... widely a pprecia1ed th..II.tCIice.-t aydaIo Imd 10 be ~ IhOft Kti.ally more lItabte than the BT-cut" . n ot be RPI'lkd ..<a.I ""'""" Foo' the ck:v'Do " f tcmpcn.wer dlannell flOW' used. llle -..2 k.dy by mec:bacical Ol'do::tricallhock..: adhen::d to.b. AI dlil tempent\ll'e lOme c:ooftlclont cun'Cf PUll from positi . U. the AT.r.-effir.so _.11. thoulh tbcy Ibould.f.."ies with th e cry_till 0 anollO ad.oo:6if..: kvell an. the temper&tllR o W!! .. • . cryM&b u p 1 about 0 61ok.YI . RIlCaIIl'y hof. in both ltammiltinl aIId. Vey low aystal driw i ~ po$IIbIe with Inn'lttlora. above 6 Mc/s or 10. a val". 10 llepll¥e.. (.hJ. ~ Allow temperat u re !be c:ryuaI bu _a oqp. Cl)'IIal and are then rd'CInId. t Cf'J'IIal milla l Iuove a ~ wcfficicnl 0( 40 parts per mlUioa H OC { rom th o apc:ll but lhil ma y incn:oox 10 around 100 paru per million 5O'C from lbe apelt. A crystal Utl ended for UIl! In 4lI OVCII would have an a pprecia ble lemperat~ coetTklcn t a l room temperatl.o....ref C&II cooll'Ol the t CfllpcnfUre at 1"hiclI !hi..Illbt VlU'latlMl IQ the anale of cu t. Thill at U Mc!s & chan ltC of o nly S'C WOIlld prodUt. tllodC!t'll h.a PCriodically by \V)'Inll !he ~tal load ca pacilaDCe by a trimmer .. lI. " ". iI. Il&b ilily dratltllhould.: more proae to IUda d&rna&e tlwI tl'to!c 0( "'&Iler f~ 0( tho _ a&t.. .1l could.. . equipmalt" wilh tho nan<. AT.. introduco:1..wotrary to Pll9UJ. H O\to'e¥el'. SiJIl:e the lem perature o f a (:ryItal will a lso be rUled.e. Cryruh EMly II. prod\OCl: apprccu.F.t.li<Jn and bo tb ltv: dectrodell aM Ibc: ctyItab had.llDCt ma1.. al mu ch \ow n Icveb IhaIl th lKClikel y 10 produce actual damage may never - tho:lcN cause e~""""i ve riile In cry~ tal tempcrul ure w. psket at the jo in an: o. Later tbc pppcd hokkr w. 10 be cleaned f""'l uen tly. )'CU-.. ble fn:q ucncy <lrirl e very time the crystal OKilialor II lurned on. and ' till lata'" tho e loi:trodcl 'tJft'll p lat ed d. ltv: OKlIbIor It."triW aUII). thAn BT-a.:lml of the YU)' pof'Ulu X<UI _ 0( thc crder of ± 13 .b IbouId DOC be rnounteod close 10 . With a lo:mpcralun: oocftk. TIle maIlllftclu. 10 I'aa zero Oft!' a IimiIod f'I.. A Iyp ltal BT.-t . low r""'lualC)' c:ryIIaIl--aJ~ thicler --.ble chanpl ID the tJ1. " H. mutual COflduet.uy IhiI iI made but for a')'!tal.y 1oIR8tJ0CICd by tellIpI:mUI'e c:bu1I'CI... TyPical!y. it p<.C a driA of the order of .. _ 1bc any ho kJen IDMl by IIl'I&ttun eonmtecl of two . the ooefficIont ~ increUrI&Ir ncpU¥C.hen ".1 II.lliol:l CID be obtained for a tempct :u urc var1atio.mous1y jeom thil l.. nuivUl. " COInpODeDu &rid VlLIvet. rr.biebIcu of a aT_ t eee for th e same freq ueDC)'...u bcbcf. .... n.apia.D rrom l7'C 1 7O'C.. pu of a parabola alXl..f . Such chan.ICr}'MaII an: IOlnCtimes rd'enllI1 10 AI . If*lhIaIl1 d«:r-. 'tbc ImlJlCra lll1ll a. _low r~UalQ' gyata" an: UIIIlIltable fur _ ill mobile equ ipmenl.-u per million peT -C . 1bo AT<Ut cryslal II about lWo-thlrds the l. . rea11y su ila ble io the IDMt rircorom dimal ic cond itillr'll.. a t~ of 20 pam pet mi..: 0( BToClIl a}'IWI tho frequcacy/lcmpcratllTe C\II"I'ClI ara ill !be form of a ~Ia : ICC Pi&.. ~a11 have been int rod uced wlth miDiature aDd cub-miJliatute bolden (HC06/U Illd n- .-t Cl')'Il&l bc:Dornes m ller fracile ud the aT<U1 .ol.tt !be curve fo rms the . «rc... hoI-runnin. by o vm1rivi. plates mounted borUonl~I.aI'J Riant ~ o pen holden SlJ rfered badly frum eloctrode o . and.as oommo o praclice 1 cono~ • 60 rnA fwe bulb in .OSC I LLATO R T O PI C S .ape1l occ:un. but as ltv: lanpcn!1InI 1nOYa ....ater. Dew Cl)'lW cullo-AT aDd BT-wcre iDl rod 1llDlld resulting ID a llW'.lredly OQ lhe Cl)'ItaL The beat modem bolden lire lalled apins\.UCII thlI freq uency varIaIion loo k the Iorm or dilC:llltojumpl retner Ulan a l leady drift.. en ~lopes. Quartz a)'Ra1I. 10 COlIlIIltf'Cia. FeM' t bm!: reuom. ..i" ~ .. M ..lIIt ahOl&1d l'III1 a t low polO« 1c'idI.an it.-' -. be kept es Ic w lIS poss ible . AT-alt Cl')'ltals have a ra tller more compleli...... 1(b) shOWI a f&mlly oll\lCh CWYeL II will be noted that all lbcIo CUl'VeI puI Ihrou&II fD'O a l rnotO OC' ..>Miblc 10 ~ocp cryslal drive 1ow. lbc AT. n:ason cr)'II&.t .. Q")'IIa1a '*tft mainly of 1M X atod Y ews (!he trpc iI .I illiended feM' uM: in t:r')'IUI _ it iI ~ U 'C..) . conwnoa pnctice 10 lrim OUI M>CIl dlan.&pe 0( this cu rve CI. ) fl"Olll DCPti" 10 ~(jve. tion of lhe all with l'apCIo.1 hence uu. to . v.. drtve and lempera tu re. LD raa..:iel:1t is 'If«<'{ low iodco:t.Jctennined by lhe oncn.l~.-uminl tbat !be com:cc d.ent of around 90 1*"' per million pel" ' Co drifl . aDd theD bcyoIlcI • a'itkal lanpentlU'Cl beIiIu 10 mr. abo ut thml limell thai or X<U t cl')'l1all.:!•• Y<Ut ~ luffCTCd C"alltlOrll.jlDt !he sUlae &0 tha I the tilameDt did D ala. Crysta...eia!ll 0( ltv: top plate pm vidin ...UDfonunatdy thia iI by DO n-na tbc cue.17.. oAm prd"c..... Omenii)'. •• The d~ of tbc freqUCO()' dlaoll'C durinll a acinl ~ dt:pcndc:n l upon a number 0( fKt on iocludin.iIt overdrivill . Ml>dcra ova-drivinll C&I1 alIO res ult ill limall pcl1TW>CIIl le dlanJCIIn crystal freq_ y.-l. &:&II be Ma km catha' -. BfO lClIlJlC'&Iure c:oeffic::ical " ~ from 1Ift\ictl II misht be JuPJlO'lld t1w dlcr -oWd be complctd..lI be bfoullht a bout b y onl~ sl.t. ajp:.~" (. Some CWV'8I remain Yo<Ty fl. be cleaned wllh C&l'botI Iclrad1loridcl o r prerer&b1y with II little lOaM' . tere. leu u pemlve types ' uch lIS pbcnQh c n:sin Of Qer&mic holders with a moblureoexcludln. In llWI y I.'&U-'C. 0 M OIl amaleun know that KI'ioIWr o\'Crdlivilllt a Cryllal (fot uampIo by cxc:cssivc power d ilSipa tion or feed bac k in tile OICillaIor Slap) em resu ll In permanent damage or evco failun: of tile a')'S lal. Fl• .. frcqwmcy{ ICfnper&ture cu rve and cOIlIid. tho early liCo---mainly in the li m.. l1wI for bmi ted dcputura rn:xn the a pa ~rat~ the -. an: AT.idi.es occur princi pal ly dur in. tho Amtl po int (2rc)... 0I. bstantially above or bdoort' thil licurc.f...lionI Ullanpcfa1lIR. ..round...!h lti.ayual arta had appra.ommooly IIIiIld ill am:tttur pr.. aDd iI UUII more 0C0Zl0lDi0:&l of quanz.. Bolh 1" . th e drive level ill hl. usu.. 1tI the Ih lnie:s it .en. '-. At the critical ICIIlpUatU..ri. f-o r this.Jte nri:aricJQ li kely 10 be ~ in &maIcur practice. ot It Is Ie-.

.tion for eac h 1 p F c ll. W4T1l1l. Ihe pl. "'"'If ..l&1 uo it. it ill pointe<1 out th&t with Colp itlSand M . . 0'13 8 r.. With the tUDin g apac:itance lIet to min imum Ihe cr}'$ta l i.....Io.. _h.l or win:<! in pual._ " U co.. The ease with which a <:I"y$tal can be made 10 osc illate ill lermed its •• activity" and can be meMUrro qUlUltila(lve]y by m.." .1...arne as llull wilh the: co il Inserted . . . OwtllC8 in load Qpaatanee chanll" the output f~uency Ilightly. Typ ical A:T t (th lckne n lheaJ) cryatab in tended fo r UIe -eu wit h _ 30 p F loo d capacilance have a frequeD<... ac-w u - H 0 6/U K " . In. C 0 S"acioa r. . ~ _ f l..) "" .lI"l .." _ l J'5 " 010 1 f . (fer 14 MoJoIo 1l ·1 H <I' /10.o..I_ oI cs. A number of d HYerml holden lind pin dimcn$ioos are used : soc Table 2. _ _ I'" . v ..."..IIer.hon-circuitinl of cry... SoII. alw l. The ourput fre quency r>l' a M iller oscilla tor is Ufoectal by the setting or the anode tuned d ll:lliL In the O.. Dl~ '00.. J O-:lO l'Sc/..~ specitlcauon No. 1:"'. p losgcd in p lace of the co il and the meter readinl no ted . O v _...hned to result in less a.il$ may ha"" p lat ed clc<.'" _ . J' ) L> ..ral is substituted tor tbe older ~p-moWlted type . e vetl of the lame cut.ho.c wbcJJ • "lu ted f ay..." MeJ. • • .Ih . here scvcral $wi « ystals arc nlled . if only one CI)'SIa l is beina lested. ~ ~o..Ilere Ihll errecr of such capacitance is iru:reucd by the Mill« cffoct..... J I Mo/'o) _ 14·1 M<I' \1 111 MC/e "._ 11M ... _n '"_u-r-.... IICl'OIIS each cry... houk! hodl_ .. _. The .... ... .". P--. octlv. )Hl Iro." II IJU "'" ... ... 1 .101. Most c ryllalJ.I. compared wi th Dltlal holden.fttr>ft" •• 101: H c/.. between I Mel_ and IS Me/s ere intended primarily fot lUll in potrall c1 raonant mocilla IO... IftJl I..I..1') and 2-11·1-9 respec ti vcly .n 0·437 0-248 • l lA T? / I. .. h. '1.Spea licaliono T. iderahle variation belween d ifferen t eryll!lk.. _ of W &'vP'. be driven harder th&D pla ted typal . Clystnh in gapped holders can amcral1.) D'~ (in. I Tyr c IOXJ I-T 243 A M A TE U R R AD iO TECHN IQUE S HC III/ V) of aU·d&u. ~ .l . c a ll _.a ~ UOJI.... recommended._ _u. . Strict ly _peak in g..>. st ra y switclt capaeitanU appcan.. CI..<at . TA BLE 1 Cry.. ca__ to _. 1 _ ....uible wilh lTIlUly O>Ipitts_typc arid-dip o. The C' }'._ be<wee.. Meta l ClL~ where used ~ no l ClXlMCled to either eieerroce..amic ca p._ I c.. __ '-'" _ th. .i. co .• Test Set 193.... ...)' varlo. • • _ 1. n . oodCI. A limple test 10 provide some illdiCiltioll of c:ryst. . MU mad er D Cl')'stab r= d<:signe<t 10 llt work into a 101tLd capacitanc:e--iDcludin g the d yn. fr' ~ft .'lal GulJ~..'" .. .lel. So I • (CO. .... OD"_ . that t he readinK is abou l th e . Cr yrtdJ Acetvlty There is co n.. 'M 0-l11 .n.. 0·200 0·192 .. c:ryst.. . not<:S that diJiicullles can Ilris. W...als tend to oscilla te mainly at the CClll re or '" part icub. ~.. ...1ivc. ti~factorily ill the . _ _. thougb many Cryslall can be usal ...u:itanee T<:pra4'llte<1 by \be: Miller etfect--(lf 30 1'1'. In I. _ 11 _ _ " Inl ...:ulge in joed of from about 4' )"1 2" parts per mill ion ... "' cconll .cine drift.. _. r u• • I• • 10'" . riel mo de..r1y witb ue Miller circuil . IllCh crystals should ha ve the cerrece loodina cap".. 1c _ . ... s...talA nn l in actual UIe i.. " .. The eo rreopondin l fiJlllrt:l for A:T l (tltlrd -eu overtone) and BT-eu l (thie"""" ohear) crys ta ls a re 0-8. . .. I~ ca pac:l· tlLQl...I.. O·4'U O '~ H (ill..ll: becomel a problem .... fl • • I ... and whcre lite capacitaneo beeoroes IU IC h may be ad vi$llble to U!'e thc Pierce cin:uit and _witch eadI side of the cryl.ltodc& with wire supports to tnecnve par" lIIc crysta l...s If. LI 10 " 1 _ it ·1M<I••l th . wh ile the ab5aKe of Ihe ga p Increases the cled rical coupling bclWeell crystal and Qmlil. evacuated type which are ' cl..tcd CfY'itai is usuaUy mo re ll<.. This variatioD ma y wel l de termine the: su ita bility o f 1I crySUtl f OT usc ill plll1icu1ar cireui!s.) ' ~ ft. d l. 5171 o f tile quartz plale. I.z vo 6J 6 lOp' •Der. The h igber Iha reading the: more active the cryotal ..... Varyln ll the IOO ~ f 1.1 in lum . tt>I.. d>ol:k....u 0-./0 r io.. .. XI ....) ". .+'"u ~~ •• l U I ' ~" •• . l a/ G~UJ. Sim:e h. modern Ull.. H .ta l H old. ... Pill (iD. 10:4 0lIi l:j. co QST... .cillalol'll.1_.. "J 1. n w cryoa lo. .activi ly iI ~....' _ c. " ~ oo .-. ..)' capacitaDce acro~ the cryslal shO\l ld be kept low...... ..lrumentl devdope<! for this p ur pose C.r. '"la . r Ih ...

.... 11 ... I1 OUTP UT .----.. .c ...l (1. ...r. •••' -_ _ . 21" U. " • ""'Ull I NlO t . . O UTI'IIT LIM • I .. ' ... I~ ). • •• • .. . .. .1! ·S V ~....L--l. " r1 . " ~ ~ ~ _n .... 5 .... ~w lu... I- +f)..e---.-1."~ ~ . 2 50.. II _I ' _ I l· IU.... _ _• ... 7. .H § " '0 0 ~ " A" .... . ...' I . . . . .-10_ .. _ .... » _ fZUA"'L _ _ _ _ : . .... >DO' . _ _ ' ...... n o" ..c 221'" 8~O .. . )$ .. <10 _ I do __ ."'_ _ rl .-. TM _ __ "' "• ci "" . --._ ... . . _ _ ' • .." 8 .... _~J.OSCILLATOR TOP'ICS '" .-r---'._ .... I l..----=:::C: ~_ • . ...uu " I .-r.l---::[~ :~i--'~·'" L... ' " " " I U ...---_ . _ _ .._ _ ..... / _ .S"'~ Q H T+ f :l!V • ~e-"'" " N ' " 5~ 'h ...... 2N7~ . ' • • "'_ 1 ... • .. . I ._ .. _ .. .. r. ••_ .... _(PUTI'\.... _ _ . .. _--._ ' . .. .. .1. .

T1'oeIe ad'iantaaes add up 1 0. 1 Commcrda l l)"llMlS of coMidcnab1e Ql..lI OUlpu t rrcq ucncial are di nx:tly dcri~ from D.. 'IV)' low fl1lllllmCY aDd Ibm to rnu llipl... 11 . for pm(es&ioNl . clo'cull . 1• .o... G_r.. in effc:d. .... _ .uh care I(' awoid birdies " In tIw oul pul . r~ thiI application. ... .J c:ompIe~ity and tbt need to d'OOIe c:r}St&I aDd IW>llb1c otdIlalor fl'\'Qumcies . .. He fouod • dira:r..< ically Ihc same Iype or 1JaDp" meal U!IIecI for many )'tan for automaho: fRQuatq <:Ontrol M . .1. Harmonic guler._ _ II __ no.'£io. . il must be admittC'd !bat kduIiq. II pml _ ._ f"nQ 0yJHL 1-.··· . clw¥tcriV:icI lUKe both rncl llMon Ql/l Ntl COilliDuousIy. '4.. h . .4 _ _ ' ·f _ _ _ h o or-IM OC". . ~ form 01 I)'llIbe&iKt Is to \IX a Unp. So It iI 0...t:===== ==:: v _ .r. 0 If raJrly small ditcrrte lIers ~ required. III1d results in a 1 freq u. l III H e..1 ". .. ~ ..... lbc tritrt (see bclow) .....hC1erod)'TlCd by • h iiheT frequ=q cr)"It&kontro lled oscll lor._ n. ct· " L _ OOUpLin IL 10 tho twmonieally tuned anode circuil). . Th_ "'"' of to u ~ only Yell' bUI C&fI pro vide useful inrorlnal ion. _ _ I ~ 'Lo.. IIlltJl I"eIlden will a1rady be wei .'.. Alternatively• • nwnt>cr of gyUak may be ... .r... itl1etl'OlAliol:t ~ 0EI 1ator 10 fill In the tap.. Ou. 'i". wbo once Mill..... M YC been rr-. " .h perha ps kq rompliC:UN than the lype whall . pl1...ate· loded 1 Ihe h iahly I la b le<:ryslal li P'll1. ofI'-. .. 17. lhou. an pllrt iclllal ly IUil._ . only by th~ addilio ..._ _ _ U h M r------r=J:~~~-TcO~..-d.nd and dectrGll coupkd to the 4Ilode tin:uit)..J:' -:-lr-r...'" J NI'OI AHAT I:U It RADIO T I!CHNU1UES ... p ullin . ti l.. 11 fteW'r tolVQ • pnJblenI without «eatiq: II:ll mon:. . ..-.rcuill. ily &riel itf't:Il stability . dindl: and bdc:rod)'Dl! tho: outpuI I " p rooluor uablc: outputs in sma ll diJ<=t~ Slept .I. 'The mOl'! ClXNIIOOty .... .. ._ ....... n:lali'fdy low freq UCllC)' '0' . _ .... .. la tor Il&bility. _ _rnu7_.b. .. l he IIiCd and Colpltu Cll'Cllila pnlvidc • " man: harmotllc outpUt ttIatI tblI modil'kd Pieroc. IIn.. 1e hi AA-sl.. -n U Ilm&lo:ur ~ hu RIOpo:llC'd lbe whok! ~ or osQI.. A pha-oe lock d n:uil b ba.• .lC'o""'" _111.b... hi&hl1 sIable ~ osQUalor (with the ~w In a tempcnI_ controlled oval) at... -l _ .... W2LC11 IUqaU Ilwu with h~~ ~ . » H e" II Me.o...y.. O ' OO1 5 0 ~ " o. . bo ut the alI:'h hanooltic: (or about fourth hatmonie i tho! olcil b tor II m:juimllo dl ivor ..J ~ .." -/ C ~.. .1 the Ilrai JlUfo rward '0'..f.. ' ft <>00 " ' _ If.. aood 0 kcyin ... is..~ + ...)fl\plr . .. W Ithou1 aoilI&aU Ihe_r WIth Ilcmard SbIo. .lt>". .. .OO!l _ _ ... plcot ("'Tn of frequ ency Iyntheoil it lhe ~"'YP" ¥.. new II:nn to scee..c a " . QlpaQWlCe will abo ' boW the 'I'f'ro~ imalc or the c:r)'Slal .. ~ "'..O~ 11o we!. eenenJ. .. ft . Sdmce is aMYS wrona... lAme drift in tmm oC kcls aD tach band : rood re-td aauaq: adllptabIc 1 u. ... Heterodyne-tyT'C v. .. lC~ S y"d .0:S7...' _ . e. ty. with the variable:ote:illalM tuned 10. ItiD Dot I particukrly simple I)'pe of d evice... f"O""U amplifier di RlCl)...llor. trend to u..i~l-.f.. I L1 ""'_ioot°. ~ evIU . w!... .mOllI. /." Thoup this be . . 10 vuio\g Coma <:tf . . ..~l . an tho! Colpitu (with e1ernu o ur in popularity fur 1IOITIC)'eVa.. ralC OD each band. ~ · l .... W 2F hS liflllbt I4nnlap 0( hetel'Oll~ «dIe'll as : same IWlin. blo tor use iD wmpa.. In IOfTlC of m... pft(ly fonnidablt Iotal. . • variable . '""'l.Itua1 cond. WIll 1M modlfied PIerce (with CI)'SLll c:onnccIc<1 between arid and screen-..-d c:in:uil.. pect rum gt'nCllltor 1 \mvitably raJrly wmrlCJ.111 J-I H e' • ••.:M>W_ or tIM waI. 11UI&C roulh dlcc~s No.q~nIDd with ee basic tech niques. Probibly tbe "n.. lhis ... ::-. wil h ~bl. .~ of IhI! YaIvc and lbc .. ""'_· _ '...ion on • ..o.10 _ 101 co . (ran_lllers &lIlCe lL'Iahk: outpu t un be o bta ined on bod> odd and o:ven twmonic:l 10 ....tend to bo::ome ~ycly fDClCe compkJI.abili ly QUalU OKllLatot ... '" _ . rrtquet'lC)' lynth. ~ been produoed.0. _loll.... UM<i.. If..cn.. .. rdatiwlI ltip bccwcal the IIU..c:ncy !lYI'lhniza" whid! ._ .h . -r 7·nu .... inalc fRqllmq' . ...dUlllly in<.I U ) Mlftlo. I ..... Iroy '" .

ll[J be achieved. It October. .. Sl&ta D o ug De Maw. He no tes that no two cryalal. Wl CER. fr . . is a cry<tal osc illator lltTalIgemenl in whic h Ihe cl')"5"'l not on ly forms the f~­ urocy-rontrol devK:c but . Mo t'll l'llOlltltlyamateur interestin variable crylItai osdlIaton bu been revived.. ~ven o r nominal ly the same types an d style.. lll<. rn Hi s" op. The: amlllgcmclli of Fig. I~ch .1 .al... Gian M oc:La. ma inly beca use of the large. Ihe no ise bandwi dt h i's limi lC IO less tha n <! ]00 H ..'lOlor .. The usual fo rm (Fla.Vl " n: D IOIlV 1011 RFC '00' ow " '" " "'-" '0 tl. m. <7 Inr o. f ~. m...loll " S " hl.. Fir&t."d lo _ .D be . """... Low-"ol. Th ... . 0·01 " ~ ) L.toI nol onl. " 'ithou l any substa ntia l sacri fioeof stability bu t at fairly low OUlpu l : Fig..ai and ~ dulacteristiCll of the cell and . upon the meclwlil. E + par ticularly these used fOl: freq uency synthesize rs o r fo r freq""ncy conversion (10 l ¥(l id r«iproca l mixing) is an important wllsideralion in modem eq uipment design. .n<roIll"S.1. operator.. 1?72) in an arti<:k (. including a . up 10 the OI:der of one part in 300 l... <'r ol p~r l " h plrtl . 20 Is claimed 10 prov ide two signifICant advant ages ... b..onlc O~lf> ~. . " goa] ehll!leteristics or the lra...na reactance In series or paral lel with II . in QST (May. one about 260 " A well designed "'"0 il a poor man'a synthc:sizer. 10 <1.... des pite the: high Q of lhe crys tal. in an L-C OIdllator..._...e output lind su ppress harmonics. TIle impo rtance of achiev jna:high speclnt l purity u.OI " T'J 'OOK 'T. llSWX .boo II 1 0w-PllSS til tc.I" a ."'" ... Low-noS Cryrt<ll Ol elllolGr H ~t& '" '" -4~Z . with the frcq ueocr sbift rontroUed by a split_stator variable ca pacitor.. 19) bas & series lDdU(.~ = ~I 0 ·00\ 2. ) II ILu lon a been lUliu:d that II cry .to .h_l'fo . POCIr Mon".. oHd-s1&1e un il wit h MPF I02 vxo followed by 2N4123 and 2N2 102 bu ffer am pl...f!en. Dl2lR po inl!i out lhal wnventiooal crystal OM:illaton. S. <Ip ".. .t ...lOr..mi'llOr in the eircu't. c "".r to ban d-Ium t the noi. 1 / .tal Q..... In tb is <XlIlOOCIion. (0 ) Il: . pl'n. . 0 Bulthe teclmique halla. 0Id 1l 0 1 • . 1975. pu lled" byilIeIudi.f. secor. " 1 b ~ I ...lM lltunted with a rail... 17 Imoo-... EI« / r<m. drn.<l ly all higher harrnonlcs an: sut>stanti. lo. ¢7 rH ~....Ol th. ~ rl . ..C ~sign.~~-" ~O. 1bc stabi lily depettdilO II ~nsIderable «tent. DjIL" for "'II <ryotol oocl ll. .. attentio n 10 all idea from U lrich Rohde..lor I" which Ih.>uIb the lI abilily fal1l as thl: degree of pullins ill incn&Ied.. u ~.." ' 0' lownoise sidebandl and low-ha rmo nic output) in csc lltutcrs.nlhalur which provides useful infonnatio n o n VlIO design for the v. ~_ . yxO-tll.paci lOr..h.... represen ting a shirt of up 1 0 about 30Il u /a at 146 Mc/s..211 •. 10. • • .~ '" . " . This ope rat es at nbovt 6·1 Me/s and typical ly he u:hie... prompted in par1 by a QST tLrticle by W3BWK. Fla . ~ . DJ2L RfW2..O SCILL ATO R TOPIC S '" REc. U .I"• • _..1. Iow_.Ifo b«:n U3Cd fo r frequency variation: lICIl Fia.es solid control ever abo ut 12 kels. CIUl be shined elUl<:lly the same «te:nt : Ihree of his crystals provide 300 ke ls sh ifia.J lly suppressed ( for example IlOdB down ro r the !bird barmonic of a 4 MHz fundamenl. are slill ~ery ooi~y and produce IDIIny spurio us signals. ContUlU ousl y varlable Iliift. Fo r a lonll lime the main use of thlt hall b«:n for the uirnminl of frequency calibraton 1 zeee beat with Droitwicli or WWV. "'.e. 20.

in ~il )' a Ha n ley Ioince 1hc: 4 -TpFcapKil. this ill Tadily fou nd by wnncl. .l las o r the aetu.li ghtly" hOI po inl with rc:ference to the tW>Cd cimlil the Ioadln...apacilor brings il firmly into IleM n:MInance et the c. Freq~ 01 this o rde r a re 116 ·n... ......uoci... p ic and '*14 foun d to utend min by I S kef' III . Th il oKillator co~"'" a 100 ke/l letPncn t of U>e 3'~ Me/..i04. .. • 1. les l IOn lhb IUbjecl is worth emphaslzin.iokrat>k: ...'Ily work t:e. ho do not M Ye a fJ'lXlUUiC)' meier 1""lIa hle. ll...In.-.... This is wh y "".tmcn t to oelllCt the part of Ihe hand rcq ired--eo~erinl lhe fu ll 3'~ M ~II band a1wa..J. the Iowet turns of lbe inductor "'..._ll.reo: with 1 2·2 pF Ji-" Fi. T he ci reult !l oho wn in F ig.lbhtn.' 2~ ...••I . the ... and t he roedbacl ill c:um rolllld by adjuWnenI of the '''I' o n lhe indicator. . the mor e At ilfactOl")'.._ _ .onc t ho:y ICIld 10 kl5e Ihc: sol id l.. !l'C .l rare on the hl&Jler frequency bwtdl and .. .• 0I 1he ordet' of 1000 pam per m illltXI.. lie finds llul lhe a. QJl be puUcd O¥C:t muc:h tban th is..lUI ""l...1"lon wItkIt kKS' the twcd c:imli l QOITlplctcl.l cimtit M .. G SCY K. C&II be achieved il l howD 10 Fj ~ 24 . works ~ ..'Ilit un il Is a dvlled to ..KI1I1_ L I .. wiOr ~ 0( IO-C&1Jcd hiJ/Htatlilit1 ~tor d mlil-.. Pnl..ICI oI\ea provj"k n:n>afbble swinl:" in frequency .~ 2N 3lI191ilr.. It 8'lCS 'llllilhoul A ti re lhaf the unil IIUI5l be """lllClftned and very ri pd._--_... rep .. USOlI . ed from "'1Im'lI 0( heat ue UIUoIII.hown in 22. to ru n al abo.-1... . the ". -.._ltJIM</o' _ _ . few w mflOllcn tl and o tTe rs slmr1ie ily ... ." to . OIcillator runed clrcuits . • Ol...'t.'s a l 146 M .d iU a d. . _ _ . /IoI.. sooe i • Tlm.I the VlIlve end. • . PIT _11_'--.ith a kell i....-.. <l.... h & leut • two zena t diode unnp:ment_il a . ).Ul bolil )' a. is .G&Cy . rod mauiona lhat it hal also beeo IlIOd by G1VUO 1 COIto0 . co llmd loll II at ......1$o kDdl itlelr _ II to thil a pprocw:h).lo.. _ I · I _ . . _. _ _ • n... '. • aaadard.._ .. _ • •*'.Lc...v It•• a . t ~3 cryscah tend 10 IPw poor rcrl<>ftn&QI. but if Ihi~ ~.-. usin.._ Foa·U. by W4AM N....he llf'l'CI" end 1rq>rnfflC lns )6 l e...ys degrade..C 1D no appliulK>M..... ~ l-C OKIIIcttOl'll IflWCIII" today bas ~ &!moll: embl. 21 .c: r. band i1h a co il ..tho<le-rol lower connecti on...4 M el. fI\llY be rat Iter 10'" IUld stnce th.. Yorlcrb.l t _ _ .. +l H <1.. ..e com pared wi th .. fo lktwi n. .... c" noJ 0SC1l.. a FET.... This cil"t'Uil t..elher with CIIl: 10 IOlderwmplclely the ou ler obeaH'1 of the eo-u lI..hcn comparcd wilb fundamcnWoI)1lC! a')'WI h. The o u lpul . -...iI«cu rlalOd tlC~. " ..ll mosl pa. _ cqU&1ly UDSoItisiloCtOI'Y II these aspects are~ . Ood/Nlor for ' " folk R_ ..... hu Mat usin• • n ~ M ~I' tunable a:seilla tor ( AI ' 22) for 14. " . W IC:" • •H • .... in pr..u:ticc lhis rireJ firU ti..h0\efl !Iannonio: and ma kes il easy to F t l oinl ror lhose .. nile (lr ""rety (in 1""'1junctiun FlIT p ies are not Noily blo wn " p l. t hrou. Thil is based OG a CoI l'itl. _ ' _ .-....e JQOd resuIIa _!1m combined wilh salisraet Of)' med1&nkaI and thermal &sip but will prow IIfC _U ._. 11. Overtone ~ opcrued u thrir flllldammc. /I Bill Pocl.... rreQlJaK)' . . th the lap. " ~ .. Ille {unlD..~= .: '.'" AMA T EUR RAD iO TECHN I Q UE S o..-' I U Mel. _ "·i... ClEillatlKl. it.. ". He reports driR &l very low .. illl tha I a very hi&h dqn:c Or YOIIllJC otab iliza· tiOl'l-rot u.S. q uotalion from. . .tinI WUr«: 10 fJOWld to lind 1<h4(uro-ptcYolti/4!:C ""'11 cu~) a nd then d. hifta of m ore I/Utrl tOO ken anlscldom required In a hurry.u' un J'AI'C'" the &I'l'&tI&emenl .....-II.tmple by fcodin.. I It _ s _ . _ _ . The l N9 14 I.>r is p roYiditll MWion only....t. .....a..1lf I. o ~ m. 1 h.-er1 a P)'c Wl$m ill$tcr 10 tunable opo!r:tlion . lndil:atlnl tilt need fo r a e111U A llOlallnl .. I.. . preserued s1wuld he colllt4!lt...._ . .1is!ACt._-.. ~ui .. ..all of The whkh will p.ided IJW: SIJdI preca utioN are ta ken... T" h ~ ~n. bl..._ c:. but in. _ .... T . T1Icl e lwl. hoo ld lbo be cvefuUy llOlatCll M A typical ill' lStr&lK>n o f bow Uti.e wbicIt C&lI be produced by the combined elTeet 0( Indue:tane:e and capaQlaoce var iati <>ll with temperat.t. ...... Atlholllh it 1 000 I'Uba" He & Colpi Ua ~latot . . Iac... . tho:: f~ ltability of .r. and 6nd1 tbil il u c:ellent eve n . G 1XGP workw . f . ' Q IKO I' ......at cd with aystaI conuol "IDOna the u:dul hints ba thl. o f th e ce-ax Inslde the mn ed cll\. 24 ..traMio&l.h ote by other flloC1on thai Ihdr min imi1&tlon 11 pri me impor1&llt:C ID lhe deYdopmml of II1CllJII for lm provin.u M . «OfIOm Y.ndlOridlh.J".. I _ _ 4 .. lllln. r~unM. iIo la.. ~fuI "llChorin..ICT ran.." tho: basic VIlO ~.a. Ays"il .._ _ w. GSCY K..l esctnerce (the CarP" G ounel eircuit .. He linds Ih.. ShulIlin. l l:uti'lI I I the lowoot rosition..ttJ typa USIl......

CJ ills pos~dblc to ad j ust the degree of eompens:uion p ro vkied by C4 whleh is an ~2 pF ceramic tapQCito r witll a ncpllve lelJ1peratu re ~oemciCfl t or .. 1VI .• ' In.::. 11. .umrs to mcd ' iUllcaJ instab ility. ::Lb" "'!>-~~-_:j_---t-. .me lenatl.."tIon The use uf oellativOotempcnLlurc-eocfficien t ropacitors to OOmpeJl. <_n.. ... tA U" it._ 1_ . )1.! 'l. O O p~ I)' ".. Where tllllCd circulra are bui lt in the main un it. a considera ble imp rovement can often be ub\ainCl1. .. I<>w as 18 cis per huur wing this techn ique.1 "'1 00 .d the l«hniq ue Is de scribed in Ih~ Radio Co mm Ul!/rario/J Ifwulbpok llnd elsewhe re... 17 p' d ill b. " ' i~ ..-. 0<11 e•• <. p ' pcns.. l'lICilor in a h ieh-e C" lpnts osci lla to r has been described by W4JWV (Qst) for lUI a.O. in efJtIct.... W~VVD has reported dr ift rItu~ Ill.-.. ~ .. u~uaI ly d ue to a comhlna tion of venous capac itive an d ir. C l . n COtnpat trnefll.. .lIy isolated by p laci ng the T uned circui t in its o ..0Ct ( NPO~ <..l. . . By pmviding l"".em.. " C1..f. o m th.i milu support than to a ttempt to inpro_e Ihe rigidity of the vr».'1tion from two l intilar value furo capa~ilon.O ."/d (July.trts per million per de~ centigra de.....----' '.-' " T ' la.o.Ot LI. hen: attock waves from the ltClio n of a stra iiht Mone key JIfllr the v. this can tie lh. eJlciter. Compen. & il.mperOlur.a. lor_aM .»followet 1 0 rec ece Ioo din!l On the 1W\cd.... h.:.o. Althou gh it is seldom possi ble 10 lChicve ab so lulely en~t cempensanon.· " + ssc v " '" ~.. ." . in f. _ m _ _. . bu t us ill g a single d ifferenlia.. D'ffe.<!I Ihcrm&l insulation . 26 sho""'l Ihe fi ~l c•.. partly beca use drift .. ~ica.and C ..r.I ..SI. uie more proneil bo:. one an N rc tem perature cocflicient type an d the other an N1SO type ..&5 beco me fnir ly popular In recenl ycaJs.HN '... LO'lffll . - T _ . 30 ~ 1 V . Tltis h. d n:u it .ilJa to r h. 196 1) wider the litle " Ultra-stable H igh.r-...u the bad feature tha t the marc immWlC you ma ke it to ""temal d tclrica.. . I"4inTcd loll_er to ref\cct IIc>II and lined with 6b~10l.It _ . shuwUllJ ill.. 11 )oJ H e. CJ. llft.AK!I • . OU T PUT O. TIle complele v.o. t2 An r- ---. ollaftOOo fo e.as a diff Cfefltial CA pacitor 10 provide di lT~rin g dc.1~CI'''/J (Ma rcil 1964). _ _0# "'.I S H el.r.rees o f ron.f. ' i.ent ApprOd"''''' to rho So.. .0 Di ll ". .' p '" "• •r~ ... t ~ft • ... 1 '" .. toclm l~lX'.. .....b. of U 1• • . fint (Fi ll_ 21) COmes frOOIl WlFRQ Via.... 25). WC'I a a lha.F.. 1. ~ e. it ls uften easier to overcome sucll troubles by II rubber or s... dl n p ' IN 7SO).mme".-flom med lWl ical vilmuioD :LIld ..:.. <0 """" If _ 1_ 0 • ••• 1Ho 1..lJy Ihe -am.~ 0 am ~-. Z V... .. Cl.. .l changes..OSCiLLATOR TOPICS '" ::r---r--t~1 "" '" OUTPUT r-----------...ductlve c hanlfC'. ..mve rslon ~alor from the W 4JWV .1 M ..--r--r<"Td-" " '00 pF pI' am _. f. t..t ""..: lion a." CATHOO£ I'OI. 5 0 ·00 5 '" ' OO pJl" - ..150 p.. U.... A Qa" p <l'l<... T. E"d For those ..'.. T.. f .."'· 0 zr pl' l qI I --. dl"ect en a 2~49-4029 kefs eseruetee (Fig. jm ::.. were apparently sufficient to cause • wobble Olt the note ... _ I WU...1.... • • ole . le fn r temperature d rift in oscilla to r circuits for \ll receivers amI v.I Xl l\ .. • • e<l U . W4JWY " • . "art icu lar ly where a unit r uns fai rly war m. e r~~ tly came across IJl i1utance . & I .. . I'AO d iscu ~_ this t«tmiq u~ o f temperature COn1f'Cllsa. l 00 pf' tri. v o -e.." TIlls. _ of _ . ' In. I I ~~~I~". V. £ /cc rrp/Jla W. Fill. 12 t N POII ft.. ho wiih. 1. t 50 V ..lesiiPI with • v~ry h il{h ·C Co lpitt s. _ .. '0 aa c a aapc f (N 750) I 7 t~r 6 A U6 . T loo eo ft e _m. u . . CI . 10 uperimellt wiLh cirewlI hue ar e severa l more..

.:' IOO p F .l". . T o. . .._ ... . . _ .d lIGtaorl 6. It.om .woru em t1lc l 'S Me!. n .. .hie oYC:t I much wider freq uency ratlll" than the: ~unod tirl.Urrc:n1 equipment S\lffn1 iJ .._ ... .. ..tl lillk . <. • T .s.... . inu lar \0 the F ran kl n : i. " 11...... - "" ee '" I ·U • ·.." a diwue propon..er . . .l . ... e .. U l..10" J ':l' '. -~ ......n._.." M " . ..)1 ..) Y .. be adapted fOf Cllpacilan e<: tun in... • buffer &ml'hf.C1/I . d _..... 11.d _ . .. N outpllllJ low it shoukI be rollowed by a elaJi A pmlode buffer/ISOlator.... ~ O U1 P UT _ ".. '0lf''' o r . _ . . 1..r . "'• • It is d... 1 I AfC -.) < ". ' " --. "'" '"" $I OOpF " .iONl ((I thc pIltienl"l tempeTll- '.I._ l.. dr ulilUl. '" CO ".. TM desilll lh own i. . ~ I. is pcl'TIIrl bihty hilled frl'>m 5-6 Me'.... ...ou. scillllior Is leu depwdell l ".--.1 ~l. Anocher cirtuit Wt has &I lracled im~ r=tly P 1M ~ cia.. a1u. ~: .... "'" ". F r-t0-0< ~ ro:r ' • .. 'c'. Co!piru" 1_ tl" )01 dctaibed in RadJo aNJ TrlnUiM .... t'" H J.. • •• .oon o . w_l _l U . I TV ' IIa.Ol ' _ 01 •• _ .... .. " .. ()....:: . '" •• O 'il'06J1' SILYIA IIIU .29 .. . .. l U... would I Pf'C&l" ' " be wonb ditvdopinJ.._m ..." . .. P. J..-d. 011 _ • • ••01 d.~ n" • • ' ' 7011 .... The I:. I'w ." "...w.. h•• f lIod... •.. . e ." ~ :'11 I Ilo ~n REGULATE D I$ O Y e4 C.. * ._.'. f.. J..IItl1odo-coupled L-C oscillator is d ~ ill Sootian 3 nn "r _lvcn .._ p • • od ~ I ' r..."'Slcr!lHtry O. &t~I. ....l. "' flDG. (lhoua!l could.. The OIcill..S LI 1'1J ""'10 l_ H. I n <0' ~ ... h ..'" '0 ~ . blln<1. lMY . see H I.. A H A TI! UIt RA D i O T E CHN IClIU I S .1i11 adapt ed lTWIy applicalioJll....). an uperimenlal alTaI>lfCIMnl for 3·~ Me' .IXJ ·. T .. ' 1." ' .. 2S i~ I~I u. ....... •... l«:OIld doub le triod e (I 2AU71 arTall&OO calhodt foLloM1" (<<diD.. .. rnlc ....n1 1n lOme rcopa:tl i.....~ " ~} W. ... Th .. l'ro.T ... ... IOO p F . Radosl......_ O_ .or...... . . .. "" I.._.." Tr". ' . . of course. -.'C~ _iII...... my u.Uit .. _ - The mala m&iIldy whidl t. 10 . _ .. ' .. bUI il coukI ~ . ~.._ ' .I• • ..b. .. _--_ _ ~ _ ..l --.. The circuil ahown in Fi... - v r..... tranunincr \reYicwed In QST A Ui\1S1 1% 11-.s.". _ . ro r example.xd In 1M Central El«1ronla 200V I... >C.imed 10 poweu lhe ad\"anlqe or remamina -.. the Clapp.C . . ~.... n .pon Ihe oooslrUClioo o r ue co iltl1an..

.r..lIl be plal:cd well I .lb le _ cured . Sa _ co r-r-T-r-T--~' . nina: th e BBC tran~istori zcd ra dio microphone. whil:h o lfer pt'OOlise of real progreu in t he field o r m blc rrequency go:mralwn. -.. .LIISistors are sm.O SCiLLATOR TOPICS '" + 1:lV a_aK 9 1pF 3-:1 l1 iii. c .r--.. form of iMlab ilily.. 1963) I .oo tinu o uslywillloul interfer iJli w illl lhe recei ver .h.o... U~ lI& mai nly ex _ARCS (.. The a ul pul .o : s _illl few hU l p roblems-have a bi g future pr ovided tha I Cllre is taken on circuit design. ".. CI .1_ 1 . Th• • •1.s lha l the o~ lIalOr lfan. II h. I oeeded a l ·S Mels v. 11 1 .. . ••m >'" _nlth .. tha i a transis tor with I CUloOfl o f several hundred megacycles co uld aive poorer sta bility than. e l. 33 sJ~ lhe lwo-$""&'C. 10 ~lerodyne 4 X1 kel l u .. .r I ~ •. an O CI 70: ' ThCT<: is little doub t lh al transistor v. .. F8 ND in RDJ io-REF praises this c irCu il._ I a v .oublu . ~ AIlC' _ ." (400 p F liu:d phn 100 p F tunin.j Ir. \ O ool "'"om lto h. Im .... II T<: lati.... . S'm.ircuil is free from suc:h I. lh ou&h he prclen \&nil a 9 vo ll rllhet 111111 a 12 vcn l upp ly. el y cu u pled lu the lun ed elrc uillhru u gh lh e II. the trOt.. Tile o ria inal type 2N 384 . _ n . l<arUmlti er...r---.. b.lll provides I 4'9 10 6-1 Mels " ulrUl for 111 .b. O ne M'CT<: l .:17.GlS ' u Hu A UJ'O taJ n 6 + 201 pF " n OK DIOO l " aoI • • to<I . I. ~T 111111 vlU:illb le WdUCl&flCC was D'lOR' ecevenient.. In deed ..... which has an <ncilla to r at about 20 Me/s.Ul-d <>wn AR CS <. _<"::-------.'•.. 0 A IOsdul lelte r o n l hi.b.... _ 1 .I H Il·.. ac:rording 10 W3J1IR.ynlhcl ~ lock " v. allO..f.. Use of a ll'IlllSislor Willi as high II cu t-off frcqucllC)' as po ssible.I Iu:n:.SpaciliveJy.. I belie ve The troub le iI d ue t o random v:uiatioo of rrarutnor o utput capacitance ralher than var ial io n of ph.lc . A boul two yean " 0 . Ma ny l 'IlI\S... _ k 10.. is a ' rood d<>loC o f semicondllClOl'S..pp inJ the tl1U1l isT d own lhe co il inslead of redllCing the Of LC .~ I lo on ' 11_JS..-. say . un.1 ' 1>•• hoi . _ _ _ . .1'eeoed bo lt. H owever. He writ es : .l llao.If ca lOOOpF C5 ._ _ ... <. -J__-J__ ' "ppM ~+ ..I I•• ~ cl " " " .. -ely low im pedan<:<: lind unly very loo. h•• u. nd co uld probably be nlplllQC(\ b y l uch l}' pe. il not necess ary. pv ncot ""Ita . lhe same m ult could be oblllincd by l:.. bm des. a. m llh ' b. _ III.. .(uitl.. pool and wo bbly .. meIe r action of 0. On incrC"&Sinlt the tunilli COIlpacilllflCll: 10 I O....>is 10 make I 6 in.. or by tappiJli C.s red into a 6A H6 amplific:r. I found . by 6 in. Ihul lh i. M .. pteSCnp lion .Itp ul is red 1 I h ilh·aain "'2 (6A C7) atIlp~ fier.r..'. C2) IIlld <. freq uellC)" bu rble o n Ihe lil nld....f.(X)O p F (_ Fia... wh ich appears u a Ill. . aN.y HIJIldbook 01 ~mi~/M Ci. Wl.C. U h O A )U 41 Z ~ _ • • 1>0. ~I <)r UlleiUll-lors len d lO ~ufTer (film . • •1 cu. 10 mipimlze phase shift . ) o f IIMUt 100 Me/s .. ~ .a$e sh ift.. . F ig.. . . 0 11 to H Mcll LOd used Ilfl <>C170 in a C Dlpill S ci rCuit with a bout SOO pF tunint ~i l"..h•••... Th e Ot.. D«:ausc o r the low level o r o ulpu l l he lio ds lha. . To support h is IIrgwneni W llH R o ffen (CQ Seplem ber .t the uni l.. M ). r-T"-r""'~"---. . u.o. when bui ll ill a llc..•• _01 _"~l. He uses IWO OCl1 l lnnJislo rs wilh oUl Illy s ignifK:lW l eh &ngel in com..!a .IO£o.-W-~ -I~'" H oopl lu <111. by 6 1Q. TI>c: d oo...aIl-siMJUJ P' ''''P lypes Wilh a eUI_o lf freq uenq (f. .. I rca litt<! 1"'-1 Ille lank c iT<:u il impedance was wr~. bu t W3JIIR cla im..I Y rrom sources o f hl:ll...imJit which in lhe o riJi ll.. Jl<Ilenlio. C4 lUK1 ("' .._ Gi l. ere. . i..... .~i slor is conncded aero.. Thi. as is somel: mes Sla ted.. I• • I•• ~ . l' I. U..1wh ich C. as in the W31HR cireuit• .. f G J C QJ' n• .. ) bu l the nOli w.l III llle A Fl 14 o r AF II ' .-It. un be kep t runni lll c:. L-C. 1 _ _.Ch«kina wilh lhe US tv"..Command iCrlCS " j components ror !he lurung componenlS (LI . two . subjec t comes from 0 3COI ..

f. an d allowed 10 eOnl.m. . I• • th. _ I• • Z .t..5 5 Me/' vers ion.---~:~_____________________ _J heU racllinl the tank circuit (a nd he~ in Irami~l" r eircuit< fl...in ... ft ••• Lt..o.t i. inde pendemly of the act ual C) C5 <>Ki 1l. ...' ...u'. .. and R I pro vides II o fT.. An lOFEr .idity ~urplul tnIlrkel.. _..... ...I:! i imo almos l a ll IlSplICU or Irequeney $Iabilizati on . po wer) .ally publish~ in 1939 (bUI probably 1.. A\ wly sillCC indU<.1 _" parlicular for m " f ooil wa< fo und 10 have II temperalure si licc n d iode i.. bilitr will depend o n the ri. 0 064 in. C t . t ~ U p f .~ I" •• 1 .: -~ j ~ " -: -r-~.~ part icu"-r MOSFET tt.. "'. •. • 2N32J l beyond qUC1lioo the tr npona nee o f Ihe Q and tc:mperaturc char · lleterislics of the lank ei~u i l. > ---------. . and P'lI rtN. . :It..o. erc... d l. ~ .ftcl II J().tor is del. C1. OOn " octo<I .5)... V. since we a re seldom conoemc:d with ~tayinl Of! pmj-e ly t he s.lI be kep t IlIw since the entire si7. Tb ..wllt. . lCO RT • •to. nt<)l<. ~. ..ciUators and/or butTer amplilio:n.quct'lC)' drift of IotsJ Ih.. of the tu ned ~ircui l an d the nururniZllt ion of the clIcet. a u ilab ilily of rairly Iow-oost llingle and dua l . ~ IZ~ . low feedbaclr..CI that in IlJ11IlCUr opt' rllho n one i' internlcd pr lma " ly un . lhe " .ular ly on the Induclor ... il mo wn In Fip.e.1'1' I II I Ionll OUI o f prin t) ""hoch pl'CKnt<:d euremdy detll.O. Thi.. n the effeeu o f d rallllht'S. a. J7 <:I of WJYM'.f.. bou t 200 el' ""ith an 8·9 Mels uni t.up pu1od : Icss t han SO ell with a s. 2'65 In.:t~ ~ . ro und 35 p. se~n pa rts!m illion/ 'C eOfnptlml tributes considerably 10 the frequtncy stability of the wilh .f. ~ ·Itomas ori~n. . .. Oodl/<Jtof" StabUl I)' Some o r the co nclusions reecbed in the 6 n t of • &l'rics (" V.. of W IDF menli ons some >'ery practical poinl s. Induc tors are euncemcd. .. WZYM llales : " Bo. "TM. " ftl . perfo rmanee . I)'pe CllII "" round in the 1 with . ol_ .o. Pow... 111m llP~e i '\Il. . . . lft S i:-. (or moll fo rms o f wind inll.ln o f .r wire... ~ in lhc frcqucll(:y de lerm ininl lan k eire uil of. and lkJi~" Df Va"~ O~rlll<lr"" 1-6-.v '" . tor by mitklnll po S$iblc It degree of au tomatic bias consisted of a si lica forlll"r with The wire wull nd In grooves comparable to tha t o btain. the ou tpu t from the v. He emphaant' Ihcrmzl c hanges (which Q...r. ny ot her v. Part I... of 1 V 0 by H. . <In. p f oIt _ 1'1'>1. I ~' IO~ I OUT ~ur quot es "" me performance tilures . II t . • _ <aft lI.. I O'O~ I u an D. with 0 ·2 in. .(Jn(luetance 0( abou t ~ micromhos.....).. .... ~"..p. '"1. loldhcr with lhe rqula ted powe r supply (whictl would 01 cou~ be cQ\I.. I I".ale 10 l mlphas ises tho alU'U(lous of ollch dcvi<. r---O'OO'-----'....1 Wt D'·.adi" communicatio ll5 services "'here long_lerm u. o ne .)• .cllla r 4'4 1'H The tw<Ht qe llegalive feedbad am plifier which fo Uows ind llClo r eOMi_led of I lur n. "".. d• • • _' .. AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUE S IGf£T VfO The i~~.~ ~2~ .ipa!cJ.. Tho _ <aP .F .. indicat ing. r aMicu. 4 Me/ l. t~ ' .. I AU Ihne sources con firm II C& Itt" ....~' I ... . _ p . . lIICd in the lilt" circuit.uI 30 e/s in two hoon.Tipt " by WI DF in QST.ble wilb It therm ion ic vet-e. ..002 4 7OpF L J n ': 390 n . • Mc/s).~ •'..>1 . very lin l. o aci ll • • ~ . dtamt:ler . f.. and th us a male u' requi't.i _ ' • • m •• • 04 w lOh 1\ U . 1966) i lhill circuit.. . bout plu... CJ.:tIt>C frequ<:neY rll.Recap and I'mlll. cnclosoed and d i.Rct : thi~ " aM.... 2 N3241 ~ ""'"" lelld to d iffe r fro m t h<nc of ot her ..o. u.blll t . A t<'ctlnique which out pllt conditiOllS Of! l he freq uency. . o r the inclusion of tile d iode in the sate d...f. ! I :. worth eonsiderinlt.. the o scilll.. )7 and 38.. II wiU be no ted tha t the buie osc illator is ba-t OQ the Seiler form of Co lpilll . ." an imprllVllment of live i. pol.ture O<l the ro mponents. hol. \lllriab le frequcrK:Y oscilla tor . dio<k conCCJt:ll'ocN.:con". . • noise fador of 4dll at 200 Me" and a forward ll'lln$<. was ..01. ' is' lit S . I" • .. one could rdt'f 10 the boolr.:i>- " ". ors o f rouilhly thi. In 10 fill' lIS nce-eom pensared cs. _ _ Il llt 41' II _ . . 1. . .igncd I" minimize the efTce:t of changes in diametc. r---------------------... W2Y"! in relat ively ~·horf-tc"" ' lability.rc Uck inK in t he literature.i lcd ioves lipt ion...~ +6· ' V =1" +. hi'" . 10 1 wo .I~ .." )ol .cs U o. A. high power p in II SdB l)'pieRl lit 200 0..seoond warllt.' wh ile ho t." I .. Stabil ity.. lOr clreuil.ause the MOS lransiotor by ilsclf will not provide Ta:ti~ pte current. Septem ber 1966) ail undt'fline the impol'Uu1Ce o( tempe .Illy useru' for manyotber semiconductor eq uipmcnl.. This oscill. I 1 .s-:ribcd by W2YM in QST (December. Cllf'llciULtlcc {O'2 pF ~ imum). • • 1 _ d . . than an hour at fhe mos t.. Rnd tha t the internal ert er o f val Vll heat are e less impo rtlUtl thlln that o f lhe ~. a nd .. & &..hiliry i~ Often (If r~ rRmount importance.:--OOpP -::. con"""ienl means of &<Ij.. A1tboudl W1DF IUum' that certarn important pnK tieal aspectsorv. P~" "' .rcu.

O S CILLATOR TOPI C S 16' e ~' :t . OICilll.etical tllrltCt. and 'II practice this req uires Ih~ lowe.o.... and "'here on ly limited nu llinll ranlle is needed . norrNI l en A o penti.. the Trclnlln.«.ever... which for 1110&1 cimlil.e_Vll ive YOIlmC1er."0 believes IbIll we lmd 10 judsc the sui tability of " penI(Idl: valve for oscilbtor ap llli(:lliiool! by its tnm !lCOn" d...t nfthese have been aimed primarily at thc 1~1l& ICrOSI the buffer erid resistor when chocked with IIl nllll itter v.. • I • . 6UllA (F ig.mH in \DC.nod Va riabh: crysla l os. tie i. G rid current can be delOCled by • voltqe drop deacribcd but m". Fo r an AT-cut' M H/..sI Ihina lhal ' hould be cxpected of I. W6KEV IDeI into lhe ques tion of why chang el in heatcr a ~. 1 9 ' ~ .o . WSf) 11C !t~s that the lemllCrnture characterlstlc$ of componcnll of nominally the same Iype differ a pp= iably and recommendl ha t eyelillll lhc tuned circuit eompanenlS or an oacillator : typically tbrell e)'l:les between HO°F and O"}'in fiyc minute eyeles.voIUlge etrecli II wu foun d tha t " higher aIlOde YQltlgC (105 vo lts ) an d • 10.m Ihat by 0 ·005 adding an unbypasscd resiaor in scriCll with the interfa ce II MH .. ".. 19).men t elemcn ts tend to be unsta ble un.f.:illalOl1 (yxO$) ~C'1 er~lly u<e ery. and he find. ... Sy~ tenlS usiog inductors and active circuits t il ." is the Ia..D1ed • desiill for • heterodyne type v." Among the points he makes I. I'F is suggesled as a more . CdP"d IOl'l • • He . H" ..rme<! t. men tat ion with some of Ihc large... not usuall y published : hi! proor the importance of heater var iat ions (IIh(lWft vcry clearly ia Dr 1lwxnas's book) ..and this is achieve d by llSinI only . f•• d V"dtdr Otclllator load. W1DF P. +10V frequency mel.. a S to 7 kll .. Ihat I lull-tun0e4 coil.. Ihis il a ImUer of ctlaoacs in cat hode: interface resistance / / wtlich II very IICl\lIitiVll to lanperahm: : he oon..." .. Some of his ow n equipment h. BRS2S769. lie also menliollS W I oontrary to popular belief zero-cocflicicnt ceramic capacitOI'l used in .lu"''''ir J)~$iKII.all be I'to~idcd by capac itance alonc pro\'ided t h"l certain <k' ilPl raclOn arC ta ken lnto account. 6U8A .. lPid 1e1lk (10 K ohJnl) dfected I wo rth while Imp rovement . I'Tfiu' " ably because the 6U8A was dcsJg:wd for co ntro lled hut.. traaseondUlCtal1oCe which i. liT!: 3N l ~o t :+OoOM no sudden l . true buffer.l rreq"".I l'O"'. n. He also pain\-' ~ ~70k HC-O OUI I p in that runnins valves withou t anode currents QlUIICI ttle Inle rfllCC resi.no:e. ..me: eXJ\Cri.th 7 M Hz AT-cut crystals. OUTPu!' HT+10 3 V REGUlJt. Ihe m:n imunl becomes 70 p" . Clllhode 20S mH poillOnina ). ba. . o lder types of cTY"al migh l be wo rth .l the cryst. IlII d the balic Vllrillble OId Ualor IISCI the triode section of I. tMce to inc"". of I. 'd.blc minimum c:apa citance.. BirTlIlns ha m." He all<! found differences between val-.ers an d tbe v. but OUs in faa does not Wl'l5tit\l. W2NXS belicvCli th&t frequency IICnsilive unita-includ ins recei.tal. ..al air-spaced VlIriablc G1pacito ". ..:'I '" I cce I·S. 0 0 v..". On tank ci~itl...*. '" )9 pP . To ac hieve opl imum cond ilions fo r frcquen~'Y pulling. h nt . A$ part of this series.hould be kcpl ruMine cOIlIInUOllSJy.1 upera te' where the .. The Vlllve Ihook! abo operlte dose to iI. ~ .. Williams... OUtput \IOl~ prod uce l uch Ial"ie frequenc y dr ifts. ' UllllC"ling the u-'" of a 2 by 140 pI' ganged ca pecuoe.in& dctInite poIitivc or ..ed aoJ ."'cr.. since the iron hu " rat her poor tempcnlture coefficient.yC c" "..IC• n=al 61llln: of merit..mple. worse than equivalent coils witl\out slup. 7. Thi s is ca pa blc o r providing II theorct ical freq uency pulling of about 7 .m. and noted Ihat • 6U8A wu eomiderably bellet than the ear lier 6UB. '" .l.. 29 Ma " h. I. of which lhe pentcde section forms the bu ffer (Fig. .p liYC eodficiroll.lope o r its reac tance \. 40)..tors.. e""Q Ihi.'" "" .~ mtio of 10 and ." lie Ilnds Iha t loilvcr· mlca-moulded (" pOl tage Slamp ") ftJ<ed cap acito" better than the dip ped Iype.o.TIE D VXO "... 41. a partl war m an d dry . fre.n f . are . and gives good valve life since lhe".. tllat this keeps the frequen cy ilCllSit ive "..e ra pid ly (Ihat i. ith both il\du. ... in Jookina for ways to red~ hut<!r. Ho . WID F gya : . drift _ pensatm.oll "'"uld be "'Cd tha t have pl:ltcd area s L lI'tr Ihan twice lhe diametcr of .lI ily a<:hi~.l ~.---. ilchinllUrICi. t 'N::rul l'ull inS of a co'}'<ta l by ~nryi 118 the ca pacitive l"'''linll i< til IlC r"und in Uc' ilU1ing fo r the highest poss tbre m~~i mum/m i n im u m cap acita nce ratio.. " C .. id..' .f.) kH z.... The key t o oblaining the wi<Jc.ta ndard crystals: ~ibly . po im W ilholll beina dri 'IUI ioto pid A nu mber of I table IransiSlOr oscillalOr circuit..y tri l11 minlt of ca lihra'o". qucney charactcri..i l:n ouch a lo w min imum is unlilely III he "".h ift w. d. <:ry.. been running fnT 2\) yean .I'e lbar."s illlluo:tan~ or ."'d "a r i~ hlc capac ilance load ing : cryst~I " pulling" by ca pac ita""e wl" nc is Wi""Uy c... ith seril... as in I'ill. I K ohm I'CSistor ..l Invo lves the irid-U>-tcJttn I'C*'.. . I'I:lil tanoe the ehlnge becomes ba l ignificant. . T ha nh to L. He stl'e$$C$ Illal "pin in either power Of YoU. ha. " o r ex.. O~II" ~ ~fi .f. With /I C.. l tab ility bl ¥<: been raiocd in lhe to ha ye r<:al pro mise fo r bo th transmitters and rcccl~crs b ut corrapondenoe columnI of (}ST.J uct. we lU'e able 10 include a circu it wh ich ap pears some poin.I cireuit uses " hilh-mu IriO<k. . U gyM.f. lie ure '" lilely III require the u<c of d. I nlllgcmenta I n: actually leu It. Noble <hnws that a useful dcgrlX' of cry<tal I'ullinll . l nd not subjeeled 10 normal lur n off "'hC'n nu l 15 0 K '2. .. allbo uch in praCl i~ ~ tl lz Is a mOT!: real istic tigu re ..o.s. lml l"lli"SLl lhat ... F rank \V. uch i".JT\plificatioo to reduce Milkr el!"eet• ... WI DF state... a" ab''''::...:t~!ll. rela tively shallo w.'.hile. LoIllhK _ho uld tbeoretically be of the order of only) pI'..lblc tha n th . minimum of 7 pF.e boen eurrem.~u. imu lalc inductors can provid e greater freq uency ~h i rl". •• T .u p. buffer lIhould hl \ll: very low YOItago: I.f. even with careful dc..

The Cl has lhe feat ure o f o utp ut varying with fr('Q\IoII r>CY an lnl.. lossy diodes may prod lJC(l con duct ion d illon lo o a ni! noiiC Inje crlon at hiah freque ncy when . a nd preren bly h iJh .< of OC I70 were tried willi tile valu es sllown and all p~ a Ijmll~r perfo rma"l:C.. ~ UUC Sl llhlll wherr Inw-C lun ing is required the Seiler may pro ~ a better aru .. _ '" I" w In <toolt v. Vo't " • • C-v-ollMl O rcUkrlor Tn the Wl1nC " f co<per. which still h.i tive 10 lemperal"'" v~ r i~lionl of lhe tuned eircuit . an unsu itable valve for th is appl i<:alioll and a h igh-slope r. ll lbould be: no ted tha t a 6ft> would lod a y tIC regarded a. llrId vnIc1I fully enclosed will be lusceptible 10 thl:rml>J currents all(! d lllugh il ..loop teclmiq ues.er of the Hart ley or Clal'P form...tability reoi'lo n l ueh a.". With C l and C2 polystyrene and C3 ~ jl~ ­ mit. 43 shows tl>c basic CQll6guMl. 0 latnn " PnK: lin '. wou ld bc preferable.Electro..Cd box...S7 6'} wrote : " I ha. for • iii&!> BRS2. Published clrl:u ilJ :..dMd for how..agc contr" Ucd oscilliitor whieh does not invol"". Seiler. Many Vacka r circu it" incl u. . . o tile output lerm. electron wupk:d os. Cla pp (" F rcq. valvo: equipment has a re pr oducible heali" l cyc:1e eac h timo it il sw itched on.S2S769. The circu il ~ lhe traDsistor terminals ""unled wilh very Iar~ lum ps of f. U ar c al.dlan<.Qlt.nLiI1jl ou t lhal the or illinal Vackar eircui l was inlended l p«:ifoCil lly for h igh·C lu ninl!. b tlh-Q induc tor. wllcreu the tcmp:ralu n: o f the W mponent l in t he !rllm ilt o..S a n: sen.. ori ginal ly . an d lhat alXUflTe temperatu re co mpen. he filKb It wo rk.ld (-feb ruary... oscillato r il <lcterminc:<l ma inly by a. wonh pOi..o.'· A«:ord in g 1 J. (:apse ilon r01 supply leads. .. many IX'ssib le applicoltion . G 31llK 11lggnli l b e usc of . F ie.J ~50 . moul ded mica eapaci ton for rft'd bact ~ircuits. Y eh r or S.ven COvel' 2-6-2-$ Mel.. hn -oKJ de types (c. o f t be order of 1000 I'F . u"n' ''e ca pacitor.. ~ . II ".UVCI..- eco " a-sc '" .or..u lt in pro blcmi ar isilll from thc: ir 1 0". II... h at been us ine a novel form of volt.>wJ lhe original Sci"'r valve "<Ci llat. . W8PK (Ialc i W2EB). .. bt-avy PUi e Im lal enclQl..:ei~r o n wh ich I am do iRIl some: design worl<. This tcchniqlJC u..<larly important. to .1_'."lCmcnl . with fec:d· throup.. can sometimes n:.I\llI". .I.. 1954) il...11 to 10 Mell . whereas fOI high-C ap plications the Vad.'61 OU T ~ U T AMATEUR IlADIO TE CHNIQU ES ' ·W I'" er ""n -w (a ) '0 ~ ~ C) lOOp!' ~. ~lIy willi buffer am plifier$.blc rcrcld in ductaD«." .OIpa.n Lcndcd for use at mJ .tics utend o ver a llInina range (If 1·8 :1 w ml'an:d with 2-S:I f(lr the " tel (194S) Vachl !>OC illato r.l istor u buffers do not l ive as high. O. . ThTI'C lpCl:imc. wilh C va lue..-. how t he uSC or II low C tuned circu it.CJ..0<> ••• ! v.cilW. s:J ~.. t _ _. .lil1j: tile transistor ven iou by BM.bient tem pc:ratuR . Th i. Th e VVC ap prOllC!l. Augu sl. The elfoct <. .llcmpe.TlCy stab le LC osca.&jc.hich . mc:nrai wor k o n p baoe-Iac k. t o be u'led fo r a di rcct-co n YCnion rccei""'r. since.>f l<:mpcra ture upo n the indllCtOf il p lU1ic1. as far '" we are Awan:. d" diffil. IN I. degree of .it.. the usc nf the mOre CWloma ry voltaIC vari3blc diodes (V VC)... ha w. c W OCl 10 ~ . . Brian Rrad.-0 nat ure . T he amplilude of osc. "The circuit arose from • search for .) ln QliT N__ . It mU ll be noted lha l l ll LC """ Uato r circui .a. origillol.l TR2).illilliOf\ iI CQT1trolled by C2.. 42) Which is • 111l Mil lor "enion of the V&Ckar-Colfli us (T esta) circuit sta bility .. lhis wuJd be ilU provffi by making ('J mixed mica an d ceram IC.sO t hat si. Soll (W. and mechanical ly l Ia ble.. ~ •• 0.cilla lOl1i whik Fi.lions (a ) Vac kal a nd ( b ) Seiler o. higharad e doob le-hcarl". • t . 1 96~) .•... fo r eK&Jflple lllo yeo b. and lhe pro tolype will stay zero bcilt with a Cl)'5lal r~ucllCY stan.".I/f!r' " The weJl-lric<l W3JIIR " < ynlht"lic rock " 1r:lllSillor o.. 113 bas been IUUCl ted by 03BIK. K . .~ plu l 10 els per dellKC Ceutillrude . T he varues l .. G W3JN A..tio n or this I..0<> .:llI1 prove "r ~'l" ."C eeoe rome wor\( 00 a high stabil ity osc illator circu it (Fig .. F or good <tability tile amplilude should be limiled 10 a few hWldn: d millivolls..cilla to r (Fil_ 33) is based on llle rnue kno wn VIIlve oscillalor develo ped in 1940 by TO_ O. and may be more noticeable in (fan siota r oscillat ors tha n with V.sla ten. hi&h bility chafll(. nallr>oise rarlc sulfen. WM described fo r t he firlt time: in Tulr ~ . ' 11_.Ii"" liS • wdl_ deloiifKd v~ ll..f_ pe ntode.cern 10 he C'ilt..r. with IUI'PresiOl J:lid eonnecred to eMss is..lly de'ICribed in Qsr as a " low-C... 44 sh<..rtll Top.ture drifl . InCl"ellSing C2 reduces a mplit ude wHhml! \-a)' much elrca on frequency. L.ross th e luned cir'l..ar may provo:beller.. ". . O W3JNA is using a lechni'luc which ap pea red in Wlrt-/~" W..cs wha l is clrcaiw:!y a voftsgo-ronlrollcd va ria. alL ho ugb o rton effecllw:..<.

.. ~h mod em cr}'l.rry .~.. sinu l ..46).h "'.... bUI the wo rx th e 1111· certai nty o f thc centn: frcqllC ncy.u W.JlUlC$ IlIat eceruc from . • < ooce . _ ." hle Jnd k-_ .. _ ...."" _ ._o _ ·I ~...'t hdcs~ lhe tw.. _ 0-- ... . .... 11"_ ho .. indin. r h" (>f the ....~'-.. t hc~ b " bulfm:d Olllpu t..nt ru l _olts! rrequeney 11w b verr linea r.~ t... ..-l-.liffe.. .. 1 _ 1I ... 1 " a. . _ _ '''. in . depcndinll o n lhe mutual indueIIIICe M ." G WlJ N .DI thra: OC17'O ~ ( >CIC AI. ~ illdUClanoc n.. . . ... " H[ P80: ~ . ...-arillbk Clpacilano: in f l'Cqueno:.. LI 10 _ _ _.... eoam . ~ 1-<. Tho higher the coupling the bette r tbe linea rily a nd the greater lhe ra nge.... _ . 0u1..n perlectly WlI:U be bifila. bu t e~pcrimcn til a rc nce<ied to lindjusl how the linea rity compa res with ...) can be aeh in ed using 11 o.. ._ ~ ." ">' f •• J_ .. ....... Cry " . ioof " ii Ol urns of 24. w 1 _ '_ _ . (».. lie leels lba l ~t h air con:d w ill il mi.:o.. ·..and entia or lhe IWO windinp o f lhe mutual iooUl:hna: o. ashift in the e[""ti >e ind UO:lllnce fl.. C bl _ ....~ . lie commen" thoIt t~ idea . . T t _.. ~.s possible 10 draw ... Ll n I IJ ..ldl. ~ ...rl 'h~n lhe {lid ..~.. " .. _ . tn r or Ihe pair) . . qo as 1949..ht he po"jb~ to uw: Ihe lcehn ique lIJI lO 28 Me '" Ken Joh Jl$On contlmK t llatt hc origi Mi ideo.....ucht Oft . . . _ ..._ . IIticny IhI: oscUblo r luned circui t b cl05l:Iy coupled ttl a d ri>en .. _ .-..u'o".. '. . in IfTI. Oocl/lo to ro Ahhll. published..:o.. h 'C contexl.I . a....:r o.... ....." ..:o. C . a nd most imf'!'rtan t the c:l ..."Ift" b..1l~r than .. lie abo noled th. wi « _ I... rrwUer irthere is an appreciable capacitance between them an d they o.. ." _ . "" ncnoll) units. . "' H..1d as Ion. The 19M article: dc1a'ibcd t wide-J"&IIiIC' " Obbuh.. 1It><><l." • _ _ . ..--"-.u l UnilS MC mo re rel...._ _ •• '" h .. mooJuIatlon......IOf coYCrinc ~lO-l ' lJ Mc '! and IJSi. 11." .. Wllh a " a riatiOfl or O·S Me.... thcrdon:. .. ...·t~ ~la l "l aiC i.. on lhe same to ro id : lhcn.... ~.. nc. I .._ . " " ..•• • " _ ..hil nc-. ..ld)' _ IIaIo'C hcMd «hoed all IOu olIn'! in CCInIlCClIOO wilh rally oriJinai idea•.. __) T ' CO ~_ 4 .n tami._ Of... llo .... here ~ is t he rraction or the lotal em iuer current carr fcd by llle rig ht· hand transi. .01 ' ... ..... _ _ _ _ . IfU J. _. . .. ..... . .." __. ~ I· } ' " ......1 I-J-+ -!-.. .Mx (. _" Cl ....~ t ion f.a plol "r r~uency ' f Tl UI volt s W llh • rulct! Fo r lhe indU(to r he used (>I!C o r t he ~II .". . . ... _ _ n...'a II t oout 10 Mc!s It . . "IIl he Hu ns ra tio . ferrite ecR .. GWJJNA reports lha l l hc wavcshllJ'C i...' ±~~' ~. . 4S..l .. _b ~". With modem tra~sistol'! opc:l1I... . ." .ttIC: ranlOe or varialion olIuinabic . .. " hj«t 1<> c... ntl O... n os . ( ? fo X IS')) ) wllh LI AILl lum .•... T ioo ' CO Nola Ih. .. . In I96S be lIOlN W\'Ctai ad't1. t. •'" . ... '.gests that it rnilb t be ~ for II W>ltaF-tunod radIOreailo'Cl opcnlitll O\ct the ..~ . . VVC diode for a ny pa rt icular ra nlle or swing. -.. T _ - ..-irtually the _ voltaae swin.. .. II doa not.ent i.. r- . 4 1.... _ ~. . "' LC • ..14 "101> . .O S C I LLATO R TOPIC S '" .1Io1e lTlC:diumo.1 amp lifier...o m d. and I SllSJIC'CC t hai tl105{ peq>Ic juM do noc bel~ it ~_ com_ m thai \I/lfonlUll. ~ n. i. 'ke-: M ~ ~ f:i....i. 1<>..... po lo mini " toroid. R :"0 .lion al 28 Me/••hOtl1<i be no problem .~ II)' muns or " Iurn~ cancel lalio n": Fill.r wou nd so as 1 lI'1 a l'elLoooably tarat= co uplinl with · 0 out thc need fo r .. \'C ltand .."--~ .at lhe: ri&hl·h. ~ .w •• . .

! kt...~r:>] "il\-uil~ o n........ although the ''011". willi Iundamentuls .c mode' ... he: d ir«1 equ ".he "' )~lal '1he.. mode... "HI U N aM _ qoort- I ..p i"ll f . .....")'. I\ ul.1 toe rr~ ....l (Or it iII res ull in a frcq u"..: l(Or . Mn.'ry'I"I• • ..l ll) eonsidelN . U C...' .abk) II is popibll: 10 .Ii .. Tni.he harmon~ f'C'IlUlC'ociesl." .iSlics .. 11'" in "n~ I<:WI a\f«. ~ .a I .. of u!' 10 !>O kc/s Oil 7 Me!s . it 'n.= .. )' n'1j 1" "u' . e<l""nc. 0-. n l indiC: led in a nllm ber 01 e~ampln in Ihil Sel.nl: wit h a b lb. been f.. foT SOU'U-c OUI>Je<l' f£T OICmo tor One oI t"" ad ... 1 for a I i. )'sl.. U. .al (If OIher h3rmon~ oukn . lhal .I lnanoi.11 ""11'TItalO his""r . r ' ~P« an: rda ...! .. ..~" . 49 whe re IW F t. 1 in .. ~ I'l0'O rcrnot ininll: . osciJl.. Sach Ctu~C'1CrisIlCS as lol'> 'l(lCralu"...... H H l JOo .'C"CS o f q .. lIinB fur " " r~ cu e in d"......III''' "n" unirOfill siz".' .. n.. . ~ ••• ... . I"..~..c'..." n llC .."" ~" .. . iM•_ _ _ ' • ' _ IN'" .hieh ". .be ..S osc illal. l y vulne..... vafi.>. 71h lind 9th h...-abole IV C"~ le AT . r~. knl of 'he "" I ~ ca . H" indICa!. l'lo''''' f....! DT.a capacllon o f " ppm".l> tlI"'Y. W8~EGZ .." ""n" .11 .. ..110'1 """n...:IC'r1stic:s 10 prov>dehne "'" ~libf1l. .he CT}.<J lila• •"..". be llcllicYai. r. C1 . btll c._ ".'c. . ...n.. d.n U"..F>d (u~~ . vx o .n .. '~ ... .ay t"':"u 'e i"a d i. i~ IlC"Cf'IIIy ~ n..e-~ r)· 0l"0n ' 0 0 '''' '1<:'' "r """. bk Cllpol· titan lboWd PR'knb/y tuw 51f11iSh..~u. "h.... """ 'Y... " " II "II"..-4 10 f a OfIC"I':St ioo.II1il~l .1. .. m which he c laim..e.als_ ¥cllI.. "".equmey Sm1lonite. and '" .. . Iab le ' W Of'ICr.. his h:l:l the a"vunl a w " r f'Cn CCI cryST"llIne c <I n .ue "N'fo...J"... \\-hcn 3 ny. . lUeu '..ly wuot....11:.l'U ~ . .1 eryS'a l~ Of\C. h il..A ft .."..n 1M POS"I'''~''''''''lan"e ".. ..nih I.. I'H '! . ('urn "1Y'I' 1I1.. .. ' uld be dMnC'n 10 " IiI Ihe (l$t~lI"{If freq ucncy bu .it.·11 ...n: e".1 "ku n.'te .. " ·. imaldv... T he inaaoint "'" 01 mi~ in u.:illa'on u~ i nl funda men lal . fllo<J "f!X' nlal. C:l . "'*..place .. u . u " " . I... Of n " J)" cms: . dyne v..... iYcly _--enuaI IK60U suaats 2~ 706.... Old 1"n. 2S )66 2..xilall•. .~ u Su. ~ . (In 7 Me/s : see h I... .n.. .lW un ••a hle. ~ll1) "f'Cno 'e in ..~ •• I .. .. hy l l rm N tlwll.•• jvc 1I"..'J IolH£ .. he hi~ """r ""'er of r~u" ""y . in '. will " ft"n be or .iQ . WId_ _ VXO.I<k!in. """.. ~... p"'''i<lc:s Mable 50 kc:/s p..1 1'1-10 pate m fOT vari~bk frcq UC' llC ~ erysl ~l OoSCiH al.1'" " Cf\'~IMb .. ...r ". ("". r I n. f ....1 " rc...... .c "....c<l~ . qucocy " ". h ie I<lr re. f'Il"~ ula ...! ....i"l( se.. !"Xili c........ hif. h • • • 0-••_ 0 .. Tr. III" I'"Dt"... K6111J t'. ~l ~bilil)" of crys lu l.rlhtln"".. C'Il.. ~Ih . 1'1''7-44._ .. ~ "'<1" o0li '. il1 ha s a hillhc..c·I )'rc '"1)"••1 " ni..h .. frcquen<a (Tr<..1 '"~ sim llM .·u. '.."11 ".ne rooI s u'l4Ib k f. i"Il Itl" ~' ' ''Ul'' a f'lCrman"m shi f! il\ f. 402J 7)..'a1 Mt h illll .e.. " nd no ..r----------· .1 n" ..- o --. t-TI4 t -t )'P" ...rf . TIlio is ..ptimom v" lllC's Of C ha. dl"ccllwl) . K'n"'l"'''''' Ju. ..un. 32 p Uf" w. '" " c<1 pos Slhle d n"" levc1~ ""'lIjM.h. n appreciably .. .m>osl a ny of l hC' Cilah lishcd v.. H .. l..]s. """ usi n" 7 Me!. .. 'To UIoC III' ' .50.oviok. . . AT M-'" .o I in • • Iu~-Iuned coil formcr.-.. . Q .o""". "'~d '~~ .. r:•• .""II.Jd car..'" htad In Ilk 1hl< .own In Fi. l!-a' ~e L t>lJl ."' '~ .cquornq. li l e ". o.he dc!. fronsmill(n.. "'111)' .'y adap..". .... 1' 011 ..")' 'I''' " :1 . K 6nU ( H"m /(<1<1'-.lI lOf arTan~ • lDCIlU can be <I.. levels may l>C'o:O..""' .. thaI for minimum thermal d rifl the iIlPllly YOl~~ shNld bl: kept ""'hen . llt o rdtr of 10 pr. A f"rther O c umple is .. d i...\1 <1 u.... .. r...u"" l... els .le ....:I)·. O us Ge rke.. he don" " ''' h aotdcr-sealbctders . MI.1\0.1Uy ...lUCNI .... h IllUlkr. ..... ~ 's m. "'" r"" nccs """""10..ound CNI . slIlble . ... po lenlially.. s od.."'"Ie1 frc q llen~y v:l.a N" '0 fra~ I ''''''j: l _ G t llt ..... <l_ _ .. so. ...ria rn< >nancc lin."'.... rc . _ ..."'1"". 2~121 'J... ".. 11}10 j rep"lI s ItChicvln.. .. A " "'.ive· n:.twn bel" ... "...:l. -."'" fm..de ..:i'e .r U ltun lheor mo.. : ...l"cn...f. yo u I>1 U.. ' Y I'<' ~ I'y.><lOlarti nl: c ha . alcn's ..a:1 f .iIl dlflCf f{lf "I'Cl<ll io" 011 'he f"n.If 4 ~ Mil .. .... hele... win...be posiliYc-'C3"' 3~ nlUok "..-11 V.1'1". 31'1""'" in I/all/ R<ld......j .nl (O a ~pllric>us mode...1•• ialioos em. c...... hod~"t'kd oscilL:aI"'... ""...as be .al io" s hOtJ ld N ...o.r.cc -cou plal 3IfTllntcrnctlt which is .: h ..'.. ...icn l II " equl"IIIe1l1 l'l:SI$'an« a"pI) " " I) al the ~ frcqum<:y al'ltl .~I ..' Mk an: dnicncd fOf" .."' M l>o.01ve111 ""Ii bu n g I...." lu ninl _ hi_"'" """y ..~..IC) . ..cy " nick .rial inn tlul n .. ~han llC In 1'""".irc\l ILIm '.. rur rl\..i"h'~ - . Irim mer rcsona ~. O>C'rH>nC' Cf).o-e·. ) r. all h<lu ~h .. l V<l< r--r-. nl~ ~ of u$inCFET tkvicn 3.. n Iy n'hct lc <I""" t .." ..i .e.~ .m." III n . s h 1"l'JCr pt(..J... ..a. _ ....- . ully. Ihe r.'.Jcm cq ui...lull ...·ide " .".. (..luc (ul ualb "bout :!OO p F)... .. c d LlC 10 I"'rt id"" I.b..tion .. 1:-'''''' . ...I ( ." h ldl-Q luned cil'Clli' muot toe uscO I....·line-f.= d ••". r" OWtlOne ' ) """ M i . hC'y nm be ~ for f'h.. " " ... Ouan z c.h .e h_ra.. AMATEUR RADIO TE C H N IQUES 4 " O..he ""'l<'I. 7 _e." le. . .. il U k 40 10"" of No . ihl....l h.. ...d 'nil '..cq ue.." Ll • • • r ' .. "'" """ . d . .j...ry muo. ' '''''>I1l1"""JaJ . " _ '11· .>oo.1 I ' mish' """i 'e .. an...n lholn ~l MH I M ..ll ll. i~ h I.. hen at'lOw ~ . .. ~ 11)' t WO fl«<l oil'<er-mic.Ts a rc uSC<J as I $Ou. fl It . ...

et over the popular dic>de qu:r. bu t no rWl<1amen lal o. . the OIltpUI cumpri_ UIl llCT and lower aidebanols (Ihal i... An ad vantage o f the. McA lcer in EftC/rtm... us ing a doubk:-lriodc:. 600 mV oo<:iILilor lienal lhould be uaed fo r a 60 mV ClI rrle r l il(fUll.. Sol ila mod ified Colpit ts used 10 ob tain two IlIOn: or leu baIanc:ed in puts 10 a miKJ .ouy... needed one o r other o f lhe capaciton coWd be a trirnmcr.. If aa:unte balane:e . • ~ 5° .:cd inp"' la fo r balanced miller " ~ hall ' .... .TO!\ " w ...e ci""..noeod O1 i~ er usillll two-<::rol.... zero at the input freq u cnc~.. In a dOllblc-ba\..'SUl-bank frequnK: y syn· thesizer by WJQLV ( QST. /.ith ba la l} inll potentiometer...s l ince t.. b"....:iUato r frequency from the o utput.Dh.. _• • m to\I o ~ 1.. inal e d Ollblc triode ~lh-e .balanced mixers th= is no reqlliremo:n t fOl" pll-\h-J>UII dr.ulcod minr both the local os.. The circu it can be th nullhl of n a pai r o f grou n<kd· CllthClde amp lifl". 1966).5) .. ..d 1m . 0. Oei sler In the £J~lr""ks " Delillner " ClI. llCllOllive ~inl in put swiu.... of UVOO""".. .tet'Odyne p rod uo.. ~ c-or ~ B AN D.0t' f"r 80J0ncood """en An oscilla tor which can p rovi60: balanl. in that no lpeci~ l t ran. T N t.' suaeMed by G)JOO. hows t!le more elegant venio n usinll two pen tudes s uc h u the 6AU6 complete . . '1 ~ S IGNAL I 5OJJ(lQ F ILHR .'-e for correct o peration .cbooi.".:illal o l and the in pul si lllllll f~umcy ue r:ancdl ed o ut. l "_'1ah ol .d p. the input c ircu its IUld Ihe crysIoI oscilla tor ..nce 1IOIlr<:a. 52.illl o rr.tJ11o .. u marty of the unw anted OUlpuI loignals as pouib le. . wit h commo n aOO<le tNt.": I nduJl ri" J an d Olle veniofl ..!lr«: t fecd through rrom inf>\lt tQ outPUt call ccc w thro \..31 a recent co ntribu tio n by L.. T o pn:y.".'cruon does nc r p rov ide l uc h 1l0 0d IUI'!ll'CSloiQn Qf It.hoch dimil\lllc:... hOllk! be .. .ILt.hc1 on lbe oUler tra nsistor b UI llll'liD p rod uces a poroit.get.... u m .. ~~ HT+ 250Y TENI ...! tra nsisto rs (somewha l ak in 10 Ihe . 10 11 LOA D "5 un ~'" OUTPuT U Ufi . ~ ....! .\TOA UN ITS hl l HA OUTPUT O$C IU.. 10rs in parallel. inee Ilin o f the lIl"0 undcd'lITit.. I%4).ve-. TI1e two lranmlon (2N I30J ill the o rillillll1) h a~ oolla: .... " " " " • .. II . f~tur<.ds. 0·' '-~ II-l 'I ....hile the other rema. . bder odynea) of t he two inpUI lienaIa and even order harmo nics 0[ th e input and carr iel li llnala .. l1Ie circu it of a no\od double-balanooed miller u."..g a lNo'on<04 I• • """ . 01 at Iea$t grt3tly a ltenu. Doce moo. "'I"•• A no vel oolJ. "''hen 0scH1o.! .. lubsequ:ntly turned up in a a. ta tel i~ equ.Jse ( thf. itl is that un like mod ~lUldard double.. ' '1. .:rll u tcrn al mi_inl.tor S "I. oull"'t pu. The con~nlional baIiuJood m i1er eliminates tile os.o. nel laIn .'ling valYQ was described back in Oct ober 1960 by H . 11 ill Claimed that Ih is o fTen lIdvlLll l>ta.. T . About . • .. lellviol the inPUt an d the hf. see Fill.. " GNA. .. 1 - ..om""ncn~ The arcuil functio lll best when d riYCll rro m low impeda.istor. Hi. A po$rtive IOUlI lnPUtlllDll1. A TO ~ " -~"' 'Jj:t )'p ~ L. bolb rooeption am! transm issio n means tha t then: i$ .lllh arid-an ud e capaQ~ but il can be more conven ient ly fash ione d wiLh a . Fill.t 03JOO r.....PASS . .ate .. . PUT Fl. E. M.. The siml''''r dn llb k:-trlocle .fl'rmer II required! a nd trutl thue II tome lJlIi n instead nf beina inheTellUy .t"!l<'S dr iven . pe••_ .itb bases and em illen C<OIIoCOnnectetl ...~ I . a nd the c Jimpler double-triode venoion uocd by W 3QLV il shown in Fig. cin:u it of Fi l . • OSl...C/.l$. .O S CILLATOR TOPICS HT" SOY .:il"Cllit wivcn in the Dote abo~) . s....oin.. leaving a much cleaner OIltput.11 s hielded. thf. " ..: (17 October....! alllpltlie... ..NPUT r o~ .006l :r Tr. ri$i"ll demand fo r baIanoed fTllUr Clra.L ''''' O$C ILU."...: funda· mental frequcn c". 1and l'l'posile to l hlll of the Ilroundcd~ thode It.wltch ea on one trl1n<i.n parallel h I' a pair Qf lf ounded·llrlt. c ircwt IhLII I«1Td 10 baye poaaibilt tic& for frequency oo ub lilll' · cornet y balanced.i co uplet.. ds ~ per cen t to1cfancc eorn ponents ~---r--""-. .Ive ... .<l aJ .K" ..-- H .....

.. AMA TE U R RADIO T E CHNIQ U E S FE. ' This lIUC'llio n abo recetves Cilreru l eueeucn by A..• • L.f. Uil itself II thu s Ihe ma in lim ita tio n on the ' Itabi lity o f the . _111 01 J'IT • . Over Ih~ tempera tu re N1ntt<> ~(H OO· C..m . WIDTr.. .. 1968) .mr HwoJh. . it also iudiC3 tCl lhllt the F ET ha.'/ I "... h.ch II..ompared wil h the: 10 to I S minulc~ o r &0 wilh thermion ic valves. .. the spread of f ET charaeterisli<. The second oom"a ri~on docs Do t aive <lnil' such II swoeping adv"mage 10 Ihe r ET bUI slill sllo... f i T V . Dccall. _ Jim Fi. tM I field-elTect dc vkcs al e or par· ticular value fo r var iot ble freq uency OOl. . =et>es thermll <Xjuilibrium an d Ihuuld .~ Thit shows how the temperature ooelfu:lcot o r a JF ET o-<cill. ~ Ia .1 dy drift lo.. appe... and "'I'o m ~nl husiulk:ally on t he r<:sulls ad>icvcd.cma1ofl have . or pos~ibly CY<:II adju~ted to p rovide equ al and 0ll l'O'1Ic dri ft eha raelen .. ha.. _ 1. N o ....." ~ o-c r f .... I ha 'o"li c""'" b uill.. h. apart rrorn II Y<:ry shgh! . I." ~f" '" 0 "" _ II V ....tl o f adv ice on ho""his can bc don e.ot:.. U . even when tlle!lc .. u . l Oon t 1" . the Ft.O .. L..1r In the boo k FIT Appllcml.11 ""' run OU T Put 1'.s A ... an.. I'" ) • ... lOOp ' dite<:1 «Iui ..i ntl lhe opcmtina point ..T . and FETa hKv" c~l n:mcly low power di. lbtlors nxc i""d . '" . rtte l\'Cr .'. M PF 10 6 .. the d rlfl "' ilh the FIT was only about ~ kels (fo r this lest 1M lempera ture of lhe:utlle r co mpo""nl... I I. ll-st.. degradation in the o ulpu l a m"lit u<!e stabj\jly he coul d de... Of the FET Vacksr of Fii .. • • 11. ~ .I~I It is t>cooming widely m:t>lIllilCd that I\cld e ll"tct device. . .Ib a llOSinv<: drif laud then lurM over. r V. T he orrall gcmcrll thn! I"CS<'mb lca the so-caJled thennlon....rt5 o ff . tic to Ihat o r the IW'C<! e.ho de· velcped :r..B{2 N 120 2 2N69 7 ~"... . mplifier. . a re moun'.: M PF10 2 " ". o f the Va~k'H lind Seiler oocillalo rs u$in~ M PF I02 F ET..""" ~ "< . r-------··" L~ . .~ lit .... c. _ ." bed 10 RaJio Comn"".... a bil'Obo r u nit driftC<! a bou t $0 ke/I wberca. .. pouibly maki ng aQ. was held stcu<ly). Altetna ti""ly a Ihctm.nKtiOll is Dmitted a nd 11 SOu "".11 1. .. . U .. il is nCCCSlU)' for ma~. tra nsL lo r or Va~uu llJ lube" wilh only a ' I kell ch oge " 'hcD t u pply volls were va ried frum n to 9 yolllI. " " " " loopf o.. < .fbulJA. Lcroc• • W6WQC ln a n in rolllllll ive article •• A uro-lemperature.. <lnfl . lie lIlen lried a co mpa rabl e Sd l~ :urana:cmcn l Wig. W4W Q C )S H .< ".. 1'5 1( t:· ZENER '"m .. a nd nn oo liceab l<e chiII' or dnn: "'hen keyed . n umbo: of uiCful (cilIum whell used as variab le or r fixed frcqueno.. The tcmJlCralu rc Siab ility o f the tuned ~~ n.o.... 1••1'1. aud W6WQ c prOV Ides a t ood de..'. oscillators. He also includ es a pnlCli.. " " " " . Su pport for the vi". .>I>A. • . I<:... JO . poinl o f all ind "idual H oT... _ I.niJilily ~a". iller bipola r lronl islun.(.icUlum n "". . ith rising tcmp'cralu re whereat the bipolar SU.<C o f v. G3POM "'j.M a rk II version o r .y oscillatOr! . .. teet 00 dilf"e rena:.. and ClIn be used in II.:illat O" It 100 Mels for r ETs nnd bipola"....rcuil.Vrate tempela lul'tl compcn\Slion more d iffl u ll rcr the bil'Olnr. ~ber . Ku". can be a mplirlCd to a useful level in the two-Slagc bipolar ... nFQ'. _ lStnr u~ lI\!1ead. .to .:al intended to ta ke adl'anla ge o f Ihis uniqllo F~T prope rty o f zero d. fo..r... .o. see Fi g. I"nll o r all the . .1 c:a n be S up to provide VIrtu ally zero tempc raH'rc el ~O'41 •• "'ll .omflSrisons between Ihe slability of L C .. k. - M PF10 2 ..."" " " """" £ . be quite l Ia ble wilh in 1010 I ~ ~nds. c..a ns o f OUlput but thi.. .. N • . GOmflCMo1kd JI'ET VfO" (73 M(Jj{azi1U'.. Th..:s. WIDTY.• • 11.!"um bc:nctll to fintlthc 0t'liLn \. It will be 00 IM lhot the uSll..:r oscillalOr for a .or can be adj ll ~tcd by va. ..o . k Cl» .al"" circ uits. f. Some o... fl. in d ose prOl\(mity. powerful " ' rPOfI fro m Pcle' Manin.. r.. This FET Q5CillittQr prC>Yid~ only a few mic ro.. ~6 he 1II )'S " il far su rpasses any v. . .... e + I' V ' co effident ove r a limitcd tem pera ture range.4 + IJ V N o' \. bilu... 1 llfid cal'!lll:ilorl~s~tor comh.. been de".~lor or ot her temperature ocnsili\'ll l'CSiSIOr mighl be Uucrled in the source lead to provide a p recise tem pcra!l lre co rrection.:. CrJPIlM .. .. !H.."" fcrrcd to adja~DI component.".. Bolh bipolars . <. _ ~ ""iF ra " rw .k •• 0 • • "1 . ' .c....lm OflCrIIlina..duO.f .. T o. ipa'ion 10 lha t lill ie heat is tr. .1•• • 0 . ~7) wllh cqull lly encouraging m ull. " ... .'. 'IT GK iII • • or f • • . ...."-5c" bmt y f£T V<>d<. lO W ..ful lmprovemcnt. de velo ped }-5 to 4-0 Mel' versions ..

.. QOO lllAN$(fIVf. (10 ) Use o f a bulfer. (4) Use a higlHiual ity va riable: "" paci tQr." l~t:iJ II I: 2N3619 0 II 0.illato r compone nts a round The tuned c ircu it (l . 60. ilila t<:l v.o ncd preflmlbly in an ultrasonic: ba th (G l PD M . to 6 Mcii ).1 ""du.. Ara l diT ~ 10 surrounding l o lid objects (this red u~ " ..lIt l It JI _ I . The I lllbility he: ach ieved u.-t ± 2.lt i$ a bout l Pilrts in 10'l W hile possibly no bod y co uld rwuantee that such fanw tic: pcrt'ormallQC i.lta ble temperature compensation can be p rovlded by mea nS o f a " Te mpa lr.-..h ... law wben luning SOD kell in.<l..m. t..-. T+ ~ n Ail fl. with C I /(04 + C6) . .lOK .~ . rm-UP d rift. hOM.-- j I GJKIM lao <l 700 f>F.-. " GJI' DM . (l) use e strong 00" (ditast c r be tll:r).. " .t be 'V<>llled. a lwa y..) (14) Ce ramic con fo rmers are p referred (u am p le • Ekc"o~lqwJ TO ·5C.!. . the sa in is rc.0 10 _ 6 l PPrQKima Tely.1"". RI . 70 p. C6. (2) Ux a n FET l'lll""r than I nlve . 0 (8) C I C3 lind C 6 sho uld be s il ~ re<l · m ica lype.p. _ e . ..7K i I 1--4 • I I <l'1'f l W Il K . I I ' '0 • ai . I nd are e ven chea pe r. A wa rm-up drift of m ~Is (caused by the Pl~un:e c:apaclll ncc: cha ngin g I S tbe F ET warms up) i. arb!lo ll" du rlnttt he " malle i tesl ").ie o utput and drin due to in te .t1. a foed baclr pa ir. po int.c llat es..ooo pam per mi llion . 10 per eem cha lls e in sUrpl y resu lts In shift o f 8 e ll .1Mhin. pass capaci lo rs sho uld be lil>e rally used to preven t unw ant ed feedOOck lIl"ng the l upp ly rail " (13) OI<. .I..-.f....) for interconn ectio ns In tile <»cillator ta nk circ:uit...e. d ily adj ut ted wh ile nel!ll T i~e feed back r nain ralns low harmo nic cement.ow al 0 1.·.---.. fell: Manin noICS I ~ poin ts to wlltch .6K 2 N3794 0. 'The: SQ-aIIk:d aJ. " OJ PD M is planning to try I n lO FEr 10 see if this miih t resu lt In eve n lowe r .f. (9) Ttl<: tt. (U ) Kee p lea ds .. (7) Adju. an d d isc eeramfc by.. .t or the r . C f.. -_ _ II _ _ aI cal . 1 SW... C 3. (!) Suoogly rcc:orrunen d tho: p:o uinc V"". goi ng to prove rep rod ucible. rea lly doeI ma ke a diffe mK:C').--. . Rl a nd f ET source) sho uld hS\'e s inSle eoJmOlOn e...t thi. . A lQ'Ner COS I dev ice il Oxley's " Th ermo Tr imm er" with II more res tricted (b ut usually a deq ua le) tel1l(l<'ral urc ra n. loU M <j...__ • • "' INU' U . W.timum er ro r ever ~oo kc/l bond. T he I ' pelint' Iis led lbove sltow t ha i to a chie.. (Thi s u''''l11y mea nS usinll c ne of th e li.. Sc>mc idea of t he: degree of lm pro ' -e rncnt wh k h such I u nit l'l:JlA:$Cntl over currem Sla nd ard' Ii ind ica ted in I'lil. inS a d iode from tllIte to ear lh fo r reeulicariI'D Qut...tive ly c lt:.. (straigtlt.-------.). 1 C 2 5. use the:sa me ci rcu ils. CUrmT ts in Cl..r cin:uit covering ~. th is 5hoold be an air-spaced tri mmer : th is l ilows ad j"" t· ment Qr feed back 10 lhat ci n:uit j usl .7 I :non I '.'I of pre' ... lEHfR s. (I I) Circu its u.. re~I<JbI/iI)'-llner . lkt~ Ui of pe rl'o rmance .H..kl r ~il'\:ui t ..>n: (s till lvaila ble new Q Jec kso n Type VIOl ) provide a n a lm ost perl'eo. 12 kc l' " withou t a ny Ct>dginJ.to". h1ft or 6 ell. 60 whe re G l PD M hIS I:Omp."4 ." I I .ide th e fET llp pea r to inc realC dnf! .. 1 1 0.. a nd t~ rter ± 2 c!s pe r 30 miomes_ tb..II..f. C4.. . me nl . W ith .. H owever.... • .lin&-f~uency) l. 112) rower ."'" freq uency: "" /Iag e J IiJ/Ji/(ry -<withoUI zener d iod e)..~kl'il ioch an e nd rc:su ll P<'SSibie.... Tloo • •otv.. bill ferrite co res mu....ln· siderablc care mllSl be ta ke n In the: elc. uppliel must be very wettsta bnlze d. trusn..--.... Jro/e lI_ i/r-ma. An iro n dU'1 eore f". 11IIiDst IMI of I f200 tra rosoeh -e r.. .t i<'" of h~Tmonic: ..-.c.ha nll:lll ILJpects lhe uni t : b ut at lea' l the: Fl::::T m. in D ilio<l tc the warm -up drift d<l and 10001:· term siabil ity considot:rtd a bo ve.. 2Op~ C3 '. and U511: sTlff wi ~ (16 o r 18 i. ws arc roc I tun inll range of 2 : 1 and are llOIuseful for normal l ma ll:u r US<l. il. • ". Ca pacily is 6· ~ p F .av j.n om ina l capac itance is 2 · ~ pF wilh lem pe ra t ure ~'t:Ie mcient ~ar iable from + 1000 1 ... erage . (""2.0" ~ . inlt II 2N3 819 [unction FET irl co nj unction with bipol ar buffer/isolation in a genuine Vacb .te res isto r ehoutd be l\ 2-Wllll solid carbo n T 1 ype fo r minimum heatin g and low inductance..---.. _ " .\lnll screws of (... rcd.-~.1 0.OSCILLATOR T OPI C S '" 2= ri. (5) To red uce the hea tine d feo.. witch ioll o ff for 12 hou rs.f.1. this circuit.. last Iolllff.I. cahbruuon.o the lIrlot 60 ilCCOI1ds. _m 4 i .r.. lhey a re rTKIre sill blc.rnmer " (Ox ley De velop" (6) All vari ab le ca paci tors Ihould be c:ffeo.G .tred the d rift of his FloT ~. the RF-26 type capacit<. .. f" r .:tricl t aDd mo. ~ incroili ble.'iso lali ns am p lifier is ene nti al.R • . or .. 8a to 6·38 Mc ls is. are I:Ive n by OJ PDM a. C<om • • r1_ • • 1 • • __ at aha •. • • w l. ..01 ' uon :t :.1000 p. this type o f pcrfQrmance eI.. reIUrns 10 wilh in 10 C. fiT 1 .e. as G 3PD M pUIS It. I.nll harmoo.

" " Ul'lrod uce a moat $Iable . The IlaliaM sUllF"l t h~l while the former keeps the ou tput r.n:as ing the "lIlue lOr C..c. 11 m us t be nole<J th at whe n 11M: correct aY l>Chronizin$ drive it not applied. cha racterk tlco. draws euecncn to.inc-wave signal. ..ng ~.. lea>'. d ~u .T Vack ar oscmaioe. The .. O. He has used Ih is arnnaemcnl 1 obta in 3· ] Mel. impk .. Slcl~" AMAT EUR R ADI O T E C H NI Q UE S .yily.' b l. l'lo indica linn l' j ho'en or the oOlpu t vollace..c.ilched "" th II square. d •.I. "".g..on 1(1 d rifl by Ihe cireuit rt. fairly q'N ..ho w" in F ig.. I : ) and 1 : 4 o ver a wide s upp ly voltage ra nge. of lhe pre view..al Of'S should be fed o r .i Q .. ..r.i!I.c:c. 11M: circuit lICU running oscill ator.. ha. pte MOS rET.. oIl. he CircUli works wilh"ul allY moddicat ion u around 4H kc 's. nd dafn ofll d ual.ll! • lempcT alu..f.c .. bet leT l han ± S per cent al freq uency ratios o r 1 : 2.1· "'" · ll& a free _vee ~ L-r'_.. outwr '" " '"acc a 2 N2219 . 00< 111.lly de$cribed by J'(:ler Suller.u pplr. but becomes a good d"" l mo re ail ~a l (as doca sup ply vollage) al ratlot of I : S..isa of II gro unded ·bMe lIscilialor..s a clamp. slabilizalion nnd the impcdaua: of tho synchroniring drive 5Ouru: !lh<:>uld no t exceed 1000 ohms .m .<. A hl~h" l lbility Cry. illu. Such I 1 'C'C hniqlle mish . wilh IIClligible harmonic co nlcnt ... bo th d. ' ll ~~esled tha t the OUlPUI may 1101 be pcrfC<. fo r t be division by four t of .... ". rK\lcnt ial.. oU'put is about 2 vcre r. f~dbaek .r. loo p it desil'llble. 1_ • . 61( 0 ). inu. With a 2O-volt 0 powef eouree.• but \'Uri ltioD rrom O'S 1 1·2 volU should eeveume effect... --"' OUTPUT I "~ 2~ op r " . and .e... crystal blJt .'ide. wilh ocalod ccmeeeeet values and a 21'1 2369 Il'llmiSlor. . n r.rer CMraelerislic of the MOSf'ET. Divide.oIC<lr.. s'lpply .m... hQUo'''''n.". .I. ~hown in F i."'" "' '" :": ~ OUTPUT +I2 V cs l20 p ~ 2· 2 ~ The divider. Ihoug h co mpo nent >"Iues wou ld h"\ll" to he o ptimized .. ariati"".. when the on ly ava ilable cry... vollnJe " ta ken from the d rain.--""t-:-:----.:---. '''' .. 11 010" Ol ..i/iClint impro"" ment DIUU be ler. 6 1(a). Th e. .c. I : 6 and l : 7.•.lH I oscillat or.. re"dhack.. transistorized lod::ed-osdllaloT (r«l\l~l>C)' divider which ha l • nwoller of U. to a 1000 ohms load .. . from S to I S . • . Ic\.h b l '" . igr..'uy "tree Ii"" . nf lhe Cf)"$tal il!\Clt). it "o uld seem fn"blc to inco rpor le lhis e. 2N 384 . hU I . ~I lb). . tor sho uld have good h. . with synchronid nll d rive app liW between bas and earth. H . Any good sneon r. e 1M tnm. thc IIIIer keep' lhe (lIlIPUI wa"er"nn . . I<) o thers to dCl:ide.\ ly .tti) in Electroni c ~JI!fn (19 July.11 0 " d l. tv p ..-oUlpUl dual -ga lC M O Sf l::.s.. sq" are-"'l!ve o utput whcu powered r---.-' . a . 03J0 0 . '''Nu_ Iou w ith 0 "' u h . n 80 Me!_ drive. this ca n he remedied by ino. SUs ~l tha t this i.c. Op limum input is given as 0-7 volts r.--.plitude.. been describe d by 1"'0 Ita lian ell. C). ... ilh a similar fipm: p"T volt chanse in . in 10' per 4e8""" Cen l'IlrAdc.i ... 1 ) . wn.l. eo:n gal e I amj e~..t 0... cir. .....u 0 6·2 Mcls : he hu . cuit i. Whether in pra ctice thh "'_ sutts in a .f. The circuit Iw5 d.. "m"tor " Ideally prod uct detecto rs and diooo-quad balallCCtl modul.. ' .e.= • Low. pro portional to Ihe output f. vi.• .. i$ only ocg h ~ble COI\lrihm.-el col'll'ltant fnr d.s. diode is cennecsed (1 t..~ ·+14SV '01 ~ t • • ' '' M . n gale 2....idal . For relillblo performance. in spite Dr lhe "Iuarc· l~ w trall . The report sn. Bnd fed hack 1 ~a !e 1.. T" o bla in muimum l Iab ility from an oscillator..a <a • • o.la l w. S'l'o. \\ hik lherc is perh aps slillllnly limited dcmll1ld(all hO\lgh an inun<ing one) for "')llal oS<.oid31.e I free In provide' . . sYO'ern in a >l 0.c cllarlclerishc of aoom IWO pa n .. 1969).wave rath er Iha n a .. u...f.nn. Con trol'''' o. 1I1fT1e fo rm of a .o"" Ihal lhe loc k-in ban dwidlh i.inte rs (Col li a nd TOnlu ". rabto. of this type can be readily = dcd. lile limilalinn is virlua lly lha.~ u ...h each sta~ drivcn from II ta p OD the emilie.cm"tor....e...h Ihecryslal lx. . 62. because 0( ino. it i. Th is co mPTi"" a modifocd Piel'<% mcilla lo r clre uit wi.e. wi. sta liC. 'J • .." I..ys tem th us pro...lro f0UJl4 1 work.o22~ '" C3 £'1_ . bUI f iy.~na tor circ uils in which l h". 6l provides a cryst al " cloc k ~ p ro vidinH abo ul 1 " ult nI' SOIl kC/. . TroIlJir«N' " '"'I"ener DI¥/der Barry Priestley. in addition 1<> the I . 1 he compollCnl yalue<! an: " ptimizcd fo r II IG--M c.. o rigina.. ~ .a." 10 the 1l1UI lcut: f ig.riab le oscillalur : an ollli inc i\ . AI lower ftcq uencies.rca$cd cryslal nct... ~I ~ .

.l. ln. sisn~ l lOurcc pro"idin . a pprco.... IIDw. 1968). mos l no licc.(..00 Effe<:tive vlIllIe o f C2 relali\'<: to ac tual "alue L. .~~: J":: . T a bl" 2 shows thc elf"" l on C2 if the resonan t Ireq ue ncy rs a t its . CrYllO'I Ol~mator There h~ ' e been mnny cireui lS for transis lo r crysl~ 1 oscitlunrs lhal do no t require t uned circuits. This means Illal t here a rc mo re Ij)lIlious ootpu l$ than ir tho QlCiUalor werc o pcralCd as an ove rlooe lIuit.o~':.nlirc uni l lnclud in. I .. will eesun in cvertcae oscilla tion.-erto ne.ilr 1110..h"ltl ." 1 . " Fe .. lhe in pul imped.r---r... but wilh a n emiller followe r which . A n llmbe. u. The IwO lra n. . T hil circ uit stems fro m Roberl Dilli" n in f:1#'1 ".. . see Fig.ncreasc.. ~ . .20 Mcj..:." .2R O circll it dil..-. Calp ltu Ove.11I"1'" a form of ov~rton~ oscillator wh ich appean to ow:n. l. 11 • ••• .tlid ent gain. in the orillina l circulI ere D SY39.II':./r rrronir Dr sl/{n (l Feb ru" ry.nce al lbe Ihird i O\<:rlOIl':freq uency. bUI il mighl be won h Ill~ti· "..lnc. TAHI. then lhe combi na lion loo ks like a coil at lhe funda mental blll a som ewhat reduced <:apa<. . 64. It i..j ucocy ~ll y' '''' "h "h "' % .".. Th e L..Dd 1.> .'mulliplicr wdl kno wn as a valve circui l . '. n < . Thill is.. cl lI i m~d a' heinli: suilab lc for c ryslals fro m 1." ••l uD by .. ~ Un.l Colpitts arrangemen t... 1-1 "' d iD "" • . '" OU TPUT the Iundamental bu t regeneralive at UIC overtone fttq ueilCY ..tor instead of dow n 10 ca nh. 100 TIU 10" m " .ll..: a re a num ber o f d~tall d iffe rence<.. helps to reduce ~ain altellnalio n with i ncrea. i. T he F Ihol I her~ on:: lwo e miuer bi. ".E 2. e... 0 ta noc o r 2·5 Iun ). .ith lhe fu n4a men l. ThD COUPl ln! IJ . . cr>"tal b lllfid e ni 1 use II as a minio(ransmitl~r o''l:r a d i.". ..--r-.u m shows lltal lhe.. ponlna . l' f1ICtical tesl1 showed thi$ to be simple an d slroigh Lforw ard wilh no ad justment and no "or/ie$ abO<J l sclf-exciled osci lla tion.. Wi lh I'lIt-o fT freQucllCl n o f lhe order of 500 Mcls.. Colpl tb O vcrt<M1C Oocillalor only by D 1'35 ~oh m~rcu ry cell.. 8 No\'<:mbcr. The Ii". an d so it is more convenie nt t o alter Cl to adj ust the excita ucn. co uld be replaceo. sccn . to r... by da mping lite uyslal o n illl fllnda men tal or u n_ "Inled lower o~rtO<1Cll. "" lion o f F. _ p l. 7Hy' 28-6% 84·~ ~ flcquencie•.k d U... '''' h• • ". F2RG has develo ped a venalile ". 6~ the ad d iLi on o f L to the co nvcolional circu it resuits in the tullC(j cin: lIit C2 L If Ihis i$ reson ated 3. nus de vice " as buill by 0 8BCO.h u Do "" U I ~ .. tooe.:'.h .."t~ "r -4 tllm s • u ••• "". an d provided there i. a nd the usc of a aimp lc !inlll e tllm OlllPllt loop al the ean hy e nd o f U . 1969.m:~ tn:I.rystal lo Ihe ho I end alIne induo. FET '« M<:fl S. il is act stated.. bo " '' 'n "'D •• "'.tln ll u a sim ple local oscill alor for a 144 Mels converter o r u lhoe Ul rt o r a 144 Mcls nansmittc:r.. ba lteTy I nd cry51al should bel enc losed iQ a mell l bo~.ably in relll m inil ihe o... ~l blc to mod ify the conventional Colpitls circuits so lhol lhe crys lal OKiJlates o n a l'Qluired o. ·1he geo metric mean of ftc qucnci""" "nd b is y"{abl .'.. Fig.. l n d ~ .'Z ~".omc lhe common dilTlCUlLy tha t such osc illalo R tend to be mo n:: Lricky 10 " dj llS l compa red .C2 re>OnallCe as percenta ge o f " w kin g fm.l. 2N914 or simila r dev ice.. ~IT~~J.I•• J n 011 IDn. The circ "it will then be del"ll<' r3tive at From Darry lind Kay Pri cll lcy (G 3JGO..OSCILLATOR TOPIC S '" r-r.t"~e 0. Th~ lalter conl.. operalinj lhem nn lheir funda men tal I»' r~ lte l rcsonlll'lOl: "". is bla sically similD 10 a Perce o. . t.h:'I::.le {)¥.ill blc Wlpu t o n 144 Me!1 from a n 3 Me/$.. lise<! by F2RO fo r such purpooses u 144 Mels n:ceiVl:l" adjU$tmcn l and for testinJ aerial p:l!le rm. F2 RG stresses thaI 10 a~oid SPllriOUS OUlp uts l he e.h. . 66. d . The o""iltalur ...'G3XIW) comes cmcrlle<l .l br 2N1Oll .~jnll (ffilllency...al 1O\I fCC' i. 1IlF i...l ll{~. b ut eeot he r has bttn pU I forwDrd by ul l l"li~n ellll'lIccr In the" IdCM for Dtsi~n " .~~:'~ or.. II looks like lhe familia rtntel. .r.. . . :IS no "' oil IIn k.. ideal" ~a\ue (gwmclrie mean of wamed and nea rest unwa nted frcqucnc":sl. "" ' ~ In . BSY38 but Ihe... ' . by lhe C1'Y"lal lookinll lnlo lite blLSC of TR2. u. C2 values depend on keepinR t be eorreet reso na nt frequency.. . circuil. lhe 1 geomeTric mean o f the fundamen tal a nd (SOly) thi rd o see. o f "a r'3 1iol\!J were a ttempt ed and lhe mod ified "cRion shown herewith Compa ri'lOQ wilh lhe ..f.. p..

COllU'pt . lJu..... '" 0 . T.~ ..WOUlld on a' in.. < willlin . .f" ""lIllro " Ill inaculllBly 1:(IlOO Ill' apinsl ' he a pl'l'rcnl limimllon of O'II:illah... II " - 0.... J'OOC 1.. ~tfoon. . 1 _ =~-:.nlJ ..f101)· 200 ell ror ± ~' I OO kc" ... as. 100 pf fP.. 10.luriat: CIecII'OlU(: h. _ I or L. I.. the . a nd c unrlll waste. !loU a u!lCful InlrooJ uclion I.. . -0 .1 UI • .j 1:.hcd in 1953. o o<lII o_ " I .. 2·2 ' ..1d bc:vc:ry " <:leIn " ..er Iimll M . !lAdconsi~uor21 tumI 01 21 " "'..f..nly be . and tune C1 for mallilnum .-c r«t:ive.. VU('u"". Ii""'" ..".:IOrs a noJ lhe cor ""r><mdin. T1Us VUl. ._ " '. ..hlb l.11 10....t:>.... Ll ~ 11 C .m. p ubli.It.ma ll vollalle.:... 1'1 The. :...~ rxo rf>' r.. only j UlI 'lIllltuly _ than f" r '" «XI m W >'C'IIC't" d . .7 •• ..4) or l OX...r ic is slUI IU t lhe gopacilo l C ll. The ~~PI uf oscillalar noi". . lie wmmmll : " TI\t cMq>lion . I""d repllali"". Edoon. 1. "nlla..<11 .~ .m.. appeal'll in Ihe r:n. Tbc: . ~ t D. ..."".ode .W.. rhi. I. . . Kducin.. . ol 9 Meli .~..:illa lor rollowed by IW BF2U ~IaJCI (triplerlJ. T "... AWl4in fonner.~_. :.-enoon." libralOI __ the SUtlOD 1 IT1ClfecoaOU1l: .f.$'Ii . '""" _ n o. 1. thc ad)llCCnl cllllllnel pc.. r.-. _ 111•••• •f . .Wlc... ""' q..emcrn .ed lX:R mk.. Ma y 19691 .00. from U . l oUo ll " </0 1. F£T ~d)' Iol:fOI& the pilll or the (r)YlII1socker.mpltflcr\.. Wl lter S<. _ . . .. 1 ... ' . ~ .".-.ti~1Cd VXO deicn.1l1ed afCmaD)'. ft .. t Ill..'.0 impro \'C d lha l they no l" nltCr repre""nt I rcnl " ". the valuc. a . . rillnl<>rI b y W." ..0 " "''' ' ' of 18 s..d. ~ p" .1!: 1M priu .. comprilela 2N J107 -.. Wt<ire ....e.~ O._ w l.._.. O Th is unil ha a sweep o r ± 20 kc ~ al l J6 Mell a nd h intmded for use with I~ ha" . 2O---3O ell f. Almosl aDy crystal _ to wort sa tisfactori ly in lhis d rrui l arran.. 1 . Ja n M _NlXd. '.. Ua nllmill « for c..-ol .. : =~. opmIl ion ..:hreucr . Nni niolOl "rc: •.HJ.. Top 1 t ..••• _ 141 H </ . voIlage re..al ~ll.?:..'Wtt Irms... J. ..11 i.'" .10 rnA meI« in lbe + 9 ¥OIl .1'>cn a llc: pcinl m ro mod ify :>. .. " lid cono.'rowI .U . I I Is lunod by lhe 2-12 pl' capacitor C2 to lhe 1 metn:: baD.... desirable 10 e1lCfoM.c:::... (Vnl 1.._ . .. 0:.u lalOB iI '1" ile prad ical. ' "onl • ~. reIOllalea a l lho <:r)1w frequm<:)'....:~.. ' •• C ry ol" O K I/Ioto.. of . . Ah... k_ .l.... 0 1.11101" n in 1-1 10.. ".I. 'hen lii'lll ~l...~ .' ....mecc r._ ."". .. or a.e . __ _ ~ ..002 ~ 6 -eo-. U .. nin. m~y " e n toe unfamil. ~ r . _ .$ well kno"'o lhal lhe ...-. by K . _ewyoul _ e l _ OJ:lUI • •_ H _ _ d .. 0. Timrnan . • " _ ...1. ~'2 _ "'" _ _ . mltln" by c~ Irac1.II. IraMftI~ f... FT2..' N .ound IU I in .nals. . .. OJt:l1l ' .' 11' H el .~I..U "."J.. Mc.~ " ""' 1.: .... 0..-1.ar 10 mHny rc3dc" (il I.. ". ".. _ tlr.. W. .n an y oll1'>c 0Incn... ' 0.."'1""'"1 1 l hat Ih e lul'l*Y voI'aa:e .. Ol IV tll W •• •• • d ' g d. No 2...'" 2 N3 619 "' H A Ta u" RADIO TEC:HNIQU I! S . OJ9ZR .. hiPQ btul lntCl'JlOlC'd... .. p"in ll o ut tha t even . "' .. nPJIP VH F C _Io.. H . f. ·1 u ..••..&nil ~I lbe tJUI of L1 unn' 1 cum:nl M madin...~~ . My ... dl. . LA'A K ....:.. 1.~ QU5in.. 14 Me.1_ ..blem. G D ' . LI . ±20. low. uf cl«lw n. .:illator none il .. ' oJ _ .d.aI 111M lime of pr~tica l impo rl811«: n' llinly in the field o f llIi. it may he fOlUld lha l lhe noW ~idc:hlr>ds :>."". hic k &R inaeucd 10 2S turns on.. dl'Clp& from J rnA to 2 IDA.Iin.hidl I'l'O'I"fd '<:r)' mudl eeue. 1lCl: il 1i"""'1 shon term driflof 10 <:/1 In IS minulCIror ± 20 kc "l.."1 • short Ialalh of wire in fO the (Q-IAial socket.lh a 45'4711. tncorpor. place the . '" "..u. ilhi" vacllllm lUbes te l • lo.b-millialurel. Arloll'>« applklliioa is to 11K II U • •'np stale Ioc..m ... 1.r Md $illnal " na r..nll ChOlrllClerislicl o f recetve rs hoI'c: been .." wrote : " It . Ed.. "'" ~ .. 11 bar.:. • • . and IhUl faril itatillr: l'CllIOle <:ontrot...J1.. • OId/r"t. X IYl ... an i. . . II II cbinable 10 wirv fhe p ie aad IIOIUU: leads oJ lbe To let up lhe caJibral or conned .lu.' IUhslJlnlially Iowcr 'han fur 7r11Cr dioda...houJh 11M ~)'WI of Ihc QtCillator b DOl' crilital..:: _Io . U .W. 1.:Ire: JOOd. ~"". . il in • ~ ea-o 10 mtuce ~ ndUtion.'l (:lySlal (HC\. 10 wtlicb IIUI osall alWlIliI)' be.uw. ~ ". lbc o llM'riadudor...m." .n . i 1" f "'. I cz. P. poinl~ OVI 11\101 . 10 flw.) < .l raooJum emiu ." 1 ' _ _..../40kels..-J formct atw:l 41 pF Iud ceramic:. it il.lIor for • «III'~"ct in a mobile ri~ with . ...:i~..1U • • '" 9C ~ 'lll01l . .as lhe: DJRR nn: uil .. boca applied fll'llltlI iC' UDit Ill " low fl<.. . : A soph.lIn COOV'efIi"..eloJ''''1 menli u ned In lU I hnub).e.hird MTTnOftic:. .fU4 <rIpI.". i. aDd . _ ...

.OSC ILLAT OR TOPI C S (fl V) • WU!C fI. noise flUl ofT n::la livocly . RK VVUl INTfR.. fa lls otfa t lboul 6d B/OCIavoc.. The croer.. which in t W'll modulatellbc ca rrin" frrq..nJr.buG depiction Ia)'l'l . b ut in some cases..i . (l ) Conln!)' 10 tb e quot.none when used in c onju nc rkm . <n>:nooc CI')'1lIa1 O'\CillatOl c ifcwrs for use wilh lran~slon ma y be kai on.m .t .. IOUrhly 6d U ru.f. oscillator noISe fallt olf YeT)' rapidly indeed a nd lhaoc: eIT ecI. f hu w i• • h . w l\iel'o ill II.i"c appean 1 he 0 ca l*d by tha cyc:k: Of c:ollClctor-t. The = i!.. aDd 12SdB ( Of 1... hloMlCR in e· (21 A..uw:: propoll ion 01 tlte f.." s h" wn In F IK. w .. reject ion of spocil\c dis=:.felTed 10 a I c il bandwid th .y.d represents tile Delt-bu l-onc hu rdle . II mu. 1O lim itiAc \NbIc rmwtiY itZ. lhe OLllpu t ma y IpPUr liable a nd apparCR lly dea n.ci~ IN Icx:oLI oaciIlator may in f..aYl 0penl le os h'e h lIS t heir llflh "y <.mately lillQrfy . Both cna ble c l')'1Iti ls 10 osc iliRlC in lrd . believes thaI !he noise ~led _ilh w. '" _ .ion. A1an Ju bb. 73.. Thil . .!l'l hi&b-C? l Ulled Qmrita.. .. 71 ha ve pro ycd s uuable in a nu mbe l o f di ff"re nt lIw:ill~IOti._ C". litlhlly. of e«iUal~ OUtpu t aDd KkaMty ud with d=Uso! off~ and iohereal aoise of lbe Q/1"C ~ ~ deYJ....• ..r.. ...... but ...c /s from lhe c:arrier ..lTicr . ng.tl _ f .h.. n. c itanee tip.... F<:<:<1b.' 11_ . .. ". YOllall"'" a loo all' lct the OpeTaUoo of OK'illalon .\H$IoI JTTl:1l .ID..:t tr.jB tOl I .. ..t be 1!J1:nOd that..r. True o ve rton e crysla l. onea rd'ernd 10 10 lerms eI apcctraI linea as det«1ed _ a spec:uwn anal. oip>iflClnt problem Rn. In h..ized lllat lllCl puri ly :1$ of IOlIIe frnJ ucncy IYIllhesizers now uKd io co mmen:ial pnctice waI insulficiatl 10 PRYmI intcrfc:nonoc 10 adja ocot channels : see F ill.any lipillcan l jlueT eauso:s lhe receiYel' 1 respoDd 10 loud.. has co rrapondine s pread of OUlflIJ l il will be am {llifled In lhe ma in tl'llR'\IIlln er Sl.m. rden'ed IU a ba.m IR DOisier by 6dH lMn field e!T. Wa lter SCh.hel rot bipolu tnmJIlon !han foc tbcrmionoc valves.od lr. C10 0' ..me ~ signal 10 noise rat io ~ as 1M d )'IWDie n nge of t he ~--PUI a l about I ll\:lB ".o..... (5) T ypical lKllM: p<>"""s for tM OIcil1atot retatiYe Ie !be Ci rrioil' a l an cm illCf" CU ~I 01 I rnA a re J. hilc f.... in In ad~ dllnncl.oe voll.70..l ..- .silkbllnd fr cqucncy)..a: ha oe a~ noise ou tpul ee ue sip! ADd ilmte frcqtltnciel. a l ahoul Jd Hl octa\"C' of /(Ql. k-. 1 _m I.- "'f-. < _1 ••1 •• • " ~ j . prac:lkc a ppr«iable 10C31os. av . i..line.. .ll t lhe W IlleS shown In Fig. lID thil dooI lIOI a ~r 10 be wha l i. Pwity ~ wi !l'l iD:::r-.. Simila rly if lhe Ullnl ' 0 mi nc i y.n de .. hleh he hR S bee n try inlt in 144 Mc ls l ea r.ill have _ (Ihoupll\UCb tcduocd ) raponsc to IIia:Dala _ a l':IJl ~ ~ 1 tbe qnad of -=il1ator DOise 0 'The purity of !be outpUt ( lhal is I"" ~ wil b wbktI IKiI1ator OUIput caD be c:onfioed 10 a Iinale freqUCM)'1 is This poinl WllS made a l th a 1?67 l EE confCTCIKO 011 fn:q ualC)' generatio n wllere It W empm.---::i---fj-... ftOise OUIpUI repaents a form 01 jillCf" bt the olCiUi.acJr.d IIld Ihm a ll eatuala I/lIm bel'ore app\ialioa to tM mi«r In acllieYe!he 1'CCl\I1~:larnJ'lO speclnom. 01 no _ . ICOflleS rre m ll>c American JA N e t)"llal Iili . 111 YXw o f the importl~ of Idjacenl channe pe rformatXe of recei~ a.":Ie a nd ca rrie r by llle non.. Imos! a l.I onl y bcconx: a pparenl when tTyinr to l'lll:dve a .uor applitatioDs 1M elfo.. 1 OD the m kllllitU<lD or e lect ricalligna ls wh ich may he: am p lillod and !le1 1ed .". TbiI il COI1Ir:lf)' 10 wha l OI\C wou ld Upa:1 if it _ re assun iN th a t lh c no rse . ilkbaDds ere by nlOdula lw ll of lhe t:t nier d ue 10 mi~iog o f Illc . This applies p rimll rily to valoe 0SIel\t..ioo 1 l oJjloa:nt mannel. Edson ahowl lhal the OUlput ~ from aa ... nniill: .II d ldo:bandt) produced by a 5 Mcll ~ Inm ister osal_ lito!" usiD& I of lnnsiIlon .. re quite sma ll. 1'X... the: noite aidebandl ocrioully I'ell rid lhe ch oke of l... . pt"oyilkd by mea ns o f • ca r-~­ ... Al h.atla1of sp-m oul ovet a baDd of f~ ill thl: 1)'pc of wr. ~s1 y e~ link flUbllcity has been liven in IIIII!Cur lue lOl' U'" 10 tile Circuit recommended by t wo IIWII ( rysliis li l'lll-' : _ Fir..-.-ita make .1n.. U II w 11.llOr...-c.oe DIIC . I b ee . This is IlIOIher reHOli wily .:ialn ".illator noise iI DOl usually reprdcd . .in1 .RING _TA.als. ..m. Ra4 if red btlO Illc miltcr ~ thai the nceivec .if"IC d fo r Woe wilh lruc oycnonc c~t.. . 10.... Ccruicly..UWniuen II KemS wort h puum l on record lo m e o f hIS litIdingll..uuestcd Ihloltllc eaci~r fA a lra rwniller needed TOulhIY the . power asci lla lon .1. Ian a ls 0 ctose 1 Ille d<:altcd ligna! freq""ncy..I--. G lPMR finds tha i 1M DOOse Pi""ft' rdllivoc 10 tIw: carrier . oo Jl1\lll lceh n iqucs.tor.:t rity in hereol in a o. Althou gh the circuil Co d~ ..or. '.dlh lills circuit. UN .J. •.• varicl:r r. ar'P'oo..N Otc/l"1oto<"f llY: laIc Uuic ~ G2.boul OIICi1lato!" IlOI$C: and jn ter.c lpul'ioln frequmcio:t better than lOOdB ..:iIa.l.inbly hi. G 3DY re pnned on two osc illator clrCIIII. noise pt1l$Cnt in t hc IMQllalor lpeclru m ..... 11 is no t W CORlllloOnJy rca lilCd Iha t noise Cl.. ~~. G lPMR. W6AJF . •. 0. H pointe<:l o ut thaI *ttilc . in amateur pn<:I n • . Jr.) by Fnr... II is lrue l llull on mOlll OIciII.(. for eumple In micrDW1l'll:l OIClllatorl WlII:d in p.. T tl.ot II mlw 1UncIlO r" \IlI lidac tc>riIy ""Ih a t leut '19 per cen t o f surplus t-T24~ c rySl<lls In 1M 5 10 II Mcls I<1n~. lion from r>dson (wrilten before the era or lrailsistOl' osdUl lon). evert th Ollg!l chccJr. G 2N H noce<I Ih. mod ulalinl lhe colkd.:"u ino:rcasc as lhe e:arrier power incte:ucs. (l ) T he: low frequency nobe performance or 1M t ra nsislor oppears 10 ha "" p rac ha lly DO mrinJ on the h.e. F ie.10f1.1--.jth cmillcr r..ood oscilli lon.1ges a nd theee will be tIld. Edsoo poiIlts OUI that in 10m:: ci n:umsunocs il may be btIlt1" 10 amtnIta OIdllations a.ill ."'f--. b.f . 71.f.. diffe r . oscilla to r cin..-illa lor OUlpu l is hardly Ukdy to $pR3d 10 the siPlllI frequellq'. II ...-.1 CO CJOO.f. an LrD<les. i... 51h .r... a nd v. idlh el l c iS. ~. .petIIeler od >1le ~~ .f.O....roduco:d ~ _ _ . idintl lbil nee d folr an y laf' on the roll .+ + +:=••= = =I NC IlSlll' _ 1AN 0.nw. (<41) A t.lj.. I_ ly. III rnkrowave ro. _ 1 1 . 72 stcms fro m a n aniele in 'J (J une .m. ~n 01 /"lICICIoen for profCHKInai purposes an: &!rudy LJJJr.-+------.. ...I IO Jr. ... or n lues l'eCc>mmen ded by lhe: Ilrm ... Jo nes... .+ + -+-. tigrlaI a loo pide I very lou d one. nd 7t h .GIl with 0 .... has measured the lI()~ (un..uj. '" J I-.w ' i• .

....... T I·~ . . hu been upenmcnl inc with rolAer· v. d UIII-aale n i s a Dd . ..f • • i ...odm l!ton.. frtQllC ncy.. Fil... IIIIC secuon o f the de. +1 "" /' (. 15. IJ ... n T ho J A N C "'1aIo t . and 27-930 "l eis cry.."4l o.nee mcnt. .cJo _ _ ..Ill.ing a IS Mela erySla l (slllll lU$ HC6 Iypu ) on il$ \lIb lI~rto"" 10 fo rm the Ic>eaI oscillator wur<:e for • 144 Me' .. triode osciUatorfdOllblcr nITaJlP mellt... t his is in llne with that fo r opti mu. TheIc: ean l lEn eithe r be left permanen tly in elmu!.." " " ' I . lboo IIlher U I bamonIC mu ltiplier.. applications.. 74. mix er vr. L I. 40602.h.'" f'-r '"' ' 1~ ..... (. _ .. _ M . ~ is thus suitab le for use with nnny 144 Mell tra nsmitkTl..... JN 141.. lnd iht " .. ......o...n v.nd pass filt cr OUI""t 10 t he unit.. . should be a l 1e. For use 10 abou l 90 MCf$.c. !IlI...{: . .. OlDY reeom- _ 11I. 71 . I""_ t . on~ J ' . I re suffIC.doets to l'II:i5 tllrougb.e.I _S . hc avoids all fll:Queney multiplien a nti the ru mtiDl man o f unwa nted ffCQucr. and he 1Ua&ests lhal the CQ:l lap is OOt real ly wo rth tile trouble .. o r the vxo fo r v. 10 ". ""Y. for •• i~en device. •• .{....o. . .... I' " L.1 (>u l""t on 140 Mef$ G 311Y fnuod it w:cc»ary 10 use:ll ua..... see Fig. '. Ihis approach II c!<SCnlllll. co nvener.Mets..... O I CP J.AMATEUR RADiO TE CHNIQUES ..tllgelTlC'nts. ... ually be nceded . One o f lhe many po$slble usel of thi~ aI11ln Ccmcnt "... ice is "orkine ..p .. . 19 11). n .h hal remained popular <m:r man y decades has bc:cn the twin... . I----<> Gl N H . partklllarJy in ecaceclion wilb oscilblor ci rnaits : ol'lc:n .. from lUI 8 o r 6 "l eIs cry.I. _ ' ... III a L min l a mp lilUclcs..cilla tor to provide a helerodyne o utp ut on 2..._cf. I\lm)._ . a n d ful l) co nfinns lhat e~lr1I precaulio ns will u. .. (lain-bandwidth product ) o f 900 the Mcf~... He Iw. .... I.-Y.. Baud.Q _ • • ~ T . rad~'tion unleu u.. O l BY it u. 24 Me/slo fo nn a DlOrc efficient b." lS . n~tlor CU be used (wit b.ntly .. _ _1Il.. ..A ~ -ce V (No .. He wa s a ble to me• •urc unwan ted mi xer pr<X!. X .<I polcmlom:tcn fo r careful oc selt itl...o. ~I. lI. rev<:~ su pp ly p olat iticl) b ut a devi~ wit1l hilh F..I. are uaudl)' senab le.. ... a n~ arn. .. . of the biasiDJ POint.. . been ducri bed b y 0.re-.. 40604 c lC... ~ ... .. win tend to p rovide I~aler o utpu t._.hr.. A " mini-v. ."qu i ~meot _ 12Y . /0 .. ....inll the d ilfe n:Dal belW«TI succeO$ amd fo. ~ ~--.. JTl..f.f. .il11ll.. fk<:e no""r. :MI ..0 _. for IoU Me/I Some differences of opinion I re ('I~""lorinl on th. CbciUatcur Jo nes a lran $tilor " (RaJ~R£F.. t • •• .. wi. ' . ~ . H ev.....1c .1 .el."ta M OS'ET Horm c""c OKlllc to ' 0"" of 100 lRdlrlonal eM la l OsctlJMol'I wlUo. 1""tf" m umce a IranslStOT ·' . I'. 24 M e/ _ So. o pe ra tion . .n1Ufo r with ao F.. .. +" .e ehoke betwee n . In effect mend .....1 five l imes tl>l:: workio. fOlloo this tip well wonh while.. To ~I "«cf..._ •• ~. .cntly brg adblndcd to permit unwa ntcd mlAcr pn. To a<:llicve maximum OUlput from In overtone ar~ Kemen l . '" _ _'-. po t values of 'O K ohms and lOOK ullIn ..... . " •• ~ - ~f t :!:~ . l"lm hu a 3·5 Mels v. Wi th lhe Ire Dd to _ rds li na\e-cbanJlCl opcnttion one o f Ihc$e tccl1niques m l1$1 surely enlClIC IiOOD as Ihe dominant mode.. oOen kn()Wll 'os ~ Jo~s oKillator. unit... ~~Uy.r..y.. crt llne modes...O.... . wit h on ly Olle lta lc .. _ f . All up-to-date lClaptallon of Lllis circuit hI . Ihe UyJllIl osci llalt>r. r. replaced by equivalent m. . .. "'. " wli t.. WII . ou Amplifier Ian t.lcIo ... / ......~ Of the two arr. the . . 11.oul d he t o obtain 24 Mell outp ut.h . 'I ... ... W tAJ f.." ' I . • . once the opt imum value is found for (ri tical Iransi.. G311Y prefe" the JAN circuit a s it resul ts Ia • 1DOn: eompad saae.. I..IC t .ri bN by Sand ro Fcdcncl...'" ul... In Ihis .. .. o r. I :E0 •OI ..tor circuit!. LI /Cl ..f. Th is Is based 011 the use IIr any of the UIUllI dual·p lc M OSfET dc vioces w d! Ks t hc JN I40. the re coul d he spu n o ... '. lie . _ . . :MI"..:lt.... .. o. I.. Y " O $ ' IT o.....tc. fo r t44 Me/. 131 o..tra nmed c ircu ih arc fill ed II.. . 76) u~n. DlIlII.. lil t" in RuJltJ RMJrlI usinl . . a 2N106 t. .....1.. a mpl ifier tF ig... m inl : if lhe tllln smiltc r e lreuit. . S<> he bud l a 24 Me/s l u band.o.F.. for v..1. " 0 01. We fec i co nslra ined 10 add a . I . • ~ lt c:r '" eo .. in .

Tl S34 " .tor. how the cry~tal aut . .Io _ Id "- .." w i'" .. circuil (Fi..- "..010 kc/s output an d ca n pull this with 1000 ._ f -e: . Me'" '1. ~ . lor ' 4. ean prov ide out put on the fun<. n .-ay 1fI·« IIn.!amenlal or 3rd o r 5th overto nes . _ _ _ .-_I--J... no -1---" " no . m .._ Ioao..3dO bandwidlh 10 be I Melli. --. tllis is in line with G SCPJ '. rcdl..lOB po inl.foO. -- 3N14 0 "'" L__ • ••• J 1~ illijl'OSe(l thi s bl:tween lhe ou tpu l of his miMI-V. '" I~ ..OSCILLATOR TOPI C S m xx.hain. winding) . virtually aU tbe po wer amplification al lhal fT1Xlueno.... .o . Th e ltanda rd valve circuli could be also read ily adapted for F ET rrperation. ..'i al 22 and 26 Me/•.I.f.ur" - j UoI.. . Man y amaleu n mi. xx'" TlS34 •• '" '" "mo "".-10<0 _ •• lIl _ . l the a bilily to lunc the v.h _ . e Thi..-I~ _.. a oI'C. k sta&C would probably .007 I«:/s..0 1 lwo-s t."'. Certainly we would reecmmcoo lhat anyonc building the U HF mini-v.. nT . 1. . ) ... 10 • .1'h i •• ~ .red to serue fo r bs than lhis-in which cue a sin. lhe two Jlalt"ll he fO\loo lhe . u 000111' _1 _. on. &nII' VXO DTlT U notes the pu rity cr cuiput of the Butl r Oielll. acn>ss the ban d.. _-.I.. '00 ' '".. I • . lJ fr. lIIbility at kast to 14.:y. and ' he main Il'lLlUmillel o.100. he .f.) ... T his pro vcd cx~mely effe.."'.. .....1 .. he ob tains 14. seriously eonsiders usin..ln . 17) wil" Ff243 type crysfal.11. I r-._ p n-..... _7S. the IWO Inductors should be lightly co upled (biAla..\4 r---. T.. ... loct. .d_ rio"<. ' .lf. 1I n T . C w-J" ' " " ... with ...... : o. . IlHf . ' 0... . For vxo o peration. L Tl S.-Cit----o 2~ M Ho . I ~ I ¥J .ive~ both wive a nd transistor d rcu ilS and also indicale . ~' _. ".. uIfI<:o:. i • l OOk --" .. The o Ulpu l is low (I mW into SO ohms} . -• • VllO • • • 1' . The ..-. Input 1201o . Using a 467 kef' ceystel. Usln. .._ ---. . o.. c (0) -.. ~. '" r-.hl be prepl.jng aU unwanlCd OUlptl wilhoul in lUIy .. .=tivc.. .... polky of keeping PO_I leveli eJrtrcmely low to 144 Me'" and th en pro vidin. I . ~ be pulled to form 11 vxo. f1. " . .o.ll<' bandpass am pliJler of 1""lype. 1101 1'1" ' .. · I" 1'1<10 10.

"fIT alld lhen reopen the Pte lor IN: next OOWII . .--..-" rtrt..H I e. for d. ... f req UCll/. _ _ . .. ... FO<' eumplc G4<:O M bu ~"lly . .-.. '-0 04 toe • 1_ ..ils 4101.. TIle pte ~ doocoI ...ont ..". . If most ..r. If t he w tPUI or lbc counca."j. migq>honyor any r~ freqllenq ...~.C(ladri fl or aboll l $OIl Qi iD baIf an bow' 10 a f~ cis ~ pc:rioch or4S ". S.. • . ... .. .l wa y and whidllbcn luIOmalic:a!l. G3 BY .0 :f . few cycles re' weond and provldm...... f oO.. froquellC)' " coo low.... loeb 10 the nc.:~ '". oscillator whkh can be tuned ma nually in the lISUI...:an he made sutrlc:iecllly amaIl when IlICd in reaiVff appbcat... opetl a 14191 binary counlCr CO\III15 the ~ hom l he .. tunina cifeIo/I aDd the '1...hart and tentlo stability. sina: only a few m~nds &R ~ to IIOR tho ooun fet outpUl.. In practice !be exact f~lICnC)' or the cryIl&I is o f DO ~ictI ~ provided I"-! the divide dla. In pnctioc: tbe . _ ..104 . 01 the timinl pubcscan be lalen frolD a d'&Iw freq~ mc1a"1.' ::. rf lhe pte-oPaI 01" limin.O. fhe other hand i1 aflu Yo)' tho! fulloerin& Itmiaa puiocI • .P: I .......ro 10 about " M M M M me. II .1 14 121 Inuen.11 . Thit . from the eou ntn into lori.m. ."" . bility of this OICiJa tor is of COW'le l i"'J'OlUllt iD lktmnini".1 ~.'s mmuk).""Iied the sy$lellliO a mix«. roncrol wad in oonjunetion wil h an FR 400 ~ and nd~ tbf tou. . lbe . r... Tbcsc limina: pWsa an: used 10 opal aDd d ooe lhe pIC or • 1400 TTL de~ for the prcdcll:nnlncd p :rio<b. t o mil: the appIicatioa.. .-bout lhe riahl Icn&tr. _ ~..' ... 0 .. l)uriJ!a lbe time the p ic . wilhou1 l he II:tbilurr hit ruci'ta drifts ...J . ~....ia lhill is &mr.. I « ~ K _ 0 . ~ . thin jU&l . but... Co . bll. dQIe t be d oO.... l ot IUlIUlI diIOo:Ie across lhe 'I J . The S)'Sfml II lhUlIK>t ac:un: fot . of .. wbnl the p iC dar-! I"C' 10 xr<) the fin. muunum rare of dnn 01 only aboo..ilI.r prcn....fuun Of aidt:b&nds. " ..KId it iD the form of &II QlcrDIIl... lbe lyMan depend!! Oil a lia:'oUlI si. moderately Iood 001: >'al' lood indeed . •• • ha... _ ~ ' 1.. •• noise O!I the ooc.. .To O ~lr..riWoDI d ue 10 lraMi mts m tile supply voItqe lhat 0.o. periods ctO be c:r. M I M gaLUhta IN: ~ ~ ~ capacitor C 10 tqia 10 00 aft"octina the . is DOt so slow lhal durinl ally <:orTCd ioo period IbI . ..llato r OUlpul. bulh .. . Tbese ll~'.r. or lholcoOlrOlled """llIlor . the 7474 1nft"l">IJfY: irnniatiau:1y the third n U l . the 0 son into IN: lTICnIClrY aDd !he Q output bo:omf:I. dc:vi 5lX! by Kla. Jo. ' .. ita n make .. tabiliza con"'l:lU" flW-runni llJ v. •.11.uM 10 penwl and hold in. lu 1Ina1 djpt. ' _ (__ 1...nl 1117) a nd at lnlaed considenblc inlerat.. II v...£. zetO lhe oo. foUo.. COU1lt l'nJlains ltorcd In lhe counlel'. MID"'f.. . -_ . .rn. Sp.. a f~ t t l hish or low .bouI 1900 c/I d urinl l hc lim boll. 0-4 --.11I ID t he bask d .--nd tbe val ue Ibat wil ctUSC thl:counIa" 10 _ a 01" .. ThUll sim ply ac hlo:ved siocc foc <1i&Ita 0 to 1 the ..f..in pw:s tiIIlq periods 01 ... V... This dipt ia lbcn ehcdcd to _ If II ia IJQler than or b!l <han 8 (or 4).L-i--t< <. reriods AnI aaaly_1ODOlId then tile IIICIemeDW dqlo bclwcea lbll SllIbiliad frcquenels ....... .o.. ... the" M M " '.... PAOKS"'.0 .uat 0( l ~ of snail predelermir>ed il"QCmCfttal IoICJ"1 . . ... It should be appn:ciated thai thi. 1f iI D«ll:I:SI.n be 16 e!s fot a>l .IPlS 8 10 U the outplll alllUs p in is . A l«hn iqlle ClPIlblc of stabilizin.u... . can he ma.l'l illo be uoed rrequc:ncy compensation (i. ill Tttltnk'tU TOf'k1 d W".o. ..ul l r~ .w which . .o .. zero..01 do:>cl DOt ~ for r.lrcmdy shan. len:. equal ly poDUIbI<: to \I!loe 1M 2' oulpUl ( pin 61 in wtlid:I C&!le zero output is obuined fordiptaO tohnd M1 Mfocdi.'" rr AMAT EUR RADIO TECHNIQU ES Til. and It-eatlCf at about 2jO cia per quat1cr of an bour.to iDlnaie.".)' then bc:ai.. _ •• .4 fo.. DOf'lIWIy <kriwd from a slablc a')'$lal (lIOI1.~ I 't l "O r----~... ne d . . W . _ I _ 1 .o.D...... . f. p . and rcdl.(file ran~ oltheconlrol 'iOllll. ~ bad..: lhat lhe \<anodor control o r lhe d . was d6eribNI.. = •• _ ......• ...::s ran..D&I'4 to i... ~ crossowa:.rill ind icate a :zero.....".e.....2" outplll (pUl 1) of the 74 191 -.k 1(0 lUOO quil e oolTllally· only when the ooolrOI blub oelUCS to tUrtI will ~ frequencY creep lo warcll l hc nearest Ioc:klna po inl aDd eee nay the re. into I. n d oel not introduce spuriolll prodUCb or f...e.. VI" .. foma 01 o. wtlcn thc pte eloRt lhe !inal diJj l or the ..j.. .lmosf zc.. l'rom .m!ld 74121 which duds lhe MI" or "O .o.ll. . ....tenn mbolil. '••1.leI .1 .. 1 . .! drill: from s-ildkla LO 01111 60 cis ('"til .o. LI.. 1.'... tbe tlllliD:& dOodc bqins to fan.-N by the . ' and IIle vol... o~ tho eertect freq llCfK:)' 100 far . H...L:i~ Jia<Ws.o. U Il1U. 0UtJlUI tb .. on fhe olher hand it mU3t not be100 fasl lo follow dow drill. . dMdcr ct\UQ (it coWd.. c..... o t l y S..aIOl" . ..-. ror ... Tl\io... be bued (Oil maiDI freq llePC)'...I M appean &I !he COIlDkl' out~ Ihil ia takm to indicate l llat the freq~ b too hiab. The rcsuI~ or this d>el:k . II do ne by rntA<li o f Ihree ~ Ina:u dn1a:s (type 14 12 1) lIS tol ~ . limplc: ~ req~ syn ...u IlYe «l Co'" "'?'S aDd so 0l1. ill 10 7 M. 1oll.. lhen $10m! III a 1414 D-t)'P<l bnlablc devioe... lhe ..1 " • • N1 ' OKS .ry 10 arran.. ' ..

. .1 . ~v.~ e ncy _ _ -. < "rp _. U \:ce..tlo "cl0ck5 " us. TTL 1 1..to<>. : ...· '-.-.h wit h the = i...' 190 :fJ...lr e p<... . 1. a MOAC T '•• o. r .· r-t-r-r-r-r-r-s..".t or oonnOded 10 ."..-_ ....... . The ba sic s)'Slcm h a~ heen .'... lbe 1 nI'Cr Ihi.r.. 0 . using the SN74OllN.<all.' LOI clo d . + .h. W6G XN .. l... •• C' ' ... 110 sh " ws one po5. GlGUD..1 •• II. -t[. ..OSC ILLAT OR T OPICS r-.lll of .l ..nt ro ' to> n ..'''' " . ~ I o . ._Oft' I. GJ GUD notes that most 8.1----_..o..j U rs Or .. ..". h.··..-' ~01 1J ) a lwo-vanw..m.""..\ib~ . Tho..<olta~: Fir. ... cr-ro'" • •<111 ••0 _. r lCOj> .n. Alan ~orth.. . "".!I suitable fo r USC wit h TrL logic.roto. Tltls hIlS worke d well with C!}'lliats from about 1 10 II Me!.... ~ ... ". n .. 0 11 lhe subject of osc illatOR for ca librators and co unters.... . but re:alls the ad"'...~ I ... U . .Mi ible... .1. <1110 """ w.e.tn.I.. T 'hi..""" o_r " ~ . t h .llo ns Stf7" O O ~ " 1_ Ill.. ri i 'ie''' ~ . '. S"" liun .." " I ' "'. r . .:. S II ""2'51' r. 0 . 1. l lOl. an d driftslow when connected 100 .. _ .u rully . _to.'f~ ' t. .. . I..._ " . G lGU D .. . ... :1. • ' .n. lhe . . ~ ')' . .a of integra ted ~its.. of .. I ~ 1 " .: 1M ohm/ JOllll " F lime oons lant $ho uld be .~. d rifU lli..tor circuit will be n~ e4 10 d imiflilk con .~ .r . l f.. I_ m • • l n. . . alc.t. ~ ~ O "" ~ ..en. ~. nn .. 0 Many .".o.." . . 1969) II...: . ...nsemeul.- reo rwooI_ .oo . timo co nstant can be.'Nleun It art with a I M els crystal ... : "'. ...u.• . " '" .In . . I ii m m. .. tho !HIlt 0 . ~ d • • hl. and was Included by Hank Ol:.lions ...~. ..oll ..0.' t in CI}'Slai o. ..~ .h. >0"" . .'.. .""... IC C' p1a' Cladu Tbcrc is 11 JOOd dl..n ll i ~ .. uch Ihill with the ClIpac itor no mina lly III + 2·S '«lll~ lhe d. ' .'" of W6G FC to stlrt at higher freq ucncic:o. .-1 """ -+I *y I .. A . with his in_ in v.j. ...:: '-'_j. ..Inler.n .. -<t.£ -«: • A . < "' ~ " l.. TIle bellcr the basic ~ J . tod ' N • •/. " f .. · ~h :~..ll ing a!'Plicl."'''' . duction al low oollirol .~ribcd taler in Ihi.... ~ri K l i"n ~ o n 1l e basic lheme .m ~'lell"'nted rell bo lh locei'llng and lran .. stanlal 8 Mels.. 3M a 1 CMOS V CI1I. n ~. 0I>I11I1n.. 83.t .... 030UD.n. oct'" t'••..... . 1on • ... repo rts good results witb l be arnnll'lment shown in Fl.:f.. in a IUt"Vl:)' article in Ham Radio l1u1y. _ iti'' ~--1. . ' I. _ hn"'_ I _ r "".

u= "• 0 ~'~ ~ • . crysta l on it.. . credit.~" of userct idc:u end c.:. with the v.. the difference (req ""ocy of the e..~ 1J'" ". Mar c h... 111741 introd uced an ot her o ne : I Y01Lall""'CQnt rolkd 45 Mi ll. A 741 "p-a mp am plifio the control voltage by 10 tinJt:< before deliver ing thi s 10 Ihe ' -aricap in the v.. . Volta l" o n p in 8 ihould be a bout ha lf the l Upply volta".H .. "' .c.I.'" Co/Mol VOlI I1" C.w ouo l. proces s fIT(l<l uces many frcqllllncics bu t the phase dClecto r acts o nly on the di lTc renco: co mponen t (4' 4 to S·I MJIl): this works o n ly if the d iffcrc nce rreq~ is some 10 l ~ lower tha n the orig inal freq llllDCies : i [ Ihis IS nOI the C31e a le pa ra te mi.4 til H MH •.o. .tc .. TR2 is we v. the 20.'~ +' ~Y + Vl -.houl the usual miser ere...m. PAOKSB. .. il wnrk. sho wn in Fill..' ... ' <0 coMl... . coe rro tled hy the 3 to ro-vou control lin<: t tt tune betwee n 444 an d 4~ ' 1 MID..nce ~UJalor. is affocted by the d .: -'r .. Wilh a supply volta(tll o f l 2 votu. On 4.• • o.~ ..l OSI. . - '" ".. ..rcuil$ 10 hi. ffi c n2 10P '"' ~U f1..o . bu l thi. Kl aas SfllllUi-'1re n. Mfh . ~'" 0. ". oscillator... . k.IOY AMATEUR RADIO T eCHNIQU eS O\ICRTO N~ CII~ST. . fro m high 10 low frcq llelll.1 when the cevce is ._ 'AootS lh p h.. bct.'Y OSCilla tion/ b ut when synch m ni.000 oh m 1'01 is adj ustcd so lhat l lider vo\la~ IXlrr e.. lunlnl lhe v. posiliW! re<:<JbHck aroUlld the 74\ resutu In low-freq ue". aboul 6 volts should Ihe n appea. D kk Rollcma in Rcfl~NI~. The cin.....f. dlX" PAO SL' ( E/~Cfro". '"' "' u.O .t1' fol lowe d by a bandp. ~ >..cd the negati~ fced bllCk <lo ps the I•. l "' H . a..'" .n m ~ .. drtve..•• as. IOl tha i can bo: pba se.ued as a n detector. the 100. b Iho wn in t-i" 86).00. PAOKSB avoid l the ~ o f a scPf..F.tc .. Io".. ..F..o. ccnnec u ~ on the TBA l 20 (no te lbe oa T8A I205 c:lInno l be wed In Ihis milliner): " in ~ is 1I0 rn' Il1y intended fo r ampl ilude con lrol of af o utp . d. Oftel ' wl". hll.000 oh m pre~et tl adj usted un til oscilla tion j usl Slllr1J..ll<'>J (rom rome yea~ or e~perimenlat ion by PAOKSH inlO a " ngc o( exoue circu its .. . PAO KSB P/l<IJ~ocl<ed V." -~ 1 . n" 41-' mo .... both sh u uld tben require no further ad j ustment.QM.1 ..-< H....c. «>o .. V.. well and has pro\'oo rep roducible.- _ ~ ..an nehud eq uIpr n ent to co ntin "" " I'lly-lUnable.. . .and crysllll rcrc"..in. :md V. Th e v. " .kcd 10 a 4-4 10 S-I MH~ v. b uilding up from J I" 10 volts..~ ~ ~': . o:scill. ~~'" . ~ '" f ffi ~ . Ji' .ul.. dClectOr. .. This pntt icula r arran gement has res. The T ltA 120 pro vides th e ph"".~.c.' " • .tem. Afth ~rt"ne (an ll i tema li~e overtone circllit..f. As soon as il is SCI.. .c.~ indi cated by . When lhe system Is in b. signa l i5mtsed in the TBA 120 with 1 40 MH L sian al fro m the c..la lc mixer hy usln...C ..hlc to PAOWSJ'...o. (T RII wh ich """" a n 8 MH. . .. ponds 10 lbe volta ge 00 pin ~ o r the T8A I 20 when the loop '" nOflock ed ..!.o<I l. I' slnn. een the v. ea . IV/.. Th e folJowinll hints slmrlify adj ust mcnt: tbe ostillMo n are nrc-tune d usio.c..~ ·? 'i o ~ lf>w . Y'~" l r» "" 2V sec ~.l o u • •1..c .n• • ~ .. a J. . The \I. J.. ..8S.. number c r amateurs n ow usinll the .l. ~ 1 .Yshould prooucc II con tro l volfa8Cal the OulJl\lt ' o r the 74 1. "" .o. .. . The /!1iJ. If tbe varia tion II r. . ~~ eo ~..O. Un lillhe loop is locked. y e o •. . _ _ . p.•v ro [.s filter 10 select t he req uired sllU'al will be neede d..J ~ ..o. .. 1t3 anrl Cl stabilize the loop. e"'~l IT 110 . is des illncd to co nve rt 144 M il l ch. lh is IXlmpo.r !lIthe o ut put of the 741. uil di agram i. ...

.01 •" .0. r.l~ be cncr~ .. (all (WI the silllal freq.ol.. (I) ( \. .-. IXII'ltrol • . ' ''' 1 "'lh c... 0. '" .. .'Oft IW. ....1 Ireq uency a l h .~.T·inI'Ll I oramp and hal" Wty h iWh " ' 1'111 im""d"". a u"'" by any form of o J'l)le . nd Ihit m .. _ -. in. H •.h I" IS..t Ih ll" pin J as sho wn in Fi¥.ob~ tor o _ wno: <'Kllta· lion in t he low • •h.. " "'\lWh l"~ " hit f" r for"" " f f.bc••ll 4S MII~ kIl: of the: ordc:r of 100 10 200 mV but thl..e..l .. con~. rCl"~ n " \\I llh a I M il l crY' lal the oUlpu t fru m .a..r... 'a i.i_ b of the 1)1'1: 10 fa mi liar . l .m . J . IlIat 0f'IC CDI'I .1 " '. (11) In a wd l-sawoc:d p. ao re ~Id lot u tero that roo harmooil:s of the . pouiblc easily and chea ply 10 n per iml. hoo k! rout r'f O' C • h. (4 ) The OK illal on """'Id he ""l'1I ~ 10 fIn''tCl'I1 the llt'PW" llro.._..Uld 01 receeeo. otherwise thr " .. an: 00f Ji. nd .. ILlnd 27 M H._ _1..laune ~lIher lbe cl)'llal osallalor or lhe ...~ ly '1"1. A l"al'lp of I to I'S MH z....m to lhe ~ .I~ le MOS rTT •• lhe act ive dn'U. k Hl can be u~cd w ilh a di~i d i lllt fn( w. itl\ miuor-t)'re ...e. .c..! i:I nol n:ally nn:dN for I ~ MH z OJ""I'1Ition a llhoudl il would pmnil fC'p. 01IXUI. . 1." l" ~ -cco. "h...ill "'" function Q'ilic. Jlc u 'fTl hcr . Of I'\'r~ 1:. wdl a «II>dil ion ca n be o~ •• rha~ mod u· In. Oft ~lr-rroq. ( II) Oul. _ . Ihc<. t ma"i"""""'.~ .my r iwlc on t'O'&ft su pplies ('IC).. . i:I inherenl ly ...'0:<1 d . it b the cb. ""lIi. brp:r or _ I ter il ~n be '" •/6:-' 6 . 1... v.ll...R I QST .d1 the ba .lnd icap 10 toNtr\I(tQn " kcir 10 obu . ~jlh l lY SO t hai it O!iCi llalCS o n 1M I" nd"men"....f.tll belwem ·U . (WI UloOrUI in l'\l l yo1l31Jft rOf the d .. or A sirrlpk O"~noce osc . sc o .a.• . paced at . cirCui t.e.cen Ih \'lIrial'..1tI\II1: such • I'di.h r. 1+1 HH ~I_ trlp l•• _0<1 .......-1 .. tanlr. =en."..L.c ur . tot . n syncm.~ .. ta n k ria.t ion .e Ire Iocol dC'lCmlincd C_pcTifncn. be t.. in lhe i... n luc n.. h differ.w. T()I'TW.'l~ Iock in.. '0. t. prod UClnJ a Vff)' ... --_·.. in a ->' lill ie a m l' lil'k. equ il'fll'"l' l 01 tlw tnplcr or a hoIne-mack receiwor... 30'S Il l . SOon'" s. d... clKd lmlly up 10a bou l lO Mitl..a a nd lhe . " r 2 " which C~ I I rcnd ily be o btaine d by " ' illlt " " IP"1 pill 2 " f I C~ . ..... " tion P<-'inlS arc Ib.hown ' I should be . -nxi...0 .' d i~l ll on or 2" IC~ 1('040 20) and i. The arran.t of aystal. J "n~. .m IS foUl en<>lflIh 1 Ir..t.. cl lo:qurocy ..o.hoc r lIr olher chantte" or detnil..~oidtd C'('D If .o.nl irely plK'l ical...... Stabiliz ation poi fl (~ ~ hll"l 30 II I a pll .' m IIIC <'f"i~ in ~ 1 u ranMcmrn l p !iIl(·Ip. tt :f... w bere lhe: r" ndamr.. or Kliahhoukh".. dt.h. II . ft IIwt it. (10) t.o. "ill... the o .o . i.ncy .oo the d ....od uci blc fi.". vr. '" . hIJfkt .. 10 11 ~1 .mcd by l G . ...~.1 Po . 81) .ta bl.l.... _ 11'1 H OI 11'1 .e. 1'117. ..1 da t. 1 is r'C'l"iraj lhe val"e 0 1 RFC I fa raiso!d [0 abo ut 100 loll or replaced by a 1000 ohm resistor ... 0. the:conUoi Jytll.b~ 10 modirf il . !l't.n I""'! ~u hl from tlli..uil.requt~ mod". __ I _ U . lallOl'l i:I possible try mod".O SCILLATOR TOPICS . he ral .. 0 .ignal and LlllOl\ on ..0..n. iW r".-........alue o f the lun inl "f'II~~ I(lr in the d .. Ih.." ..· h01..o.._ 100 • ::rl"C1 :: '1.m pl ifio:r t t-.0..m r.. (6) Citiun·.1.. The .. 1 olbc:"...Il .· -·-."". ny v.h I p ""' I• • .wM ca ~ tt. il11out rte a". but tll~ . mine " ..okm Irom tbe cou pl.ihly IIIH t..·.. r.1 1Iy III using C MOS IlIlIie. .• allboo.o... tho: ima ~ fn:qucrq .. !' AOKS " d('K:ri bct the 1~I""t . nd 46 MHz USIn' th IS Iype of Cry'Stal...l... ab ut 3'81 I ll ..en~n l/lo'>wI'l in F il ' n .-_.. _ ~_ • • • AOIIl•• • • • _ _ .. r.I Yol' II"'l......... " " P • • • _ ~ "" " " _ f-- .. ra nI'"...·. ta lly. A.... III The rnA I 20 funct ion.tlue oI l~ 12 p F «IU pli n..~n .... '" + ' ~V ... ".alor t bal Icqu irCll no Trimm ine or l unin. li lbou gb III til._ _ 1. (7) J'ha_lock loop oscillators or till... 9 18 • ~ ~ . Hadia.o. "Oid sud! spuriil (S) Ir UWd in a roceivcT.... 140£ M I ll.Incomin. . 1""~ 1CI1 in II nuut· type .al...coIom.. "'.. a nd il i• • 1 I"""'.1. vU1 uall y lhe: only ponihle spwii are IhOSo(' loca led alonssidt the wanlt:<l .. nc r the loop is ""'Ltd ... """ "'_ ' Iao _ . 10 ~ o n Ireq uencies mudt lo .. .. 0 . i" n lIf thil lisdul ~ ". CMOS Hflff _"'" p urr In 11" ".24l cry.'u. . 1'1..0..erut ror suett a pplicalions as ~. type alloW a '01 . T hc W' le".. ~9. raC lo'r .a th."·I·_ _m.t au.l l4ll i~ " rr...e. . is SO bip thaI lbe Il JIY l ~ IhlouJh the: rnatl..cd dta nlll:l l<:kc.. The CA. i ~ht limrs Ihil frequency. r...e. hI" Ih." ..a1ion. liP'll'" up 10 ... o.. rn" .o. si~ 1s t. IIn.CZ ' . "" r.. . cn~ k hlI\'C a I" ndammu l fl'ftluency of a ho ul 9 MH z .. .". linL on tM u: . Ih "'._ OodI. (9 ) \\'hen """" in a lranwnitt« tbr p."nt M n l ll ~' "..r ~ be leu IIw1 ...lrm of lbe p_l. is dearty m....1 nk o incolllOrnl(:S " ".l I M lheir ftrth _lone : il i' th " .I. for .. •·7 ..1 an then be led d i"~C1 ly Imo a Ja paono. ""'II: sta bili.' f""'l ucocy the llnipli fOCf/1imi let >4<l pl>o (WM ilk '" 1oo0p "... in tne r a . Qlf'aCilu r hch..l ut e 'Ilf'llh lc "r grving highly l ali..... eorr«l«l toy mod" yina the ".. .m<:y an (3) F rcqueuey • • rillliQl! of tho: v..ml'k . 1OPC. iNc lo .(.. 2 . 19 61.

J J ... h " I"'~I IO . . t. a nd Ihe . " gn 41 ' 0 IMegr oro...'1.h ...Il '" ~O....g ' ~l or J OulPul of .... hencc...... .... T he Ih".· f""hly be s<-.<. wild"" o " a I' Jl1x. Ii. c." .... or In .~~~l "C "" .. '"~ ... Ill. Q" >to'"" c Fup · fl op <0' C DoIOlJ po n ' pj.. . No I.. .e "... t..... lle' l . r C.... '00 -~ "r" .i ...i . ~".n J .k L . " sc. 'r is " "... u n Ihe eu rrc nl ' lIp plv "uh "JlC and I he h"'''l'''' pawc . "r I".. 1 d"." ... . ' .."" ! of Ina l ~ Ild error All 111" l" " n \ ha v" III he in sood Ih. (i . I l . ~ . ." d u lly ll w ld" " 'd In 111c mcl"l " " ing <If Iho C')'~ I 'l l uni l i He ll'. ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ l. 11 "... ~ " slop" in Ihe lhe..1i.. ('O r ~ " . .. .'Io "... _ •• Ib .... jul. ..11 Ihe f.. ~nl'l"" r ...I . <J~ d 11) he 1>\'110 ~' m p l c :" . IOR I.."" 1 II' 1 1 " .ic in b"llo .110 h. "-'"I a Fa.1S I' ''' ha ~ b een u . "..~ eo OOI1 " .. f...lo. ..n. ~~ T I'-" C MM ~ 'co a.e> cu .'!> ..u• • «= <>I .--. I I cooon " .I . fr.u " rc " . -•••• " _.'M o r til " u ) .1 ..." ."cn ll a re nl(l" nl"d .Ia l Ca n. I h~ Ihe d l ~ . .. .I ._. The w. N" ti. : 22.In 1lt'(. .. . the hcal or "r T R ~.l"m . ll...." to...' ~hool~ an d lcm pc' a l" '" cycli ng : IOU lillk rcsu\{< in a lo nl: wa rm-u p lillie.k.'n In _ .d u n ~ r"" o"-cr . h 1 h" . l illltle eh il' . . .... a.S " n:: Ic.~ in ".... J):lc blte~ ..a lu.co u n.' " Icn ....."e " . . ' . . bllI .. . n i~h l I..d with a I" .=. I he .. "u . I ( ('0' c..110 "' 31" "·"I. 19 7M l lli.lk . . . .r. ....1 . . ...1'.. .' lI ).". 1'0.o~.h. ." T.1' . 1""'0:<1 "fT . u ..111.... I .cr d".11 '1 "r lhe scnwr i. ...... " illl Ihe l)'pc " " "1\"" 1 . 1''''1'. I'. h" .mJ.. 0 '11. h i. . .' . d .:"". • ..." I"m p<"r. .0' . a heal "" .. " 'RlI"Ir.. " 0 -:J..~ i\ m" r..dl .1 10 111 " .....r. .. '·'. LOll" " " "' Will.. .. . ".. -d~ . .'~ I" . l 3·!SIIUI (a 1 0·' COolO... h. '" M"ssirnc> C"ri na l. "f fr~Q '''' I '''Y ' YII I"""'is..mh i "e~ 1 'I'( .. lem"" ..n~ 00"''' "-' -0.ic. d".. wilh III<: dev....nSl "1' a nd " " " . .. II ." .1 N ir o r ~ N 1 7 1 1 I" . tc<:cl"'" '' " h"" Ihe '~'SI"m ii u. ~... Too m uch 11<:'11'" I'0wer lea d. f-" . 1 i.•• • 'O I I I Toe• • . h" h".~. u ol {. III .lL-..."'". Th" "k" "r paJCIlI1) . .' Roa d ..Ia L..... .•• elf·e \p iJI " " I '~'y .. 11' . U' .----.C<. he 1. . h" u ld n"l i" ler'". . r" I" . "hieh ..."'.i-.d r" i.~~ . .. h .. _ . ~ " I '" Iu af .'" AMA TE UR RADIO TfC HNIQU£ S r---.... '" '" "r' .·" 'io:o" d " cl"'" ha' " n i "lo~ ."' f ~ ' I ... 1111 re. "I" <1.• Rd k-cli. lrill!'."" "".. .""' .c~u la li "J sy...-.h.'c r.'n" o l 1"" ". y" ..~ r"-"Q llenq. ....... i. I"..o n. n . .. ~ Ih .1s.. I I I I _ :0"" •''''' 0 ' l C •• ~ . . ..n 1 su .1 m"" I..."c " WOlin" " " .. ~h <'1.I11\ d y..o e ll"' '' ''1 lIr T Il...~n"'" 1 ~ li de '" n 0 . . lh" power : ih va lue dope"".. ~ " "d.~ . .~"""J "". ly Ih" c. . noise a rid ... o' ' M CI1o s F orm o' ~h~" . " \ 10..a ! ur~ i~ h... ~I "" an " . 1.o! ' e) . al> cT}'"ml Ill<'m''''IUI ..'u "'.."1(.ic" P'" " .. T. i"" fo . I ~ 1 . ... a n".d ""I)' cnmf\.... : .l .d 1 ·' "".." .. ~ I~gr 10)' lhe on ·{lli" " p-a111 I' 11 -1' Whe" Ih.-I L t======:h:= .lI. R I ..".. ..h inlt Ih" 'cl· p"i " l . ' h" h".1 .." 1 . . '0' ' . 1 h' iml't "" c 110" 110""."""" .< . ao l""'~~ ' !-II 11• ..~ ~....' in' I'l l G JS[ I( II. ..I.. '·" . 's a\"' " 1 C l lh" "p-a ll'l' ..n. ' ~ .. "" ~ .. ' 0 provide a . G l S[ K fllun<l lh a l ><.r . a Cf:n~ i " am."l h"c ~ lOOp. " ".." " . ~ II"..e ".~ '. m ...1 ' n'. c(lI' .'. All ~' II Il I'.. T I ". 1< 56'. .e : H I{.' illah " '''ln l)' l i.. ~ 0 . '" '''' ! orn~ Ih• . ... . ma l r•. ..y " "Y~ " '" " 'n .d . ilh I in. ..r. CO T . ' ' om pcraIUl'C " V<.illll ·· ' <'<l u i. N~"' "'O' '" " . ..n CoolO".. ...1I1IrC . or p\a~ l i<: room ins ulali"n " hoJ' er ".. n .h. r""hno ma lie 1..1 c" n la' l . I I I I I lJU. ir"I'k ..l i.. .o 'c ~ ra •• . ' ~ ' ..<: . .il:u is "' rai~ llI r"'" a. 1 C o . · d ' n " t .oo nc . ~ly " Wr 111 0 I1lcl al .' .I..h.""cr" lill k sili".m .~ Er c"..01. " I' II><: Itn ""S!<1. Pr op o r !....'W il " r H g. I>I.I.1CI. Ih" . 0 c. hal 'I " .1l' ''I ".... .a l"tl .U.. .... '01 '. •• •'d4 •• i 1>4.1 .. . re~ ..y " "I I"J11 I". ." h o m s ul'lll i". n '.Ioo r J>A'lSr " U /'·rt.. 54 Sa.. " r '''''''0.... \..U e'') M~1 II' . " .. 1 " u PI.r . yno l " Ou ..._. Ah em.. I S-l'."""I. lI1' IX> f1 ~ n1 11\."" ...I " R(. p.1 " 'II' "e... '0". "vo'" . h~" " '''' I 1'" " "...""or of ~ -J " "" .~ " " ......L n '\ I! hll.. .k "1..mal conl~C l in o rdc r '" Il\ i " in. ha /t1: ". ''''0...• hr "''''l! ' ' dent. ~ I :l'J l l . «II .. . k"" sidd"."'1 I tl.lcs. 16M C r .h II"..I 'i lt~ r"d .. ""..h•• • 1 I1HI .o" 'I""a lu I''' c.·1 ...~ ~ ." In a .I" "' . Ihefll1 ll1 .1 " "' I II. .. ai....I"" " • •e e<l m prc>mi.l 00 '''._ _. "ltl J".

m Hc elu cry. g n " 0 ••1 " T ill . .e- ..r ullt 1lE: Ul."". ".' . . • • t h• • _ movntl n . '. ~M.0 . h""n" '..-. ....• • 1. ('OO r t"bl ~ op rauon ill IClllr. y and warm-lip linl<' ( 15 20 ' min. ""2 ' o'~ v 0 ' ( .. h.~...> " e.... .• .. GlSE: K. . ~..-----' ~ ". nO N C r lM.).J~ ' .. • '" . .... .. Tr"' P U I . .Ub T II I ~L...J IlC106 . "" """" P . '" (1·000 """ ' 1 0 ' 1· between lempcl31U re ~la ~II I . l'..".. Hit un ~ • • ....nm".' '''CO nn . .. " ~ .~.. " "" ee .llao Df Till S.I• •• p o. l ~ ""'·"'" (. .I b' " MC' . BCI. He also rcpon~ 1hal Ihe ltl<'rm<'lla' had ~i ve" a .. " ..0 • • • .-.J P . . LM I " 1 I. . '. Df • ••• • 1. g _n_g . p . . d ' .g. m ond m«h""" 4 ' ~ " "" . h ..U . I" .... ... ..· _-. ..OSC IL LATOR T O PI C S '" 1'1 · 8 . p'. .2J.h. • .... . "o ". C. ""'7" I ~ r.j l t1lf11 do . m " • • d b. . .• • • n .. W ll 1 ' o <I. n (41 c... . . ..' ' • ••..IIlenn pow . ' . "" f l ." . _ 1112 l ." e from below r.... p . . d...1> mg"". ~ "'" :>m. "'_ ••• •• .."a. .p ~ In.t acccuru of itself d uri". .p'. ~.n 1 ....' ~b W g..~d _ In l ' 1.Li" . . .. ~I I• _ " ~' J '" L __________________ _ .> N llI I . . . h •••n'. . 10 Ihose or hich s unUHCr. I _ I ~V re ' II. ~ pa . .. 7. ~ ceo . ~ 'ga _ _" ' Old ••• d <0. ". ." <omp.. .. H C 16.. lO"...·p· n " " .' ~ <.m"" d .. b On . (FJ: '" r. ~ I '0 .. -...

SECTION

F I V E

Transmitter Topics
domest ic televi sion ro:;ci~:' The suhje el of lcle~ision inlerference: (TV I) continues tu dominate IIIC ' ho ugh Ul , and aetivilies, o f numy lllT\lIleurs. One scm"" IM t those \lpe~t in,: in peak. tclevi.ion hoon< do so with a lill ie of lh e trepidalio n of w:Lrtime " underground" radio operators. con'llU\IJy glandn, over t he liOOlllder for lhe tir1t sign lIf a erll;~int: cerecrcr vlln, the rin ging of a telephone, or t he M3n -chilHn il knodc: . I th dOll', lLJly lIf which ma y fore_had ow a s udd en cessalion or ;'\<;'\iv;lies. Al1rni lltdl)', so me of \lS ha ve virtu a lly licked (~ hope) the pwhlem by the simple (1) expedient <If moving QTH 10 Wil hiu ,i~hl of ~ main television lra """iller ; Ihe '" i, in rael $I i11 IlCthing li"e a really otronll. tek vision , ijUla l 10 .»lll k those remlliniJlijha rmo n i"" . Then again the alm<.osl unive rsa l adoptio n by 'c""'i.i on rlX:Civcr matlufaclu ren In.-oxenl yem s " f the I:t REMA =ommcndc<.l intermedia te f"'Quencics o f 38·U Mel ' sou nd a nd :l4'6~ Me(s visiorl ca rr ie r h., ;really reduced interference from iJ. breakthrough . But for Ihuw: am a teur, ill lbe rernilillill8 le levi.iOIl rrillge = S, Ihe problem is slill a lOUgh nne Ihat kCl:f'S m;m y a n opela tOr o ul olf h i, shae" d ur ing yiewin g houlS- TIle most ~ucccssrul methods of . ackling a ma leur TV I a n: now well esta b lished lind can be fOOlld in any o f the lIIua l hWldbook .. But a frcoh ou tloo k iA a lways welc:ome. We ClIm e acroI1in 111. 1: Tra"UN'IIon., "" Radk> I:uqut" cy 11Jl~'/~'~IJC~ (M"y . ' J9~ I)---a COilCnt summary of ' he mo,t impo....... nt pno.;autiolUl to be taken in the d Cllln of in ter ference-rree r.r. powe r &cncra tillg equlp"",nl. This li.l was dr. ..n u~ by E. W. CbRplin wh o, as Ch ief of Ihe La bor:r.tory Division o f the: Am<:rican FCC, ha.~ been respo nsible for laekl inll in lerference pl ob le"" in hundred . of varied. 1ypc5 of eq uipmen t. Du flo l USC tK.lWcr a really in Cll~ of lhat eeeded. (Thill ~h"u ld, b ut ,.,Id",n docs. go wilhout ""'yinll in amal eur praclice ; we mi ~hl add lh al an 3mplifICT ,dlinll a long ....<:11 wilh in its d ... ign rnlints is likely to pr od oce rar less harmonic ou tp ul than o ne in wh ",h e.e ry Sllilc is hard dr ivcn-' compa re l\\ldi o hi_fi pra ct ~.) The uru_""'lIr~ uSC or h igh. tra lUC<>nd ucta nce (hillh .10 ",,) vaIn", .hUllld be avoided M lile"" .e nd Ie::> cau se SJltlri<IUS emission ~. (Amal e ur rill" \. h",1td n, of course, often U'le , fuch ,"3lves s" nu kl be ca refully chock ed fu r pa ras ilics-) The 1JrU'IC:CO."'l')' usc o f ' '(llvn hll~ i ng muc h ben e r h.f. ch3racle,,"~ Ihan req uimJ m ould be a < 'Oiokd. crhi.• i. a ra lher surpri. inll viewpuin. since one wou ld e~pect a valvc wilh JC>OJ ". h. r. Char:aclcrililiCS In be pa rt icularly ' ta ble on h.r.). Bcwa re o r the o ld co nct:pt nf "one.point" ea rlhing which m.v.y be sa li, rlll:lo ry for d .c. b ut which results in long lu ds ar>d pllllr bYP"- ing and sp uri" o. fre<jUCney responses, ,,-' (Thi, a lw nUly make some o f u' th ink a b ll.) In ",,,,,,nina, COll"itlcr both lhe m;l.JJlC lic an d electric fields eld .-al1yIhc m"re dijflC\lll ); h cree n ing 11IC II'\IlgrtClic M i. gctlC prefe,obl~' usc ..""rdl staJl."" o r screc:ning (c.ll. flul tank ci!'Cui l~ in a ""ree""d eomparlllle lll within . he ma,n eucloSU!'l!); avo id openi np or pUll' and C<>vcr an y n«;CUllry ,..,,,\ ;1 n& ('pen i"&.' wilh nle, h ; u >c p len ly " r sere..... ' 0 0tl
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0;1'141 ... the gri d n( • • • h e and - a ll boillll W<: ll - I, h OUt L ",.., 1l.....1 .rom 1M alK'de CiKuit . Du l I1ll lu.rc . bl",u .nyln",; .., sim;ole .s 11115 and so ror D quite a few
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peal in put ,-ul l. 1llt C'luAI to lho: anode mure "rten. h.,·( in l ~ <>l1 ""r c OlIl)l'l;lina rhe , rid " roil/hI duwn III eh a, a nd r~ onl tile iiJl131 ,n, .. the C;ll k:<lc (the ~",u",led ;rid <If .. ' n'erlcd .. ampl;. l J liell. II .. ~ l'lIlinl .,>,ell more dca, that the " new 10<>1.: •• " o;> lkn tbe , illlil OM lIfld t!wl UlIl"C " r m ...11" If)' to plod lilt classic ~"nr'll~ra , i,'n Ue m..s1I11l a 1 of 01 a lo nl .. l ood (lle Wt de, ices. R~' n,_ t , ,",ufldnl-ViJ a",phr"'R noro nn = " mrncnd.Iloo ..' u ..b. or ".II.f....... n h 'ft. bu l the ir UKfu~ C'Illendt far b<:)"lId tt... '>'! r..kh, 1\l1mllledJ)". the lTou ndc:d-Ilrid. power " "mp hocr "" ,.,n<>l Q ., I, be: lnCd (or A3 ..nee oome n f lhe: dri\ e power appc-,;"u in the: O\ltpu t (i rt\li t" IJ\&kin. il im",,,_ .. bk ro lI\t"dulale 100 peT «ti l- BUI an ilpplCilljon Iha t is «l u"ll )' ~illuRt'k to AI . A) ilDoJ ,,3<0 orc:n..n i. IlInr ...., ,n e llelte",. U ampJ,focn, or f ~ ~ duublen. ,......, dur In a CQ .nidl: by W6 ,\JF published N,,\'CIIl....... 1957. ....... "'1: milch ""her l1kful infOf'lnil liurt he ~ .."s l he Inl'\ll impc:dilr.ce and InnSOJlldIllCt&nCC 0( popular , ,,he t)l'<" ,,>cd In It.-I. Imea lS (Incl...J,D, tAG7 90 ohrm. I \.lXlO r ,. .; 6 " 6 266 oIlm , . )7j() LLo.: 616 192 o lum., ,~ r oo. ; 6 1«0 IH <>tu",; 7000 . ... : II} 267 ohIm, )7~

)ea" u_ow "",,,y enlinC'C n and' .n r. cDlhuiiallJ hllve blurt"" the j,'lle by ",m<:lilTlCll la kin ~ the Out put tro m llJe c'llhU<le h ilI clllho<lc.r" lIuwer H' ., pla,e rel llrn - amfhller which has an ap nl,CU " a•• ," \;" .II.r. pm.." . " Illpltlkr i you do n" l
mon<!
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r .. ,) c oup led with the will'lliu& thaI 100<1 t",ull, wero nu l It kel~ to be ..c h lc~c:d ....ilh !I071. These fi,u rcJ ~fet to ..a l\ cs ope r:llec1 wilh scrocn a nd control Jrid. ItrlIp pcd to chalsis. 0"" fe.:1lu~ o f " ." st.~ in an e1("itcr ill tha I • lo w impcd.o.roce "U lpUI (In eaeJl bl.nd ean be din:ctly fce:l either int O the IinllO Ihe ,.... ,' a ~ or 10 the Cil1.hodc 01 me fo llo\O-. int staac: this a voi<.!s the d ua l hith·Z. Iow-Z out putl tclluirN in many ~\'<"I'\llonai desians. f ... -'• .now. a pnetlcal 6ehcr dnip by S M'AQW wild> oncntpor41ca ma n, of W6AJ F . idaq aDd wIUl:tt _ do:sm bc:d ill the: AmI. 19J91ssuc o f QTC.joumal mthe Swc<los'l lOcic:ty. It " _ four 6AG7s and ~ outpul on ) '!. 7. 14 and 21 Mc/I.. tbe 7 IJld 14 McIs doublcn opo;n.t~ ...ith the ao;m:n and (;Dnlrol plds SU'ilppcd 1OfC\llI:r. while: IJ\ the: fin!: 11.I1'" and the 21 Mc{1 Iriplcr a posit ive vollJoiC k COCH_IN t" the ~.
H llVUalj lJn, Teuodott We: "'e~ interCIIN to tee i.tl CQ &Il llI1lCle: by WSOSl . "'" bridfC "",,1n.iI, lnl tctrodoes, at • ~rn.1ar nn:uit ..... bcoca t-.I.t 0 )"" " noc buie e ireuil is _ r.,rty wdllDown : _F/l- 5. , This is. btidcceireuu which ...hen balanc:cd .-iU dka iYd, 1So01al<' the h.&II IlDpcdaDec arid Cll'<'U ,t from P"'il;..., f«4bad d ..., '" ,nd-Io-aoodc a nd Sln.y Ql'Kioanocs.. lhis is lrue whc:ol the rat io of NC : C I is equal to the n1tio of,no. lo-MOOe capac itance ; Jlid.IO<OIlh"de upaatUla: ( i.e.• NC/CI - C••aJCI· k). . fn """'1 obr'" C I is fuled bUI W50 SL m"k cs lhe pot.... {and lhi. hu bocn coolirmedl 0 lllat il is oflen muc h ca,icr" and "'feT 1 ;;adju., t lhe: circult b~ ma ~i n~ C I v"';;lble (.I>o.'ut '<X.J pF mU lmum).

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PI",ln. SCI, . ",'dl M <Ht. ,n Y....... rho: lo w ...",1 (II<' sOII,lu, 11l)71 ~ ~~ .." 1) 1'<' nllW ov~r 30 l'~a" old) had . for yem. , ;1 1 '111,,1 J,i" cn ,.. It ,d l "t her ' H'" of med.u m rc:>,," C I 1 1 ;l 1 ",,,il\ i,,~ v" lv,,", r,,, n" rm.~ 1 h,f. "'ock

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TRAN SMITT E R TO P IC S
Quency, an d its abi lity to provi de full o u tput lit low h.!. a re features. Mo re t~nlly the 6146H and the 'rra t have come alon g wllh inc~;ncd power. Rut modern .. high peoeaece " (high ClIth<>tk em i.'I5ion) \'lIlv,," require some care in use. as more lhan one am at eu r h41d isco\'Crcd too late, RC..t HI'''' Ti/u " llllo;\$ so me ways to en, ure long evity fo r 61461. Th ese ioo...... : c hed t beater , oIt.aK lit lhe ~ al vc soc kera; provide adequat e \'Cnlilation; "" do no t ha ve ,hiny , hieldi1l3 Iwfaces 10 pos itio ned that tMy rd le.:t w r back into the villve: use c ircuilto wllh 1oWQ! possible resisl"flOC in grid llnd screen eircuilto; include 0Ya'load pr<>1«tion in a node an d screen circuits ; check tha t the: , &node docs not cha oge col our at full load ; red uce h.l . o r iosert a saccn res istor fu r lun ing under no -load oondi tio nl j do DOl ovcrlo.1d valvco d uringtuninjl up : use odOQUOIte Bri G (!rivc (too 1I\t1c "'ri~e Qfl cause high an ode d i55ipa tioa ); usc llc.\jb1e lead cOM CCl ionl to anode caps to a~oi d slrai n ; aod finally keep ....ith ln l he mllnUraC1urcr'$ ra tini!l. It used to be:: lhe proud,,"t boa", o f most a ma teu rs that they could l e I away wilh abo, ul doubling ma kers' ralinp (p •••( even lhe 807 seems 10 IIand 1.000 ~olts for c.w. if an ode dJS1ipati oll it kellll l.lW) b ul it looks U lho ugh we j ust ca MOI itt away with il on thc:sc ~r ,..bes,

.n all ra~ti~e

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ope" the filter o;:l.p;\Citorll arc c ha rled to Iho no-lo:td fiJUre : whCII the key is dep~ this highcr voltage u applred momentarily to lbe powe r a mph llcr. UniCOI some eJfCdi,~ " la, " ill a ppli ed t o ' his .fa~ the radiated p ower will be considerabl y lIiihet a t the ccmmcocerocnt of each keyiol pu lse, droppina sharply 10 its ncemat load . Th .. leo dl to produce k eyin (l. " thwnp," detraet io8 ftom the readability or One-knob A.M. MoblH Tr _ /'-ar the s!ina\! and calK i" , WIIlC«1oIal'}' frequency sprea d . II The tISC of a single v.f.o. fur nan.miuion a nd rc<:cption is call be cu red by illC'l'«li na the tim e-constant (If The I"," filler to wha t would ot herwisc p rod uce cxccssi\'Cly .. sofl •• by now well fa voumd am ong ~ .•.b. ,,"thudll\l$.. BUi thcre is, ot eoerse, DO reason why lite llIImc p rtnciple should DOt be keyinl . Ap art from, an d possibly morc im p<J{1 am th. n the Tbu mp, I pplied to a.m. sel-UpS. Tn DL-(}TC (Ma~h, 1%2) DHYN clcscribCll I compaet 3·j Mc/s " Ein ltnop f " mo bile rig wlticlt is tha t such co od itioP! ten d to p roduce sharp s pikts of usa a n EF80 e.e.o. as a basi ~ Tor the lransmitte r mixer.type spurio us em iuion which may eeecr a t al mo st any frcqUl:ncy. Th is is bttaUiC ma ny pow er arnplir,en which . ll: per (oc:t1y IS9 $ l e /s ~l.llb lc a t norm.1l an ode and ECI'lI I U SO [fit "Creen grid volla~ s uffer from I14 ll ER "l l ll R JloOO/J&OO ""lr""Kil lation anMo r poor.utie oscillalion wilen lhooc Jltllntlia k 2055 ~ ' /I a re irn::reased . T o OI'eTWlJlC CRVSU L th is fau lt (wh ich il un.... difficult 10 identify Wilholll a n o¢ llol LU eeec EC li 81 T U~E EFaO Ko pel it n nCCC''il ry eilher 10 IlUFFER Rl / Tx Mt l ER en~ ure lhlll Ihe 5tllgc i5 com~O 95 / p lo:lely I ta b le unde r all the 53 95 . e/ . 1595 _do voIlaKe conditions whieh elIn CllY U ·L 1; ar ise d urin l opera lio n or a lter_ natively to unpruve the vollage e. Put <If .... P UY N M a" H_ ~ "'1 .-1 ... . ,,,,,. 1 , haw r.<oI>· . . .a .. . ......... I_ . rt .....@ . ". ~ m. ll w l ,. ~ d h. _ ., .h• •1.". @ tOI.-QTC). -,,"D. tc,uIa tioti o f the h.t, power supply. The sim plest melhod o f u e iter and a lso fu r the receiver InclIl o scillalor : tratl5lT>iner improving regulalion i5 to c h:l.n ge to a ct\Ote-inpul ripp le and rCC1'iver bolh ""'ing llulnm l liCll lly IUDc<l 10 lhe _ liller. e ilher hy (I\c inco rpo ration of " s\\ inainll ch oke o r . channel. F i, . 6 .h "lV~ mOre c k ar ly than word s how th il is mOre simp ly by o m i. .;on of the reservor r ca pacitor . It is worl h oo( inK lhut rur A I o pcralioo , JOO!l voltalf' rqulalion -.:lIievod. (""rtiC\j lar ly ur the lICrccn po;ttelltial) Iii oncn mere impotlaDt o.." l-bo,,,1 SIOrll. tha n elim ina ti"l eVl:ry trace of rip ple. Ofle o r the Iew desil!ll' rutu,inK tile log ical eombtnauon Occa.iOllnlly, when using an h.r. supply lbat il on ly lightly loaded unok1 key_u\,> cundiliu n ~ an d is mdueti\'Cly smoo l of a lew-power 144 Me!, and 1·8 Mclll Ir3nsmiUer is lhal hcdl produced by G lEOn ro r Th..m-AF.I. It is ill a size iuitab le il is pouible for " rinllinlt " (l hat iI, a i1Crlc$ (If d l mpoa for fixed or mobile opera tio n. Three of the four valves a rc o<ciU. t;OM) 10 la ke pl.eo ID the ilmo olh;ng cholre wheft the u,e d {In oo th baml. but with N nd-cha~ing withou t a ny key i. p rCllled. a od th is ca n . d vCItely Iffoct tho keyinl ,wi l~hinl o f ~.h. r. cire uitl . Thil is a<:hieve<l by incor po ra lin& char4 "1er;'tla. dual·rreq uellCy IIJludc eirc ui ts no t unli ke lhe a rrllngemcnt used in I .m./f.m. broad~asl r.."i\<Cn . Fig. 7 sbows the Ih lrd .lage wh ich opera lel .... a rreqUl:nc:y do ublet on v.e.r. IUId as bI.llTer amplifie, on 1'8 Mc./ wit.... ul a ny switch ing. The s lra n. m itt or ill de5CTibcd in lhe RSG B Huu m 1'< (SCpT ember,

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K.ylor Thump oDd Inudl>/ljty With" convenrtonal ca pacitor-Inpu t riJ'>l'>1c liller a nd a K~rate powe r pack for tbe final .laKe , h.t. vultqca unde r no-loa d COnd itiOM are likely to be jO pcr tent or 10 above thOle a islina a l normal lead . Th y~ with Ihe key contaClS

,

.

AMAT liUIt It A D I O TECHNIQU . S

e-,ord ~ Grtd ft'/o , 1
Undu oonn:ll COndilioM.1hc ad .... r key IlaI purdy U all ~ $. ilcll and has 00 beilrini 0tI lhe Rd.-led Ilcna b. 1bal Ihls is not alwa)"S lNe ..as .....-l lOIN )Un qo u GlVA ... bm il WU DOlicfd lhal dial appeared 0I1 1hr ...,.1 . bmc\<cr a ccrtIin bu& key was -=d. Th~ .-as Amott «nainly due 10 - contKt tIoutIR • _hid! CIJ'I abo C&5i1y oceur in some rdays aad which produtta • sharp apike of r:a<Lacion . , the coOlmeucemcnl of .-::h Ir.eyin. po,lbc-in I bul lr.cy """'1, only on the dot .. nu. e-n o/'lcn be am.f by c..dlll adj ltSlmclll of Ihe key (pUIitu.1arly by inc:Ju,u n. d.m l'ill' <WI lbe <Sot U tpfin&)10 !hal no bounoc "'" U"- or .1 Io:mlll '-";:/y by iDcn:alIm, the I ~ I ol lhe 111 !iller so lllal the 6n{ M l9\l<e· is C'OOlPle1td bl.fon: the lranuniner output riKt. Rd.a,.. uocd ,n ktyi0l cin:u; IS mUSl be oIlhe hi&h ipml Iype. Thi. has not a lwa)'5 bo:o:n apprec ..'«! nftl by proI_ sional desil:ncT'l, ..,01 muc:b t'f the wartime Mone would ha w eoun ded hcller .,;'hoU I the _ re 0101 cllppinl illl~ d um! by ~"r. milO)' inSlllllaliOllS. Tbt dol Q lh (Of too<! m. n....l 9 ;01 is of rhe: order of Ollly )0 millis«onds or 10 ; t hus c:lipl' llla Cln begin to be troubbome (pa tlicul. rly wilh an OJlCflIIOr who , bu d)' ten dl In dip hi, d OlI) I( the conllct delio, uc=1\ . btlUl '''''' millllCCOfldl , In order lO ecnaerve Ihe lire o r • 1l0<)<1 h i ~ h srecd rel. y II i, .d ~illl ble to key . 1 II poin l " f reJ' li~e:r hi~h irnped...-.cc and also low ~0110je:: fu r uMm ple b y lin an d sc: rccn ttT kcyintt o r 10 ld cont ro l a. ~alY'Ol ke)'CT. Va.I ~e keycl'Sheve much 10 rommend men. pl\rlicu la rly the "" se wilh wh ich la g c har ac lcr islic. can be contr o lled. NOle Illat whn I keyed sll ge in wh ich l h c rom~("l lVundinl or b Uilt. charac le rislics has been Ich iu ed I. (" lInwed by I sua:ession or cia.. C freq ueney mu h iplicn Ind amp lificfl . lhe: ke yin.. puL will te ud 1<'1 be """T _ pcncd . nd "",y cavse d ick, . This is one o f 1M fOT u. ina: .. 'IC<J~ " kcyinr. of P>Q~ tIWl one &tqe. Whe~ a lranWli UCf is used a lso for l...-.de m<>ll"~led le\etlbolly aDd. u yin. is in I n early .uacj ' final .....pinl o f !he ..a'td'orm all. sometimes be oh~,netJ by """ kinl ..... u f t he ind UCt ive dfceu of lhe modubtiun tra ",fo rmer, Bul U lrcme care is neoNcd bcl:a1lW or lhe ftr)' hish . ,' hap Ind UCed IICI'OIS lhe lra Mfonnrr by lhe sudden dl.anE" III CWTttlI- WIlu ,.es which CllU reach as hip I ..... 10 len I,mes the applied e.e. FOI' lJlil te:lIOIl most opera lOrl pre fer 10 play life IJId lhon-arClllllbe IraDSfOl'~ wirwlint-

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is ~Y due 10 the nm1. d uMa key_up pcr iod l. 10 .pply s ulf>eient ncpl M: ¥OII IJe 10 CUI off c:ompletely !be I!><>de CllfI"mt and so e liminate !he M .r-acer Mli l'l"'b which 0CC\lr if the ..::recn feed is simpl)' bruhn. Fil. 9 U1ow1 I combLrle<1 n..Ive keycr and d.m per valve Il'nTIE"IfIC"lI fo r ICl'CCll keyillJ w l\ich <lues not n:quire H ad ditlo.... 1 source or I\O'J3.U~ volt.ce. Kuth the bias voltaIC for !be kcycr valve . od lhe nept,ve bludUlll volt.:l&e for the ""rem or the r.r. po wer n l, e arc derived frol1\ the r.r. dri ve. Th e Krft'll suppl y f", the d . ~alyc pa sses Ihro u,h I d ro ppina resi stOl' lIJld a ~oha"" re\lu latof tube. Wh ~n lhe . cy is open the clampe r ~a l vc cond ucl' al'lc! lhe volla~ acrou lhe re gu lalor lu bll dr o p, below iI' clllingui shin , \'1lllai e. t hus rcmo >in8 tll4 polil i~c ~"Itl\le and Tcplad~ n Ihro ugh the high ....lue rc.ti. tor wilh • n cgat ive bloc:klDi voltage. TlIc kC)'i lll cha.rac leristio;, will he dClernllntd by the cap.aciIOr-reslSlor IlClwork ill lhe clam pe, ~a l Ye grid drcuit and . lso by I h~ slighl dela y in i"n i7a lion Qf Ihe v a rube .
BnoJI-u. K.yln,.S, rt .... TI>ol ilme basi<: idea lurns up in DL-Q TC (TOx n HB 9QO 1 prov ide a , imple HK Iystem willi r«ei..... mUI",, : see 0 F iJ,. 10. A n<'plM! supply cor about Z(l..lO volli is ~uirnl, but thIS C1lll o fl en be nblli ~ fr,>m the Innsrnill er bioi... The IlCOO. tube can he a.omall NESI, NO. d~, for ",,~ cut1"ClIIS b<"Iow 2 m A. and .n VR lube fl;)( I . ule. CUlTeIIIS. Wilh the k<'}' up fhe CU=nllhroush andlhe 10K is sufflcien l to k>WCf" lhe vollaae o n !be anode or VI be low the llrilr.inl vol...,.. or 1M neoo : when down. VI i1 !:used b;Idt IDd the neun IInket. pt>ni"l .....ltIIC on h' lhe v.r.c, SCfttO. with an adj ""tablc lO\,It in, vc' It. lIC applioed to

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Scr.... 1(.,.,. Screen &lid k(yin. is DOl as popular as it mi&hl be. Thil

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We IIaYC !be foeli", 1....1 MlmC ,,;arc ..... y be needed wilh this a rranlClflCllt if .... i ll' a nd dlCl-, are 1 be a voidcd .li r.cc 0 subsequent d ... C Slaca in the transrn.u c r ca n W ipe!> up the ""a".,rorm and re-in trodutt d icks• • nd If lhe p•• . ha, Ippm;qble stmdm, ganen t lhere will be no,~ ra d i:l1ion . I'rovidcd a U thew poin ts a rc kepi ,n 10'...... ~~r. ,ucb a n arran~( 00Il1d pro"" I ,,,,ry Oonvcnicllt opcrali nl aid .
O•.:IIkrl.... 1(' 7'"1 For ) cu S, whe .......-er lhl 'ubjec t lOr U ",;U"lUT Ir.<'}' inl c rop pe4 u p. the lIoc k all, wer o f lhe pund It, h;l. "''Cn .. Don' t : ' Tile di lflc olty Js Ihe fr eqL>C'lCy 111Ir. ' h~ l ' ''CUtl whe n a ' ·a lve Ron into a nd out o f <>o<;, II ..li",, : ,hil uppe... on :l keyed '1 i.na l nt a ll 1IllpleA ~ rll fu n ll o r " click" wh i< h ca nll<>l be dill1 in.1l(oJ by DCUllvenli llf1a l la, f,ller. Nc~e "ht< las. lhCle he ve a lway. been .orne amaleu~ woo ha .e be<' n o ut p '<l q ua ltl7 IiJtfl'.h wllh a ke )ed ~.lI;o' ol ab le 1<.> Uhc inc lOlion o f a la, c ooke capMo!e o f withst.:>no.Im, h' l h peak voh a,et in the p.... ano.:k c,rcu it is one doo.ll' fu• rreud n a Ihe t urn,", ... n " c locks ") .

the receoee,

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TRAN SMIT T ER T O P ICS

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300 o hnu co ils wor ks wlil. thou 8lt o ne with 870 o hm coil' woul d not work . G 3GN M uoeta ~ 250 ohm le~hone lype relay- the srna!l lypc with &COi l d iameter of • III . " lI villll j dot speeds up 10 well o ver 35 w.p.m . wilh 1.....0 ullmarked and un known Ira n'li'lto l'S. G] N IV also UO($ a PO f'cla.y W JOO ilh ohm o.c. wi" din&,!. G 3R WL with IW O C 71 Irnnl i'lIOn usa O
T R " N S~ I TT E R

d ick flit ......u•• k co no .._ d_l . ln, .bo " . ..n .01

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Then came the r<:-<:mergel\co: "f St:lluellcc keying wilh n riou.. meth '>ds••impl" and ~"mJ.' I"" , of turning On the anal otllac a m"ment ufter the " ""Illal" r and turn ing it o lT a momenl heful"C ; u",i llator l eying once agnin heen.me ""pecll1.l>le. Incidentally, if you use a litrlight key One of the simplest way! or ob laining oequence ley ing i. to use the b>u;k co nta cts to ley the osc.ttator and the fronL cont""t . to key the p.a.-Ihe time IlIken to traverse Ihe liP "'ill automlltically produce Ihe n:qu ired de lay. F ig. 11 sh~ one uf the man y pOil., ible wa)'ll in which thi. can be dune. A ru:w cin:uil rur ()<jCillllLor keying W3!. described by W6N RW in CQ, February. 1959. The cin:uil is Shll.... ll ill r ia. 12 fro nt .... hich it will he _n Ihat V IA forma a cc eventiorwl o-eillatur whilt: the effeet of VI B i~ 10 pl~ a ~ariable rtti.tan« between the Catl Ode of VIA atl d ea rth. Thj~ U l due 10 the Chlni" of input rcIlistance of a ifl'und~ llJid amplifier which OCCanl ....ith Ima ll ch anges o r biM. VI B In fact function. IU a lrounded &ri am plif>er iw lutoc staae. d allhoullh the ~in illow o",ino: 10 the low value of the anode mistor. The keyina cons tanta will be det ermined by the I'aloea of th" Ihree co mpo nents in Ihe arid circuit o f VIB.
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Tho ugh" e1-bul' " (ducs Ih" cred it for c" ininS this Ie"" belong 10 OZ7RO who d id "" mlJt;h 10 popu larize I""'n in Europe?) have now been u o..nd (Of mlllly )'ell"-. il""l! is ltill a alel dy ,trCll m of new de, ign... Some:,,( these aR' co mplexunit awilh up 10 abcul 20 tra n. i. tmalllld usilll ""mpu ter to:o.: ho;qu<:'!l. hu t sU'llri.i naly l oad r<!Iuli. <OlIn be ll<:hicvnl with qu; te . imple d"",ian•• One the mu.t ,1"'1f'"I&r cl-bull *'illll' pu blislll'd in T,c~"lrQI Tuple, was undoubtedly the t"'OotnMlMOr ZI.2AMW keyer : Fil . 13. AllhOOlsh Ihe o ri;ina l dcsian d id not speciry Ihe Iype of rellY. ITUltly Rluler1 repor led lha l lillie " r " " difficulty had been ClIpenenccd in ~ell in. Ihe k" y 10 work u.i na an Olrted I nd junk bo~ R'lar.' and eonyooe ICCnlcd very IlItilaC\l with lcow lt. . G30R. I report, t!wl l • GPO type }OOO d"" b\epolt: clla " lIeO'"r rda y with 200 (I(

II G PO Iype 600 rcl~y wilh 1"' 0 6llOoh m co il. eOIO"",t <:<l ill pa rallel (f",1ob add ing). I" tlll CUrrelll (rum 9 volt ball"ry aboul 35 mA. He 51...,...,.. Ihe impo rLance of ha ,ing Ihe le" sion o r the h,.,.~ co nla.;u corr«1 10 a~hicve 10<">1.1 symbol lenlltlto. Inciden tally the cin:u il d....win ~ pun led so llie; th is ronYCtItitJl'\ ind it:aln Ihar o ne pai r o ( eom ac ts i' o pen. thc olher ~ "' hen Ihc l elay is IInencfgU<:<I_

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An o thcl VCT)' aimplc un il which W publime d Crii inally ai in DL-Q TC i. shown III Fia. 14. Later ZS4M O reported in 1WdI...ZS ItlrIlC mhlll' mod ,flCalions aud refinements to thi, unil. l Ie 10>. ru urt<l t!l;lt interehan l inll tho pos ilio n of the IK anoJ 2K olvns po tentiomet"n ,ivcs & bett"r ranac o r spcc4 adju1tmen l, and also Iha t a 5 K olum porcuuceretee ca n be adlkt..laCTOliiS the 400 ohm relay windi na; to pro vldc a wei~.ht . ing COIIlrol. A !SWi tch acros, 1 leadl to thll trart5lT1 ut..,r M plovides a tu ne-up IwitCh (Al.....ays needed ..... itl't cl. kc)cl'3). ZS4M O also poin ls OUI tllar llle o riginal d iaRram sho wcd •• dots ~ 10 lhe left b ut ad vi'IC' the . landlO rd prac tice nf m:t.klnj Ihis the ~ " MI't ~ ContaCI . All of wh ich it""" 10 prove IhIIl there lire .till plenty o r amalc un aro und wOO lil " baild inl ll"ar •• . and arc lhen pro:palCd 10 adjuSi component dct . il~ an " ....alae. " nli l they tel prc:cI'ICly 1M re.ult. they ....a"'.

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AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUES

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wilh o ul .. _ itch or rday. AD do::1ronie T·R I witdJ pet. rniu full brea k·in work ine OIl e.w. a nd ia abo . boon 10 lhe: u.b. enlhusilw and thMl: UJina \'Oice-orlef1IIN o:hante0'<t1' 5)'5tmtl.

T'-e Aut...Fi,e Willi ''' PC rc:o... d~ .,-. ,bb" in m;on)' oho.:h, it i. wonh n:rnnnng r~om C Q, W! O r-. ~ mplc mrlhod {l'~ Ill} o f ,m nl: .-ne C'It>n I t a " re-= Ofo!ed CO . "to-M'T>d« Of r".r l, ." nt !l;,,~l ll..., , ~ hcf r.I ~ .....,·, (' II;'" . (\Uk! be. a """ r,'tm (Of lh e •• IfY O'lM I f<lOl i1i ...... r). The Innslonneo- is • stan dard a .f. out pu t I)l'" u.o:d w, lh tile Iow. impedan<:o: ....' nd ' n' . con na;;trc! In the: rcc:nrdc:r', h I. LS. SQl;lelS; wll.\c: t he rdoIy ~"' Id rrd~h ly be: " f lhe hi~ l)'pc, "n«d 1\<"1 he: unduly oorn\lUIfI:. Al......1 I ny l~ of IIOekniurn o r o the r rflrm <'Of dt<>d. lea ,l\cr wu ld be " oed. OIlC trick

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m;adc <:.1.1)' by the treat cha nllll ' I ahla (lroVidc<I o n m.ul)' ' apc dec ks ~ 10 r~ J N C'k III cutler dou~ 0' ha lf-speed "'&I,,,, elC'Cu<>n 1C k. ),. .. hllve • • r~ f, om . he ~mrJc 10 ihc " hra co m" ,,:• . -rhe e re.." t mcwm In h e. 15 is W4UWN K 3K M O ', ,,,,n 'fI" flf ," ' <lI d (u<>uri,c (from 7J M D8"ri"" J une. 19ft21 II ,,"'. .. tw in UK . '<k ' ....'i N7. l lAn . IlAU7 II ' " a ll ..... id 1< he: . uj' ahlc:l. H..inll)', > IS :I ~"' ·,ootli ,..alla" .. ; VI " i. i h mil~' l<l "",... id" 1I ro ugh ly squar~. Wi ' " o uC pul. . T" " o nly •• r ,,,~ " . componC1lt II the hi&h

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unpWJ IlCC l ~OOO o " m 0 . i b"'~l h'ah••ptt<l n"Lty pu llina in a t i OOo t ) mA o lt ~ o n",...at l~ lind a n ,,1eo;t, onio:: ..,mi.,.olmna tie key (a o to d oll . onl y) bOI G lOI T ",nd~ a lona lh" e irc;o il " r one: wb..h h., Ioa~ do."\e1o f'td (Fill. Ifi ) a nd whictJ IIi. ". nu tro uble:. H~ wtotes• •• Thoe p,add k- '~llbly o"ly need be mounted on the Opt'. mi nll t.obl.:, the "'5t can be buill intu the trolnsmiu C'f."

TIle bil lie priD;ip le behiDd _ of tlM: deIipI p u ~ 10 d.:l.te is 10 eonnecl a low irnped;lnce . ",..al foeder iu the !JSUlIl m:l.nnet to the tnmmittrr ..I\ilc a pu1 llellX'llDeCliOll I' made Ic th e roeeiver via ;t p rolCCli"f: valve sw itch wbidl Slops .ny ;tpprm,able r.r. JKl"'el' f rom ~llhe r«lI:iytr : sec Fie. 19, The ,wileh illlelC UIUlUy C'Ofnprises • sharp ctJl-o/f .....lve . ml n. ed to lhal wbe n lhe r.f. powct' from lbe lansnliller is .pplied to its UDtuocd iDpol cirQjit. Jrid fl<r\In.Dd by mcans or .lrid-bia' rem tnr this . ppl ies o;x:n:l5iden blt: bW to the vah-e. flXlueiDI the anode curreat practica lly to ~ : t.h us >,,:rr lillie P"""CI" .ppc.an. ill 1M output a rro lt ... llOeh 11 co oplcd ro the f«lei>oer. w hen the t nonsmiU Cf is off the .....Ivc fllllClioos ~ amp li6cr pass;nll incomio. "'1VI1, to the receb er; lhe trau omiuC'f o ut po t stace lhen p resen t, • hi&b irDpcd.occ to me K .ial focdcT IiO th m: need be lill ie lou of ,ian.l. So fa r so ROOd. bot in pnctice Ihcrt: an: - .1dil&ulllcs ~ be ." ' l:nX>me: if the",. is 10 be no dqrlUbtion of the tnCOmIng sognals. no blond spou ...,;I no riU; 0( \.. I , ~ irnoolation break dmon (rorn «CCUive r.C vo llajlQ ; the . T· R .va lve .may be pr""" to paras.tic. ~lIolion prodoci nl opUnoU5 !lJ1IfI h. nr ther" may be nO\5C rad...t;on (rom lhe . power amplifM:!" du ri"ll kcy-u p ~Vndi l;"n5 bocaw;e 01 t:lt<X5Sive stand.n, ""r....." . A nolhcr impor1an l m. ll .. that a T· R , ...Iv~ biot>ed Ih.. way win tend 10 llC"Cf. tc h:tnnon ics and can thus be the ea use 0( TVl . I t is. Imponant-thO\lih nOI alwa ys eas y_ lo h:t\ C cor.e-:Ily rna l~ hed im peda nces co 1M transmill el":ul d T· R ,np ul. Various arrallgCllle m , are 5......WIl in FiV'. 2().22.

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V.. l n lin . .. .. for 144 MHz \ 1,. W. 1'00h« ar y. G4 1'UU , poinls o ur uunure s<>r~II'lrid ~ ircu l I or a balanc ed push-pull valve anlplir",r & hoold n" l unbalance th e ampbncr in any ",oy . W hil e ;l ~O oh m l"\':\i<lu,

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VRIOS!30 QU 0I20

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ill the screen ccenectton to th e va l.-t, Wilh a r'Il" I'd r u sc ' e<:n s lIpply. is usua lly a U lhat is rcqu i,..,d , .l " y hy. f"I"' ~lI p""i IOI eo nllOCled d Irec tly 10 Ihe scrce n.grid Can ~a uv: in mllu m•.., ~ nd re sult ill ., e ll illll· u P difT...ulli e<, AILe"'ali vdr, /I ~urn:<:t1y de"i!-ne d ch ol e should he c"n n,,~ I <:<.I l>et",,,,, n th e '1'01'<1' and all y by· pass cllplI~it"r. G 4f U LJ 10 " , hu ill a IIl1mbe r IIf lineur al1lt'l ir."" lIs in, OQV06/40 a nd Q Q V03 /1O va lv". "nd find. l he d ,. u il e a rra ngel1le n l , huw n in ri~. 17 Ie> he sali,fIICI" ry , It ea lls for a s la b;1 !,~d , " rccn Sl'flt'l)' ~ nd ~ I" w. imp eda ",'e bia s 5upp ly tso a ll"w,n~ the cal hixic I" be firmly IlfO" n' lcdl, E,l muml f{a m m , O K.\ I!ZiG SIiCS , wntcs : .. W ilh lil1ea, a mp lif",rs I he 'e i. nm l11 (1c h freedom of ~ h o ice o r lh" e1<'C' :,-,,1c V"IIHIl"'., T I\ en sure 0t',iI11 11 111 lil1e.uilY of lhe QQ \ 06/40 It '-""Ilme s 7 ~O '1'(\1 o n tlte a nod e, z s c voll. 15

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I or h~ v .. . .. " I . be fairly h i~h .. 1t.ils o r a .. 11... . oilenl in ope rat ion..'" _ .ll. .upp l.. M.. of . < ~ il o._ • • • mool". .gram lind Fi" 24 llho". ~..n<lalo ry... us vnfuc "'" ..•• T.." ..."n linear (0 l"' .) . 1. . It.rt. Whe n a g. ..••• LO W-l "n g Rfe 100p F '" .. 11. VE2AUB/WS.. ""letl.... While il i.. DI • • ~ 1• o••• m.. _ .ulo. H ill• • ' ''' 1ft ~ i ~ I •• •"1.• " A rnui"l( sc r"" n su pply . un likely 10 be beller Ihn" . on.'" 00·1 ' f' '0 = O.cd by VE2AUH for l o me ume .. . .).. d currenr!l..... .... '"''"'VH '.10. _ .oll of Ih" valve ne eds 10 be 'l riclly 1'1 (l>O g l..1 Ihe Sl ~ l>iliTcd llCl(al. h"rnlOllic ~lI rrrcs.>oJ-qua lily l.. '''''''' ' . far r.. ... I. fo. (.h 1 u h h . .. ~ ... <...... ~UT I f l • ... Inc (lreTali" " Ihen i"". II 1>00 110 I " M ' <l1.I".' '0 . n . .. .. . f l. . HlliH .111<1 11.oj g. imum "ued o ulrul of 74 wutl•.".. Id <~ . LOW p.. _ 10..li. .~ poso:ible 10 sq ueeze more o ul of il. ."' • • ~ . lIf .. 1O. ~ h _ Ioft ' C CI ..... < ..I " . lUN$ IoI IT TE Il. ..) : .. tfl" I- 0 .."':. o. . .«her·lyl'" ""ooe I. hia5 e. bl o• • dJ . ll.. ..L T '010I1.It . . .. Im . "" tha I t be 3<1 dil i"" or II lo"..<om"'udod b..t 1 ~ II ("1 w for nn id le ~n()ite current of 40 m. o f (. h l. . . DIU V%. I c " 0 RECEJVEIl.... 1_ 100 Sof>.pM ... . Sa • • n .erll ~<I tha t with ~ ~ il11rl ~ ""I rul <. Mike HU~CiI. (H.~h . <0<0" ' [ .. be w. T h• •• 1.. h.. K T-+.od ...." .. o ... it II broad oond . .. 144 MH . ~ SlIGO o h .. Fill.. r.. I• • • n y .ie circuit d l..U '" 6~ C ' C 150 / 250 v HH· arc i'! ''0 ~ r3 l.:. . I"~ .. ml .reu " ("1 Wil h Z ener d iodes onl y Is nOl cnsy 10 ~djus l . lagel!. th o . Ihe QQV06l40 ". <Ou o <h Pen. ''0 30 0 0 pF li D.'" d. :0 ....~ Iypoc or T·R sWHeb offerinl! a num ber or adll. . OIJ" q~ I ··I I "'~ · "' Q • • h o w. ng /I I:!ll-wan • linea r ' using Ih i:< valve rlea...'.... Hc finds Ih31 !hi l lype ur switc h has Ihc (ollowi"!.:lS OV 3000~f ~ . . ion i. 0 ..". senl lit del.W ....~ I . 1O. ..·<\ on Ihc "" ' '''' 'l-l:ri<.Hl in ler""'I .. ! r..phn~. ~.""1 radi"'I.t . ... I.... " '" 0 11 11••• ...pilSS filter becomes "" ..'lnll1ges. ' c...... . high lsolalion of FEfDER -'l ECEIVEIl. il sho uld he oh..1"". ' across lhe d iodes "o\lld hell' and ."". .". 1"'pM..r... .. .. . .~ I .O I}" 200V RECi IV[R F' I .T1o4 n ln .. 1 '... .ilh . hi d> lh eo . lange.•. h... .. '" OS CI L L A TO R TOP ICS CO.n FILT ER AE RIAL ' 50r 3OOn •• f'inlllly... .l ( a linear llmrliflCr ". ilahly he... 1•• •h <. bali a low 11Ut'rlion loss " r leM than one d b in uie b.i rcuil. G 1f V V ·. rt d• •• . ' .. . eh.ill deliver n ma.~p o . ••' 0" '''' or .G e LINE lOOItJl IlIG '0" 'M n F.Z OUTPUT TO EARTH OR .rt 1 1. ".. " " • • u . . ' IJrely a . T· rt . "~... a P<llcntioo lCl<. 1 . T..."'. " l circu il is used ... .._ . "J~" .': Dlod .. to . .' " <oul.. .. . ~ 1S0 .. """ .' how l hi~ bas been u. w.... . r . . ..h • • It• •• I... c. . ..vl _ I be oml.... ~ t._I WO~ _rOJCiJ%.... Lo w lmpo don <. K=lIy.R Swllc!.. " 1\"" .m •••• 1T· rt ' w ''.. . 23 shows lhe ba. I.al o" \\fIo """..1.....id · bias Ilttd 5 In ee adjusl<..t ' 6·3V ' A J• • . 1 h. . . "" 'A I . nl h nCll r o pcral. . . "..I .. INPIJT COIL ~[ .n_ ." ... I. I "hln.. biOI ... It< h lM o til. .. . T . ...vc C~l" l .. I".01. rt-.

the . r AllhouGh t he p rofesaiorW U«ifJIC ' ha s a fairly wide cho ice of power amplifie....u vol' aac to obta in maximum isolation. Unfortu. bc<:n unable \0 detect a ny I T. fairly low. 'P' . is possible wilh the usc: o f linlle pole double throw reed relllys. simple to make and adj USl.ai ls arc . For iruu~ lhe PU OO has a 27 "01 1 heater..".b.over switch or relay. lIowe"er.<. . Anot her prob lem IS .. it .00'. A.'ICd to cur-err in the key. Ih" ct ner simplifl«l design has no valw:s but Ihi. lhe best in.llLl'1d tke tnm. ~ ~ ..~tmcn t he hal ever mado . once a. Fil..-.milter in the Itcy-up position. Jlut wilh the correct bill. rtielc be coQlulled for I detailed description of thio ap plic. lboUI I rnA i. and tend to h3. and lbiJ is m . 100 i.NSI. telulc sln a lillie more dillkully In . L~-.""."ailable with 63 volt boaters).. use ill trall....e. '"' I RttEtvER T ~ ~~2 1/ 8...\e add healer volta iC .!.-~ '" r AMAT EUR RADIO TECHNIIilIU E S design$ for ker ed aerial rd aya dc"Clopcd by VE3AU a...1100 raxi... .I' n.v" than valves dcsiK""'" for tbe oonawner or cotcr· tainment field.2 }1' 0<00I ' j .. R«d ~lay.1 have prepared It useful repcrt (by W. cr. recepnon.."... f . fll ..t I pplklliOl\1 Ih""" lend 1 be ra the e mor e 0 eJlpeU$.he questioo Ind ehan~-o"er relays have to be ahle 10 foll" w the keying witno" t d ipping on dotS-II requit ement wdl beyond the u p' bil. loboukl be aboU T 30 voll.p.. c-eo I '" .--.. applied he ha. ~"~ nrANI"".. --.il:"Cd for 0'3 amp._t • • . .:ZS.b.'e comp lele iool. bout 30 rnA . sock-lJul .. To acb lC.-=Oi'--r-< = i 0-001 Th.. I .. Amateun ha ..)'lI.. but under IheK w oditlOllS VE2AUR9/W5 fiow that il pr0d uces some TV! d ue to hi\.omilti ng. U .l lines (though !K'fIIC are alw .ll. .llt. miller lank d l1:u. ted by The COrn:n t flowing io the p. lire ou t of . n lOning at 3$0 WRIIs p. (If T VI from t be . Oncoflhe VE3AU circuits UIClI a 6AQS cont lol v. .: one for lran.·1l ~n""G . lheir use in rI.Tie& of the usua ltypc of aerial relay. and I nep.0. Some remllrks on this lIUbjcct weee noted in the Q~\T (~ptember.w. Fl• . low.l.fl1\Onic g= tin" in the diodes. O.~ ly quick Illllle and break &Cl ion....r.h. Secc>n dly. He adds that break-in i... alway. e>.t. i~ bulb lcrnpera ture. Jr the diodClo are revencd. 111<: vaha covered In Ihe Sylvsnia repo rt include fou r designed for blaek.. bi. stage il not bia. ""'W: '0' BI..-:'-'/ull T·R SwlCCII One of Ihe snags with man y elcec ron ic T·R swilclle:9 occu rs when all"'l1ptinll tu u"" them with a transmilte r in which.. The reccivin. fn>m rca.. 24 . VE2A Ua point" oUI that The IlrrallgaTlCllt .. <.. ornnl_ ' 1_ ...m.l'n (or " sw«p hi""" " as they lire termed).. m ost valua ble chl racteristic fur ••S..voiding d ipped dOls at ~ hiRh krying l pecdS. o-cor "'. dllficu ll to prevent The noise ~ne .lhe p. EVQl with no billll the swilch It ill p ro tect. of television rccci\lCt1. the bias polarities must of co urse be l't'verscd. At the p. witc h. .1. and v. R'" 0. d..~nd·while television having anode ..aio provided thaI I~ I IC used on • SO-Ohm ro.IO between transmiller . .n4 capable of operation up to 40 w.. of ineomlJllI Sillnal! by lhe In n. 11 D io<l. the reo::.vel ... far as operating elljoymenr is =mcd..iven of two V.m TI' l~ t pvt 1'. • $llioorl power d iode wilh a puk invcroo vollag<: ra liol o f 600 V<.. (}Sr poinl~ "\It Ihal the limitation of tltis type of vlth~ fur u . bown il not the only puuible one...p. d vD nlaa" is that it reQui~ a fa irly high bi.u ing six or the mou popu lllr Ame:rican line-<JU tl"Jt v".::. 0<06 I "~ . IUJlTIt EO \oCJlU N Q ~.. bot one di ode muM alwlYS he ir>eluded in lbe P"Silioll CR. N" vembcr{De<::cmbe" 1964) c:o.lll""t keyin. vahu dcsilillCd .ti .llTT£ R .s. I IU..IWiTeb requin:s I positive blal tor ~plion.an a<JeqwlIC for tran'lnlilte rs hiving OU pul ~rs of up to 200 waUa and T fccdinl SO 10 " ohm co-uial liDe.T ion or reed rel. at power Ie~LJ up to 700 watts. millers.U . Tltc ....un:rs <k! no t norma lly publish data showinG oj>Cl'at ing co ndilions fo..~ _'2" ' It~~ :... Fig. Sylvani. ~ heater chain.~ .. It . ~ .u line mat Is wdl mat ched. I%S) review of t he Swan 3$0 lran=lver whICh II IC S two 611 F5. Lo .l . nately 11toet'e llf'lIOIDe ~g" Most British types are del. o.! ..l mplified circuit can be ..nl lime. For break·in operancn nnnultl swnch.'"' .. ho¥n how VE2AUB obtain$ t he bi. pro bably the besl valves avai labJo: arc thOM: inlended flK usc: in Ihe line outpul ". but il is recommended that the oriK l . by making use of the 1il volll which appear l be key lernlina ls of his tran. Elecuo.. In OST (JlIly.t.. . provided Ihat the a. b ut their eu~nl ratins i.. IlS maio d. . l\'e.-....t'.. Mur ph)' in S y/Wl"io lrrJurrriol N~wr. T." .. drawn 011 such vI IV el fo. bled from rh n scurce to bias the switch fo..::hinlj: the = iV<:r.. 1lIe blocked-lPid kcytng cireuit is 1hown in in. on the line I...mi llinll bi"" shoo ld be in lbe rqion of 3SO vola ..pecifically for h. manufacl. liD needs lin aerial cha n~. ! . i. Ih...II .IUld CllR really kn uck over lUIodc cu nCllt meters at relatively low h. _ up 10 SOd b.up position .. T he 1N2071 i... one .pled for eitbet b1ocled-crid or cathode keying anll reqmres on ly I 12 volt (or up 10 22 volls (or the hil. 19M ) dt1.ho". r l ft. Fewer diodes cou ld be used.. SUl: h ' alves have to bc capable of high peak aJrrem_ . appliCllt iotlS. Iprcds l1U pply at .

form in... Vb V. " c: 0""r31. . a tin&.a " " 3' 30 2' . and ." ~ .. S . " ''''' . . ~UllllC311:d Ie".""...> ldinll be' lI1DUr. 4 • • • • •• •1 ' 0..te5... Nute Ih.. ~ a rc ~ . 2-99 I ·7S .. all~ .<J .onam frequcnq. ..... Care mint ..h .hich co uld tead 10 e xec"'.ed temperature Il1easurinl e<:l uipmcnt. 4 .au"C of the: vcry ~'"Y ou l-of·feSOMnce anode upper Cn UClK)' limit of :q operation an biued o n 7S per con I of the inp ul 5CIC -re.o~ coo SOO so .oo ( ICAS ) 30 Me/s R.'" ao -" '''' "'''' .CT1tly ~Ioped =" fur the pro bable The Ii. due 10 the larae neck dillnlrtet of shadow-mas k...ons C beam. at 30 Me/.N. '''' b l>rh c: (wi d) . 1 .ct 17-5 I' EI' watll wall_ 42 -5 42 ·5 5S0 An Dd r Efficl.. . "~ i<. lc mpora ry oV\'r lood s 2QO. b.. 3 0 ·76 0 4) O-H2 . .t t Ul dllc:iency of 41 per cent. 3 Cla ss AUt Operntice (ICAS) 30 M c/ . p1a.. rnA' . so so R...~ipal ion. a 9-rin no vllr bv.bly mon: tIwl WO vol ts on the a n~ is sU(Utnlcd by :I nu mber of desillU.uotao1 .I _ ...." . (Inlcrm illcn t Commcrcial and Amilteur Scl'vice) condiliom for t he valves: Ihis l ati na is nomllIlly 15 per cellI hi. " '"ss " " OJ 20 aa ss III ss .00 . hOW't~r be la ken with anode d issipa .. view of the Swa n )50 pOiHlS OUI lha l care mmt be laken in 1WLinil up..' w "t-" .ioo . .' h ' .. ~iltR 3 1 ..ffi<1o":1. 4 'am ...al l&.tJun G' .omPilllyinll ta ble Ih~ th e Sr l"ani.F.I".uth d~ En> .." than the . >t1I ll ~ r". peaIl: envelope pawn. ."'alll) i~ lho: til.l ~ Jives full detail s o r the co nditions under which th e ln~ . T hc 6JM6 has a 12· pin b...""" 20 di....... " .. A single 6HF5.. '" ''"" ""t "" ao " '" et "" " " " '" " "" 69 5 67 <..·3(). ""'~.. aNl tWIJ larger 2. ~ ro rnA <u.UI'C$ itlfra·.. _ ..l.nt 144 Me/s opera tion. apph catio ll$ . " '.. 4 1nl d t I• • 4 1 m •• do .. ).'e tcmpalllUTe$. Us ' d""~ <. . need ap preciably more deflect ion power at 1001I lil1Cllrit y..80 15O '" "G' 6G J5 6HFS • Ono ~-.:t bilitin. ~ . T he o rilPlI».... bel...slp. 1- '" . 00 -" '00 '' 00 lO -" -" '" SOO ao JOO -" 200 .. 26. 1iJ1::6 b. . i~ un officiall y fill ed a l up 10 116 waUs inp ut in c10L$S C provid iol an ou tput of 77 wans ~.I ... I . 067 t 2U SH 3S 0 42·S 17·5 234 350 46 '8 4 1·5 43 ·0 4!'5 zz 1)-$ OPl IIII~'" '" 18 3 189 366 )H '" 430 4 3-1 aa ao aa OOtldhlo. 41am. . . \'~ I V' \'1:2 \. m 3' AnO<lc P()lvcr . opera tcrs will be intere'5lcd to note lllat I numhcr ur t hc"C ( hu t noc the 6HF $) s hOUld prow wi tab le tor ellicM..'. a.a>e Wilh lowe r peak c urrent g1p. 7 .f. usina the ty pical p.. "M 14-9 12·5 232 222 IH 17-2 13-7 20·0 '"' 0.J " " . ·rc:q. " _ 04 .. I ~I rnA " ' 00 -" '00 300 -" "" SOO " EO .1 69 '3 2·U 2·72 30 " zz " . sho wn in F ill. .. The OST ". .l.. LI .. 41 II 'n.. 0 • .... ... ~ 16 U.oll'lldc r.l~• ..... ' " .l <0" """ ' .... ... .l:2 Vb V V ' 00 ' 00 -V' " " " " " .'" ..c.n uOUI Commc rdBJ Service) . ". " 0 ...:1rute pin conIkd..." ror p". hl <h t ho <hot. and 60U di ffcr o nly in Ihal the C om>tr tw.. .ncy (M etl) """"'" so'''' '" '''' '''' fA ao ' 3 ..C eur icd 01...dissipations (continuous ralinl:l of about 17 ".lp. J " 0 . ~r 0.." " 0 " " " 50 ' 0 ...nits • " 15 " '" '" '.- -ocs.o< V .I..w:. The ..dru l p· CIrcui l ra cy ..b..."...t.2 7 763 6~~ 202 '"' '"' e-ra C·75 ' M<'.lrctlU .1 the 6 Hn a 12-p in base .u... for cx.amplc. R... T~.. tu bes. ~" ' 00 .. . Au cv<:o mo re powrnul n lve (40-"' lll Ol <Ii.watl types intended primari ly for eolour television m:c ivcn whi<:h. ..' 4 S.• . f ' l .' .ens 0·76 O g4 Ano<lc: Input P D. liao ..OJ us "" -" '00 SOO ""' .al 6JR(.. ". '0 " . II L4.9 .. V~ I T. T.' f j" V ..' 62·7 (.". $Cp..uulput o f """'" S~ waUs Cl\1I be achieved . mpl lfl.. '" ''0 '". Th e 6J06 is d~igllCd sr«iClClllly for 1".'y ond .-n <U""". I I.-"cs (Conl. The 6J E6 Iond 6H F5 were d~iflW C col o ur le kvir...f6 .. 1lIa1 the va lvn can be np:: ratc d wil h o.-0" -cce .c a 9-pin OO"iIr ur bao<:. bot h /la..F... ¥ '.tt ~ rnA rnA di!..• ~ tdev i.11. . ... In dUll ARI for !. " " a. t I• ...OM Lo" wat ts . .. I 6 . o n . ion IIpl'licatio r". "EO ""' "G ' 60" 6HF5 "06 • Orod a<S... ~r II U .0 r. .\node diWpilliun "'L' _ ured by l'OI. U..)O Mq lulu of Un n~~~ ~ . 7-"5 . 1o ..

Thi..".. Q.". 11 dn elopment or the relay cla mp circ uli where a rtla y rs . 1e "'.. _ 2 N11 '" 32 . '.. . .11'1 O. WaUH T _ ... . Sept ernbn.lliques lurn "'~ .1\iI. J [ :' .>r lhe most popula r of Ihe ... /. c:oraaI-' dn~e dfUS' rday ralls out. l%j ) thawln.)' down o..n: . u P.ece and... " on""". f: of lhe p. O<$e •• biucd in ~ondua M Il.. dooc$.. 1'.4A is in lhe ofl' '' t:ondi lioD." " H U ll -. ". 2OA.. to 1ft h .tioM 10 be adjuued M) tNl t lbeft il .IblioDtall 0CleLIf wbco 'ltJOI"itinI lIeU the pul l-fn curftftI (i. l.. I"C 1 ranain JUbstan tia U u~ under key up 0 y and 10:.11 whal w.. p.. . on the V.lhe ~ e t i. o ve•• 11 dlanSC in bias condition$. 1. and 110 CItI)..a. Harlord . The uhilnale trmsmilll" con tro l I ll.. '" m _ . l<I i ~ . lhe: aY'll'm .01 _ 10.. tt>own in FjJ. !he I r'IlJ.. He write' : . ..... pl ovided thai TRI has rairl..:lcx:t to elimi naJ. ... dju \lc<l .~ the arid leU t>i.. how two separale rela Y' ean be enet.tllbk cat bode bas CODlI'Ol (lUI mabln t he: c:ond..'-t indi."" iIlcruxs . 0 lochnical qui~ q UC!ll i"n. RIa. t..'es info rma lio n on a circu it he lM' t o protect the QQ V01. ..• • ZlI. _ . Ol VPF ai. fe..... The gralit dows . . i. nn..n -k bdow lhe 'till"" nee ded 10 . Wilb !he key up the d. WITal! throu&h lhe relay 120 mA ill l he G3 VPF on. . lime increua.Ih a bu ill-In bld. 29. 'lows the . .nanacmcnl. . ebll'lilwcs tl'Ic notma... to iamasc: buI th e Q lhock bia. M .rem currenls or tile . .lI lhc O l VPF arT&QIICftIICf\ two tnlDIislon an Iaed ill a billable a ~ t "'.. It". n.. M\X:b IM . 1 ~.. . . . hId! Cl...11. 1 I 'S m A. whir:h al klWC>d scpar. Witb the key d ept e:I. A.. Ot>c: <. d TA l is capable of hand lin. and opens oi l I mAo bu t 1hr1c paramelen wi ll vary.1f. ari<>u.ondilK>1\S. My ..e. .. 1llc adj ul. coaaisted of 1M in a WB2CCM artic:1c . . CUTCIIl.A. P. .-:illaliOIl.JOI lUld 6diclte .ith 1M I N)4A diode ..'ICII" as tbe: /lc:att of the idea.. b llek bo .islon QIl be 1O>oOCI.c the .a.O"I the r. fl • ......lId ". InaeniOll11lle of dioUea.. ... . ' til Diode. .io (jJ O>fl SO) . and this puts C4 in p. .form of OSCl. bi&h p...me teeh.ue. wu 1 wo rk 01... .I)..... AMAT IUIl. ld. Tbe anJ'H. _ _ II _ ." ~ N ~ '" ' 132 2N .i tdlI. in ooc:l llation...Ir'" 2. u""'_ft I ~n _I2V t N9 1 6 _OOV0 3 ..o rked directly by the ll"ioJ HT'" • •• ... l1y or toaetllel' oYer a &in. depend in. l ' 1"'-' tIM: . ~ tnm...I clamp valw bul has two lIiIad~ : ( II .... portable transmitter. Iuc.. ..n.ltc: eireui lS to be ~ tr olled o ver a t in l1le line. . Pro&KUon CIrculi y' D ~n " ~ O~ E.5 .... _ _. / • -• ~ C .b pulb iD 011 1·2 lIlA. c:ireuil i. of TRI . W!'Iell lllii is Ihc cue. d". (21.20A in hi' 70 Mel.g ~"'i: .. . a-. •• _ M IX ER AMPLl F"lER . Trldu ... I L.... yea n block.. >OJ'" -. rcstoriDa r~ 1 its 0 normlIl . in . rc duo. ItADIO TECHNIQUIS 6SK7 7.

G . wilh a 2N3053 hipo lar lra" . H . T his ca n be ' useful in SIIfeguardinl! a nd exlending valve life in linear amplifiers ha ving subs tan tial u. The IImplifler in lhe bo ok uses the high power 4CX l oooA but there seems no reasou why lhc idea should not be a pplied to other lower power vefvcs : for instance G 3JGO POlnls out tbal the d.ly'lnne 7 I 341'). stemming initially fro m a l" o rwcgianscouting manual. po wer ampli· ncr n. Th e circu it. '"''' 0 " '"0 • • '0 ' t • • • p u . lOOK .. .1 " "'''. laled as ah nul 0·0) waus fro m 12 voli•.. used 3~ :1 ~iium l SOU I"\.." " '0'" .o. . H. by Pa ppc nfus.b . Dlod. The diod e WlIS an IStJ l hu t an OA 200 wou ld pro ba bly be j ust as good (in fact anylhing wilh a good rever.. unu srmncr " which cnn be H an . lineas II fW"thcr pra:aut. . C.. . 70 '" "" "" Fir .... 11.e. has d rawn a ((. events.. t. ml" d.. lion to a circuit do dge deliCrihcd in S S/j PYi"cipl".11. the life of OU lput va lves (pa rt icularly " sweep tube ." ..o".G ra w lIill... 32 shows 8 bas ically similar jdea.0'" " " " " .. 00 Ind wd. 11.on: the an od e is run at ntlls imum h. " Tr o o sm ln e r" A miniature keyed 3'~ M Hz . diM .c. lo r a.. G3JG O.. .l . The unil c<l n ~ put un a .o... Th e arrange' Illclll mighl a bo pm...'C for l~sl in il and udju~l jng receive rs and • •• EtUlO "" ~~.u " 'io_ _ of.. " 1---. F ig. of ..s Ihe $CTOCn grid of the buffer valve to the sta bilized h. . is shown in riil.)r of 6l4f. • •• . WW vo ltallC silicon diodes are used in ccniunc ncn with a 24 volt ener~­ iog transforme r an d relays rated at 12_24 volts d..\ Cirelli!.. M. p o .c.s as os cillato r. 1964). (SN 7400) fU llcl. 30 sho ws the bas is of the device. llU rrEll J I • • UJIOJ' 'KOm _. llob llily Darry Priestley. resistance be tween grid lind ca rt h (for eJUlmp le 10 fllcililate the lnccr pcrano n of au tomatic level eonrrol). "I ""... fflcl _ of .ilks ~ Ininia lure t ra" " niUor for Df''' Iox-huru . e r C. A s the corresponding resiMar is much lar ger in some rigs. dl"".c resistance)..t. Possible applications will occur to rea ders.. F ig.""r" A. 00 .i.'..mall p-c.c .. 34 shows hi. I.l " ".• lInd endo. dr ioer alld key..• CIC .te <>Uli'll!..ed in u melul bo (e. ... T he TIL i. a l . Edo. He colu\cct.nlCn nas . Pr<I. wit h gri<J em ission to prn ve whelher drift Is red uced .. l"ul•. . l-5 MM.. e usdul w d l'ive a I<>w-<:osl V M O S (·F!' power atHplir. ~. he states. bUI which also pro ... d owb l.3·~ y. .. These are both bused o n co nvenliona l crys lal d iode!!.... m . BR S26039 states MOl> c. ... u. modiflw r trcuit. r... Hruene lind Schoenil<c (M<.f....ma. I h. . " " . using diodes. by the succeed ing stag es. allsuu... .er 10 pro vide ral her "".TRANSMITTER TOPI CS .p '"ll. GlJOO ha s trie d us ing a diode in the gr id circ uit of hi~ SIHOI linear with no s nail".'J O '" '" ... In ~ . Mln l" w. " ) co uld be significant ly increased . has proved highly sllCCeS$ful and improves the cmcieney of the buffer stage 8S a low power cla. that he auuffiC!I t hat in the arrangement shown the diode functio ns as II steady lo lLd en the v.f..10' l o .000 oh ms. • •w ... resistanCll \I ith a 6146 shoul d be limited 10 under 30. T1~ -"" 3. p o ••• 0. fro m a no n· stab ilized l u pp ly.. " pwllin• ." '" Il i~ nOI inten ded here to attempt to go into any detail of ju st bow WB2CCM uses the se lind similar tr icks in his co nt rol unit. . 31 is int: nded to increase oscillator stab ility by red ucing " pulling " On a v.~n ".ln. "' J~al> FI. Two ideas .. ..g. C amp lifier. F ig.lo n 01 H • • lh ~ . were sub mitted to IT by IVQf Glyn ReI'S (BRS 26(39) after air-tcsting by G3 PKW... Tma l powe r eon' lImplin" is .. "" " t S n1~ OO " . althoui\h he has not a p. Ano''''''. 33. 0. •• n..W. and red uces rcncctc d loading d focts from t be later slages. b ut Fig . 6 146 57U t un ER 50 00 f ir..

round.. . ilOn and OIher fil let' ""ml"llncnl.:... o r so (rom lha ~ioion earne r freq ueDC)' II C\lD.ho. p~fel1fbly ". th i..phna..ltl"'u'IY " th.lio by bel ".tucs."n T V P(lJ~\l~ wilen l<lk . e fl\cicnl dcw-no.b. .nl of " key cl .rea. pe./'.en o floo. _ II . III TV .. _ M unbool&QOCld comm on mode elfoclI) and Ikl M nlll he n""ntlc. il is rea lized thal lh il lilt IS far fr om nlla ulll~.nGu. alwa Y' .to 0{ TV' m m:ld .t llllllVC modu lat ion. On<:r: \Oe<:ame a.. ~....f.hich lhe re are o Rcfl !lith Oland lnll .1 Sllt'l'ly line can ca\ISC maint YCIllll1C ~_ rialionl tlklt ma.gnaJ!intcrfcrcno: ' ilio must be cx<:ce<lcd it the TV Ihiddint of ItIRsmlller (~ lhiddinl.. .hQiQUC$.<by loop and lhe ~1 1io1l1 r. IlOleh liltcn fl lu'" or 0C:pllrlf1iofl (Inverse I<I~ ..II.. ...1l )...u"n :Good builc mlcfl'l3l1on a l C:C I R ligurl:5.n .. ~ OUler co-a.dvlIl l. 'Ibis ii . iPl!ucllC:e of f1!CIH"'" I .bl.Vlm (or <:4OdR " above PlW mocrovoll pcr met~) on Band I . 1tl colour re<:eflio n.. m uc ll e<llier 10 Cu lt T VI for sOl e b:uwl$ (o rc~en tome pam n B. rea..uum iue r . JlefliItmt compb. MitlJIrlin". .. .I "". IId loodc and ICnICII voillp.aI.. c le .' " it is 1 .di : nllte <1ilTe~no.llldcviskon r«:ei'-.. ..~<l luw ' n dial ioD on polana. .. "'-11 nllk:C III lhe ll~h t " Il.:h ma y be: u.I ln ~ D (}&v)I.. p . Some ~ .n . RnJltCi". Illlleu w. malady that Q.arc to be comr lelcl)' clea r or ""lIefll. \lK-only ~h allnel I American TV lIorizontal poI arirolion .tio 1 ~b1)' lowe r thaD ~ R would be loIcn.f. R~..-orb... • 10 .n ~ ~uidancc fro m A.I. I " lIllIJiUllcrferencc n. h... 7..". IiqIc su-in&l..II SOrb of odd IQI. on c ..f...... ~y loop.J.gnal.... Nnt. I la rmoniken "I I ch o ice ofacriaJ IO a.. (subJl'"t -."m l · be ndi l d rc-h. At lhe otlKr C1t~ . l>c vicol iodudc: poansitic . IrlC1er Of dOl&I apmu... l.. Do aall down_ d lcek UII on 'I VI. ':'C'l1. of ll>\ll pasa f... lIlke .m .isfq.!r 0ll.:""nca n pubhCillton.oupl ml.."I : 1<art in drn<n .T).ansmillcr cnclowrc ' lvold < o:rOW<linl components al hiah r.. nd oI lier ..o n AM A T EU R ItAD I O TECHNI QU E S n. rnay be iU hlllllllS say l 00d D (1'\')..Cli a lld stray coupliD&t nauns. lhe hillier fn:>qtoencict."~ ~ pltl'l'dl/t>ll 1t1w: traps..'e.of dJc:rti yc 611crinl 0( al l cmcrginl lcads. bcc1Cl' tbaa. pki... .. Thu I .. <HI T V amlllsJlvr.r 100 ...l. Iho ugh.". ' n Ihe UK .lIy I...u ~ (ro m si. "':R.. ~ollall<' rellu!uI. T -aerials "'.._ oft co haw: bid wa wd'onna thaI amenle ClOCCUi... of f. noI1n ll di trcn:noar '" c:apow.. $«".o rtlll<:>ok in . But here I. R.umoaia. un d Ihump... Thnl .. K C')'lnl ' h' l h power Ira . co-u tup. 3160 !"V...d iat in n II imponanl and I oomplc(a ClIft II likely 10 come only from 111eI\Iion 10 I coru..l... ? "dUlllln.. Af3in.lizin l.lter (note dew: lopmml of . a llDOlllll)' poIo!a.c tkat lransialOf p... "" TV .kk.. Sy J lr lllJ """ "..). ~ IM I ma ny lV aerial.ell co>aed 1/1 R4tJio C~ H~ l.itor 1)110. "*: 10 upocl lhc a pple an. pa1a&pl due to basiIl& his dfOC't$ 011 the: rni5rakm pranisc throe his fOlllCkn I I .:=n had pcrlco. nts o f fernie nan..D I po-L nctworlr." •. or <»ll~I"ICI)' of rod lKlll l dfoca of ra<m-Iioca.. Half" I"...illl Fa raday IoCftlCn or Fan ula y co-axloop be llllfto 1 .I<. til:r j '"' ""y . . hIe I" ~Ie.. . .. mi ~ht I ppur to be or lhe o rde r or SOd B al the! more cri tiClll beat fl'aj ucncin..ISlllJ TV!..w .. Jalioo.). mesh _ all bavrca.n r this (r"". \'a lue of I'l'O'J aena l b.ard of ~led tnllImillcr ~ _bout it. remindrr tb.1 ~ of ha rmonk n. D ifficu lly d d... 10 ciesla lIld _ his filler compooc ot ><a. tem lIlu re prurte to .lh pid".wi. colo ur is conrrncd to . flO"ihrJil y of roIocatioll ofaerilb. m.lidcnbly more noticeablcllhan &17 I 3 Mel. liP on tile screen. To ~-XW lIOfTE t.l.J!«"IS DI r.h.....: val ue of physical brilllIC<1.. nu T VI. • 9.&C' of the or tnoIO~ ~Oon {~I..' nlf:rfemJa: n./It.nt 10 luI'e been u!l<kr-estllnBlcd lPOSSlbly bccaux t::U~1l T V ac na.ca. . U lid .- pcrbapi. and .l &trad a p ictu re. p0ssibility of IlKrcasut ll TV SJp.rnpon" nl _ blll. nu m b« of fad Dn .. ma im filler . u bkd y u aayooc eIx to punue an ~ ~... UIC . lhe lXHIX n bk foo .:er belw«n c. 10 lIa'".. TV I is IlOC a probIern rbll always rapoIIlb. (fur e~amplc positivc video mooulauon "r 4OS·l tne . . pi-oc:twort ~ ~ mlO ~ _ 1ChOCI hno-or belief" ar.l .lO&Ily " In fI"CI1C': .""aJ Md ~ r. ~ ~ ~ IIuItk--.. _ n:-1Chcd !hen: mI)' through... bn:aklhror. 1ft.r. ybodJ. TV :ac~l.h " ."Pled tha i 1 0)' 1i J.. hi$b-pass. tnII. .. 1 the Tv fl'l'<l umcics would be very much IUlller thlll il . £X. ..lled ..t1y IPaI\:beol IDd balatlOl:d Ie ".. M .lltemi"ll mulllini fro m In Interrer in& cartie r II about I Mc/...f.:t . '<IO:h ikY1lCClI III lhe d o ublc-far.."U': Ibis 1liiy be mallet or recollUtllll' pt'l:IbJcrm of tI'Oft-lIloouL uion.-pass ha enee dots D« NOC! r. •.. w..: • bonu.. under III coodlllODl of dm..l1 i.acts and The field 1~ of loca1 lckvisXla SIgnals nries ~)'.than ror dccoup hRI caflll<.. Bel::a.6.:t~.... .... .. we ba~e atte mp ted to liel . . mronaot. ohm balallCC'<1 aeria l focJc r.• rideo OJ ..•.. "'My bo ll " . . of thr IhII'nbcr of nriablcs.. tur. A TVI Chad.me (OMII' d IntcrferellCC'Ih an n.>&h I I i.. .r~rnlCn a nd b<llu n.. It m u • .dt ate .p on f«du .n . do'Ic 10 cdp o( ~ ­ iRlCf'C"l lea w: plenty 01 Sp.iq~ N ol e Jnftuen cc o( .. hl luns on TV a Dd 1ra nsmi llt r aeriaI< . I I leal! ltIl"V (rio jte lfeU.I. i ~nion 10 ' loCI .tMiiotitnr of /wrmt>nia : uSC o f clftdelll IIcriaI lu ninlllma lcltiol o nil. in lOIDCeatSOOalpaa n' tct-t op acnal ma y IJII(I'f'O¥C ma lltll due 10 Icsspjd-v p of fundamcllill Oil rocdcr: noccb 6IIcn f5lubl or brid&ed.ccciYCl Ia...".1. Ioc:h. if . alon. {lll 1~('Ithc' "-nd the rnuumum Rand TV_V . wi re a nd ol~r multi-band dcIi&ns. =o~izc diffe~ncC'l bc:1W«lI Arnen u m lln<1l:uropc. bl'a l.tl. What l .. K~ / __ . ... pos5ibil ily ofphuiol -our inle rference (set below ). voltqe rqu lalion.u.{ : R eeo(lllizc Ihal in diffICult cues it is UIUlU.ll e r I llhe e nd of II . empirical perI'IUmCC • ollcll e¥«Y btt :IS ADd while lbe ~ pro(euioGal be ill • bcna" posiDoa.. This n _ Ihil.. ~. v. dwlads." ...~ 1 lll eK dc_n us"ally I n~"I'e... "'lckballd ftnite lnftSformct$ or double F. 1I.. of 60dB oomparal wlth his fnn~1U'ea wl ~.b le. . ~oo4dbrI t-.l ac:rillll. American ... llllCl _ mOlh... the p ~nl sn ue ucn.""..ri'l ia by fitlinl .(.. cn tr:n Ihe IYCnIJC tdeviUon d1a. a l. lu med OUI b To revie . Ooe .f. (dick filte n a nd bell"'. .h..n. b.. llho. (particularly uoun d th e 4'4 Me. . 1000d .. """'Pill: < l .• • n. \ide lr... In !'Ionll Amenc.I"...I~ ~ a nd TV .u liar_it" H~r(J/icHr: II'oe sa<a.II f rcq UCflda. filter (1'0 ~ J&A and many publisbed ~l .upPm~ dcr..k l.Il ltr1kc doom .o. • n<1 ~.alioo o f lOCI TV ehanne'. purdy t~ 'PPfOKII. d. fo. u.l&I]II. be .l y. abGuC fiDdm& throl ODe is Cl. Ibe irnporlallOll of pick·up lo by and .. th o ../iIw.lInUirla: I q ueeti O!l 0{ tubilrl}' 0( tho p . 10 Ihe flu t. fo r t~ uneapxleJ .h . ProW..l IIIOJe tb:ui l boul one-bUlldmlth P of lhe: T V si~l ".1anoe I nd l ym llWlry to . 'I<>rnC oIller mcc han .. 1ft thm doin& DOthia. ioIG llowu 1\a1."'l I~ema.sml. Iowy fem te hlluo . 4.llht bmcfil. p1cnt7 cl ~ to ICIQIfll lCnICII.un. to..:c. and l hal .t"'" l!-Ih .llSC o h o-called 8Cl .'J\.1..n fn nl><: a """" ' pJctum .UcrtlUl lor in TV rco:drr . 2...k . aenal III .. daa B n.a lion fro m the OUlCl scrccm of o>u fco:de n -.l.hal Ihcy an: ~ 10 ~ whc:a ill ~it)' ~blc: to be: the -=!UlI1 lIOisa of manipulalinlllhc kcy ' Ir ansmll tod ODe PQiDt lolwuld be ~ Then: is DOthinJ. in p rkti<. the: a ma teur In the . IICl1izoolal ly pol arized ltatwniltio.nic:uWly or Ia4k 1lCl.i ll \.~"".l pl'llc lia: d ltrCl\ from Ih..nals of UJIdc..DOlln a dw n.f.)' cuily hR.n~ de:. aeriIol S)'IIerD lPay be (a UK! of n'1 0 0 ~ . k. dI ode:$. pid-up 011 o."..nl .lboorpti~ lih ers ) or ban<! pUS filler(e.. . tblo ~JOCIiorl of IilPl&b odla IhIIl .." k1b.~ f. lIIIC o f ICl'lICGCd VI'lIa and m ultiple filters .r. l iplo l .M:e beI"'O:fl o:omponc:nts a n<J ~hle kb (olhe.. rou&b ly be .lTUa c( vertICally pobrizcd lV and "'oe wnal . a ccilio. u r 3Ol)... ltalUformcr or pi 1IJ1cntqr:: ~.l.. 1 io ~ . ocwo:omcr or okkima. It II wonn ren ltmt>t rin g lhat Ihe p. Iln<J tr-.Ihe fo reseea ble future.f. lta l han data C.m .

. 1 from the sta nd point o f all-r.. ilt·pole unit .. are reported to haw: performed Slltidactori ly wit" tntueeivers of 100 .. with p roper loy-oul. itlting lolld a n r comprise a pa ir of 2 W ll 100 o hm rcshto l'1 in pa rallel... . .. al they . OT e.apaQton may iii"' lill ie a Uen tua tion a t u. inally. I..o. ~. lmllar board.. .•ms: Recognize that thi.l is beca use luch lilteN are designed 1 be doven from a pun:ly l'C1i$li".p:aci Or1l.. TR AN SMITTER TOPICS 0. <If ..h.o.-< · T. about 2 Mc!" so tha t it fOlll\! a loss vbalun... Thilarr roacll resul~ in cm~ low co mpued with Olhet" TVI fillcn o f co mpa ra ble poWCl'_hand ling C1pa _ bilitic1.h. filte r CIon hope to c ure TVI if the ha rmonics ca n leak o ut alon.r1. . the v.. 0 taI$ti~ tcrmina t.. the be. 3S( b). t is quile likely not to include the cau. _ 1 0-0 ... 'lOdB. ou t the roquiml area of co pper. or For many yean it has bocn taken ro r granted that o ne 0( lite most impo rtan t means o f red ucing harm onic rad iaOnn II the m ultI-sect ion low-pasa lilter. Thll aniclc. thatl to achieve ~ o.. Allcnuation o f I 6-po1c filler is p""n u better than 40dlJ throu. r w ith . o f jus l . The h igh-p.f. urf'a= boDdold toge ther 10 form a double ICI'CCn. One Iinl l po int c mefllCS vividly rrom thil l rticle : 00 lowpaos liller ..ificatio n.f. wtreo " an d tbe lCI"eeninlJ '~ a ll fo rmed by winll doubleclad copper prinled circ:uit boa rd. gencTal ! po:.. ~ .I'. much the Ame way &I the a udio high-fidclity CDlhu! w t lin lon..uoQabl y lIat linll.ind t. 4.. riglllS "or engag illl in mutual recriminations. " fil. _I ".. tha .. Thc vocwer has hi.. CllCrllY 10 aD idling l'C5i! tivc load where it can do no harm. . ".h.4 Circuli 8 0rlrd f lit erJ The. by means of a n effective cross-ever Iilter . power to ll'3Ch the aerial elemen ~ 1llc Collins ell. The co ppoe .. ( bl ll• • _ . .en . i auumin.. M u..lCUlRCC capacito rs a nd inten..f. . For muJ m um pooNCr-l\londli ns... Ca rro1l-do=rvD to be n=ad in itl clltill't y by a nyone .n be formed fro m . H(a).0<)<1 ori.f. 4& t4 </< . I .p. Coble" R.h l.!Ies thil may not be entirely effC(:li".. An effective no tcll "''1 be p ul in ror e pan icula r channel b)' u~ i n ll one o r more IIeli .. 212 .. ca n be detcrmirKd usinll a feSl coi l and . S t1ld 6 po lc lilters to Ih l. an d then matches t he v._ ..1 ..t ma kes .... Public rellJ/iOl/s.e. :J$.ere o pera ted-none had adequate Ihleldinlll filterillg.ICl ion. stop band . The final word has not bocn written...lineen believe that tile so lution to lhis ~ unha ppy ch apte r in lllterioll ·· is to use lit ten which ao:hieve lillcrtJll by a b1orptioo of the har mo llie eocfiY ralhe r than by a Ue mpt ml to rellect these hanno olCII N ek into the trallimilter.0..l.~. Fi lte n using pnoted-boarll e&pocilORI are etreetlvt illio t ile u.0 if they feel tha t nOlhing is being done abou t complaints. wllh ... '~ IDLING ~.. the worst is probabl y ov er in the UK -but see elsewbere in this Srxtion . low_v alue ca paci tOR ca n be fa bricated by ma rkin. IOUIU an d loa ded into ... N o-. ith con ventional L C Iiltcn. Q/'balld:s). th~ ha".l oel"l.~y...s. adequately w elded. reaching the TV set in soma other manne r. u rfaoe:s no l o nly provide Iow. The QST a rtic le p resen ts dc3ign fo rm ul"" ror 2..h.-c! .h.. n' ou tpu t.~:-l. bUI.s filter inserted between the aerial and the T V recei~r is tile usual technique to reduce the l wampinll or II TV receiver by DD h. ene rllYto go to lhe aerial: Fi g. a nd thus perm il v..J CUT . rid-dip meter ~ l ub1oquroU y. .f.o n.0> " .:ompkte clear bill of health . _ oq u a r a l" . T he PO!! Office lias dcwlo pcd IOvcral lllten designed to reduce the amount o f signal fellChinl a TV IIel yla the outer cab le.. been dou btl .~~ ~" y. lea ving the bJ.f..lIy the co n\'C nloonallow-pass filler1l do ll<>' always work u well u u p«ted allf>Cat'l in a n a n ick ~ I'NO Collins Radio m eineeflln QSTCNnvember.. Try to keep' ~ller1l On a oo-npe rat ive bRsis. 12. the inlCroormoct inll . to allow the absorptive low_ pass filter 10 do its job properly . '" .. IfWlla ted boa od.b . The a u thOll I Uun! thai it is possi ble to increase rathe r tlutn to IUPfll"CU ha" uollies .ts willla ul insisting On these . The tronsmitt cr R U tallCea t thc1c hannon ic1ma y pa rtiall y. ho hu ever been d isappointed with the rew lu o f finin l a low-pus filte r.a re. 1I0t even aD ab5o rp ti".. tra lU<:CiVCll o r fnur ditreren. <If _~ fi l'. co ppc r. a n dfc.. I I . In o the r word s. ot . 3.n be fully effoctlve unlelS the ~ic t~llSmi Uer i.. on Ihl. directed h iah er frequent:iC5 to his tweeter. an d probably never will be. subject. llPIal... fo r ttlo dltcr ca.. and R . with OOnItruetion ftl dctails o r a n:presentativc 4-pole IIlter. I l10ul d virtually SlOp an y v.I. 1 techn ique which could playa sillDifican t ro le in lhe improvet ment of ftlte.tlout the v. t.. But wilh single-sta ndard u. wltll " (Wte. from rear.clad Tellon bnlIrds are rccornmcn dcd . The outet bolt .1 <. . even in a COl"R<:lly sel up filter $)'1lem..are loeb... .hich separates outlhc v. li.fil <If.. "".. and is likely to be h~ly reactive a t _ a t Ieut o f the barmonic f""lucnci"".f.. a nd rnmtlr of tile or der 4' . O p .:olll>flCl... Many designs ha. provi n.... pa llls other than tile aeria l feeder.I... H owever In so me l. wol" . Ye t.f...1 .tive "..-tuned lr l p sections..annel 2 fril13C al'llD .Ilion ..:: boeQ llubli$1>c\I which.\ par tial Ct1r(l a l Jeil5I111lowl sornt lICtivlly.. with aJl emerlliDe leads adequa lcly filtered ... wIIcn:as simila r lllten bllw on mic.. TV .5e absorp tive ruten make use of a cors~ll'1.. but the more read ily availa ble d o ubl<>-clad li bn>-1l1 .. AbJ""plive Filler Approach 10 TVI In"". Vicwers are seldom anti-amateur at the outset.. Orhtr merhlJni. 1 . ethe r t ile hi. Now. the ty pical lf aOlmillcr ou tpu l Impedance tend! to be resosti"' only a t lhe ou tput frequency.h. Co) " y. "..If·shielded bolt" o r inlernal sereea. III a Ch. 0104 1Ori_ r1... '_uIMtor owe•• .f from tile h.h. A valuabl e eo ntribUl inn to the belter undemandin. h tllwll'til. . inc~y.v_ 1. due to tile loca l ..hann el protection (but remember tha t the Americans a rc no t concerned with the tough Chan""l I problem). O pAcita.r fCIIultt : the tIMd co. 125 ~n " ..f. KOUVU...holly. earK:elthe filter inp utll'tl<:tanee'.can ellul""n tl440 t4 C/o). e Prlrtc. IhlS pa rad o.but ca n rap idly become . when inserted in a C<Hl ~ial aerial lransmission linc. and In!l freq lfencies to bis woofer.f.. soc Fig.h...Il.. harmonic. F or trall1miuer powen 0( UDde )00 wattt p.. or p roced ure for Y'J '" Iro oble. In other wo rds. They IUuest thaI this can bo done ill N Oedlln. " No adjust- usin.l lO.. with some modes all<tpower levels. wilh bot h o Ulc r and . _. tra nsmiuer. h rar . .h ing the acrial d e men ts." righ ts ' Illd so has the amateu r-bu t bene t slill if both can pursue tbeir inte re.AbIoepl i ~ F Uter fo r TV Ha nnOllQ ·· by Rich aod WcinJcich. . ODe is tho "IOSIY" rerri le filter which cousiltt of j U t ! a few turns o f ec-ax feeder woun d on a ferri te toroidal co referri te normally Inlended only for applicati olll belo . W.nLe o f boanb per sq u. .~ if> .. In pllleti<:e &Orne 16 f1ltcT11 lulve br:en OOl1ltl'1JCll>d.. Buicallf .al a ncnt ua tioa flllli es h thnc fIltC" an: alwa)'! (or e~m o nenl being nchievN in ptllCl iee.. 1968 1.

"II NG ".la ...tlc 1'1 _ . ''''''a ... . W1ZOI ill QST (July.-t .lope a ..l. . 47 st 1" _ tloIo ..... it'." he writcs..a: r. M l1uinll a co-ax p lUI y and SacU l on the in""t a nd ou l"" t leadS. l.J .In.. IIOlvin.. Usio g 11 FX2249co re.Q atill give trouble. f.l ld be SIr=<! lh a l the h. 38) con"st$ 0( 3 ) d ouble lurns o r 22 $.OOIl in the a udio Ita. ina d vita ble 10 put ho mcbuilt maiM filleD into a ther peo ple'..... '. I. " a n:as . 1_..... the basic del ... Fig .rid a nd ca thode current ill 6146 p..fi lillr ""lUnd IB ns(ormc rs On Ierrttc beads. . O~ .ges o f TV set.. (b ) I. 1 <w a .f..au tio ns.1 m. _ _ Cloa h.1rncn llll h.oIved in ac hieving thls. winding length l .> Ill" better k nown h igh pas. " .p.. imple bul dfccl ivc am: advocated in vari Oll1 ed itio ns of the Radio HturdboaIc : lee F ia:..a. ~ • •uo' ho •• " h. 4 fl . n ..:g'll"\! to an y mai ns filters (CS{:«ilIUy u y loaned to Olher viewers) . W 110ss l. 1bc double loop n:<..." ••• (SIZt ROD 1 . " . Note the use o f 1100 volt a.. 31. wl. . filler made up in a l iD boll and mounted illSide t he TV llel as _ r as possible 10 the pain t when: the mai ns cable dlsappul'S bno the l. I. fl h<H A mains filler can be most effoctiw in reducilr. fo l•••• la l lI.. amplifier. all cil'CUmslunc~ ......lle r<.ll wool<! requ ire cope e trcalvcly with 1'8 Me:s r J . TVt .. .. _ h. d iameter.. so that rect iflcatio n docs nol lah p laQ:...ei-.~ .. . 011 .a usc of lega.. a nd double Fa rada y loo ps. allerilill I TV leI Ilanll lhc mains lea d..Dl must al way. fo r exa mple.l from a filter (ailure o r shoclc... _ ' " . tiS thai stray roctifIca. Tho G J X O .f.4 oJ.l. . f1. T ol ..." . functi o n. l.. 111": inle nded rcr those situa tions where lhe d . I. . be slrased in rl.c. on-atf " (s. 36 s how...rca.. the mo~t effective w.. ' as a l ains t 6 to I Od ~ of dou ble Fa rad a y co-ax loops."at li NGLE NR .._ol . S"lId. etc. a To p Band T VI p rob lem.in." .rio '11 . Ihe n uter screen of lhe ca ble... i5 oneo ( the Okksl dadga In tac kling tBnomiller harmonic ra dia lioll..> rtnlIlio n 011 the do uble Farada y loop to: hn ique which some Po .... w .:vil.o/o<. requirinll the USC onl y a n ..l.m ..d<.. ~ I ".•."f ""o't •• I ." ~ S OlORT LfNGTtt ~tRR llE '.4 0 ' _ " '0 .J 4_ . Jk. is l:"lI ing lntc lhe T V r«civet a la n.. 1<01. comin g Ihro ullh the co-u fceder .. remind. 0 3XOl has also ltied a modif'tcd... and somt:ti mcs fa irly COnt9ICI switchin. dl ...d on. ) $wltd! : Fi. . . 010. iwlatin.." Hill Ma ubcwl . n.'mora1conso:q~ rcaullin.ler. co vered wire c lO8l:WOUDd (10.. 1 Oflia: engi nee rs rfCORlmead.. SOI. as no SImple M""e. 03XOI relays in f<...... .. simp le.. ' 1 M I NSVI. Ma n)' tra nsrnitter dcslllll' usc a silille milliammeter to IllC'1wre va rio us parameters.:ir<:uit. .. II is absolute ly c:iI'Il:Dlial thai suc h un il' should be so constructed as to be safe liver lbe ir lifetimes.p. I«hniq"" whk h also effectivcly l.. slICh ' 0fIIl: JO or mo re lum s in o rder to mellll a rc t l:<lu ired.. fnn. an d fo rmmll a l'a radaysclU:lI .. . . 1 1'1 <1 . who. it i..:h<>ke in the grid of Ihe o ffendi n.. 8reakthroto. llETWU" { INNtR . dea d certain.:an be acllievcd w.4O. OleO.. 0 3JOO turs musllrcd a loss of o nly a bo ut Id S 10 Me.1 ..:rO~S the R2 raisto r in t he cathndc l. .. "III my expe rience....... Tbc sillgle lurn laop ma de ou t o f co-ax . Th e " lossy balUD ~ will nat meet all I b<l lu. ).S. J.. 1.y of dcal injl with fllDd. h sho u ld not be t hou ~htt hDl ferri te tra nsfor me rs a nd lony rerri te haluns a rc tin a/ter_lil'/! 1<.:r filter is one of l hc e l\ca pcst fomu o f filler 10 ma ke Up. ".39. 111 "" ' .~ es good the fnraday doub le loop a t h..c>r:1l INN[ 1l CONOUCTO Il TO !oCRlEN a ND COY~ R "'1 M lM'£ 1 AM A TE UR RA D I O TE C H N I Q U E S 8lfll.... l1. the device can readil y be tried o n a ny TV r«o: ivcr. ".'cs inlrodUOC' l:Onside." lERIAL l n...'".eRUN . r M .. " lao I lnl . flttin.11 1·8 Ml. 1968) n:parh On a paTlkularly sim ple amltlJCmcnl be U!ltlS 10 mcuure .:. ... witb l oad construction and componen ts of adequate e. is in... AIao Oo . With S I d OloCd lbe . o f a bou t 8·5 an) on all «-translslo r-rad io ferrite rod aerial o f 8 mm .W.filters eo m prlMl jllSt a 47 K resistor o r d . bi. Some o f lhe$C wide ban d dl.... .a. H .&cs jwa D Imgle-Ium OOtIplinll t rMn!'fa rm er using a sh ort scrap of ferril e rOO : see F ig._ ... llnd cannot he u>eol in .... a.f.NO :. f •• _ .f. tra nsfu rmer. hamel unless you really un<knlaod a nd fo llow all SAfe ty p ro:..a blc allcnuatio n o f lhe req u ired TV signa ls.e. .v. A.:h probl em . ter pl \l$ It! fO rml D vcttme rer "l. p... r... O~ .t I'lXeiven aDd spcoch ampli6cn CI. co 01 _ _ .. a nd in no way d eleterio L15 to Ihe valve'.. broa." __ d_ mM.". llM: maim c hoke (Fig. a nd which in h is own usc proYed highly elfoctivc ill.ils. thus lnd ical in..-warkilli ""'pa<:' tOlll• One poi. " •.. Ihau &h it mii1:ht ' M rro. He I'\lQIIlI a ..40 " ...) p .l:. ..:UIC$ hb 0. h i&h... 01 1. 1 0 r'a"". This prevenu gr id :uld e&thod e being a l d iffCl'l:nt d . 1'«01...... OJSYC ~ ._ J.. It ~l>ao. or " 5tCU Rf . potentials. --.. with a 500 p I" eef5ll1ie by_pass capacitor to the valve c:alhodc tenninal (n ot to eh il\Sis)....0 . I..:hauis. - . Tile ' X O version co m prl..f . ....

":. Voharer On PI....~ rt.. ~ ' . .. . cap&eitor should all bo moun ted close to the lun in...-u ..olaltO o f such a ayslem eompare4 with the more convenlicmal valoe clamp arI'lUIlCJIlCIIt. F SA D. tM cathode current o f the: !lISC. OJFRB is a firm believer ."'1' I ".I..~ ~ "0 . ilh _ to "". .o:::::~~r. b ut the relllllinillg components (a t d .l tO C3k:ulale this to l ive • ~ r. grid driv'Cvo ltllgc mo nit oring. 1968).. No vember..f.-~ ' • •0. _ _" " •• m odo. virlUaUyto zero in t he absrnoe o f d rive. . WOLRW.c.. If a bi[lh vol tlllC liD<: i. k of a swi tch.. and a s pr ing-b iase d doublc--polc eh.t .:ouplio. "che<! _ _ 0&1 ' . .=. in case the user has fo rgolfen to .os .radlJa11y o penill ' the way to new appheatiollS for so lid · state Iw itchiolf.c. .. Clomp The inereu in l a vaila b ility o r tramiston b&vIn...*j'=i:lI:':~:~~'2: .. the IOpF Irlnuncr which lIovcml the c1eglCC of delu nin.. 6 146 ~o I- <:um:DI.ileT.Gq. nAO . f1 H .. the 10 o hm resi.5ed in con ju nctio n with a 4 7 K ohm.e.. au. .. Fo r a BA102 th e permanelll + I~V fl • . R2.ct o r I:rid Dr . Deudoed Tunlnr on T.Cd by a 12 volt zene r d iod e since llny varia tion of thi~ VOl tsllC will ca use a freq ucOC)" variat ion o f thoe v. m" voltaIC shoul d be +' vo llS.I. suit llble va lues wou l<l be RI 4-' K o hm.r.f. ") Is . lllld Ihe elimilla llo n o f po "".. h. possible.\' o n a sinlle variablc-vollagl'K".m. .. .ll~tallCC diode : ICC ril. As IohQWIIlD Hg. . F oc a 12 volt con lrol line . circ uit of the v..iunetioo wilh a JOO voll s upply an d provi din' l\ rcllUlated 200-\'Olt 5CrtlelI l upply when r . Solj~ _ Sc"".l. a nd the poten tiometer P Ihoold a lluw an "-"CU rsiOfi of from a bo ut ~ to 9 vohl . itlvilY wllm . With 51 Qpc:n the: me ter p1\1$ RI imliclltes lhe VQlllae deve loped by Ihe pid drive aaooa RJ . 'The VVe.:~~lb=:=:'.le v. du rin !> mcuUT\'flle"n ts.M_ . of a tra QSOl:ivet 'SO lhat Iran_ ion Ind recep lion ClUl be 011 ~illhlly di fferent f«:q ucPeioes is a f<:atu". rclatively high eo llector-to-cmillcr brcak dQWn-vollllF rariDp (BY. n. H ••u _ .m IG.t. vol tage available .I G':. n G '" _ m it/ ••• . volt _ meier: if the basic meter mD~1 is more serultlve tban I rnA.s G rant .. and kJ Ihe I mA r. " -" lor 12" ~ 0'.o..". 41 tbc DQTma l grid-currenl meter is . • • •n " .._ .. Uina virtu ally d iftc:l 1witehio 8 o f the SCRlCO to ea rth potenl la l. m b. on .. it is essential tha I no b.. 1.n&O-Qvet lOUie switch breilk s the h. (Rmli.d. volUiae... 42.l. . bul c learly ot her vl luet couJd give ony requ ".~':GJ.. . r_1Q S5 .. wilCh off h . 2 walt d rop p ina resi~tor an d 12 VOll zene r of adeq uale PO""" . H _.. circuit u a I4rciUlird. WOLRW indicates vancus adva. • • ----. Witb the va luCil al~ by RI ..J comb ination. sho uld be applied 10 thc p.l . 10 p ractice. drive II a pplic<l lo lhe p. R '24·7 K o hm and P S K oh m.. in hillate st trallS istQrized u . D. lloc value: Qi bui lt·in grid volt lTlllte rs fo r thQ ~.o.'. H ~'" 52 ~ -~ "I' u . thil i:s Ilno the r ii rnple methcd. ".-REF. GJ FR B. o""d for 11ipplyillJ the llClwork. in perm. bcrore mc:asurinll p _a_ grid d rive. . lor a nd !he deo.-atinS. f SA D SURRcoll t luit a 250-volt liM can be U. SJ!telTlS. o nly) ClIIl be in any convenient position.. R2 6·8 K o h.1vo ila I. " " IJ. 1968) hs ! I neat I rrangement allowin g either tnnsmltter o r l'«lCiver frequcoey 10 be d etached fro m Ihe no mina l freq uency a lld delUDed by u p 10 a bout S kc/s atld yel ".... It is then possible 10 eq uale dri ve with bi. I'QltmeleT when the bin Is n:mo~ frQIlI the rrid. l l. drive voltage r. A fu n het idea used in tbis exclrer b h is mc tbCKl Qf p.b.turned 10 DOminal ll l he f1i<.nscelv. "'''1 ~ T .f.ed II an r.f.- 'The abi litr to " c1etaeh " the lin. c~l. If the &rid c ur ren t meter is lhuniW 10 pater lhan I rnA Ls.. Du=>s. Rl is chosen 10 l iVll lhe IPIlropria te fult-scate-deflecrten o f the meter. wiu:hed to eeeeme an f. rs . In Ham RDtJItJ (Sep tem ber. rlll>c:r than r. R 'I J. This U!1!$ c hangc-ovcr switches to PUI a differc nti.s .<acto'" H "''''''1 '" $1 ... d.TRANSMITTER TOPICS . m.r.. IhQWn the useful dio de aUellua h) r used by Ph il HClTVo"OOd. so mu ch the bel le r. Un der such condit ion.''C 26 i.s..r. the two divide r nelw orh fo r co n trollin8 the VVC will depend on the d iode a nd th.d. il il ~tler to I dd tile « Ita IwitebiD8 Deeded to m um i l to m aximum &CTI. C. OJfR B noles lha t it is a good l(\e. Imter read.. but eonsiden. wbich has pro~ its value on commernal cqulpmen15 A. droppin.. derccror . al the on.. "'on/torlnr 0. the grid forms the" d iooe anode" <If lhe r. D• •• d>. descri bed a screen cla mp Iyslern intended l or IUC In coo.d. • 1 n... lhis s hool d he Slabllil.f..A "' .. 200 rnA anOOc cu rre n t ~ m A ~rld c:umll l. J K o hm.4 4 . .

e. d~l. 44.lDlll by ON~J I : Fig.. l>oug D eMaw.. flocause of the heater cu rren t ralinit (2-~-amp fo r each 6K D6 l. and appm.1. . be operated lit leTll!X'falures well below the W ' C usua lly ~l'CClrlCd by lhe ma nufactu re".llnd thaI some type of forced air cooIill~ will be advi.. anode ~ireui t of each valve (o r allemal ivdy being able 10 switch I . SiliCON lllQOIE .11.. ... 1%8) from i an Hem by VUU N io Thr / Ild/OJI Rmfio Am4lrur : F i(l.\Cribed by WI C ER ca n llc !\li heit' d from the .oo ao d marched val'<el. it is possible 10 use lhe European r L... he dail1l$ tbat II I those tested showed a Irue figure of at least SOO va lIS an d cou ld be used reasoo. .D. (QST... Tbe fK l th l the ~11 potentia l iI almo'lt in<Jcpendenl of scroeo ~n t is a rU" ~ " beoelit. cia ble dcl\clctlon power . ""rago amO lellT will not norma lly be able to do tlii. (3 fact whi ch 'ho uld he borne ill mind whell 611illl rq>!aocrncllt.l. l OO-walt d.. il re--publiahl:d in RQl/o-Ekc' ro"ks (Ap ril..106. FiS. Ideal fo r a 3·S Me. from the po wer nUnNllly dissipa ted in • clamp valve and vollllgc d ropping rcJilUlr... he sdv OC1I les fining individual low<ost melen in t h..d. ha l p ro"'Od ooe of the ma in provide ". ble in con fined sp. Furt her he slr~ 'he po inll hiu bu lb and aDOde temperalures are uSUillly lhe limiting p. J uly.. in futory-buill rigl usin. Th e refen.t fo r blindS 14 Me!..cilllalOweh adj. . ho wever.0.c.wattage 91 K an d 220 K volta~ divider.46 t thoulth il .mum signal OUl put.r..y. types. the a mmsellK'o t describe d by W OLR W . Wlt... implil\cd cin:u il of HH.f.:s if a nlllJl imum valve life 11 10 be atta ined.r.. QTC (June. W ICER. In pa rticular.1~. Output VaIn. of lhe 1'. Anode lempenllures above ~.keyed p...nsmillen: not hwving elfectr. the 10"1:1" 2N 3440 il s" itdv:<J on.~ Screen Refutation DJ3WlI in ll L. the peesence of r.nce on t he qucst iOfl of para lkl o peration willwllr \loins specially 5Clec.. . The ~ll voltliioC aUlomatN...lrarnclers with these V3. .ably s" rely.. of powcr arnplilicr valves for l. d-stulrill' . 47. 1 assure equ al or ncar equal I" .W ..<ttia l that t hey should be of the receo t high brea kdown volta ge type..1. 6 Lf6.. . Some delails of the hilth-power Iinc.i.. a poten tial al"""t euctly cqllivlllc:nt co tbe value ellistins lit t he junctioa of tbe low. so pI' • • ". Wl CER indicalC's Ihal if lhi~ is done l he dyna mic t rk k "r lhe valves will usu. a dJ y'''~'' Key elld Fill•• A l ey dkk fillci not invol> -ing an iro n-<::orcd ( hoke an d witable fo t ClI thode. eTIImplifier.... Witb no r. grid.-io pu t lilleilr." app lie' equally 10 lower power stap.I""""'- t<aftI.el".t.. . para llel-connected. and heal arisin . drive.~ I little of the r.. If higbc r vottallC hearer transl"o rmcrs. 6JS6.-. .. 2'8 amp hea ler Iransforme r. Such types as 61>QS 6QBS . . 4~ .n . Colour television. conneetin..II.f.led by arranging for individual a!!juslmentA of billS to eilCh va. Th e IWO I N914 diodes prmee t Ihe transislors fro m R'~rse breakdow n al the emlncr-base juflC1 ion.a. Ill' provides u!\C'ful guida...'S linear wilh inpu t and OU lput pi--nclworb are given in lhe Jalluary. bT DnWI ... w.u:...b.. Jt ~ of courx eut. opention. 43 allo". four 6KD 6 va l\'C'I in a arouflded- Un. 19611 ) describes iI method of regulilting o~r a wide.tfDoCll l!.."" 2N34 40 El90 ~.• • UlQS a"'f'l' _ _ T __. in Ike abscocc of d rive: a IIOCful featu re... . upwards. Europooll PU05 and PUOO. arc ••'atlnble." of 2SO volts. d .. 191\9 issue er Ihe Ikl gian CQIQSO jou. u olo .lve in ord er to ma"h lhe 1I n-sigll31currents . in :<erie.ally d rop. 1 I'" 0001 6006 ' Ia. drive put . tllble value t he . .and uses a 2S·2 volt. Fig.$05 with ils 40 volt. Thil problem ca n be mioim. 6KD6.. " f l. pDtenllllal l !lc: anode of lhe driver $fate . . . Ingle meie r Into ClOCb anode cin:uit)..cru"-gri d po tet: ial of a 6D05 po. 6lQ6 and lhe . ..ma: u > 'oltaee fo r lin El. He stales thalt"" silico1l2N3440s have a rated llV •..:lopc:bulbs sho uld. 6.e coo ling.ible.... .t ". . if l'O".. !lsge5 with aboul SOO volll h.. CU ll in! il off .4).. ~ I . .. bililia t ha ler chokes are advisable. '"~ Un_r AmplJfl. 1 . Ihe .. .. To f. Env. The dillgram mak es tke prindple cleM. WI CE R put his heaters... 1968) exa mines t he fa cton invo lved ill IlI. I neplive volta gc 00 the Iowu 2N3440 t" mSisIOr.sUy be within 10 per cen t up to ma l. 6GES. ._. C.. . T While the tnmsiston can be T..dju.. whereas Ilrict ly spukinll the ratin g sho uld equal or exceed that or the sup ply voI lllge (in this case 300 volts).af dc. mo re Iltan o ne valve In the power ampli fier).. the ot her 2N 3440 is co n ne<:lcd II 10 eminer fo l OWl:r wllich PUll on to t ile screen .."...r-...I..tter fat: linear ICrvM:e.'" 5Cllt:tI AMATEU R Il A D I O TECHNIQUE S 2 N34 40 ~21( 4. 0 Whlle the trammitlcr manufacturer ca ll ha ndp ick and grade his va lves befn«: pult inl them into h~ equ ipments.90 series relUlalor valve is deri ved by rectify.. . hould be no te<! lh.. lhe "' C:<:n virt ually to ea rt b... wilh itt rcq uimnent fo r linc-oUlpul VlLlves eapa blc of prav idina: blah peak curre nt.. . 0'3 amp he.. wh~h he says can cuilyoccur Wilh valves ill compact t. . T ... ha~ been shown definitely to <IIoften valve life.. rho ugh l he lDfo nnali.

'C2 ~'or 144· 146 I\Ub Iiltl'l' 144 Mll z 14S Mll z l46 MHl For 144-1+ H i M Il> lUI.". a " . I... ma de up on a small p it ee of primed cirCUli boa rd I"inll I"w·.d. I cire uil (f"ig... .top Fill ... a node current 2SO rnA . ft... .-1_ I. of. ' nl '. Ho b.<I I bnpllfi " _ II "'_ .. ~ S<>IUl: IO l n dlS'~nl . p. wl...Ihe restVrla lll . i ~llId i ng cable (""lIfla:l"l"'.... 11 • •• •• I • • nlt IUlClI tel ... . a .r--j ~I~ OTHU w. The Pl~OS has been IlIpencde4 by tile I'LSO? w hich i$ read ily ava ilable fro m loa l delil. LASA K ... " " "1/ " "'" '" so ..ln ly L1 11 U •.. . The usc u f ball .u iOllS.. ' 01 .II... .O<I. <If _1..1_.. d1.. .~. . L1 1._. anode poICnlilll 4SO vo lls. "n '..• ...1 100 " -llib OulI' tll t 1l Iln 144 M H ~ ~. . Th e tillcr W a ligned as .bl.. re hi.'.. as lh i\ ca n C~ II<' f" l.. lha l of lh • • male llr u a "_ n ille r. ' " . n8 '1 I~"..-01••• • _ ' I• ." b. ecco unrc red II pro b lem or .. d ..V re TV I . lo we r Iha n.j·r cjlx l f.1 <:a hbr..n y . n • • b " I1 If .l l dClIIils arc s iycn u ..ed hi. " W_I _ • 7-1.... o blem comple tely . L AlA II( • • d of 1 ~ ." in Ille UK. His . " 1 b.. ..h<-rl work ill l ./ e:. l.d l.. . LA ltAX found thai Ih is .1 0 _1 ~ r"I " .13pJ "...nl (Kcn .1.1' fillels lllllt4 10 144 M H l and InSI ~ I k:d in lhe neillhh"ur'.. ni>.. 144 "nJ 412 M H. fi h (. . th e tota l p rice... 144 MHa Soncl_..w ..1 _ ' 1 .!.. Ira n.....1" •• 1 101. Circuit L1l jl'l ' LItO L2...n" "I <>r .k. l he No". d_l..... somcli mc. 144 MHz 144-2Hlll z 1+l '5M ll z " ~I ..d . i~n . .. impl .h C:1 ... u. MH o h. of p. T h• • • . ' 101M li.I IO he rc. 48(n)} InCOfl'. TV' A s lnb l. OTH( II. cu. inJk.._ • d""'''' I. ft•...TRANSMITTER TOPIC S '" 101h- ~I 1iOt.' ulplIl../" .. _ w • • ko .IM>uI £ 1.) IlH AI••• ao.. I od far ' wOft':'.io ns his bellm a l1tc" rI... d • ••II •• (b) a..ood TR 70 10 dfi vinllQQ EOlI/41J f1 . . i ~ n " l~ hl~"lelC\1 Ihe TV receiver an d Noel ...s tl«ll~ to prcvcr n" sho r l-<:i r.-. [(lninM. n t .1 1\tC<1"" I" 1'C " ir«leJ "i rtu~ lly ~lfa illh t ~ I a hou.. Iwu lll be lI~cd f" r a llSnJn\:nl (e_~.o n~ llly good : u n a rlidc in Ekr'trl" r (No I I. .n.. . (e. a l Ihe receive r is a l lr. D6 1 _ ' lea'IB. ra ld .. " .. B"..' " PL 505 '" ~ 'f' " "1/ eco ...'c~ ia n ra d io a nd TV i n l crrc~~e in~"' l ig.. ra nf. .. au••l ..u. ill lhe case o f in te rference from 70. n r . <:ry.t.. q_ol. " uro .o ra l..I. e " .._ cJ i. ion o f the l:ketrv tl .1 1.(ll a l d ll pa" .. being nOI mo re th an :. 1 C I .. ....1 Oft" upp •••• d 1o C111 " O N'J " (. .. hn Ma rli " !'l acd i.I_ 7-5".. a~ r(lllo ...... ell... A .. I n. '...h. . 'M"" .nl S.. H." .~O £2. e li.·cr. " 1".ltQr) .a"...-hc.. -._. " C I'.I. where TV re«plio n nlay s ome limes be o n rln/uw.."i lin ~" o r me signa l ~.d fi l_ a u . . C l '4-1O p ' " I II . "' a' . ry u ak" lIltolb l SilPlal ttCBCral or ... lU&lOns._.w 1. ."dl".. VALVES OpcratioD.. he ~d ll pad . p . For s uc h I r~l.. "'l rompo>nem. ~ _-. a gcd him 10 lry lhl: u«' " r ll~ ml·. 48. .:ie~ h i ~hcr lha n.rliol\ Ita '" rcun o Ilis <'"<I uip"". nl. · 1· -~ ~..1 rC<:CI'liun. Lt ' ftd to.. 1'178) cnCOll.1 . TV feN er : Fill.I.. "alB.. grid curren t 30 rnA .".. 1'" ..

diameler "' jlh turns spa ced 10 avoid touchinll): L9 5i l... and m. Note lhal ZL2AJ W docs not specify Ihe v~ ria!>le:--u>rcd inducto rs htl! . T his pm.. ~3 ] p F: "r h. fot luned circ uits : L 1 Bt. lillCS a 144 MH .mpl ~ t>nnd p.. IJ'UW'S " ~na l ~ over ~ he han d of about 14o.. (2 ) If . this Can involve maj"r modi lieali< IM In pac ka ged equ ipmen t. . .l.. ' ) Jl ~ l ~ f l $.. i.. b1ln d " " <D n it ".lanillS up the ~ i ~ nll l Is ttl plI'1S the o ulput Ih r".. nls 10 . ~. (1 Il h. 011 fern Ie bead..: t away fram the T V -"I J ' rt.l ran".. G3Xll.on.ulfe".:dhack . Ll l 31 : a nd L I2 51. o nably ".u< !iller """. \' (. ". u. T he lron. ' .... Ite shew n in n y. rc" .arly <tallC'l of Ihe lr3nsmiuet'. L8 (c ) tc ) ~ -. bel. K... I. An altcrnauve melhod "f . " . L5---6 . "~"'" ' •• '00 •• " 0 1. D J ~K II..inl wi ll help: if 'I flCr30iSlS fit one f". ". C3 '3 pF :L4 4t.. L3--4 . " • . AMATEUR RADIO TEC HNIQUES "._ . L9 '0 Ll2 (all 20 . ..2 8 I.. 49.. ho uld be I in.... u ~h and/o t fe. . ml ll. Screenln. hetw""n L1-2.llle j\l~ t enough 10 dr ive Ihe ""~ 1 stalle. ..~h II ". cou p '. ID -" 1. Alignmenl WIlS carried om u~ illil a n eescrc uon ftl. lth doub '. Mars. l ' Jl .lftO ' I T . ... clea n " sill'131(a ll spu .. " .. put iL He '" co nvinced lllat lhc lll>5wc( i!.. miller ' ." imum po wer ha ndlin..... ..t.nn(ll be expa..nd"<hvo<. . .n~ number of lar ge " " (0' II link over cold end of L1... aI O p F : L1 2 1 I . ) bipolar dC'lig can procl.)~ . fo und lhal his T V re<.. lire ddCri!lc{l as Tr o nso r .lny in' lahility is fo und in l he driver or o utpu l ' 1l11lC$ a 10 pF Cllt'llcitor from bnse 10 lhe nearest Cll rth "". ......1 0 11 pr inted induc t". h. The main lX'. l-'I:.•_linned w <'Opper nn "It in. " aly""r with SO MJl 2 swee p).l~ . C5 1 0 p F :L6 2 1 I .. .. " -hen viewed o n 11 spectr um . .. lhese In lhe c.flll llll cnua tion to .. L10 31.u. "l p~ h i1i ly Is pUI III al>u UI 15 watl •.' '' n. purl/ I« MH I f re" u m/tl l' In BrMk _i..hkh "~..b. Spa"i".le<1 10 " .' .t i5 " ''' lI1lCd that lhese a'e of sla l"JlInlt ypc.i.• "Iid".l "n I' ET.·e"" "'"~CS hel. "j bipolar .lcs . ~() . M H • •• _ Lo . ". U In.m .. c TV/ fl/llIr Fra llt Harr....'QlIency me ier.l.. O<:l ail.a JJ p F:U 4 I .1t1.. ... u. '/ _2. urprisinll since hil28 Mill. eliminat e unwanted feedlh".~ v<:r " as . a l len.. to b l.\VIde t h e lype nf ultimate rej«t illn pos sible at h. lran..1ir ·r 3is .. T he tri mm"..Rd Ind_ ... beam is onl y a few f<>.e . " dtl d.~ hirer. Th o .. purii " utside th.·nteh ure : II) Keep lh ~ d rIVe 10 c:l<:h Jt. and alth oull h ' I e bcuer 10 minimi . SImI' " ' " MHE S""d"".I-<. R Fe 31 enam . 1o".r.. .....m collect o r to ear th . .I4{ MH l bUI . 1lI. ."" I".. wilh dOll"Ic-' ur'>ed c ircu i" : Fig. He Wi v"" lhe followinW detail.. provid.a l': n.1I . K . (June... T hil .. 1 I Dro..wo'n o n ellrri.lIiIU provides } -n walts o utput from an . "' '" II-.chain bdse.. ."~1I bamJpu•• filleR a l v.f. fTer his lindillill hal co nwn lional mul li·slage spikcs.. . . ou.l ~ p F...o..0 1.' 1~ t'~ H I . Bq n d· R~JK f L5 2 I t ...f. FlIlar NOl all wlid..n" TVI fru m his 2~ M II~ lr3Mmissio ns : nut ..~ dc<crihed a s. .. Z L2AJ W. • .. a l O p ~ .ll. to USc 11 mull iplicr-. ou' • • <.h.. M.. ! l I AJW'. and no <t ilticullies were e~rerienced. lule 144 M l iz trausmitterl can be eomiokrcd free fro m <pur.. -e -. 1979). C l 33 p F : I ."'" llO ' 2. l.l . :r und er_ru n !N ~64 1 (l 2-watl ca pstan lyfIC). 1\1 ~ I "' '' l. . .c 11 ns .

s u. FHl...C I) pTllvides the necessary ta il. e rle" in Ihe T V e. _ j.m . 5 1..l..<k o"' ln.m. ' III . ) Pilrlieu la rly as connrucrfce and a lignmen t "He stra illh l.. . h n O . lO&e lher w ilh L2.. There i. inciple ' 0 provide a n ad d-on 8 M ef~ crysu l ~ n lcll lla/f~der.. modulato n are described .« TVI f.. "'".:lri<:.. The p . r . Zl4TAJ in B'fak .. t Uuc-'b th. &<>d .... bo lh o f wh ich h.1 f .. square co il !CIn.~ ' p .o.l--'-_ K 2M ul ' I ~ l i "" . GlllW.m. ..fII 11Ie p hase modulato r... _ . p.Hw_H.. .. n "" . to 24 Mc:/ s. 1. in the a ud io fre quc rn:y amp lificr Sla. lh . " . va rious . .et o f lhe n is!l ng Ira ll$miUer ' See k 1..m..I a ma h"urs. 1968) p ro" des II furl hcr melhood of ~01lvert i n 8 a 144 Me.. ..-&e thalthe a ud io is fed in .tal'l i.1 20 miles from Ihe T V rra n. In e treet..' . <. Sl.. ... U UfI __ j... (U Xll lhen rru. " _ 0 .m .w" . capa cito r e<>mbinlilio n (R I .CII "'"" 1" H o/.. o . bool the ce ntre o f its eopacltance range.i al TV reederpTlldu'C<I . lIy . "" .." c~ l to".. _ Fa rad ay in TV reeoe r.T It AN SMITTEIt T OPI C S '" o<Clllahlr p lus d iode p ha'C-nlodu hu o r....- 4. T h«e were rreluned 1 0 18·1 M H~ lind ele<.ca ker. The re Wn no I{"" o f p iclu re q."". 1+1 H <I' " ~II '" . . I.--1-"--... 1 a ""inl o f zero d .ial f«de .. Ortn~ of flequency respo nse. . . . ._ . _ ' ir. _ . _ . _... II) insen inl a IIClwort. .!.' .l • • -.i'. ."".. whc~u with p. .lin ror m......st..lcalho 1I • 1• • . T he lectm iq uc mighl " m Vl.---! ~ .. rs. Sykcs.m. .'OCr.·uh lhe o utpu t l'ke " 10 l h~ ~f)'S 11i1 " ".. The CllPKilive d ivider 10 drive r.. H""".. b. IlI . .l0 r. G 1 HCG~ ... ..n O<"w.: d~ K<'S .m.."...n overcom..·"nd"'I'''. L... lf! ( Dco.f---1.. forwa rd . An important lldvllnt aae o r pha se modub t ion is tlla t lhere is much less c hance o f prod llCinl so me: o f t ile ra ther roush r..t . In this lhe vo ltage is a bout 8 volts. <If llie ~"a. OIlC in t he cen lre .1Ill1<.linear rea ctan ce mO<l ula llon of oectlletc rs.n l thcl lou invol~ in lhe ph."'" t'9"I . T wo sem icoaduclor pha.. IoI Wllft «-o'er _ .. frequeDC)'.-.. on the BA l02 luning d iode . ' 3. of )I) I.•••..~lily (G )X II is ah.~ T".il...ae~ pr't!lCedj.s fOI 110 l he 8 Me l.m.. b y tI In . .. hi ~hll"'t.. ~2 . = HT + ~ " I .. whe reas p. ~~ " .<. 10 plov. ( or Me{f An r. n U.l.. C I .. Pl ...1 a!Tecting the actu al o K iII. TIle u ru a l di:n inetion IIIlIde be lween r.. .'s IransmUter r.m.. u..... II.lte r '44 '5 PII• •• M odula to r. signal~ lha l ste In from non...m . on. 'l 0 "'"1 1 10' Into a triple. of (nle".. Lynch.""ill. lochnique fo r 1I 1rrow-ba nd o pera tion described 1 by P. Itl I... po tenl ial. T he vol tap: 0 11 the co llector of t he fina l audio a mplifi. modu· lation.&lur . lhe o lher in Ih. .. tlutl w(lh dev iation is proport ional to modulatio n am.ot o ne could nol hope fur a simple r llms nlCmenl thfl tha.I Id _ . a id b. a re mo unled in a I l in..th a ll at lenuati on of 6dfl per octave with iDc"... as mentiollcd a~.ful . fo r . Ala'l.. .il\.it . usually a produced direclly by reac la nce modu la!io" " f lhe . f.'me im pm """..d 1 " 0 p ro vide t he SUnd. 11. ' re ~. ub!.. Fig. r.nl bu l noM of lhe m eomplc ldy eured the in lerfe re.. .".! obla lned by va ry ing the pha.. single' . modula tor . _ " ...:O ... Th ~ k.~ .2. 'M' He.. S.. and p. n.. m ill er<) an d lhe inle rfere nl"e clelln:d up eo mpletely. i.de a silllllll simila r to r. I_ 'M..'Cm be r.".le ul' .._.10 . the OI in dis tin ctio n is Iha l f. of Uw'" . plitu de.n<ls (wit h lhe possil:>i lily of hn v i n ~ m"te tha n o ne filler co n nected In series 10 cover sc'OC""t M n. i. . w.. ..m. In pracll<:e. .cq uen l d riVl. u I'orollel tu nw rejector .i" "n J in. u I ....1 act s ll' by-pa>.op...... T he resisto r. Ia nda rd TCmed ic. o " ina inte resl in p hase moduJ:u ion _ bu l a lso not a lillie confu'io n be lween freq uency and pbas. ...e in t he lunc<l ci rcu il o r one o f the . H " . B..Il • • .lP.. . which p uis Ihe BA W2 I I ._ . can be c onverted to Lm..'" u I. l1le addilion~1 .(Nt ..t shown in Fi g. G2H(..na b aa. l he devialion is proport iona l t o modulal ion a mp liN de mu !tipiicd by t he modulation rrequellCy.ow: point. The modula lo r component. -1 • of 100 • .'1 0. u in. ZUTAJ co nven ed the Uf'l:ln ~1 M . coi l with the IId vanl.' I~ ..'4 .: equally cfl"QCI ivc on o ther rn.e <I"le' hnoid : Fi. oj""l i" n 11111' in e..••1 0_ .!:r.

t...m. ..qui n:<l rn:quencr ~ ra n.~ ... tion..ncoo ..e....~ .. mc:ir nl 10 run the ~ . re-illSIened 90'" OUI of phase (01' COUfW.. AMA.....j .l-'IO-1 \III! or u tt. IwinS a cron the luned clrcu il ma)."n... 2 or (he main board .w.tyOl•• . ""c 2' 2nF 1 • ri o.l<:scrihcd by S'ellrricd 11 01...annl RqU irN.: become ~naly w.here . . unit. .. down durin.o . The Icvel mcle r is perha!" an optiONllluxury. by muM of c:ircuihl ria blc c... from a not e by G ..i&h rll"dc1lf. . the in lCrfmtnc:e 10 the Post Ofr.. " . IranvnlllCn. should nol be fO'~lIcn : be p«fen 10 lhink 01 P-lII. :sOo:nrm how il Is pnt.f fiel<k... S4) dClilr"c d 10 be placed in front o f a n niuinll ll. G8CB... for QRP lhi. 0.d.l!Nr eoftoe"lCd (i f only b)I c1o.. tbt p. o f the main InuumillCT \'l:r)' ha rd for b. loge1her with Their lunin.. " .lbouId be ICI'OCned ICfIU'IT dy. bu t .Ilblc 10 lI. ... i....1 c(lnrwxleU . with . "hkh ""'" a"'llil"....\O'dy c:birp a nd clic k free . TIle OU lpu t f rOOI an ~UlKtor whieb 0 C:DIl be r:rytta l-<:ontro lkd. _." _ .ldy ehosc ll!O allow the BAI02 la'IC proPOnion of the capacilall«' a ct\)U Itw:. ~"ntrol io lhe v......eJ a nllle r IlMX'C romplc ~ pt . Th is an typi<:u..".11oscillator prvvidea a «>lIvenieDI rmans of IIdjustill a the dri~e tn t he m ultip lier " hai a.m. -. JI is pouiblc _i lh lheoc II.." ~ t~. ..n R th i!.. GS CDZ.~Cjr(lf co nnected 10 ..m..ability ca n be mu<b irn~ by rcac jyllll lhc sipah as iidrbotnd.. f.0 d indct. v . o n .• . kc:yinl n u r tlal. a fec hn l IIIaI the: <>ffiQa1 IUlUsIQ ani rc..t 02 .. Whi le Ihit i. The 2-1 pF Irrmmu In the c rysJ. ~ .lisfac:lory.. /n-." ~ ~- ~' r- ~..>fltinuiDl at • hiP level. t . 0 . o r aud i.- "'" ~ . Ilidtlot .o . He U..lly l'C ~S pI" Or j(j p F \la ri ~b lc.h - .. TV boIln on ."... rsro.'" -.ria bl<! rc.oIut. With II roo" '" """on' pf l ~ J ..... tOlCther with .. eoo hn u. jcw-v etuevarill hlc CllP. ltS 'Del When us.~ .!..tilm ._ .w. m ll U .. ~.r < han ~ l".0Ik J and III Cl. unitllo dri".lid 1.' al>. T'he a rnnlCmtnl sho wn will prod uce fuJI kpl <leviatio n o n 144 Mel. '. ..:itano.-.-~..:n un rre qtlCllC fa r T'CmOYr<J from lhe TV "coal . a b.. .n lJ. Ma ny CUC$ 01 TVJ . in Ra4i<l.llioH N . ..i slo f b\:tween b. d.2 " a i ls input .op. rJ ~ :(f ~ .r. bou t SOO mW o f audio .. modem n rcceivel'1 ha-..~ .. clcaIt with by the 1ll1\. h b~<! d iode inlO condll. p m.Ih 10 to 20 fir: ~ricsc 3p aci lo r a rranged In It. -J'Iov.a...leplioll.. l1icu lty by usinS 1... vxc or .R£ F (N r 111 970). T. Aoo lid...' rcq ul.~.o.ith ""nE 6 10 7 ~IU or dtWc ).m. 4.hle com po n" " " a nd io bit..Of more botods) or 11 in a 1\IftJ\in& ""re _'it b his nciahboun who Dl\r n resort 10 taetla ot her than rcponi". p rovidc.r01l po lnto J ...na '0 be a vailable by j u~t rc!TlOvinl the lIutl io inpul 1 the: un il.<: dlooJc voIla. Channell 20 1 68. _ _ U .o..\/(: the . in Mand.U Ll .. Robjotln~.web CalC the ll...)~ and en". f la.o . lll'l'ol>Icm "ith .F. D KlfrN tOI. He Nants lhat ir\$ICH oInuMn.illy oat) the tip g( the ioebc.. "'. . .. f- r-t- - f - _f _. ::-w~ _ LI LIS _ r-:. of TV ~i~ have incfC<l!lCd -'0 that 10 cI05C doIoa d llhll l TV houn II beI:ootirllJ II k-.. despile lhe illCrc. IV ~ V. oft .c<l u n a bipol.h bc:fICt 0 Itw:l Dunne! I (AS Me/I ) of Dmd I. e-..:lUc~e ~ A number of circui".. ~~.. the OUlf'IIl 10 Ihe ' Me /1 Cl')'1<la l socket o f the main InlP omill er.r.*"'• . .... 001 Tunc-cl TO J ~ Me'" in ..y (G Re HZ has II QQ V06-4OA biase... IKin... La aDd L2 an rach IS tumI 20 I ."0 ~ L ....:illa lU. .w. aDd f."0.l .tto r..f. arc muo..' ~- <-< .etl ove r the ran~ lSllO-J600 ki ll the on ly luni . close . lcd 10 Ihe . ""i nt of the fina l Slilte (T RS) iI ad iull . ..o.Z _ that lhe di llinoctioa br l_ O p...1.. The dqrcc o f improVCf\leUl in the !tr itish TV1 ~tuatioll ill m::enl yea rs ts !eM t han mi&hl haw: hem upcdcd. owl TV' I"" lunrd of a f. an...... ..• . ~ VO 31 a hoUI I jI) mA Il rlHl$ l1 s<'mc 1' 5 .J 10 100 vollo ncptivc and puohcd hard .. with ~ de le<. OUl pu l <I T R4 il abo ul 1 00 mW.l~ '" "r. 1 9' ~ 1 .\l" " . . II. eoi ... Iy iI. Colr-ital'll. F . _Wa . _::C .1tA.. ha"".:.~p1ibJc 10 hiah r. br . irIp"t shoukl be iocteaK'd 10 ((l() mW..el .• which ~. ..8.~'. LI &. or e llrirr ""'.J..... inlIc diode l )"Ileln$ " Iha l lhe ""'y . ta le IrM1Smiu c-rU-' ll..- ... Ille itlcidt-noe or TVI to n.l()<! d ocl rortk I\IIlUlI diodcs..m.. v. ~ . IV and V arc Ins lilel1 to be arr«tcd by IlartllOllir n dilllk>tt from h. or c.. for telrvioion no. rig.. the fln l multiplier Is d e]ibc .. is connc.. is. 001 .T E U R It . o On u.. The h y .1)' " boul I 01 2 volt.. IIUI DOt . un it (1"1.U. MHI T. inlS J.n'leT1ioll osci lbtor.s aDd leu sa tisfactory •• s. Sfl) for l' S MH ~ c. The hou.f.'s a o f ~ n:om.m. ss. _ . the other sNcbud is pmenl). "rovide. • . modula lor lhan In lhe G 2HOO IIn Un CCmcnl .. from eilher II 6 or 8 MC/H rYSllll OKill... So ~..~ ....b r ... It "'"' been . While Band.2..1 the workin. DX Cap... with e...d . PIO T ECH N IQ U I! S (.~ . SomI: Pw: ntObilo unilS contai n a UThe .at IidebUd with the ca. . . ~ . by the ' 00 ohm . C.

where F ront-end uver loa d ing iaconccmcd.... . Ilill. .!! 34· 5 . On the o lher hand.J..cful to knuw wmtt hing a bout t he: TV signal a nd ill frcqUl'ncics whtn dca linR "ilh T VI.. h l'. are 1T3". .lde monil0 r30 one colo ur. ~iv. 0.' "'e•• :l.. .l . .-. displayin. 1. LJ .1lI mooocltrome I Tile Bri tiSh colour su b<arrie.~ lf..u incre... ~ .3 r"". " t~ ea\ ily dr iVl:n lrno non-li neari ty resultinl i" 'lCver<: cros e-rncd ulatlo n (some TV design.. For mllny yen. sim!'[y Y mulliply t ho: d lan ne l n umbe r by R a nd add 302." ..1••• II .... how... 'l... " . . 1'1 It " . 40·" . . en.5 8 M"is wide (Chan ne l 21 sta n . .ls iI. fTecl s lrong .lnic r (located on lhe " intcn:arrir r " ' hel f o r the Lt_re. «I'd end..1 "'m ""e"'" _1'0. ~ ---.. C ro«mudu Iation dQrs fWf dcPMd upon the ~t renll:t h or the WlIIlled l illll-ll... " t "'r . ign_1 _""as Ire much be tte r o fT.. 1 .. TV II is a lwa ys u.. . I m 10 • •• '00 '~' "' ' I ... a sillliw.v Z~JC ~ " . ~ H "'O ~ ~" w'. " .. T f..·n '1.. il did britlK home w ry clear y that c.7• . the other monochrome. . m " '"' '" r! ' N . 1) . i. CDlour olld TVI are lisniflCalltly mute i U5Cl:/"liblc: 10 interfr r. " '1'". L ~ ~ :0 v ~Iv... " dl I d H "'m ... f "'u'l"' '''t.. Iecd t ile aerial .' " H • •• • ' c. ~'''. U 10 1 . I. . II must be no ted .k N ' nne '". ' ..' ' of C haone l. a nd the y form lhe lV'I' bclwcrn R"nd IV and Oand V).situa lion cou ld also ~r d ue 10 harmonic beals rewl ting f ro m o pe:ral'on o n llimosl any band.:' -er.....lIe m iniOn the monochrome picture (on e o n en had 10 l ook at WlClutlered sky IUlIeS to dele.): in the: Rritl. lia nds IV and V in Europe: con ".t of u.till «ery easy fur ) -5 Mel."·n·" ... ' weak signa l rece pucn . . thls form of TV I i~ Jusl II likely to . u. ' " >-fi k ~~ c> "fC' .. ..Uy in :to alllll teur band . J Fe' ro " . u .Uy a l 39-5 M. . '" ..1idcs. and lhe fm. 21 10 611 (C ltanne l\ 3~ 10 J~ ' are nut If. O"'. ~ ~."C. o f COUf'iC. ell.f..A . u 5 ~ . i~.. .. ..! ~ . . VI(I<lO l MHr) !II~ +. 11..!:~ ~ '" i .rCl.II the " ' ie'.H.· 2 5 "' 3 · ~5 . bu l it is . o r lhe a ...TRANSMITTER T OPIC S • .. ~ . . InRly it ii_ the SilWilion t~ndl< to be re"eBCd.t. ign"l. wilh vinual1y T VI· rrce u pe: ralion .-" compnne nlJ.ron a pproxima tely 44 3 Mc...f. .~... ~ 'n. n" . 10 • • """ 7 )II • • • I mm . brell k th rou¥h . onm. o r T V who have been ml>St a fTected by local tlllnsmlller harmoni c.. e 3 3..ie<:1ing a simulaled . 1\I ."'" .~d. . alwa~ + 1-25 Mels fro m t he lo wer cnd o f the cha nne l. . l ." '" •.. H MHo c. hnye llrowTl u <cd to equating ' lrong TV ..om .n..o!our T V is a 1 more « ilkal 01 to bea ts (paftkularly a bout J to j Mel' ) th.e" . etc.. dille r.N.. )' . not..F. ~"" * •....... 11 •• • • " 7 onm. 25 1"*.. "'ht('y• 1" . " 11 '~.:t lhe illlerfcrencel produced spectacular effects on tll<! co lu ur mo nilo r.. mo./~ lind the sound c. . tor withou l nnr preliminary lu ned eireu il)..un like lhe A me ricau J 58 r. !i M " ' 70_ _ ' . 41 . ' 0 • • • ' . T U .. " T'" "0' ..". .. To find Ihe [0"'" freque llC e dllt' of any eha nne l belween 21 an d 68. Wh. and signals le~ k far t oo rc~di y ir rto tlu: iJ. ... 'N' .. ' la se s .1 is Colour ~!li Tha f~lIcl. 17 • • • • " .s of V .5. It was il11t11edi. ' " " • .... !! I I 3 !l. -. 5 I 3f1.c> ~ . . at 470 Mc/~ 22 al 478 Me/.. 5· 25 +7..it h ' . mm.CIIpied by the ~a"".. I I I 3f1· !! I 3 7. VIe r-• ". .'::1i . in co nlra" to harmonic rad ialion ..I" "i~ .... trip o r a TV recel~r lhc>oc fR'qUC:ncic. e M e . ' lall':' . w und carrier + 7-15 fro m the lo~ end . I I II ' a. h<>W5 l he freque ncy bands Of. h +..~ " '" . with lhe velon ca rrier u-."• '". . Fi g_60 ..k/. ~ '" _ ....bea l fl'CQUCocy into video sillll3ls 10iDi 10 two s ide-by.. . ~ ••" .. ..n. . lhal with in the ma in if. Re«ntly we ha d an Opponuo lly of waldling the effecl of in.1tel y a~nt tllat beat fRqucncics and lItlplitude Iewb wwe h resulte d in barel y no liceable p. b""n lhe viewe" 10 lho: me<li um--signal and rrlnge areo. J-. e...ponlt) al ])-5 Mel' " 'ilh lalcr W IIO" i..1e tM rn:ty IlOt bave been en~l r Iypical of actual tcrerreeeece.5 . '00.. and l.. ' __ ' ~ ~ d ' .h 625-1i"" ' Yltem tS)"te m l) the yninn ea rrir:r i. ideo bea l frequenclco. eece in lhe form or pattem inlJ prOO~ by fairly hlSh . ' L~""n .f." "... 25 RF I F IM H' I .. where lhe IlroniCr .. It ha s a1WllY" in the pa~l .·. Each c hannel .II o. upc:ral<>rs l(l lin d tlx-ir silP\llls gett ing into the colo ur e in:uill of a receber with d isastrous effecl ..lrajght Into a bipoLu trlln.. .n" 1 mm. lI. a.. t:~ s ~ t" s .

nd a I_-diode I tnnaemcnl fOl' <*'i lla.... The filtcr inoert.t ± I Me.ull CIlI coml<Scnbly db· lurb lhe OPCnllioll o r t he tunin.. vanctor diollel to proridce toctronic tWlina of u. !o ...... Mell or 4ll Mell sit::Da1autin..' " ' ..h.0 ....110 O"'Crload in Q1..b..l cimlil ...f. s1...o ".."-ndard let...h. (. . ~ . an Inocnion lou o>f _ l han lIdB..or tu none As Q JOLl' poinll OUI : ..cd by. artl.ibiJitie1 bere illl:ludc • I lLlb filler•• bridlJOd·T no tch IIller. till ulina the \I... inl d iode iI prone 10 aenerate ml ~inl prodU<. F\lrt""rmore. _ _• T " . a tv .....-.. on rreqUCll' 0 IUftIy ma ke 1M cics below thai or lbe am...01 .A ... ... a low voiliF ~nlin....ib) wWd be_ adlie\'ed lUin&. ')-lS "kjl fi.tU1Wly aJlboLllh G30KX .. sim ple hl.. a pplyinl aJdilional dump. lhe hiJhcr ClI~L.--< " c •• .. tW>uaIion lit ~. lhe cil""llil but a l.... Ute Poot OlToa: ~ the \110 of an ad d-on bridpT AlI~ r u r-bk of pnwIdinll hidl ... Intended I I a lW: d freq.1e lnoomina 144 Mel.-en adopt: such ein:WlS (he ~n lbey _0II1d actual ly c:mt the: lltlM Ics& Ilw) the c o n ~ ~ ) . .... (e l T _ _ be .<cd fn:qllCll(y wail......ulft'l1'lCly . o-r-\"j--..----j I C t.-.. .. . _ _ _ _ _ .aleur . .kr 10 am: 144 M~.. .. 1ft TV 1 _ .oCtofI FlitSome )'\'An 'IJO... v. eountr iel.~••• • M DO d.'n tho:iO tillel'l. sa .. IIdec p ' )'Il"OlTOI!l rical notch in Iho liana ls cum in.... <.lil from the wante d l ill...... _ .. ..I ltem.......Il'\CeS.. _ TTl. _ _ ... _ _. ..00 1. T V) ror wttidl the h illh' p.. ..c1 _ = . end sclcc1ivll)'. for e. milch lowe.. Iter lhe . _ . • '-------.'" AMAT E UR RADIO T E C H N IQU e S I r------... c:hannch).. J 8l'klptI. _ IYJIC or fillC'r ~ Iltnct i~ .. o r even • simple 'Crles-luned 'np m the t ype Ihown in Fi..' 1<1 r~ .lll liller has bc-cn far mon: ". A ¢OmlDOO pncticc II to v..he .u.. 1fOO"in...ll hc Ibed a \l:lcitor by a variable IXPl" Tile abillly of this l)'pot of lilte..y \lnlt rc r 49-7$ Mc/s•• h boul h it co uld be made IlUlIb le Wnp ly by rep Wcin .. " II ma)' . alllKlup thQ eould ~Iy be . E ven when ad<Jed ~. = __ ~T _ 811.. than perhapsjusl fittin. lhe chanlina pallem of TVI with. .:" :::=. pICOj I....m p lc.At • .!l._.. in OQIIn«tlon with tho: JU'"'lleno::e or o:o-clIantlellllter1CftROe1 Roond I receptioll due 10 Spo""dic:.. .. ....._ 0"'"'"' TV r. sipl ICTOI!I l he llCrial etn. .. _ _ or sbould be RpIao... implyln. _ 1404 Mcf• •ft .._ n lb l.}n . _ ..f\al . SlIt).... The inn\ICnoe of • sIron.J i ..-...J"Y-Co l ~ 'M . 11 otber frequencies.. The Vllricap diode Iw 10 be ~venc: bWN and fo r lbil a pplicalion lbe bia.I. dlndc . tl_1.: tune" eompound tbe poor liron.il ll sim ilar effect s: lirona cno ua:h II may drl~ the d iodc into l.." from fftOlIlIlICle.wd like 10 _ .. u .. 1. . . 1 ....I." ..bout ) and )0 ¥Ott. 10 null otIl . TIle PO unit is cWmed 10 rnMde OOOl' ) SdH . 0 E p ropap t iun... 'The.lIenIQlion 00 ill rcsonam rrequcn<.. ... the ElI'OlHem of lhe tOcaf I.... IJ ••• _ . practice CIt ttsin... .~ is bel_n . .....ro.. II can l weep t he tuniRI diode over I ranp: of "llpacitancc ". Co~ T _ ~. TVT... .. Even in nOTllllI (:if'l:urno<1a~ 1M Ilat lc Q of I~ diode!.n.. um o r dlslurba nco to ...."-'Cr. Wbe.."&. ..1o_. . (b ) '''' . _.... F ia..~ fU~r ananacmenl tuo:h as thaI 011-1. TIle nnlCtOr d iode may be a ...f. nMoJ .. b _ ' .. . U.aluc for combatin. a u>c Colo .On<luo:.lion on peak ... " ' .de o1iookI .. 10 ....-~ . _ 1 _ _ . cI l'4cilon . 'or.'J _ _.r ... makitl& if: more: dilficult for sipab QD the _~ the c:o-uial ~e to reach the ~M=r a..e.(~IOJO .. 1011& the focdcr With.. IO..r0l'TJlCl" t~ -.:menl : F:IJ.._... ioIl.y with reillivc:ly link lou OD dosely adjaoenl rrequencin. "' _ _ ~_T'f''''''''''... ..ternall y the O JO HX filters can prooc very effectlve.~rrcquo:rc)" t\IIlCd cin:uill ._un I ! ":' ~_.. .. _' t:ZI .HI 104 <1. .f. 4 .. d'Wloe.... Tho Post Office n:\o::>w:d informati... • • J9. ..---......I bllu:n m.-"="._ . f _... pgc ~t hal.~dtllng: o f the diooX and "'" detunc the dn.1CS where the llet _1 be l'eQIIired 1 ROrM TV t nnsmiWon. minin.. $9 pr1)'¥idn infontUllion 011 tbe Pos t Oftioc .. HOIOtO"Cr. • ....idely . l in..~n arc ...Nnateln Ihould he."..h l t _ C. t hlL'l nOI " nl)' dc lunln... 4 ..he limil o f Its QJ"':CI' IiLIlCe nlnlll lhe ' ._ _ I H _ ... . Tb il filter j..ry of aheriftl: o the r people's ~i\'Cn In any _ Yo o(he.1 .vblc to lit • hi gb-paM filler in o..11 e~ l lillcr.. .. cpl propcrtin of bipo{u..o. it is !lOI f!OI.. • • _ ...cl. sintle 11l'OIII sianal ha l nol in Il'lc: pul been of ~r .Inln~"n..umcd to . ln _ TbcR! . ay or . is mu(:h I~r t han thaI o f lunin..._ ~ I IP"1s by 40 10 6Sd B.l.>n.>t her f~ncics.1.oe of dWll. front ..M _ • braid-bra klr\t ·· (i. I _ "l ... Simple fil~ of lhis Iypc could be acided ".nl ' " the tunc. '''X''_ _ _.

1I i<: OOnlaCI bel_ n " ycrJal'J!in. :md 10 by-passin. For his OWD reoeivcr he bas n_ replaud the OIllJinal a.Is.. 1l11llff-lUnlll i 10 ~ a Ih...m .II. aho narrowe r. ..c. 6J . am pli1\cation... with c:obu ~n.------20 )() 50 00 10 . JanIW)'. Shaw." .. When the !:Oilt Iwtye been fonned.. alon& the mains Iud p . <barnett.L aD the Ekad. -... n.. with runcd cimaits II 1... Ille dlqlll ca~1OrI (e l. W Il6H aM .tub liller IIIin& a 0( eo-.lttt l 10 rcdu~ It..:o-ulal cablt: this o. mD ndm : L1 R lums . _ '''. " dtIl&n wtUch did 001 ~ wllld eDt atIenIioa It !be U. --...-d or a Ielevisioa 1llI:lCi¥n'.. lhe filler.h \llIC • •h. u.ld or his Cl».. -. he rnativc 10 the brid sed-T filter . His IU filler hid a JO M.. as pven ill all the ~l.. .an: al l 100 efter.. bleld II ria... WIth aluminium lhid d..1' di5<: Qlf'IlCilOr on lhe lNIilU lod r. introduced by lhe IIlter . providiq isoIalion bmocen lbe th _ filter lOCIioni.el Mdc hetWfltn Uno (L) a nd neu lra l (N). ~ IOlIm' of FX lSU is a 144 M e. Tbo:n:is ItiII IA obliptiorl 011 the pa rt of !he ItNteUf 10 k~ !Iarmoctic IDd 'PUriow ndiation down • __ and IhaI UNl1Ir eaUs for 1ow-. bouscd In I ' in..:mblll'l arc IDOWI ted III the ehasNI (IrtdMduallyl and fpin dlcd.ll .t...4 f"r ftS(lIWICC _ Filially.. t he: u P!td ton 0. His usual apprt>lld\ Or.. tnnsiston for a.hen 1t:Je unit is . 1II1Cn."' ..tn the mo re ll-'ua1 imap parameter type.. only a &rid-dip meier. M ~ more tfl"cetivc lo::hniquc il Ia uK two slu'" p1Kc4" a Ien. ~y lOme whil... . Coils _ re made from No . TIle co d.. .! lhe app ropriate ~uen­ c:ie$. lhe . bul baa ured J lit. et : (1) il u. A.. W Joille H! of olIk:iaI favour (... 0( WJb. IlOI boxn fntd.imIlrn ... alta.... n. module . TOPICS ~ ')I[bn ...ltbou&h t.II uaMrlliner... While the Imditionaltypn.. to pul a loruld filter In the mainl lead dOSCl to the bItck uf the I lTected leL Abou! 10 10 " IUrnI in the IIlII1a I biflliar rn&IlllCt with an 0.-lIh palnl remnved from l he: cdGe... he Is encouJ>lerin.... ae rial" re-radi:llq ellUJ)' 10 Ibe viewer'l aerial IX lbe otMr bn./JoBr.. are lmporu. L2.. and he Iho USotd U1f1t bnl.c....r... • • 0 .. 1-4 eoam .IlllIot do this . a DeW problem : r. ttenuatioa. a1wnirU1un Miaibon. !D dkatiC! rt:'SOnanI...tnaes . .IlIa of the ... low..outse... &II .:/I QIC-otr. Altnlholt " 'U drawn 10 lhe need 10 oecun: UdI ..~~~" :=':~~M=~ '~ . ~ elT c:eu apply 10 all IhKc oipaI-fn:qualt)' IIIlIld an:ui~ aDd in uttemoI cutS leave Ibc Itlevislocl ~n with virtllllllly an ap.. o f the cow r to insure &ODd m<:1. they are no!: . The no lch can be made 70 10 8Od1l dcfp when " . _ j ~ IeplratIOll : A&..0 1 . _ _ F".62. Thae delllllia&.l lTWlY of Ibc uwal t )'1Q of mains filtcra which USC the l! 0( thme-piD IOl:ket l AI ~ since the ~ II oflcn a n equally IatJe amuwu ofllllWUlIed r.hina the TV recebe r. ~ I .o . Col and C6 are ~de !""d across lhem t .. III I·J : I aI 29' 7 Me/.lioR..to _ . Sonxtima al a pa lh rl&hl inlo lhe receiver.)'1 QI)' 10 alipl IDd cheo. )( IIO ) in. GJNXS suueou. Ilutnbef or eua ofTY l 1IIina tbI_ ot." by G lellll R. Wels h. ~ cno:rg:y wmin.riodie fUlfllMaIM W/f"ln.. ll'X"kluaiity • in. no!: aU TVl is the flull of the rec>eivcn.h1y JOd8 for I ti nKle . are u:auallyeft'«tM: wtlnI carTlUIr xt up... it ... In the paot he bas t\1ftId.r it iI ~ ~ in the fl"Oft&..d.&nI enel1:Y from a Iralllmitler Inlo a TV Itt.._.40-' and 47-3 MI'/I raultinI: in ~~(:t~.roy because 0( the dilfigdly of obl&ilwl& wlllc:ientlr ~ ferme 10rcOOs)..... Thi~ type of ) Oil the instnioll-Jou COna:p! rather Ih... . bu t of\cD . The IIOIch i.. bln too oftn a a < ! 0 +-_ " .. y......n-u eJfeetiYel..hln. " • ce . --. I I millltt be expected from lhe use of IWO hiJlt oQcin:u ifl .. Some fomw of module are difl'cult to t.y for r. on" ty..lilicoo. He ~prd.Iiun.lth older 1)lIe II'rmanlum Ir&n!'iIlon of the 001 calqOr)' an d tbls has solved the fIItlb\em-but one just l. re-radiatint: hm lhe rnam.. &. 1'. )( 2 ill.d f ilter OI o.lly inlO the lICt.f. ilia! the &&mCI Iochniqve CUI he \lKG 10 fom! a VCI'J' dI'«tM: nains lilter..:.al _ oembled.. Mu. 0. T1K~! of the Jlube to lIOI critic:al-<l~ 1Ug:estS 9 in. coppe r wtre formed o n I I In.lIr A.n l In rn:~nllnc halTllOOk currents from re>ll.m quuttr_..tub. The pr.omPlU'C' witlt rou. plana.. T1Ksc pl«llut lon. It 1-4 McIs..mibility of usinlll hmo dU~ In or~er to diewlop either I WI)' Ilarro w no tc lt or alterna Uyely USlll .__ en- "'1OIlIDCl: en .•• tbe allcouaUoD ~ iihown in FI&.f.f.'-..oud SM fJIl«Y A.~ tasy 10 IUIIC win.nd ia . " ".'IO..ht plirlts 10 assure i50L.sea I" '" leu coils for eq uivalent Ito p-band altenultlon: ( 2) it PfO"ioJea relalive flUdom in the relcaioo of frequcrw. dife.... Faa.TRANSHI T T f.heae ideas hay. . But _ .tlaU y IWled 1 0 by a dJU!ihDl lhe I1ImI ~~'"a: Wild I &.. mw:. 61. u ble 10 inKn a shull noldl In Itc IianU reao.. the ouuide SUrf ce of the i ho llllo .'ilb OIher pcopl~'1 . bued 1966 II the lXlII Ihown in F. '" ./c:aPKllor -.... lead ~Iy ilIlO Ibc d _ mod ule wbidl forms the main Lf. " . rl eo _ .tpcd ~ (utW ~ Ws:1$. ampt iflCl.. it " . C . ce .... To uhieve Ibis performance . OJ NXS. Itreuea tho roM of ltllIiru wirinc in Ibc tramfer of IJ&nitk. offen lICvcnd Idvanll . . the usual tiller coaSlruclil'on precautionl mus t be p lten.h ge from lhe enclosure. LJ 6 lurna. arc 1Oidc~ U the 511otf. u..ual foeder... publ Wled (" AD elfectlve ~ 11lcr. TlIe WR6Hk M lIIIil ..iQ 0( IllUimum .okk' FXlnll lou)' toJ'Otc1I. The 1en.64.tk1anJ form. ...k tritbOlrtIClt CIQIlipmeIll.f..:tiVe II r. WB6H RM_ QST.

ble r... of the fC"C rIIUN'. b ut ICoc ral ly .. - • .w. IIw fa ult of Ille amalatr tranl. The G1S L aniclc inf". . ..... 10 do an ythln. _ _a ... II to ... InAomlttn harmon n In Band I. Thtl amaleur ohould know how 10 trell! and CUI'tl t oe h in lCtfercnct!l . CM np:I to tbtl tlqIIlpmcn t concerned) stnce lhe owner iI likely to al. 1 ~~. 1bc rnlIin t hin. t. " H </ • .ld _Ill " 1 0$iW UlmUoD or tho: Icchni~1 d i5f. '-. IT\tIy "'UIC the outpIIl level 10 cball&e.. ... in thtl U ... 010 TECHN I Q U l! 5 ' -" '':1:.eneralor (&._ . Unfortu llliely aomc dcakn IDd Ienice cnp ncen. II iI JlOI OIl!)' ill teleYWoa tu1lcn thai the swcept. TItil. or to IUlllC'Sl lbal btl (or you on IIi. interfc:rmc:e to aD. Instel d .w. (lo ) _ _ ~ M ..tub to I ucnll&lC .CrlbD lily fUlure rilul tllo 1M. Tbere II no ka1 obliplion (llI thtt part of an aroalc\tr." .tioa (e~pt l'Nilch otr or YlUt1y Rduc:e ~r) t o el~ te: the ~rity of ltullulccl of thia type of I1Iterference ."\1M arc >'elY crilical. Ab n Williolm" G lKSU . use 01 Ibc ~ 10 1ICIl'IicoDductor. when: i1 iI RlICIIflcd and a r pean ....f. ftelds Is I)eromina appumL Quite SlIII... n\ll1lbtr of $ll ndolrd . ot AJUU.. . ~I has bc:co acnin. O .\ .. olf such com plainl&. N. lt~p )'UUI coo) " and offer lu talk 101M eORlpWnant'1 dealer or servloc e naina: r. lbc IlQIIble u sually ariJel front a pp red. tIIbk:..f.l stu bs ' ( RSGB &J1..:. o tl'er 10 pus o n your infortTlllllun on th e subject to lhe dea ler. ... ~ nothIrl. 19S81. p K:ked up llId f~ InlO the a udio ampll!k r. ib:ribcd In the G3SL .. ( OST. T ypOc:ally he IIIOd ] ft ... _bto c:onIU1lcd by a s..mtllet. II pnnoed • thorou&h17 iDllXUbic problem. TVI wilb co- fl'O'Widal 1IrOO. WIICP .. at of) Mel l IlSinl • l icnaJ Kelleralu r and val"C ¥OIlmc'le r a lilllmeoj toclIniques. IIauld not IIirrJIClf uodcnak e anr. and ~in .n Mel _ IIam >onK: ou lput o f lib transmit ler.-----------I ~7:: ..H__ to bInt1Ie IU-ll iDterfe r. lloYd. a udio: c.iaoIu).ith '!1 ui:t.hcr -oro. ". lr'eua tltat t. a... CIlCC. of Unindio 70 fDlce non) e&bk """'nl .td 1.-. d iplomtlcy ~ " " ' GM".. MeCv.. tuM. n.A-. nidic mcIIlloaed below. bchalO.>n$taftl of 0-61 10 lorm a n o pen-dl'aliled quutef-wave .iDterfer. .~ tMI . OlSL. ..'':1:"(-. ta pe 'nlcoc tlcn.. ij " 1. H . no ~_ 10by the o pro c imlil ven. ak!nllldc OUT ociabboun and It doct ror our pu blk Allallons 10 sIlru.illl ..c ""... sintle co-uia slubs desianed a round the c h:otKIC m... « poanicuJu I ." He DOteS I~I " It: II 'I'Cf}' I PPVCO from our ma. .t bas PlO"'td _flU. in thne Iypcs of c<:JU}pmeOI...usscd m... is llillk\lIC d ue 10 l"llJin. hal not ba:n tried ahhoup Ie -. IIw amate ur II n Ol 10 blame. I G lltSU ' . . So il: _ with _ b!.. volt· 'I'C:I may dme a dcviee iIlto _ _linearity &lMla we n:ctifi.bcre iI nothlna lhal I n ama lCW QII do I I hiI (I1II'D ItI.tion on nuok ln.ioll .. I! t " ol cn terllinmcul ~ip.1 L. read I uwr". tiocr.ipe-out .. leo.. "'la rd>.ny ~. UDate1tr iDtetfcrmc:c: 10 tu-e."ere r.here ... Capacili~ Nninl of open stubs. ... A<>dIo~ ' . WH CP. modi1Icatio os. "'1100.U f..l I tbaI ...nlea diRlctly to the manur~r or the equi pmenl. J1mc 1970). but with l~ r... ho made aood WoIl or llli.a O )JOO ee-iden lhal !.. b lao ~ T. ----m=.it""r llutn lhe originalry ~. or t~ PI" .1aboraIc hi-3 insWlatioo in • oei&hbourint: !at. One I'ClIdcr .' He llIanu W I Ihia iI lI'aio1y bcci. .da from local f1." _ toW)' yean -." iiJDal .nd sniwinll b il. 0 1T unti! t he notel\ . ~ cusla. AH AT EU ... or e 1sP1lttre..bout . rotmd:-up _ tbIs IlIbjco. ••Cunn.K . . abott! a udio amlllitier II'lte rfe~.." . wonc. Bul _ have 10 11". unfortunately btnc::h ~t . he ' Uue'lTN " I n in..k T . htl con siden. 1bQ time the pn:Iblem tumed cue 10 be: J\OI TVt bu l . II'l(Wlbk sbon cit'cu..U~! _ouI 1 01_ 111_ _ " _ ..hile TVI bas bcc:omc InI ud!at of I problerrt (t..."". • .d oc'l )' ""1fC" .. eQQC. are quiltlliUly (uften II'l ianortlnce ) to lha l lhe troublci if.. • I' - ____ . .. . electroaie orpns IDd IUdr. 10 ot. usll'l.tia of . Either form of ~nt Itu b cou ld be lNd In "rious MItt app llatloos. idea.itlWty of t rutSiWmlto O'IO:fI. --..0 " ~ _ oI1bm1 tiruded m60 5qCI wbicb indicated IMI 01U" . " a nd I&CI. 7in.ki 1101 be UKd 01\ • mnsmittu 10 DOCcb 00 1.

i have led to 1. ' •• . if illpUl sillftl l drops IU B.. ftl_.lype clipper un it which dCle$ n OI rt' sull in . Ihe 5igna l is ap. Th e more n:putabJc manurac lu rers la ke soch ma lle n Y'l'ry seriously. ~ et .~I . _ .c<. a .1._'-.ncc soclr...oI..I. et .t r . t "" . II"'. . To allow ~ lippinll. A carefuUy to.. lSOD... at &.. On h«rinll' aids. Radio Liberty " described II b rua dC&liI.f.. ..ne r clippin g and filtering..ldB point. ... fields.. th e mailer should be broush t 10 Ihe a ltenlion or the fum maldut: or-in the ceee of imported cq uipment-distribulin l lbe cqu.tic equipmenl seems unusllll1ly fUS<X1ltible 10 loc:a.pe.m.r. coming In ria an f.b.aJluf ac~r ot the eq uipmenl an d ulr. "This mea.h. The e. ...:::.. .. I.C".. 1.- 1 _ ..lhe ampli1ier.. t... _ ~"" 'd io .an ItS Dormal tpCCl.I """'.." . ha~ a l 1000. etc .. 'The complele unit incorpora tes I l lrall. . This duillll IIloCI the r". ~·_r· ' IS• . pnx:.. Sf>Hdt I'roc-I". ma ki ng s ure lha t I II eeperare mcUll work irl an e labora le hi-Ii.llation is bo nded Ioacthc r. "'l"'~~".1M).. Ihe lludio b.s.<.al ' J'i'<'tJCll clippe n (wblch prod uce trape zoidal W ve fonns) for s.I.u: lt vn aonptltooO • . hum to . !wo 1.l-rc.ipmcnt. ••_ " ' ... leads and input lead l . roccd miller is drlYCll by a square-wave switehinll wavefo rm derived fro m a 19·1' kefl erys lal oscillato r an d Ihe u..TRANSMITTE Il TOPIC S '" Where a limDle cure cannot be effected .:oJDizcd priDelplc of c:anylns o ut thc elippiJt8 a l r.. l>or mo re diffieull cascs... G . In stubbo rn eases il ma y be nCOCllllt)' 10 provide l hielded loudspeaker leads. o.. ~ . nd provides I eli ppinll ra lio up to 12 : I (i-c. for 5 . A more e laborate ma ill3 filte r II aiY'CI] 01] pa ge 194. ~ . Ioo . DI' K. ppe.. ae rial (wei are no t f. I . -Io y . inlll. Wtl CP suggest.r. _ 1_ . for TUOmmCnda UO!U.. for e~ple.e ts Ihe loss of hid>cr a udio freque ncies sho uld be IIellliiPble. a DWltber of simple fIIlen : Fig .b.. as &Ibbemh.. .m a re al a 5ulfleiently high f~ncy to be well ouuldc Ihc bask: aof.b. "lIher tban I .. _ N ot..f.htl earphone lead Is 1. These: wtu co pe with inted~ coming in via loudspeaker Icad" ma in. m . 2 diodes. . _ 2M _ ). The limpkst fo rm of fillc-r is 10 bypass e ach loudqleakcr outp ut sock et point 10 ~il via l ("-01 to 0'03 "F dioc cer amic ca paci lor with tbc shorteSi ~sib le lead l : tinoe thf:se po ints will be lo w-lmpcda.i.he devdop mcnl of more comple.he usual .. a silicon bridae rccti6er ..ft10. d. audible frequeneie~).wlda l wavc fo lT1ll ~l provt.type high-pan n lle r or allYo f thc olhcr TVl lechniqucs could be UStd..::~.. _ y 0' lac _ . OUI Put .~i'tors.f.Jes U>e IIS<' r with lhe same advlUl laaeS in allowing the I Y'C Tltge pcTCCfltage o f modu· latlon to be su bslllllw ly Ineru. a zener diode.f.. •-. .f. Sometimcl a dmple CUTe will come fro m jim p ro vidin g a 800<1 earth foc." that the harmon ics produced in the clipflin. ae rial. """_ la) f U.m.. W.led 10 v.01. ."I. -.s. a.."l'""'l ' .oneerncd here with normal BO a ffectin g v. piCUd-up or tltITiod in via the pic k-up leads) or via lhe mains lead. 2000 cis.. filter has . TIlItY be corninll in via lhe v..C_ ' lt ' i.. ' .im_.Ie band Is Iratl.... For r. s.. wrile 10 lhe m. • tim __ <_. __.ryslal~ntrol lcd oscillalor o. . m .. Allhe 1910 Interna tion a! Broadautillg Conventio n..) Mal. _ Fe w. or_ nd Ih ll soems qui te co mmo n_ via the loudspea ke r leads (un like picl-up leads thc1c: an: seldom shielded I nd may even form I resonanl aerial).. a l 21)-1 and 24·\1 kcls.m. Wbc re a n Item of en tertainmenl or dome. using the 'li mo ~llator.. .... mp l..5. TN . all of which are al lb) ~J:oc~ fC t]C4 rn\~(D ~-T""~~ . usua lly . W'jilo dippin8 tbe audio signal a l rof.. t 1 (. all. _I.f is WI.ln co nverted back to a.et. _ M (~I". ma y be reac:h1lI8 the amplifier 1\ ill rron t-end (ror eu mple..) f ll.. aerial" Where f. N • • •h . usi118 a f... _ _ J _ _ iI).S . _10.f.I-.lf.-I.. I SOl) e l' lone will p rod uce . Fallis of .l r. tl TVI.1 1l.. . .-.. . nx:c:ption).b.f..m .Ih•• • .._*fift .•• . 'h et ~ P'UfUO( UV!L ft_ ~~ 'I.h .....I. aO-Ol too ·~) I. . spccIrum (lhe problem in cLippin.l.nd. 66.." ..c:. the r.. ppear o r th~ . ow ._I. J.-'.I.f.. Q_ Herrick IIId H. The prob lems inY()]voxI in the USC or convenlion.lio n. lIIDcno form part or lhe hi· fl 1nsta1I.

. Tesli--COnfilled to audio links' ugjlested thai Wllh II. by illCrcastn l mean-to-peak mill of lhe speech wave-(orm .. pewidal W3.In. The use of COIlvelllional a ... Mass. u ."" ! with the " Radio U berty " un it.f.r. clrt.l." . r ' 2N~ L 5~6 12 """ 4 * 2.ln in averaao: power. 70 1 and he dCllCnbcs adjuslments in detail io his arlie e. (r.e . esP-II ISd8 of clippinl produo::e. performance.. II is an " ad.iy IdS ). for Lm. in Glben the pcr1011l'lllllOe leavesmuch to He di~. Olp.c. the Collins S-Iine ia one of the best for a\lCh rn04iflcation. The ar(\llTlCnlsagain . L m.mem bered that the full hcnc:6t will o nly be obtainc:d if the ol.. he: commentl: " I do no l believe lhal :uty ga in n:alilcd thtt>Uglt $JlCOI. n»rnc the additional atra in on t he lInal amplifier a nd driver d ua 10 !he w ee ir>crclllC in averll. He: shows lhe phisinB prob lems lh4t ri'IC.. 2~ . rnay _ m a lot 10 l)<Iy tor a dipper unles s one Ihinks of il either as a subl titllte for a " linea r .".f. • atra ighlforward I lon. In Ham RmIi<J (A1Iiust.S. view provide a uodul due to what to romider !(you arc thinkina of ad.p. I I Ilo. 1TU-mitlc:l"I. 1911) . clipper to an \:Xislin. clippill. retrofit tin.m... Crewkel"l'll:. . RFC1 RFC2 :f2i:lOO .b. Irall!llTliuel'l . djpp~ teclLniqucs. a brief look al lhe esP. hal leu lhan I per ccnl dbtonk>R from 70 to 4500. in . 197 1).b.b.l .I.. 2) Use of 6146 tubel (aa lIPpo/lCd to s. Ihe resu ltanl highe r tem!"Cratul"C$ ean have II detnllll:Qtal elf"':l on valve and com ponent life in the tinal 1<6J10 R.S.1 of " p.loned silfl3 l whose averallC power may be less Ilwi withuul clippin• . can Increase c:QTIlmvnica tionse: tficieoc:y wilhout introducinl . ooos l~r ea~ 0·01 ". lonl recoyery time coostant. ' British I lI"nts for Corn<kl are: Inlerface Internat ional.""'" . With r. u-rumute l'S.if Spee<. Comdel e SP. Radio.Ive been II:t ou t by Walter Schreucr.J-on" processor unit with internal batt eries intellded 1 .. Thill r. and • n::trofi"l1I&' older equj~t is liu ly \0 bo difficu h: ' Allhough wilh d . . 1 "". bul lhea the dt$tortiOll Il _" mucli lowcr . clipp ina techn ique lJ the on ly WIly to obtain audio limitinl capable (If providin.Pr-n::ntdistortion." '0' IJm .vcfomu an: red to a.Ul t :.aI-lOpp inlJ" -in amaleur q . tramrnltter. 29 Market Streel. notinllbal . In t his respect M admits that &II " add-on " spc«h proc:e!l5Or of 1M CSP· 11 t~.b... operation this is qu ite:c:omll'lOD. of which lhe block oulline: (bUt nOI the: InIIllI latioo frcqucn . o r a llerTlltti~ly as one mellns of lep llX run ning the equivalent o r qcne a few kilowau.Iltin.r The poMibility of fin in..) 5)'1lem or volume comPf"C$" sfon ' Y I"'rn.lion is no l already illCrcasing the mean powcr of iiS o utput by . - ... broa dcutiq applicationl. II ...c.h p~ It Ihus I«ml wo n h havin. While . compre5llon loop) and I>Cptive (-.utomalic kvo:l wlilrol (1l.: va .r..". techn iques _ IOdIl or dil tortiool ess ~in ClLn be obtained (IIr mu eh Iell \haft the price of a lil'lc:U.r.. He jl(Illlll OII t tha i for I~h .. . " (10 use the Jar&OO). Il!llJ{lOS for tm.. mo re com plicated than the pai r of d ipping diodes and 1 w-p&51 filter arran~mellt rom0 monly employt:d in v. W ith a short r«overy time· constant between 3 ami IIdB averalC power ga in un be acllieved. 0 (3) Stable. February.. Alt houp I. the harmollic problem does n<M arise (see Ilbovc:) inremlodulation (im) prodllCls mo. The U.. frcquenc:y n:sp<>n'IC i~ ~s tricted. sliibtly hl&ber irn d istortif)llis 10 bl: cspocted compared willi straiaht r. 0 ca pa ble.. I\.01 ~ ~- . OJ a. ics) is Ideol. pnce is aboul 1120 . IOd8 intelligibility p in without .N"k 1 reduce intennodll~t ion products .n.A. in whkh till! ou tput is returned back 10 d. tran smHler is e>. t con~nlional audk>Ip«ch d ippinl: for u . of providing a pl}Wer pin o( more than 10d1I. He also loo k certain other pr_ution s which wou ld be applici-bIe to any type of severe d ipping 10 o. nevenheless olfen l. ca pable of high averaee eurren t.plotcd 1 O arl i(.. r ~o. DOl have to worry about o verdrlvinl !be outPlit slallC-leS1..:fy power supply.r. lhe -parent t tnn is C<>rn&Ie IInc: . All lIul may seem ItIUl."count... wben Inr. eIf..".1.h clipp. b. at Ieall Iheo retically..jpt ing an eWlill' rig. an d is normal ly used at 6 : I elippin. .ol ~~01 ... real l ilflal ~ ia with Ll. which. iblc provided thll ce lo. It must hOW<:!ver be ". ratio."'" '" Opt lQtl. with.c. AMAT EUR Il:ADIO TECHNIQUES ou tput drops ou.f.a in Ihis ma nner II a ny greate:r t hall can be ob tained with I pro""rIy dc:1 illncd e ·3V ~ lI. cost is rather hi&h.<1 a mode rate ~ of IIM·toppin. wtillc often raulllna in no p.n.e input powet .I.eep tuba) co upled wllh e(fective a. K6JYO." 0·"'" ~ mW . J-.7k . Heverly Airpon. " IiPPlllg.. 0 between mic:ro~ne and the l. Ol 9 U . dippin. K IYZW/ G3DC U (ff.A.. I"· .c. ·7k ~ .b.:tivc Nlauced mod ulllior (carrier ~ur>r>rC'S· $ion over SOdB for periods). a. U.s. rip have U CClk DI a.:OIIlide rab k be nefits siDce the o pe rato r doe.b.hanieal 6 ller (see I'll . Hit..es f .-./.1011 mo. ft. be desi~d. p.1e by 0 il "ruoe Cla rk. o-or esca ' m' .. ilP'ificlnt-iplaIIl11'. The Iystem .ll al belt give o nly II fe: decibel s of improvc:meolw and ollen results in a tli. dtcde cl ippen Q.m~ll llllin it pos. ...b. K6JYO'1 clipper (FIJ.y IItJU need to be ta ken lnlo .. sse filt. prt:e:iable pycltologlral ...Ome factory . (9) il q uile l imple bUI in lI11in ll it 10 a 32Sl he 1I1~0 InOOtJlOratC'S an aAditiooal 4'5 11. A. and II "a n be: araued 11\. Som e"".F..I.

a.. """"=""..-1)'l1C prtlCI:SS<1n (01 l. Pis. 14 tbe Q. chle"" ~ilP"itkan t power 'li n II .nnot 1Ia.. of IW . 1' 72. d ip per tilled after lhe _ .l n . rrom the ¢'ltra <Jill ipl1 llo l'l CllUKd 1. IniI)' In the audio blind which cannot t-e ~Iimina tecl. M any or lhe l udio p r _in. li_ .Ie or r l .(JO'M:I" ia any InInsmluer with II<JfficimI ~ pCI'fI'Cr wpply C1pabil ily ..ood baDd-pil. No. 11 Is ho ped WI lbe1e "arJoo......""". spocdI pmces<in." 5 _ e -tol Oo! 01"..b.. l'lIIeIystemt whidl _Id fol low lhe Implil10dc or cacb pin o r the Ipeedl ws. and thtM the rclative amplit udes at tbe harmonics aeneralOl1.~ O l J'R II n(lles. In b...I . November. or..".1I' to 20d H d.. e tl:.. liP lhe unwutcd li a:nab .$Ille tinlliltl:t.:ienl silfl3l J":O'I'""'n..... H. OPe amatew..1ptr by 1l~1I''''1 I nd. 10 l' 10 . &r-:b quality it !'vlly at=ptablo-«nd luch producta are a t least an in· band and not apla 1tainll O>'el' lhe ..lrlll.. ... ~ ..cl> 1. III' notes Iha t it tlll l bee n dearly dc mnnalrlled thai.i.. end IUCh I .IIi. ttl ddibenltelJ \l. _ . lhey oeruInIy canPOI be cla~ IS efT .. ln u>ereUJ.JaId>cd in I paper by Th<:ornlIs iI."c:R"~ p by V. lippina.7 the roc hllher IhCOln ~.." Ittenllon 10 the Frendl p.. in order 10 mnoYC a ll 1M pvd. Thelntd bpbdity of tillcrecklipped apoedt In noi:!e. 8d fl pin. th whic:b are Importanl r" r int dl ilibilily bul low In et'I«'IY 000Ienl and .._ _... PCII\ib.. cre&I it bco::ornca ino:reuina: y d Llli. 1IlIt1bil iry..I (' 8) Jl"II Ordts" . loop.. d lllP.l. bllIldwidtb you Q.iledippirla.... Illd Ilo added I ran 011 l op of l ho Innomilll'f C1binc:1 10 blowo coolinIair d.1<:' ...oon lends 10 &lou.boul...ll odd bamIonil: _ _ 10 iIllin.. .. _ .. ~ pu bliahcJ m ~tHIrItJJ A. dat~ 10 perm'l 1...~ "" I Hr J ~ O/'O ' I..fCl of.l...ql In IJ'l'CIIi> IntdJjJibilily when UKd with a Ik an traIIXCI~1:I . talk. . pp.. Gl FRB bcliEwls thai the fillet foUowinl Ille cli Pflel' Ilbollid he a . wc.l Y O II I _ . As a . h .. DLlloseootldl. ."..s liJl:er. 26--Jl) llOCI into the su bjcd ~ thoroulhly. He condudc:ls thai . Ihrouah ltK boa. ror Ipc«h proca. ove r lhe pro blems (l1lrea. O H1C O.uo- o -0 Even "'.. '!I'tl ILl .pe«b lotmd. Some llIeI'w COltnI1'IenII o n pn:~ and ludic). 100 200 :JOO 1100 1000 F""Q ut nc ~ • " JOOO11oOOO . m l2CO .a. In pnctke..T RA NS M I T TE R TOPI C S '" . bul G 6XN lw poin ted 0111 lh. I..ac ..b.tl al lideband burn a nd noise:. _ oo- _ """ I 4 . ror desi ... merdy slow I ·IC.. nocin J Ihcir n:femocc to the value o r rJ. . February. ( ma ben.il>l'd 10 IlIlke 1I111'OC'1b ao. . aDd \lCl to . T ampli6cr conIputmcnl.b.. To Icd _ some ullhcac (b..ban ~ted drpmds 011 the amoun t 01 d ippin . nl iI. ~ aoh-anla&lt could be obt.alIllle banDooiQ I dd 10 IlbeoftOca.r. dippioa» Philliorwooc!.ll<1 6-9<jD UflI)rovmw. A 1lritisb _ k i l t wbo IlaI bomJ doial I Iood lkal o r wri: 011 r J .ll lbe ~ Iy. Vol. lhe p .' . II the a vaill hle clippln.. eilha' lone lint baImoed miur (as in lbe K6J'I O un it) t llo u tn pin inl roduo:N below Ihe c lippilll thtnbold will brin.. 1972.. Per· ronnanoc of d. fl . lIlY"' " I ~ .19?O. inlo some son of pcnpecli~. Ol FR....ltre.IIllly dJ«ti~..." not hum or noi!IC) lhe IeI:Olld bandpul I .. .vdorm _ k1 be ~ dilfteu ll 10 acI\icYe.... UKII P>l"l'tt-oUde r«tir>tn Ippal'. ua.:a.1w j. . ~ lhapi ror Lf.b . ind ocatod IJI the . rathea' IhatI 4oocie& (:IIJJAbie 01 SWlldtinl In .n. ow..etl euepIl dw:.irich mly otherw ise easi ly 111'1 11Ibmerp:l1ll till noise. .".: 'I'll thu.. . th t OdD intermo<1ula ti(ln fl'"(lducu. _ _ ' _ ..d~«l the cond""". . " 0' .1"" lire wit h tOdD (If mo re .ulll ... llt~flliure .. even hatmolIics are la ter 1I1lemt 011I.ood I. 1.= been publishod . • ~ . dippin&. lipp ina is in..pp..is own CIICl.1I be 1IIeI1 Ol F Rll SIII&ftU thai it ralher itlraiot diodes ate uloid fot d ... I' .. tha t ed>'el'llli n.lbe _ve . ir he UlleI . La M" . l1. . 111 001I t.lly. IIlOde currmt meI~r nil'" up to 220 rnA at l " kV IfId "a~ there I II the time I He alao points ou l t hlll in a lrve rJ . clippinl il • !Dust ror O(Ilifnutn ub. Bul thiI _ _ IPftnite bon dwidth both in lbe ludio atllS lAd II I... alII to ... _ _M )'OU (lOCWIlly c:annoc bave inllnit& bandwidth in the rJ . Tbt ideaJ. o:ontiDIIiDf... would be locally 10 rtlIl1O'\1l the amplillldc inI'_tion a nd tnmrnil only the: r~lleOC)' informalioD.tl.B ... hoo Il6.".dy lDCn· UorlCd) uill n.$dB ot 10 (:1. To 1ltemp1 trucl syllltbM...ily .. The e:s. I t ia Ih". 10 oblllill IOlIIt adYIDlIF rrom IJ.eplinllhe hmiLiliom of IUdio hartnOflk:f.. 71."! ue si&DaJ-to-DOisc ra tio o r t. be proridcs a ~LU)' 011 IOfIIe 0I1lle poootl railed earlia'. l I re Ilmm lllUl"l: llI in . cin. l peech'dippin.. Awn vb . shown in Fl. (/10) inf". pc>Wff pill Ol' 4(1H. CIl I'l ".. llltcr n«<ll 10 be It leuIll p. dippinJ. He d nl.. illMcd 10 drive aD ..~ •• -~ '.RaA>o UhMy" ouUinc..na d ~ rlOll'll he mi='lphone. altal:k and da. H _ .} 20 " 10 beJo". Uppin. aciter. I nd he 11II ti Ihat .. I"'" al~ (dR) wane Ip ~".. . . _ C. G6XN.uo ~i".. Ibm wt...ll<1 NidClrjohII.""'lll~ whm ~nl al ""'. weep-t ube linea " wou ld ha"" Ihort .... Socwf. Pappen(1lI atales tha t 10<1B cHp pln. " _.. Ol FR 8 hal madt Iaml: l'I:leUIlrements usinl l Hewldl · hc:kud ~ anal.1l w::ilft'.IeIl I 10 which luch 1M pr od lM. "Y'lemi wbicb.n 00I1C1 will help 10 ""I H .. the opcnlOr to modulale lbe Ull. . SUNliM cd 7212/6146W "a1_ . 20dR c hppln . ~ ."ovidc . In H_ /l4JiI>.ite II'Ilplitude. In the reedback.71. O H2CIl.. 1bis particular ')'Stem ..... The respon!lC (withoul dippin&> 01 the OII1CD procaIOf .. t in PflIdke 1llc lint rew deci bell of d lppin .. . pcctrum. dune by : " (or) audio P rocesstlll wiltl I ..tlkh ha-.. be ~ keep l!lQIlinl Illal if a WE q ve II o:1IPI*1 UQli1 il iltql.. fltM IhI. d . a nd 10 rortb . ~ . by tbe ta me amounl ..mited II. <>Wina in ran 10 pr obkma of cnonVIooI:.q"". . . <)"Ilems. Tho dc\oU typeI.. ror '-S.. at least. et c.... spcodI dipptn " (H _ /(-110.

~cm be 10 !hose ~IClDI which pcmo.al one... G 6XN abo dra. a new ""IY or maki nll a wid&-w nd "udio pluw:-. . 1 . 01. ...l...b. dippOn. d)'Nll'lic: rante lD eo.. if there M m lM 0( filtcn dc:sianed for t ile job.... lSI Tbc lRnImillc r WI stiD punks IIIMICUl'I c:onoemiJl. (2) r._.. ... can de:sigo ro r varyln. \O'Ott was carried ou t in c:onnoc:lion with line te~unicat>ons &\lI"Ound 100 lu::/s. ( 2) I w d timilinl with . at\cr prHmphasis (I. AMATEUR ""DIO TECHNIQUE S o ill ordilllUY $pe«h..Icnt to an Increa. 9itb ~h&sis.. pedal lI'IIOnner OYCl' the OIher melhod.. " w.WI.1""' as to the val.. a aooo __ ' _ftC r ~ ft<Cl - r l_ " " _' 1 _ n. e d'eai'WI:I dippinl.hieved . il is c(ten omillcd ror r..-1 . funher. in ~ mw. pproprinla.. 1Y'te<m.t ... II ridded intd li&ibi.. mltt~.. rul aid indeed. c:bpPin... YakumaTllsio Com~ or Tokyo provi6od tIIlen modified 10 ..... pu:sinJ Ihrouch twO i ueh fillcn du. R up p.. 1bc imporurol CGl'If.. For pra ctical amplitude clippin. ' ... tho I Ulillmenl 0( compk:l:c d ynamIC r&n1lC lelrio:do n and llIus ruu impro~cment ror the 5ln rat io."""'.. .arM.. or a 6dD locta". and o/lKrvanoI: of tile was ~I • tal" rejection"..ha wo is tb&1!he supMol' me1bod is (3/ and lhat Pft'~ Is u ill beneflriaI ~o wbea the (hp p ". 1% )) ." Nodtrlctnmfflt-. Zn ..e meritS of : IU. (3) Adeq~ prccalillOftl 1O eftIUl1i thai tJ/ llmit ina taUs pIKe between lhe fi!1nS..l..\'O bayc &dcq u..ns 01 ampJilUdc d lppln.Ia _ •• _ _ ..h]n netwo rk..) d isllnllU.. thoo ch It ~ carcrul enllineerinJ 10 achieve an ylhin.hed indt in a .rinl. by Iddilll or Ia1loI away «t ra K1diom 0. m I I)'t_....l.. jVVlJ ...e.ulrn about 20dB of d ippfn.(. attention 10 the: f."... AI present 1 vast majority o f M commerdally manufllClurN rip I. G3 PLX. I nd Bar b« .....l k'Id and is ~ ot J>fO"i\dlfll a tOlallnc:reue in PIJ"U of about twO 5-ilniu 'Irilh 00 adwne COftICIll~ 1bis ra. 6d8 butdwidlh of Z'S 1. or • 1Jichtly I'ducd ~ DOSe s:p«l blion IhouId bl:used : in his01'1'lcue. definite peak l iJlW._ _ . Hlpl :><:.-ion 01 the d~ 01 ~ by ._I.t of Ioodu. SO<l_ ..e.e II conYe)'Od ent i~J )' by frcqllCR/..~ • point JRIlIl ~_n.'.: X < w..u-nna: tdYaDlaF of cstablahina: . : II ) the filler method : (2 ) " hllSinJ (" 00[_ plwinll " or qtlldtalure) melhod : and (lj " third me1bod " (Wea ve. e mploy c e e o r th ree syst~ ms for l erI<'l'lllinll l. tkarcc:s of petf"nnaoce and ~om­ pooctIt lolenu>ce. \6) ()peralioa of t he tln...!ity ~ua an d I . dippin.. in 11'1lnlmi:s:'tiols IYs!CmS. ..-'. even with omaJl dlPpin.<.s.s . fitters comIClIy dniPlC'l! roe o:onvcntioMl S)'IlCfnS bela a uns llila bk.. thl.:tinll v.-r.b...."u.. is al r . 11'1.ft.f... rnt1hod appea rs to be r>anicuLu l)l . Nnlssion and possibly o ne or mon: si mi1. lnldl ip:oo... In fad . Syll..f.. 1UId any oi".al muot bI: hilJhly li.. d~1 provldCli tho: hQlc: en.:t thD. is 011 !lie ...se net_ it ail 1 0 cffCl:l.)'Stem) .. II !hUll I "'I'J ~. tIlt:""on: .J &tid !lOt by amplitude. <antralled DOde SUppre\.tllavc& bipt peak paMC'eapabi1iI1...n. illl ltv: O\'Ilimum 6dBloxu.• . n 2 101)I1 1·2 lr... Up to 70dB of IIII"PIWIi0D has !10m IOI.# ltrl!r (NTZ-CJ.1Sl1tbe filler melhod dcst'ile the relatively hillh<a. :lCIon...lr fil~ in ~tk>n will Inevitably Io$e . fo~ S.r.lt foUoorlllt (:Of'ditiont : dem&nd. equi ~ll. but Michael Oi nlldl bc:h.. H...r thaD the cnn'o'Cntloo.VCI the s)'Stem C1"il" rQ.. lity far very hich Cltpp~KtOn (-4G--SOdB 0( d lPPinll") a nd. In prKtia: while moot am-teo..r. ~OIWct L--f~ f ll.ate _ powuha ndb o l C&JQbiIity. All amal~ur If'.. No..... ' .b_ CTy!ltal or /l'ICChal1lcal x<.... _ l~ FlI_ a... G. rwolhe1" Ulan 2·2 kc/•• Such filtcn wouI ci bot! d>c:lopc. pre. al r...._ p ut. ftl.B..f. very qll kk a.yc tOM Cl"mIet Oon). . . II no l Ideal oinoe these hl V!: • )d B bandwid th of beI. the UIO 0 [ ' '''0 1 hi&h-llI'ade u . Peter Marti nez.eJa. ... " Opl imurn eom p."' It should be noted lhat Ru JIP lalks a bout i"'f'l"O\'Cmc:nl.. te ~ ~11ppn . n. dipptn.bul ""llh the . Ru pp ilIso brieny eomi den 100 p ro blem !lull severe f lipp in" brin p u p lhe a mbienl noise dUrlO! speecb IntefVals -ilnd o ullines a ras t-ac tinlll hl'l'Shold Ie./. _ the pol )'JIh.20.. wilhout preempbnis. In nther WtInb .em p .tn. and (3) d .. rnuctI mo . .nd freq ueDc)'-convcrs lo n (i . lbe ~Wi. Hil coocI usioN an: : Formal r.ha ntage o r beinl mo re toleran t 01 P""plll.arne intdli!li bili ty. di ppina To qllOle Heinrk:h RIIf'P : "The d ippifta S)'!ItCID willi p~ ..:·c~" ' .0( 2OdB.. 74.-ble speo:dl q ...mvc '_ftCr • 0 ""'~ .t. (4) Ade(lu..h prOClt'Solin.e in uansns!ller powe r of the orde r o f 100 limes ! Spcc. H e bdl_ that fil k .....~iblCl al h.a..1 1 1 _..t ".. like the full JlO" ible benefit.

..onno.son for no t ignorinl lhe c and d outpu ts. but a n er o nly _ sec1Km o f lhe nelwOrk .. balanced Inpu t.. The resul tt Il1'e very p ro millo.. when: "~<.. r an d J will be in the ~ue~ 0".. 270" II each o f lbc dsii" r_ qucneics o f tile various sec1iofll.ies..~r.. mto I and 2 III0" and imo l a nd 4 at 180· (for example by usirq.ldter. " Re ferring to Fig. ." . 71. Ho""... 2 "" "" 2 ~~ . b.. a nd similarly with b .. T o atablilh pl'i\C1lcaJ «=lulls I b uilt 1\ co uple o f p oly... With a li " . co and d. Thus. tho seq ueece will be 270".. II + '" ". outputs will be I SO". But at l be frc:quc:ncy wl>c:n: tee reo '"0 f _ 1/(21<CR ). ISO" Il/ld what hawe:ns to the outpul a t ditrenml audio fRqueoeiel."...t secuo n . rt:tIiud usinl readily available components.UgI: network. where \W: can see . 1lll1'. lhe respcese curve will be iii shown in Fia. no .\.. ~ re e e e T o q uol e from G3 PLX '. ....I: 0". he believel lllat p hue networka after c:aIoJlo. ir we feed .dS 4t repf"(:ntinl the ' loodne» ' o f lhe lOqucno:c. I found however.. 1._.".00 d . ' 00 earrlcrt In thc lCICI.. . 0". 90". no". 2. 90'.u a number of sections In 0l$CIlde.e. 1ltiI is a t o nly '"'" freq uency. then the (H.t1nl the Rquirod ccrnponent 10 per oenl 10Jetana: can be used in the fin! five sta ges a nd WIlI$. il i.TRANSM ITT ER TOPIC S ".ion netwo rk .-. A rlCIItor so 1lllion o cbose n. 90".. Suc h a ~hif\ network would spared between 300 and 3000 e ll Rlquim! !lOmeod d wuct" be COnJlrUCIed as in Fig.." IN PU T OU TPUT t <~. 0". eac:h modulalo r ~inl fed with d ..ding ~ lIlat a Ic ur-section network with desl~ frequen CIes oqllal ly olOdB lidcband l upprelsio n. 90". 270' . ...1 and 4 and the outp uts . t and d OUtp lil. a phase $pUn er ) then the outp uts from . each with different va lUllll'qlresetlted c o by 1!(21<CR1. 0". in wh ich case iland t O\I&bt lO be fed in push· ' I. 11 fal ling between normal p referred values . Thi..~ c c t- m o ! . the iI. fo r a fou r""""". to (our modulato rs.:s. JL D1&J"'''' 1001 100 _ k . ' 00 " 1ben. b. 72 usin g capaci tors and resi'ltors. Jenerator.. 9O'.. oa:ur on each li de or the bannon icl of the carrier fnquency.. eom ponent valUt:$..uellI. 180". 73 if you thi nk o( the Y 4. o utpull will n: rtlll.1 .•""-".I~t fro m the o.. 18O" the ~ sequmo.. no t too d iffic:lllt 1o show tha t if the ICqIlCllOC 270' .. whidl can be . &Dd OOmbillCl the OlltPllla. 11 II h '" .J. 18O" .omplcle nel work will be cxaetly 0".. yet ca pa ble of prov.. 0". But a limplet arJalllpllITIClt wo lild be Just t o feed iI and b 10 twe balanl:od modulaton fed wilh caniera a t O· WId 90" . 270" (m.in 0".0 o iiOOfC the capaci lOI"$. . &rKI ra irly close to tbis in o '0 beI'N'Cen.. n u lOfI ofI"" u fONl 1'(110" .. the OUtp ut (ro m this s«ond $CCl itm will be in the sequence 0·.an illllon: the raiston.."'. _ . b.. b.f. if o ne . 180"'.". +x+ PlI. In p raetial there may be a lnod n:a...Ompo""nt valUCI ha"" been " Consider one lCction on its own with inPUIl a l 0". ISO"... . 270" 'f'ftQrd/~ss 01 TM wUwtl of 1M ttJP<'C/I<N1 and . has the advautap o f eanocllinl out hsrmonlc oldcbands whlclr. 180" is fed to th e nes. pu ll to . and labelling t he input>. A I very lo w fn:queno. II vel)' billh (RqUO:ncio.. balanced modulator with . 2 per oenI in the final 1Iage. 90'.- 0» .I" q uite a wide ranlll' o f fn:queooes provided that the riaht l. 0". Mich:lel Gi ngell (oed. 180"... to complete the u. 0". . Thul.' _ ••"'01_.

. : use an aerial 11 leoIIla baIf_ . fully-mod ula led a. 19nJ wblt:h.. ~ 1111: PUGS &Ad the Ia1a'PU09 ~ ~ lbe Dean:It ~ tr&llIOei~ ~ '''-P or no: iI ~ t b c : ~ All.. With " ..arricr.Ihin! and tiflh OfIkrdiuortion produd-. ti for the ">'SIl l OloCilwor.... 4Od8 ~ miaht be P'*ibk.... tboooon abo tbe citwit olthe pcXypbuemodutauw . '1 While _ remain ullCOnY inad that the hith·power d .. ttansmilten modulated by a I tel. W2 D !'lJ..crnporv)' ~ ruial 0(200 _ tu. o r t. call be a1iancd by &dlievia. A smlk 6U'6 provida up to t 7$ -us c .nd . \ZIIC ~ kcyinc and lend weD . '<OSt dffip" have butt bal. 6HF5. The 6Lf6 f _ • chidr. Ski ruUer Unear " lor ) '$-21 I\okII. T. 6K. . R eoei~ oso.. _ _ ClIaICl!y 11 preferred values.. lmum safe dri"" ror lilt r..' ... 6LM6. All four pr. u ll - _ 0...:ausc of the I' ·' pI" out put eaJl&C:ltanee... a raislor and two ca paciiOR . apart from" pa ir hi.jlun 11 !hal awl IIinIx doIer I~ eapKitun arc CIL1Kr 10 obI&ia itI lawa" YaI.ntio. But It tbe c:anier if. Iino: out put ~ .iIl be: the carrie r an d tbe: two eq lAlly I Pac:cd heal nr:Mes. tqe. 0-15 amps) acts haw 10 p rol«1 the 6LF6 and also pr0vides • visual tu~ ind if.-r llSCS IWO Itn&1l T.y ~t..ed on Ihn . 51 . .. bul rw:n ..s... from -'CtO!.. ua wbelb« the <:alTicr .Choul • ca rrier or a IOCOIId (wrwanted) li dc tw. s. _ arapIi6en b&Md OQ ~ lubes " (a more nocativc deIcripboa thaD tIR Bri tilb term . i l .len not to oven l rcss the core while wind.. One of the man)' Q RP cbi... about 21d8. .. $tI1ioo" by Wn H. thmi is no d oubt that trarI$iIIor arnpli llers of ~ble po. so lid-sta te IrarwnllleJ ti yet .el puIealiumeec:natkd buthcanicr bal.. For both profc:l!llonal and amtlellr equipment. 44 f>ilot bulb (. ¥OIl"..ss Cllyclorle to wmbM sud. output or I1S. '2k l QIt. in QR P operatiolt " sa. ftl _ Ck " ......... A 1df_l. ZUA MJ.F6.c in the . 19 audible bea l nOles in tbCl p hooea wllh the ohja::tln tbe elimination o f lhe nctes while mai mainln.p. sperial bea!.meter ( Wll ..b. Th.p a lf: beaiMin.h Im('Odano:e p ho nes . K7TAU...ll1O\~... IIlIltlnl rot mi nimlllll mod ulall ua on the u.J!'. of 40 waru aDd . I20H OW:IO SIred . "ER. US!"1 No . 1'g 1IppR'Ci~ l' lhe opmllio n it is ncceua ry 10 lhint of tbe I. A ulUM.1"' s..lIS nDt ioc:tuOcd ba.....1ol. carrier IipIak ate Ilkal dira... a...r.nd manyof lhe Americ:an H' gll ' m .b . 0QIy the liDaI MCtiorI b4b loknnee Qo"" po..:tJy frem the ~ lIlllpul' of • 141) imepated arcu..l and the c:arrier. " ' 1< f . .ini-.. 0"" "" .bIy the most ~ of theM: 1IDIPliflrn.... AHA T EUII.Q._.. The ~ diap¥n . Tbe inpu t Ira nsC ..ee.U iD tbe ana aJld 2 per COII IIlI the final . _ pmt.a.l hcf tef.yward.b.. . Fi. . c:apa...a" lIwl -w Jb. heal er rat1qs 6-) volts AI 2 aftIP'..S lhe At l&nlle ti M The mountai~ _ u h ~ C .. I llIIo.:illoscopa .pIlCIrutn produoed by a.-M 1t tbe bad. H 916(7). The o mpu! lank ci~ui l hoM a daip Q of 10 a t 2SO walts input. 71.. PhalinJ-lypc u . the method b lOI:1pen1iYe accurate ami qu kt.b. le 6l.nIRlin.. co nlro l o r lhe u.e loti&. eatbodc CUI'NIII or XlO .e.1912....... endoted dlaIstI aDd I'lIm o ff a l 2-voll ba tt ery. .rlll Rotkl't St« Ur...lbp.. . to a ppear on the rnaRCI.I! . W7Z01. .. o-. with the K1-up shown in f1.. .tpul . lKJ( 1I.". Calif. Care sho uld be la... ina 6 SO mW U<Ltpul for a 101&1 key-down drai n of I rnA r'lus I" rnA for the reoe1't1:r : tM only lu nin..... uc ked . aftd the euieaI _ y 10 6nd tlxir Q)ffIlC1 K11iq: would be to adjust than .impk but dl"ecI1Ye method of a1i8Jtin...Y'lnn.. a pecially with bmlwlband OIIlpul ~1'lI. : ~ dUm WId.... Inpu*: _bdow.'" COOIllPOOICi IU.lPO"!rum analyzers and . I ·S_ eociler will pnMde enov&ta drive 10 '"" allXl'ul iPeraocto aboul22 WUU.ur aR not ~ . " October.lbe 6X.t urile II'loMiRori2:ed circuiD. from where these noteI uem.n" buI if iI shoWd bnU it can be repai red with cpo. IJIwor \li" llally all i he carly Ja(l<lneoe"."bile d iminat .. bIIttet>e1eu be a .1 . 11 wire. ~ the """u.. 18 Mel. dass is of.. lhe o nly rtqllirement . WIlb 10 .. In fal:t. 77... II.in be no beat: nocc. _puC or about 17$ W&tU p Ai p.l ha l _ have muimum Iidehand _ put "'. the remainln. and s. bands GtI • T200 Amidon WR. th e (bui ll-in) I keh lonoIll'=n(:ra tor a nd a d ummy aeria. .mJent but wit1l4lkol1._ X I. al'Id ODe will hear IbCl I " " baa bttfown t he siokblInd.... wiboul perlOJlnaQl.w.D6.fIII llw heaI_ ia I'" phonQ lhil orilI lhen stK. UIftr 1 ... SoIU. ~ atl'ecUnl u. M.m ..ADIO TECHNIQU E S raull! from IlSinI a 1iJI-:tioIl llelwotk.-/A.sr. Nort h lIoUywood.. AI rllll output. xz.b. - . All J1Wt IipI Ol:l sucx::e.au! JIO""llI" 10_ for tuI Q RP opetIIion with tRmiltorized tra . _ .. lllc mon commoa tn* include: 6JS6A." 01•• _ . present (I kef. use a " . arc about 1Sd B below p. F. W 1(. T o minimize 1 _ .. .:uxc and "band b&lanoe. an arTanlCf'lCftl wttiett ten...• . the 21 Mels section of the 1Ilduciof is err wound . use or Amidon tor oid co res (Amid on Auoe... unwaotod sitkbaDd (2 ke/I 1one) . output.. . Tranlmlll. of 1' . _ hear lngead tbl= be:aI ~ the two Iide· bands JpacN 2 keh apan ..... cardully IQ<t!I&Ied aI the operatin. X l . The No . n . impuruntlo ... a n eUloCt duplial• li on . I. tar. .L T he ~lIrigU3 p re-K1 controb can be lei up while Jistenin.ly p ublished in Old M_. hu beerI dcKribcd by Douc Dc Maw. IIhown in FiJ. .. two".. So _ Iu.. HI ha .w... aI 120 walll p .Nncd . tone). 19.. 6LQ6.)'011 mtIIllO Iuotia:I for OUR'-'CU: doo"t O'o'I:r. Now if one or IIIne ... oq. do.d lbe 6LU wilb ibmaumamalMM1e djssipohoo.. sln.. m u _ output on lhe.. The low r. I U:JI siDe-wa .t..t YaIuc: This CIlSUfeI 1M the vah-... so cee bean • 2 keh beal. in (}sr aDd re=lI. illS tIW&tI$. the nal.. Apart from the p roblem of localin•• SOU/'I:Cl fo r the 6 LF6.0." A numbcT of s~u1 kl. VIlliI recenlb.. rrequeoqo aPd -eBm. n citers. u . a Mable l'a:I:iw:r.a. and Ten)' White....l.O!lI-etfcellve " for amat eur fiMd-stalion op:ntiun. M _ 2E ' torr.. PU09 bu • talCId anode ditlipralion JO _1$ Woilb peak. X l.D6.kmp"bWo:ft. with rRqllCllC:iel 0( udI sa:tion cboIcn In the _ ra tio at prefeno.. bclMn lo B. it ..m. Iso requha II. ". o Amidoo COI1lI ... 19n.(. ..... F~ Juh nwn .p . .. with )J wMts anode dis&ipa tion. 16 11bow1 1ht: _wwt. Idebanck can be ~ witboouI reiIIlroducina c..1.....-istant lN1Crial.ith Amidon loroid..dcsl:ri"". ~ .. "balJd he.udIed to lhe feed line . dldudifl& key aJWI s>dr:Iooe UIQlrat or fits into a llandard 1 in .. there ... slsnallhm= . omI COi' 4JOt....." he writes. TIle l1 -pio1 bale _ i o n s are tbe same as for lbe 61(06. . .e. ". Ia " or cndWI..t(Jf"le$ Pl'IJ'ricUnI PI iDdic:alion of the amplilude of tbe unwanl ed siaoal componmt(l). Nli..&. pKk your freljuetlC7 c:arduJIy . ' m'1. ..0-. .alOt ...

. In... :[ 1.. .. •_ 0 _ . . Bastow.. no disastel"$ resulting from running orr-ume or without 1\ le ad.... 1 . N o.n' 1"1 21 m.0. . '" I...... p' " 1 . C1 . f_lr~ . _ ... '" I .... ~Nl51l5 S".n .... .!. e· to" e !::. ... ~ ' 00 2N 30$<11 " " t.. On "'mldo n .U "'UIUIt.. '" •• 100.. _ nod 1I~ ._ pl l.... In par . Thc bipol:u t ransistor docs not take k... ~. .. 00 t ~ . '" io.h " 00 ~ to"l' U46 . • . .. .u...u• • I• • _ ... 11.b.. lll TI "'....... 00• ".. r ~ 4:~ooop 0 ·001 2." "' ... " '" ~·I• remains imporla m (0 look carefully at the harmonic and Ietermodutation characteristics of-. U)f Wln " l~ TNOII -. UA" tu.. ~ n T1QO .. ...':.indly to linear operation. < f I..1 - N .m... .. lO -. l " ..' 6·t-....~ ...- _on . . . _bon . U . " . ... Ion~ 0 ' + In.. On Amidon T 5I'-1 <0' •• ose l ll .... ftFe-J-Wfl lI.I ... ."'.... '"l>P' .. . for III .. .TRANSMITTER TOPIC S '" .. o.1 ".. 14 ~ ..... 'Ubl Ion I05T. ... u ...... '" . • _ .- •• " -" = . ....... c..t.. th ~ .. 1 ' M .....I k.. A. 1 .. 1"10 ....s.. . vol ..oytra nslstorlzed amplificr to be: used for s.n...... tu.. G3BAC. :U TSII-1 < ~ ........."' • x » 0..v "' . .. .. N o.. m.. 101>111. ... " t38 t ·l i "' ~'""' . T • • " • I" •• H«lon 01 N T M H ountal" • •• N uI ~ 1 "' .. 2N:l6 31l T~ 0....." j o...-• •17 ' M'n.. ••1. .' .l.... :U "".nd ' H <I... • . IA I u . wl. ~ <fI '. z . on o Idon H <..... » . . a means of providing good matchi ng lind protection against the high power dissipation in off-tUlle conditions which occurs when using parallel tuning.. . <>I d. 1"1 . po... wilh. 14 .. But undoub tedly tile $olid' state transm itter offers many advanlagcs for porta ble and mobile operatio n.2 . 11.. flo. w .O l .k• • 50 ...1..10 ... I . ltll wi. recomme nds the usc of series tuning a. turM.. " . ..~ . opera tion... . • r + 121f ce ". 2 k ~ T 1"91 . T 01 •• "" ... od (or 1J ... ' or nil vol . n....... 1A rl»-lU 1000:.. • "............ n. mob ile rig..n).m.. D _ 1lI •.'".lv. _"'Y-1S 1M. . .. •... 1"1 .·...... pp.. tw... '1 1_1-1 . · 0001 n ...."• . lol...~ . <.. T_ l A. I I.....skIMl..1 I... 1"1. . .."" . ld. oIt-coll_ mw Com_. . R. .. n .....m. . ~ ..oMo.. .u. I. T SIB l£ 'C rof 3o'k :1:. Hc has used series luning for some years in an a.. . _ 4 I.I~ ..n2 2 "'~ 6 5 . m il'.h 101 "'m.... 1 • 1jI~ . ro f]] • • .. o.lv.... Ii( . l"I .. . T'" U N . r: '. m I<• .~ ~ ...

a ou for this a ppliUlion aod is Iiablc to be de!. 10 order 10 ll~ol d tow_frequency pa. .lro~ U Ihl: 10wcr froquencies. to :aboul 10 ... it CtoD proWie up 10 ahout wan d...an be ru d. bin-..1=1f" " ....billSlDll o r o verd riviOIl...s . '0 .b . I ' McIo _ Ill<: 10 .silic oscillaliDlII lho: eeneeor chou RFO is only j\l!ll " hi"'.ld pull s il d own. ... pal'I icuiarly fo r opera lio n on such b... 24 voIll OT 10 7 Mell w.I•• :ta .in1l 11 volls.. state o r h . a~ 28 M<::I' wheAl ttlcn! i. c:.llihlc: wilh I-S. • ..u el lO ~ rnA by rOl"WJlrd b w on lhe bue. up to IS Wllb OU lpul with suitab le dri~e (3 watt s muimuml.e -r H • )• jl ."aP. b. O. ~ by I' "Ill" from dry cel ls... the iii wm prod uQIil low.ly w kc:4 up 10 an indicated $00 rnA "'..au ral danodublor..th a 1N)Sn poMO" arnpIi1la". .c.vcr. operator would be d Jl. '1.b.he bepn experimcntiDI with tbcm almost all too1I U Aliu..wte fpan..b. bMed 011 one in 7J MQlu iIw.. 1'1 _. .".' 11 -42 " . (suppreaed c:arricr) Ira". . OJ IZB . A minkl.....~ . I W H I T" " ~ U l " eu " 11".. U_Uho. .. value Inductance . . . Ibc 2N2041 . preferred m.. .1~. ~ " . </..mot ..rd).. II is . n d s . b. I?t . room for Iwu ~ ide h.l'R!\Illnl ete. bal a ralbof DalWW W e openlin .~al fo rms of ckmodulal ion. ' OC § • ..mctcr or & n:o::iVCT. _ .ld . ..nll ill N706 I'\Ulllinlll O rnA & 12 vu lu.. l _-pow . ~ with.". can be reduced unti1 opt imum dficic:nty hal boca ~-btJ I p rot ee:s ion apiml ue e rrect o f mllm&lC hn must be mai ntai ned $0 (hal ... Witll the b. With • ~ mum drive of I _ It typc$ sudl u Bol07 (1TI). Prim. PAOGG. HInbH" lII-J aodU-m Brandl.).. luned.. . .etr Ili&!l r ..h. To aliPI U>e lransmi ucr it Is a4ri1ablc 10 check t he rwonam Qn:uill with . ).b.rrifJr &upPn:::I:SloQ III • CODwmil'onaJ dj()de bUuoed lDl)duLIIOl' .nl lhe power ampl i ~r current rilQ Oft raon&lI~ and Itic ll>.JA.ve:n 'to'ilboul ..... _ .mistoc" amphllcT circWl is IIhown in Fie.. 80 oulli/lCl the p.. 4. The l ilieon diod e.ry p&po:f lubula r ~Ion a re u~1cu fo r !he c:oUeo:cor d«ou}'linl ~~ ilor . . . .II~rt-. d .... be equal 10 lilt tranWOC" load rc:siIwIcc (Ro.. Inm.~ SoIu. t he bMe of 1M: 8 Dl 23 .. f ir.J fu lly comp.1all(ll! or C. .S wattlI OUlPUC • 111 Mc..-.or i. .. a 2 NS06I (M Olorola. BDYIl (Siemens) an4 2N3871{79 (RCA) aD ~ _ 4.. BOI1-4 ( PbiliptfMuI1r.jid-su'le.)' dill"en::at biabtt po-r deYlocI usinI a 14-"1011 tuPPb..• . bo: ia usilll a QRP (2 -a: oulplU) ri.~". 1'10' Iystcn t wh ich is ~ I •" it«l 10 low-(ml O R I' ' ransm. " neccuary 10 aooid uasIi.. -~ ... ... for ) '5-21 J>k. • ~ • I.lU at )·S Mefl.. n and dilfen from tbac NCOmmcnded bY GlBAe as be doca rwr _ Eries I ~ He has fOlZlld tIw tbc capacilor CI'! f!"om eol~ to around. ood at fn:q\OCflCiel up 10 14 MC/I Ulin... -ed. .. .....NI ..'" AHATEUIl.0 'C '" ~ .1lcn the: p. "ADIO TECHNIQUE5 ~ a. OIl.... Jrid-dippu aDd lhm to 1M the: s.. .. fT abou( 4 Mc/s miJ\imurn "I I lltnPl driven by a llSY aS o r 2N 2:011 CIut A drlftf .~ .r.. L _ ~ ."nc:c it can be «HtVl:l'1«1 inlll u.._ ~ 0 . m'... For 1·8 Mell OJ IZB .a... .mineJ whidl ddl~n I~ _~ p...hoes allou l lhe Sllfllll power OUlput. nicalionl etJea~ open to lhe h . is a \'elY d «tivc S)'SInn .and.! f onl . ions roo::e. CN\p1. ..m. . 8 011 7 (50S). i4 . is O l.. " with \IP 10 &bold 4lldB g. TbI BOY'I all lloup il . rioin...B.f.JlUIIlOd modulator oonlrolld 00 1 or balance.hk uamiIlon _ availabll:. . tr r. c0mpromise mly be necaAJY.It.p . •. Good rqulalion and deco uplin.. fr~ TIleR an br bn k doubt that for Il(lDo(:bannd Opt-B lion In the p rac1lltlt of rando m intcrl~ ee aydcnl prm'il!in... wllhin lhe mx. - '~ " A ..s Co. f.m/ft. !be bialla freq uency bands and when the cffOcncy of tbe ampIi6u becomes 10'It' (~Iy wben= tram~ on with hid!.. .n 1l \:eu4ry wilh the puk alfreDIS of &r0ll1l4 I amp a no.. :w:ro.a if. But in additiorl he bal tried m&ll. lransmitlcr appe:us in Ekcr__ ( ~ 1m) by F. I ~ .... Th e BDY'JO-92 funily IfJCll1I 10 be . 0Il1y r-o rJ. DJl ZB'. TIle ~~ dj n ¥ f. )( V. tnaIiI&on. -.~ 1:.. ..r'~' of &1.o other W'IXdI !be 1aI... With IICries IWI.".. .. " operatod as a liocat . .1l\CnIlI l:&paci l&nQC:il are used) the n. p rovid Jn.Ur ~ Q1 ... Orraid.lue for C. 21 McJscrysW... .IRl'lion ufl ha beseemiuer junction b y o.... the hil~ IwtinC dqrce 0( eomoll. u. __ • = GI e ... I I. reporn hia apaialCU of IOlidoSlat~ lnnImillcn . u n l" u .. ...". . He ~ lhat llOOd for C. Ll J4 _ _ H . ~.. L--... . t . -1 ... voltaeca aI !be eollo::tor .

" " .I Ihould have a. bu t which co uld readily Ix: ad. Thi~ co li ha5 then to be broullht in l" =nancc Wilh Ihe help o f a short Plco: of fe rrite ma tcti o..d) U3lmcrlt .... power tleCded 10 (l(>Ver tbc ana With improvised aerials. POIO'Cr WPPIy COf\5i$ted o f fOur PM9 batteries in ocrlcll."\lpp~sor type ferrit e chok es have proved . a nd then the flIP can be muio:oizcd .wa"" arranpTlcrlt l ince po wer is not wasted in carth Iosscs.. ~ la p on the output co il may n«<l ~o mc D. voh a Be drop should be about 0' 5 volt on t he lm. .uimwn brightness .e. It i. &fler severul a llempll this dcsilll ernefllIe(I ..f. Mul la rd ) a nd 2 NS641 (Mo toro la. since there is no impedance ma. As Fla. the in tcrmod ub. (3) If po s$ible the opera ti".ib le dan ger to the o ulpu t transistor.L conle nts On ) ·S Me/I . saf~ ope ra t. t n the form shown . (I ) Tbc l up ply vo llaae Ih ould be lowe r than f VCE OIus.n.tlnll the t ransmitter u well as to modulate it with a lo ne for easier IdentificatIon unde r low iipaJ conditions.r (or HunlSnC from R<Kf~ZS (Sep temlx:r......~_ .'.. may devclop.- ~io< . 1973) co mes the desian o f a limple lrans istor tran smitt er used for d . the bese choke R FC I shows .w . r)' t o include D. with 2!1 t Uml on a 2 em d iam ele r form er t ho ~p .rar\$iltors with modulatio n provided ellhct by a Cltrban m icrophone or b y a carbon microphOllClfocdbac k tone 1ICncra. pl. u lon I_ " ~ _ .T"AN SMITTER TOPICS >OJ .. .ti$fllCtmy. UA. ~. rli . The mlldu la tion problem has been sol ved by simply COlmQCtina a carbon microphone in serie. mpl.'\C o f the p. _ . wnees.1 .f.. SO"" t o havc cnough d rive po wer.. both u rthc po wer· type AUY1 0 n OW chc ap ly availD. t of tho . p rov!d.. Cllpcr. ould lie within the d . • power ampl itlel'l..f. Aoot""r vari a tio n is shown in Fill 86. .. . H. ~ . "a~ " . T _ i_ .lly 20-80 .. TPTG ' (tuned-p late tuned-arid ) type ... l. _ -.. When adju~t i na the transmi tto:r con· tICICl a l\a. Valvo. Tbc "1I1C basic arrange ment is used for the: to ne modu1a. Whe n switc hed into circu il th is Q5CiUa tes aa.. much hllh« value. PclerOiclcriel1.. RFC2. tioo distcrtlon p rod ucts o f a lin(a. . Sol Hron or Solid Sta te ScientifIC) . Z S10 . UJ! Z 8 recommends t he usc o f " Iow-vaIuc C>lternal n::sistor.to r rolloctor a nd the b<I. W~ .:r supply. lb' p ath by an e1cclro lytio: ea plll."r ".lIIl power sl. BLY87 A (Philips.. The aeri al cQupling for hai r-win: aerials works bo:tlcr than tho mere usual qwon.m~tor in the O$Cilla to r sla.. tun ing for muimu m response on a field sfrenlll h meIer..lHr Once: upon a lime I Will conn ected wilh a n oriQni za tion l hat made notable usc o f co mp3CI lo .." Sincemo.$ Men with 36 vo lts supp ly lind 4 -8 watts d ri ~.... lJ) as necessary.e.ondary co il o f a small OU' p ut tran "former WlL' co nnected in parallel wil h the loud . wicho ut internal emi tter l"C$inOl"S.. T hb resu lts iD the puasitit ~nanoea of the outpu t an d l':r.11. tts.. Input powe r ca n bo tip 10 a bo ut 5 or 7 . 1'8MHz. U. d ue to ac o ll-" ie feed hack ar>d p rovides a tone wh ich """m . T ..itically de .tion und er all co nd itions of m ism.l stuck: into the former an d adjusto:d to m. with the pow. The who le un it is based o njU5t two AUY IO l. \VOfk arc lISina o rdi nary pOrl."ll a rea. it WIIJ found l'"Iel:e'ISI.. with lo w-cost tI'lUlSkto rs.n cb a t fll1l drive of low-eos t l ower tr ansistors OI'Il i p«.. r. When tnmistors a re uocd which ha ve 00 IV very low iotlcmlll emitto:r n::sistors.c lak ina part in the d . It is n ol ad visloblc to bypass this resistor: the impro vemen t . ZS20 . (2) The tra nsistor d iuipa tion r.. u. res istaooe be ha5 onen UJCd a pot COil' for t he baMl cho ke...ble The two r...tioll. Sim ple T..n f~ueocy and SO a vol s ponible a oscillations of the .. Th e o u lp ut s~ worb in C. Po r safe o pcn.itor 10 " void da ma ge to the spea ker.. 300-2:lXlO ..H .e. mcn ts havc been concerned mai nly with c.. and a not her fonn of pa rasitic oscillation .o. O U ZO ha s fo und fhe fo llowinll three rul cs to be help ful ...r I.a . He uses a n L-nelwork AT U with " ro llcfoCOMler" inducto r.SlOr il pa ys to have a Iat'IIC II ll. T ' . " Ano ther ronsid crati on wal the avai la ble !lancey powe r aDd the r.i.e. . at the: fifth t um fro m the • ro ld' end .pukcr and the IOU -P<lIIl u docoup led from the d . Despite the crude modulation system he has had Rood reports with 9-YO.... 0' 1 m H Iypes.$. The sc.t:r-freq llCllC)' bands whe re the curTent is h igh . 111. t rans - po"".. ~. '" ...UiI:la and the heat lin k should be designed to hllldJe tbc fu ll e. Ilm plc means of amplitude modulD.. . . Tr-.lor fo r A2 trans_ missions.i. DJU : ... .f..0 .f.nll ) 1 -voIts. l. for C>1:n hiaher POWfiS the RCA 2N5018139/6) ~ filllUly aivn up to 70 wat ts output a t ) .... To llC:hieve hi gh lnd lleW'lc:C a nd low e.. of the grounded-base type .~ ..turn loo p wou nd o ver the told end o f t he ou tpul co il.. 1>.~ • 0·' 0. t rlllllt for th is applicatio n. "". The SWH I.lpp ly and 2j mil es wit h 17 '0'011.~ IJ V' O . t he d.' " • '* iJ RFC:l Flt-11.. $iaucd to be U5Cld III h.t.ll'lllli6cr tcod 10 be about 20dB below the desitod power. po int of the transisto r even when deruned lJ. onl y two trWl'. bul in this CMe a carbon mtcr op ao oe (tclct>hon c type) has been alU<ld 00 10 a ~ loud speaker a nd bo th ceeeeeted in series. makinS the imple .bu lb to It one. h. For higher POIIWS he mcntiom the OLY9IA.llblcs with loo p aerials.. fo r the colJocto r choke. chokes lin:: . operation .lcI>lnll bias ing very & betwee n oscilla.cr.c. ~ _ __ ..sh. _ .pto:d for J'8 Mels. th~ oulput cl ~i t i~ l uitable fo r feedl" 1I hal f-way vollase-fcd aerial s.O\on an: woJ. a d visa ble to reduce the supply voltaac d u rina !CItin a up 10 a void po . inp ut po wer.n pin is low. h'· O ~lJmlrt . ut circ uit beiD 'mY di fferent .Mmn l. th islimc: f".

n:a:i. )'ar... of a ha ndicap than il m illlll ap pea r ...o .. l_r G J VU Q..ja. eryllal · controlled fixed channel direct-eon. ~ .... a. .. . It. a nd ther c migh t well be a n ad o'am all" in makinllthe lI'l1'illa. <Of 01. belief.. well as a profound ~pecI for th o"" mm an d woIJx'1\wh."nion t«ei ver...lon a Smll il ferri le toro id Cu re . "'MH • • ..+--'l'i'---..... receiver wou ld a llow sta tio ns ul' 10 about ~ kels fra n' me cr}"'lal fr." p~ 0 ..~_"''':::..lIt . TIlc:sc """'" oflen 01 lower po~T and Ies$ c:ompJe~ thlUl t he more widely kno w'l 0 2 and Polish" ... 84--i. 00"" . 1000 tn t r-------t"-----. ..: o .f"C. an d the ma in dimcully mi. l l _ a O I UO~' af 321. " 1.. w hich !wi bet ter be left. But even with an o "li llary crys ta l "". U"" ~I I. SM4BSN ino..--. .! io lln Ihal lhe UFY J4 .j. !ll . . .1ely to ~ro M T OOVIO' OOC U\ .J . ~I ~ C"YMO' ~. t J " Me. Thili QR f> ri g-Fig..01.. . l1c r-ftO! iv ~n for purpme-.. of wh.> ' _ ... 1912...J .fofOJ~ . - aal"""'" .--· . H.. _ . vague.i le Ii few mcmurie'l "'~n: a wahned by a descript ion by K ilrl KOllcnho ll". ""~·o . r---..... ho net ITlQ&t ."·I. l he s imp le e.•• U W . " - '" -I--+--<!~ I L . n w ."ovy lood . . .W e-r _ w I'" Ulf. W I'" 'V . a l.. wilhout add in ~ loo m~h complexiTY.. . Th c idu o f a flAcd-<:hannct h . .. 'In IIU~.~. C'l'0I. .- m...1<. Hut the upcrience left me with a la. _ " .c• •. complete tmnsoei¥er for .A M ATEU R RA D I O TE CHN IQUE S ll tc:fNltALOSl:l ..'o u ld bea su itah le ah c ma l i..t be the !oi mpk..~ .1 • •r .w .-. resis ter.. 1lIc lank circ u' l lIr t he 05Cil1alor usc' an onliRllry a irco rN ind uc to r: Ihe Itt<'i~c r input circuit is baI.. I Un. TIle chanoel call be cball~cd by u~i llJ a select io n o f ~'f)'>Otals.~ . .d ll <.sed On . TO Cryst<>l r--jrt-:=~ e " '" ..y seem od d .ng _ OICl lta ! . 6/7. : I _ ~_... the lack or receiver l\ln ins cou ld pro~e lc$..a.~ 10 the 2N 16\) an d Ihe TA AUi) . : . in certain ciTt'U~LltIces.g W."y In be recei~ed. !il . .---.. No . r DUmmy lOad T1"""""'i'i":':C_".'.m. G Ull' H H H • •• ..:q ue'lI..e.maim. b:I. ma ny II....sc set•.•• ~ fO<' J (1 .~ •• • ! ~. operat ed liu<:h equi pment> in the tiel. TlU _ DFV!l O.. " I .~ma..-. ! f .." what can... 0 ... wilchi ng o ut the 500 u hms emi lie.. ..th <"j> on I>Ia l "n ~ • 3011_ 10 a -' 1 1l1 ~ -...1.. l 0Jll V 9V C on d <OK r~~ ·C-·I Iopbo~ .m I". the JXlwer "r the c it:$: j ... r ..! in the mou Wlfavourable circu msla """" imaginable. SM4BSN ...f. ~ . uito..lor a \"Xu. . 10 abolul I wa lt by .<tin."" bea l. be IICbicve<l with a n o-v-l receive r and a crys till 01':111.'\-X" ..n" relLS'Cd on In.o1I mu. in QTC.l<XW"1I.--."' lal " -.c. So q u.<>me trom \ Ilu i"".a lo ot h '" Ie or _~.:::~ + llV to3av tllV jl lUllabll l ".

".:tnd . 17.. cooxioi . o r 1I.. _ &1".. 1.."""'" TV! fllte. eum muniealion.. e.. rcpl:tcilll! the o riginal carrier wi. I L.In .i.Lm."..m._1 Iunt-... iOlllC u the amplifier in place of the TAA l41..or to' 0' ''' <Opoc.. (6F3 ) dcvia t klll• lie wrile!: •• u sc an 1. :rYe--': " 1---------25..i th a sta ndllfd h. below 10 Me!. . Ro bjohn.: =.m.. ceptible to IUIrTOw-ban d-{n:qumcy·modolatcd lignJlls All ~ O<" n H t ... not es th"t il pro vides a .~ ... by.. G ltCHZ_ believes Ihlll fOT Ihe ama tcur ..inll In ~lal lation easy. Co llin!.m. . F.f. 11y· 1 tM CXlI1led curler ~nerated c"'trier).I.. . ~ weal..:t. . 1.. K4GOI!I.: ": . "ilh lhe earner re-lnse ncd 90' 0111of phase:. in elro. tunc the n.djacent fn:quenc:y bands " ) high hghu the <:X>O\$idcnble ._ 101_ _ 0..:.. Tertnlnanon of IUch filters is by mUM of &landan! TV plup an d sockets. lhe o adjU5t the lra ns.. ..~"i.h by InlCn llll 1I Il ronJer.. 144 Me /I. mooJc:a. ))dB ."'"('.e...r. pluuc. u.oc".hen lhe interfelinl si. 0"1 t... n.f.o.'C'rslo inlerfetClICC try servees opcnalinlt in ...rero beat wilh carrier). In the majorit y of cases where TVI il beina: eau.... l employ.in ~ a hJ .m . The M theory behind Iltit "pl"OCCdurc II tho' t 1M sidebands in " n n.... in Ihis tCSpocI. IlIan a.. 80/TV' and N.. 11 il illCrUli nitly RCOp iz. ~ <U ~.:. The ollly d ilTcl"COCC betwee n tbe two is thai in n. 50 x 25 : ~:. The transmitter section of thc Optimist can form the basis of a useful QRP..miuer mod ulation level to a po int IliJht ly below where lhe aud io begins to Jel di~ortcd.mall size or the filters they can easily be blddell behi nd the TV rece iver wihout traili ng leads..ss TVI filters for u...1 is bclQW lhe n:a:iver overl oad level.s.u . cla Th i$ is ~ble bcea u'IC n.. 25d B . A fllrt her applieaion of Ilti$ concep r t urns up in QST (Oa::cmbel. 4~d ll . but rorthe more d iffieull u. e n .TR AN SMITTE R TOP ICS m rig using a p ricted circuit board .f.-.. -'_J ro" Vlt W IOn. copaCltor plain OOW_cutsx. I O.OIClI'I O ~ COO" OI e o un 0.: "...-Iype tran llll issio nl if (an d (ll\ly in . r>rovided lhal l he inlmerinl IIgn....iotion C. of _ 1001. 10 Mej!!. led l il nm IL..::" ... _ . below 10 Me/I. "jnser n on 1 0M of sinitle-lOClion fillCT IS Iypic:tlly: jOO Me!s. _ u..m. . 3· ~ M els.J 1 j<Jb lJ done.:~ .."u In In.~ .c.cd thai TV ~""n lin: Ie". Cl " <If TVL 25 x 10 tnlc .. view of the .m.b . loe. tilt..i lh typial broa dc.. 1912) when D.. but in the absence 01 QRM co uld well give useful (OOta<... 1969... It is unlikely to dominate it~ channel .b.. OIlVO H . 3'~ or 7 Mels with suitable coils an d crystals. S M4BSN buil t hi~ capable of fu rthe r develop ment at the cost of slight extra co mpk:xity. tlte ~deb""ds an d carrier are 90' ou t 01 ph. :> 33dD (not meullrN)..~ Clrwlt Boord. . provided that the inscrtion loss is nol too For most cases a sin gle-section filter ~hoult1 be adequme . nd u.b. 0 3YOM ..n:tl. 8~ can IUII u p to a bout 2' ~ watts input and dtaws eo current ill the key-u p posit ion .nta gc:s of n.C~ :'::~C"""" 1 1>OO1"Il . • l ~ .. The rq><>rt oonfitmll t ha t .m.m.f. l1 t1her Ihan by tunonll the ~vcr 10 pro vide T tiV<ly illl:lIkle nt slope detect ion. Ihis type o f filler will prove elfcd i~ in red ucing o r elimimtling the trouble.llCCIion filter typi ul liJ ures are : SOO Me!I . .. lnr p". on:a rricr re-in-.::"." . ". bi hly 9 <>f po rtable Band II FM . d V1l... b.. 'Ihe arrangement shown hi Fog.M_O. (. . tllllt is. Double-sided copper laminate board s for the construction of low-pMs tiI«:rs can be used to reduce harmonic output {rom transmin en.w..: -'o'o ..t$cl.:" ' ' fl• .. .n::>I Co": :_ ::c. r-'1••• ---. th!JUlth . to 1"«..ast receive'" a 10 to 20d H 1ri8ltu Itotl of inlerfcrin.) co mpilrN wilh a mr>lit\l\lc:mod ulMed !ilPlals (a.<.. U. 2d B. Beddoe. 14 Mejl .. 1 HI..b .esad o ubll»OClio n design is given.: .. tlte rocci\'ed silfL11 will appear to be 1 identical wilh a .m..b.B.1 v'o~ M ~m . !I . JOdD. He pornu ou t that a high-pass fLlter in !he lICrial lead forms a very effective way of elimina ting breakthro ugh l rom amateur transmitters..ed by a ~ia::nal picked up on the aerial o r do wnlead . ' is IQle\1lble .. n ..M..r.b .: '"f:"f ::'" C2 C4 Coo". The improveme nl '" wc:oerally of lhe " rder of ZOdB.. . television receivers ma de from doublo-sidod boa rd.f . transmitter. 0 w · e.a1ted-carTicr me tbod of recep tion .1 """ = et.<. K ..f.~'~.l l ign. .. Ila:. 10 0 ".. Selli nr N. F or a do ubJo. .. has fillIlple high_ pa.ln lo.. > 4SdD (nOI mea'll~):' T~ '·I <o OK".f .mod ulau:d signal are ind i$1inluillta ble from those itt II d . ".1via OI.bJ .lor " lOi n (n.n...m. cooKlol I> IU'Q ~ lo un.:.11.b. ~ ..:.. imr le mea ns 01 scni ng n.b.8 .f. ).. .s.b.b.bJ.. . &0 mak. si1frl"1 as lbouih II wen: u.+- OOO K'O' c oil'. 11I1"". _ .olcobl.. I1Ilhe..iii.m. 3·SdB. So for the " optimist" this seems a mmt interes ting litt le ~""r..trtion o"" iUlIIor. S. 10 M e/. _ . A BIIC RC5Carclo Report (No.. .: "~ := .' " Th e ~IlSCCJlt. ean be Iho ughl of li S s.ts 011 1'8. receiver with the ell. copp.i deba nd. rece i ~ eT it i$ betler to na:ivc ph_moo ul. he lrammitted lipal II tru ly narrow _b.. a! ~ ' ''''9 W 5""" 0'0 .

'ie4 on.. rillS. LJ U U "' 211 • • u .f. ...oMfT\iUcr. . may Mile an op:ratio nal lifetimc mcuurcd iD rnit:nKccondJ..Z p ll. oc:eun... U ~~ . DJlNN cmp. (. .~L\~ L. ZUBDB IBrNk. . A \"&ricly of reuo" .-ary.""._ ~ ""'1Il h..ia.hic.. Al i""nxnt ""nsists simply of 1_ ldlII the co il unt il lbc null II near the 144 Mi ll blind and lhen peeklnll il more accutaldy b..hcr ri.f.". 1!n6 (FiC_ 89).es and Ih."" TV' f ihM' The &'*"Pli~c filla tw ~ . II iladvisable 10 kftCIlhc 2-2 pF capaciton prcssod neu lhe calC 10 rcd~ ind u. transceiver rc updale an earlier dcs il:". ~ )<...dlo:r.lIlIJpti1mallS in the liller box boot does.. means of ee Irimm<:r Upllcllo r.wu folUld ..f 1_ _ ... Th en "Pin mos l lOIid-f.f... for a J -' nt I4 MH z 20 Will i p.... .u S. ... 197' ). _ . ( W . TJto II 6 .. U I. I'"}:._)S .. The HLY 89 used in Ih is manDCr prov idcll a hip .. 92.J 'K " " =-f .. Uop-b&nd allenu.d<:s • hwnonic DUlput iDda lor 11Ll. Iud udinl low·valuc capacitllrs to provide a hi...-sllri n. DJ~N N ~n.. ..)'1 rcern 10 require I vuy Iarp: nl.----11-•_ 4 --':1-_ _ _ 10-_ ... -. to .. 2p --111'--. aw" A siml'le ocria-tuned tral' connected aaoa lhe TV fooler cllbl.. 90 dtow..1H "OX B. W -a Z.f. but pc:rh&ps tile most co. ""'" use !IClUM bmrr«n lIM: iDdnoidual !lCCtio ns . prII'1>II Vz".Rohrt.hio.. TYI I1 _ _ GIIO O . swilcl'tlll& v<>1L. a nd al lne _ I~ WIIICI up .p .7 _ t 5<.h.. .. in C Q-DL.vmciaa lIthal. this. ~ y .s..011. as M ad ded rcal llrc.r ti~ '*. l.__ . AlI' l>SI. 9 Mllz •.. ilChiD see Fill. .. the volute l KfotS the Iwormonlc diss ipa lint raastoI" ...:4 " _ " h 0 ~ ~ ~ ~" ' . from a Allbouch l he aIkoIilWtalC uansmincr II by now vodI I:SliIblishcd 011 • •bi .•. .. loimpIy by . 1 tile: end or tbr h ~ lICII:tiom.lllbet 01 l staaes . II.r.. and tbc a1ler nl lM broadbilod Ii.f. .e .." by J. 47 . ut ili' an r.-arnmilTtt JiJ.hen companld with ....fl. To lnau<c the power or his Kenwood £Triol TR l2OO. sedio ns in KPArate (I...r... .. TV ~gnab. • .a. U $ . . With Ihil filler DO addiliooal bnid-breaker IJ'JIC filla. oulpul bul ...an reduce 144 MHz signals ruchina: thc fro ntcl\4 of a T V recei~er. 0 3)0 0 . _ ... t .ith limited p ili per SIa&C.b..lll.h.p.. November.. fo' l . 9 1. Amon lillhe Dl rc unusual re. n.. DJ l.. ._ _ ....h.. IlOdI pro vided by the ~ trap is p la«d 10 thlI 144 MH l band ..h be \l5C$ in conjunaioo .. II _ ....o cur ill& TV llo a 1nI1l1oislor iu d lI.:tanoc ..n "-f.14. ..p. th one or l he popu1u lef loow-t'O"'~r n .h-ra-n cha racter...al tbc PD"":'" lc\oc)" UICd 011 bJ~ 'l is 001 easy 10 INnkwiIdt aln ns lSlorizal f'O'&U ampIi6cr.C&CII) )to'llp(.I ... liona. _ ullilla Ia .Ivcd lraosmitten. . and I.....atm(\flic oulP\lI of an s.l1:C. 4S~Ha:l S D"~ Ill '. ft.l Wllh • 7S<k....l or c:orllln~ dood to to:made of the IOIaI harmonic: OUIpu 01 tllII U. TV _ "" _ _' ...n • dcsiJl\ by 113M A.l lio n of some 4~B or the fuodamcntal l....h arc WllICI)efo" towards rnislil/o:.cG !i&btl)'.ttich d= ibcd 1 0 all+)\ id~ Ie •• rront. lra.ith r. -..lTY Priestley... hiL solu t ion. . and lhe use nr a hiah-power ~ . a lIlOdal 20 WIl lIS p. Irarulslor &I h. "'04"d llo .. _ "'_ _ 144 MH2 . '.1_ It..M HI .ct\Iated _itch .. u. ". TIIII . . ~ . rcporlcd by ... The syslem would ~ eq ually wllabl e f(>r olhc~ bands and OI. ...l. aoxordin. s.. . Tbe main allC nWllion .m.f. transmitter by WIM 70 to IClOd B and . equ iPfDCnt bIl. 1<. 21 nH (l tum 1O""lI_. .. H1rlt-f>" u TV' . filler. il Ieat ures a rt><>d5t nu mber of . p in.ta tc Irammillcn. poOt _ _ 1 Zo_"n 11 _ 16 tl M HI Ie _41!lMH::I 'I .lerial : _ . 1111"'!' and simple band. T"I".. Some nc_1 1>rnC ideas wcro notloed howeYCr in an anidll "Solid-state drcuita for . JIC$ how midi the h. C'b. W.hL TV SOli with ilO <>erial on lv ) fl . r--er transislon....• "_ • • <1 TV' .tures are lh e lliC of lWO smallO Slilla! d ual-gate MOSFE'fI in p«ra llel to form a !i_ dri '"ef ' Illll¢..."mittc:r ~ whe n 1M linear OUlpw ."_IO _"'_ z-"vo:o-.... .neaf lechniq ue Is ftO'I _ lbiq lO be underta l<..1-m. 1974) prO'rid1$ a IIX for lhe M OSFET o'bi polar TAA 320 te. .n d .: QOUplm. IIPN 10 . .. ind..Ih an r.... . I llhov&h thc!c m: eardully bid OUI 10 minimu. 10 of.... A shlhll)' mere aophisllCllled .. In.r. lI: Ie4 Most of lhe idcucould be U in an... The rdal \lICId b)' rA OZH w illi I SIemens un.b.ill ... he UK:S a Iransislor llmrl ificr (BLY87." tic. COIlkI be put rorwvd 10 C1pl.. H H .. r AOU l . h. aJIowI an _ .ilh ib nom ina l I _ n.b. harmonICS oI.. ilL Ylt91 bUI ~ aomc: way of ~oicc swilchin. .hich Qll cau~ lou of the incorni n. AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUE S ANorp..b.. in EJ«t1'Qlf (J1llle.la~ " 0'0'CIlIriwa ~ WI fb t· N N The Illuslrlll ion $ in the Gaman ma princ Ihow lUI bu ilt h i...b.AL _ -'0 _ _11 __ ' - -_ .e..Jhm co il bul ibis sho uld no t lxl und uly cri lical."'lN.. it ililill rdl lM:iy rare OG h. Herbert . -ilb an add -on an\jl'lif .mo:d to rtduc:e ~.a... Ihis un. .. Slmpl.p. . 10 haw pr oved uocful..mioD of lhis v rllnMcmcnl. t t _ ' 11.

... coam.. . .n not es on bo tb these hllth-pin linear amplifier ItallCS .. fron t. :J I L __ """ 1CI w h &L1. ta p 1 turn. efficiency S7 per a mt. those with the highc3t VIllueo nr drain curren t wilh ecro bias <l.U . II d pouible uli og lr llllli& lIlrs with an F. single type 40841 d ual.. an <n uaJI power lIllin of some XldB is achieved in two ~ta&CS. 12S mm d iam. . * .. Hc ShoWItlwtl . the impeda nce to aoo ut '46 ohma and the n to abo ul U ·S ohms with the bese" seelns " abo ul 5 ohms bocause of lhc elfc<. filter Ilnd the r!nll mixer. ZUBDB.o. U core u 1. '" '" " ?"'" ! ! ~ •• oo" I I I I I - " I I... ~ 0_ " "1. 14 tu rns.. which is lU eood :u.. for full con structio nal info rma tio n it is necc:ssary to reree to the orillinlll IIrliele but il is hoped tha t t he"" notel will d raw atten lion to some ur the dC'. .w.!.. Interf<Jee Mike Small. In . this sta ge beina uuned by applyinll a posit i.s..octave aain Increase wlth d« rc.H (10 1UmI. L2 0·7 "... ~ 1 '4:" '.' h .. U Pltilips l4 by 9 b)' 5 mOl (violet) tornid 8 pluJ 8 turns. n l"n " . input J va lli p..w. u ' pu ' an H. U IO". "'I. . parilSitiCll) unlcss it is run at much lower ~r thao would be f""ible at • . 250 mm loog.f. based o n two or 010«: 6146 val~s.). 100 turns. In his . 10 turns. . or better tha n...p. . T he IUI nIC issue ot !Jffak. between the MOSH iT I and thc BLYS9 (9:1 and the n 4:1) 6nt drops.. U 4 . using l w" ll Cl 0K..W p....p. sum mary of tbe two stages : over<ill aain 49dB.:. b.t•. «. I tage ga in of rather mo re thall25dn . gtece th e M OSF ET driver has.H ... IDl'ut ] 4 ..b.(lme ] to S volts peak-t~peak d rh'e is supplied b)' the tCliODlln l circuil of lhe prc-tC1cl\lt0l'.lln jdea~ . on the bu.W. Th e v.. 5 plus 5 plw 5 turn s.• .c.. A1to~lher Ibis . d.I.•._ . . 6 mm slus former with IWO " UllI. inte nded to r use with lhis !. G4DV I. ..s. n. 1 an </.:al way. but the high MOSFET in put impedance mean s that F. . 168 mm long . L7 and L9 tor oid (llS l4) t :l tutnI.uiol trequency. _ . ' peclr um. o r ' bout roo MHz 1<1 obtatn nowee aa ins of up [0 JOdB (1000 limes) ira the lower part of thll lI . about 360 u hms ( 1.later. Th e i'lLYS9 has It muximum ooll<:<:lor curreo t I"Jlinr. .. hillh. 3l7 mm diam.. ~..f lhe 27 " hm Teldtor'-T he very low o ulput irnpe d ancc of the BLYKII (abu ut J ' 6 olum) 01 impedance tral1!irormcd ill the ou lpu t netwo rk 10 .."n .t (.linn .f.. L10 15 t urn l Ph ilips 2] by 14 by 7 mm toroid (violet). The step-do wn DlIllch· ina net work. MOSF ET am plifier on t«"eive is ru n with fixed gain . A b.e.r...e. mil.</..jmpedanoe .. .. 6 mm.II. bifilar wollnd .H {101llrnS. _ ..e.f.nide Z L2BllB provides full des. circu it i. . 1 stallC . provides details of the aTrarlio:ment he uses to interface an u.. lit 10 lim"" wh<:n u'lCd at v.N . Co li w ta : LI 2.. in 50 ohm. are p refer. whl il nonnan)' It<:hillvcd wilh val. It sho uld be O1l:f1 tio ned thai the 40481 MOSf' ET.. . L6 2 1'H ..b. f"!'" ...lIId biased for minimum cmu-01odu to. n ciler mo du le based OIl the Pleuey SL600 series of intellrated circui ts with !be valve .a.. but in thi. Sclld _u /lI<Jlve Tr <JMmll1e. out put 20 wntts p.. ". TIle d river is fe<l fro m a do uble-balanced diod e rinJ mixer prov idinl o nly about 100 ". pte MOSFE T can Pfovide about 62·S mW OII lput o r ac me 125 mW with two devices. 221.I. L3 to L9 ]0 I. is inte rposed bc:""'CCn lhe II MHz s.f. but of ecurse in such con ditio ns the lran~istor is vcr)' vulne rable 10 destructive pllnu ltil: osdllatio n (panicular l)' v.100) an d then ma tched 10 50 ohlllll.. He gives t he followin.b. 1••• r""n nd ..II. operated under derated cond itions ill order to lake .p. 12 s.<oo'Id u n<"" ••••Id _ . po lenl ial to me source lin lrlln. T ho r .f.. bl)' se1cded fro m a number of de~ iceI.TRAN SMI T TER TOPI CS '" . '.. tunes H I 10 5·5 MHz for 3'5 and 14 MH t and I·K 10 2'0 MHz ro r 7 M llz.. d vllnl/Ije o r the 6dn .. 6 mm slug.b. silvered ).j" ill(:llld0:3 a linear Ilmllli1icr. 3 pluJ 3 lurllt bili ar .Olid-tlate Iransceiver..l . vinUllIl)' inde>lrm:tible wilhi n the operating «lndilion~ " . wire. bigh I d. Irifilar WOUDd .nd " seems to aploit IICtnic!mduW)f' teduliqun in a vcr)' IOllio. enllIn.3. _. - --.s of usin.w. am ( 1] '5 volts al 2·5 am~) ....

. Ollll'"l fro m the a. TIU 8011S. _ r . * _ r_ . 1l eft T · M. .4 7 I. ~ d.1 ~ ..' - - . . (2) TIle input a dmi ltaTIQC of the device is a lso negative It ~ freq ucn<:ics . " ".w . . Th e solu lion p rov ed 10 be to U!lO I SL6 I1C lIllll "." ~ ~ ~ the eese o f th e 2N2218.... R4 determines lhe total poio of the val ve/transistor pair.. • fl~.llti\'C at some rreq ueecee... . PII"/ . R ~.0... d.. (lh. .·l toro... .."... j11:~ WI""""'" a SUi" . "' - ee Il~ 0..4 . '"~ T ~ ~ .0'1 .II Ie". o f coaxia l cable.. ::-=R r-r " """!--r . some: 26dB aa!n lind feed in... livin' llcoltcctor voltqc for lhe lransislor o f abcH. " . prov ided by R4 Cll&UJU 5I... l m ll . p..4 7 MH.. • .. l Oll LS U 'Urn• • U ._ ' Gr J 5 .~ .. r. T ill J N 5Ut. .:•• . 94. wo n ..- H' . .••• 1 o... n d I slijthtly positive. 1 . u ansceiver which hIlS • TI.~ . .. li= amI'M.1. lmpUh4 ~ 7 omi " I0 ..ollm shunl across the input.) . nT .. fr 4 U aI.. . . .f.:....f.. T Ill. modu le tc abou t t to averts10 d rive the 12DY7A wh Uc usinG only ..mncs Ihe valve cu rre nt... .-" .. . ch o • .. T h IMJC'V " a tt . r .s. . dnv er in his h.~ " ~9V7'" . .f. .c..l.. i'l c< mjunet ioo wilh th e 11'1 0 100000hm resisto rs reed inll 61016B o ul l'''\ JIlIlJ. T1te folJowinlll)OtC! will be foooo helpful in mainlainin! sta bi lity: ( I) R.. •• •• . .. The nC811tive reedMek..1 4 _ ft.. 1. .. .e . the use of lUlled c in......... n o mW ro :u n n • • 1.u its. lor iD the cathode of lhe 12BY1A : lee Fi~ . ith by a l()(l().. e el. "1"'- .llilC lin earily...i. T_ U ..lt8 volt! positive..e inlcrfaCl: problem is to I nc~ the SO mV or 10 of f. L I IS 4_ U )I ".. T Il. escc• Dr l. u _~ T·n. i<kband r.:... T he \'lIlve lind the tra nsisto r are located In lIePlirale oox~ Joined by a bou t I fl.'" AMATE U R RAD I O TE CHNI Q U E S ::Jijl ~ .01 1 po wer ra il a mi evoidln.. 6-.. 1:. ' 0"'. . tliis lril li be deal t .. R I and R2 set the 12DY7A .I<.b ..f. .. . am ph lio:r &Jvin. "' t. ... this o ulpu t to II 21'i22111 medium-power tran. is essenti!l as the o utp ut im pe<Lol\C(l of the SU I I ilo nel. fl. ... L_I---l-:-~t=-_·. l Dl t . J 8C I I 0l. ol« wl " h tly . "'2'llV . . t n.

nose " band width (poosiblydown to llbout H k.. ' . 8CI0D.8. fillettype tran!m isaio n.. 0 tio nal carr ier luppression) or 700 to 3400 Hz.s. Th e carrier Ilel:dl to be eccu rare to with in. n . ld~IIY.. reports to be ClIJ"'ble of providi ng lulJIcieotV id d rive to be used directly with a power am plifier wilholl. " is delermined by the filte r charactcnstics. . mten o f the 'fifties b UI is u not nt'OCSliilrily 00!TtlCt roe modem filten. '" 300. " and hellCC the carricl: fmj uc:ncy . Poe an y fillcr wilh a band.iyo i5 tbal the corrier mould be a l t ho . . G 3 FR D. although wllb ca re it is poso. a t the most.. b. lhe a ud io pusbnnd. ~r .t eq uifl'llCnt . If one thinU of the basic Operatioll of a fIlter_typc .t Is onen ipon:d.t 10 <:arTier freq ue ncy. {4J Do fIOr UiIC a d river valve ha ving a su pp ressor gr id ilI«:rually co n nected fa its cat hode (e.tc ."' '' ~''''Irum • ac ac . . . '_I.1fCl: that JOt) to JOOO Hz or 300 to 4000 Hz is a bo ut oplimum f. lrinunln..". . " . Mall Yof tbc staod ard ro:ferecce bono are . At the hil her fmjuc:nQoa.lht ewen he more than 3OdB.whal one is ~imi ng Bt ...tmc nU by lislCn inlt to the low_ IeYeI s.u'''bl. 400 H~ (IlOl much at 9 MHz.. H ow far d own the res ponse CUI'V'C the carner .g. III the K«!i\'in lJ end.. tra nsmi t a JOO to 3000 Hz span of aud io : 1I.' C&rrler -----' I ~ . T he p!MC1 resistor il adj usted to pr ovide the correct ADi anode current for the out put valve. a n H ~l .. rat her tha n aslllnUlIl tha t the carri« frcq uc:ncy m USI be correct beca u.ym .ncy 1aI m o... fot thc best. l _ _oI08 (L WI...H z.s. lCfICIalo r..trum !haIlS acIuaUy tran smi tted : see FilJ.30 00H' ~ rc e . filler wnn the stoep side T>Ca"".. s pectrum ... It mi ght be 20 (If 2$d H' it m. to 10 ·7 MH~ range) W I cannot be guaranteed sim ply by plulJlJin..dUll that one o f the im port. "Y..c with a n RO? .6<l B. u _ " .w:d! Yet lhe need I'R'Clscly to . I .. 400 Hz slli flln camer wo uld cha nge th is 1 eitbcr l).. The pn:fcm:d ca rrier freq uency a nd its... f..2600 H~ (witb no add i..tmefll c:alla precil ion te..6<1 8) passband of 2·7 Io. ~ p. .. .b.. It is . ho '_u+n..." of 2·7 !tHz or mere. 6 146 or similar valve .. e:spon'C serve o f the CfY$1a1 (or nlOChani<:al) filter acldom MleInI 10 recetve the att en tion it d cscrYeS. )- 'n :1 ' ·3 k ---- " .. +12 Y o-ol I .an t facto n a lfectiD. . q ui te a lot o f amatcur l .. lt bl. ...2OdB point o f Ihe filler response curve: a tllJUTlll ba l may have been nca r e m> lh correct f. 61t n. M Olt lIuth orit iQ 1I. u WI'" < r•••u. for narrower fillc". " " ec " ( l ei f c + 3 00 HI .t common ea rth imped a nces between input a nd o~tl'~t eimJ i~ of the SL61 IC . '" " .cles OM SOS. Sup pose the ~taIfil~ has a (.s. rspeech ill1ellisi bilit y if"e ha _e vet'}' stee p sided filten. sits.. • . . ! . it i ro .ltic-sha pcd s.s.-ould be o f the order of 400 10 2SOO H ~ lit . in a crystal of nomi nally cerrecr fmjuency a nd bop in.cqllll'C! so ma form of eryIlul ... ba_-ea ra ther narrow c .... II rou. Th_ is a further po inl tb... io the prc:cioc fmjuern:y o f the Clltrierwhich is aenetated only to be auPJlfCl. 9' s hows an a llemat ive arrangement which Ph il Horwood . . The point 10 note is tlla t tinal IIdJuotmc nt . otray ca pacita ncn vary crystal " Ioadin.t a n inte rm ediate thermionic dr ivcr stago.. tI • •• . Fi.. " I . However.. I.dllo te.c~ . or usc an . B F~ • .... .no u•• 4 b.q..y of JOt) Hz is probably lhe bc:<t clt oicc..r f'. 1. %.0<1... b.d.""lot.iblc to ma ke final adjll.t be It high -voltage type chosen 10 s uit Ihe F ilIlwinll of the Dllr ti~lll llr amplilier va l\'ll.. il becomes easy to ICC why thc relationship between carrier frequency and tbc filler response d etcnniocs the audio sp:o. In tbis case the " optimllm ..Hz). The p-n_p lnln! ilItor m u.-off frcqueno...:: ~ BCt0 7 .. ".1 I.b. roo docs the type o f osci llalor circ uit uac:d a nd wtx:ther th is is intended for lite series 01" parallcl rc:aonan<:e of tho crystal. I. "-' c + lOOO lU • +lSV " r.. lind a re de terrnmed by the required low-frcqucocy roll-oll . woolly" <HI th is poinl .... . roo docs temperature.b.. ><><>. I.... u l . . a few tena o f hertz of 1 e op tiJ1\UIIl 111J~ lhis demands a n order of 1I procision (penicuJarly with Wiers in thc ..pos itio nintt <HI the fl Ue!' res ponse CUM: th ul depend on the fille' cha ra cteristics.T R A N S M IT TER T OP I C S (31 Avo i.r. match " the CIIrrier freque ncy to the .. ear ".. _ bl ... ofte n tbc only practical a dvice they . Sbin the carrier fmjucncy by. but the HFX 29 Blllitll ble for u. 400 lI z CiUI be mc d... Ne:ilhcr would IIOUnd . EUl4).. . . r illht ...4 fl O. lhe intclhllib ilily a nd ove rall II'CO'o'h IIwtlily o f -.-OUtpul .~ one is usin l I~talluf>JIlicd by the filter ma nufact ure r or beca usc the rii r or is fll~tory-built...)and we shift b y 400 HI..2 N70tl• . p rovided that it i~ a pprociated wha t one is doi ~l l-nd .b.n w i. lldjur. slanals o n a loud recetver. . a. ~. the n with the " C01Tl!Ct " auricr freque:ncy we wHl n om inally C"rrl. .

m.m.s.b. .ie amp lifiers it Is st a led th at o ne of the mo st common ..:IIU"".te. Fo r ma ny yea>. (with w pPl"C>S<Xl .Iatinl to signa l leY<:ls it ia viul lO remember tOOl lhe ear has.c.).. .he erro r is nn tho." This ca n roughl y be regarded . . H ow im ponanl th lliH vannu. iD lhis "'ay is nOI q u ite w ha t one Illlty t hink. ALT etfect ivo---it =t years ha ve MlCn cert aitnly this. ralin.. 1000elher WIth u the r items. w latter or ot her f"rm o f sp urious tr amrni-\O'<ion to ca use in tc:rferco<:e o ut o f a ll p roportitm 10 lhe ac tua l degree of HO UG H r a sleady &l'OWl h n.uses of m ismatdlina is lha t the d.m.h ~ i n ~ le-s.Ctl !be m icrophon e i!1~nclom by a piece of oylon lIoc1i:inllUl'POJ'tod on a cage (fashioned fro m 20 SoW. T hi. S peoJtm.ended amplifier usin.hell opera ted from the usoc:i.ent. u.he d. One of the m ost important fact ors iSIlOD-optimWll mftleltintt 10 the o ut put loo d . u pplies.U of a n a he rna ' iY<: form of OUtPlll Stitgo: ra tin. under <:omm uniclllions cooditious. This is mlIinly bcoca u. line vol tai C k:s5 IlK voll a~ d ropped aetOSS the prima ry o f the OUlput transformer (which oftCl1 ha s 8Jl IIppn:ciable d.. for !lilh fioklily worlr.. modulali(lD.ingJe. aml'liflC1' livinl . o VCTTTI <>dur"tio n.. in PITt Ix:eausc o f 100 prominent bus reaponse un der s uc h ~"'l1dit i(lns . tan ce) anil IICI"ruIll the Qtthodc b iasing resistor. F urther .1 apprecia1:JW llr ~a ter lhan the r . f. Rlbboll Mlctof'ltoll" (Of' Clo. meJllIon N abnve.ghly loga t ithm ic and IlOI a Iinur I"eiIf'Onse : 200 wallS loo ks o n paper . n iht side.I .m.10da rd practice in the U K to rale m <>dul.. but II is worth rcalizinJ thllt a n eq uipment ra ted. w ill us uall y go urlOot i<Xd .c . The devdOJl m<:nt of ".w and this i. is in pa rt dee to s hirtina: (If th e r ibbo n by JOUn<. F or domest.r . t haI rlld io ITBnsmill er s and aena ls an:: Wide ly to lc:ran t of incorroct adju51m<:nl _providcd alwaY" tha t t.u tended to ma ke some amataJrs un du ly secsinve to Optimum perl'ormanot: fi~ that may In fact have rellltivt:ly lill Ie Telll communications value.lIt n lhere is a n illCtl:aSina: te nd ency fo r Drilil!. Th e I"garitlun ic ba sis of aural ~n:ep t i"n mea. f.. such m icrophones live poor m u lts whe n used for dolo speaking and lire also very p rone to p iek up wi nd noilc. rou.Jm. often confu ted with !be vOllllte belweeD lhe h . However tbere a ~ sl ill many in w hich a .t.m:e in speec h Ir:vel from 100 per cem. wire).ate 10 annck modula lc a loo wau trlInsmiller Wilh a n a. noi iIC A.t. ~ . o firms 10 UJe thete millie ratinp .ognise l>ll CODllnued and v.. t he OUtpul which IWOUId be delivere4 witll a Jino.. p rovi ded Tuhn'C Topics wi th a d.ted with perfectl y re gu latfld p ower su pplies.b ClJm prcuo rs have. resis ta nce or the primary and !IIt'COlIdUI windings of the OUtput trlIlUfurmer an d of ue Iw<hpeahr leads Ilave been ~ected. p n>-1llflPlific:n. In so mlDy mallen ".·. yslc:rn haY<: long po in leJ out lha t sine w". b.. then: an: SDITID erxnpact ribbon micropbn llCl whic h overcome Iheoc pr ob lel1ll by insr::n ing small pad s II the back o f lhe microp hone . Ullles$ the ditr~ beewocn the lWO fOntll of ra u ngs i.:an In hi&hly b im l'Orta.ment "f leu lha n..eteriltW:s arc q uo led in tenns o f QlI(I(/.. W h ile Ibia nll inl Ii""" I tnOn:: reeusue idea of tItc maximum power available it iI considerably more di mcu lt to tTlcaSU t'C or cbcck. lhe 2db d iITe ".la p! bcilll open. The bus efl' ctil o e1imi natN by a s imp le bass atten uatoe nelwork at the mil<'! no .IIon of the audio and modu lat ion pct.n. entia o r Ihis . Th is argWTlC'l1l k:d to the gen e ral a doptioel in !be U nited .. Admittedly.S." much mo re Q RO lllu the lqal limit o f ISO wa lls bu t rcp rcxntS a slana! impro'".Is suc h •• the exp losive " p " and.t rndes.. from the <. In E:/u rr<m /u World II is suggested lha t these etfr:cts can be o vcn:o mc by a d ua l p ronJ 1I11l1CL In the lb-st pll.. This IS nonnally measurod by applying a sin e-wa ve inp ut 10 lhe stago: an ti mClUUrin r th e o ut p ut. Some of lhese may provide only a modest aioe-wave output "..r_filtcr un its. 1·4d b.• d .f.r.minds '" in CQ JI '6 wa ll l o f audio wo uld l ive 80 pe r o. t.m.. lhe poor tq.b. h. an o ul"".sc: of del\c:'e neies in the ". AudJo O utS'lIt RotJn. wavc: in"".".:arrier) a nd . line lind c ha w •./ l'OlrQge /II "'3p«' 01 c"rh". Man.t si a llit' il ca lled upon ttl eetoer high o utp u t only for rJlof l perioda of time before the d ro p in volt ages m a kes nse rr felt. lIlih tidcli ty am plillen.:o SIll... pulse code mOdulation (p. in p rac tice.at to r«. Since.an to de lect t. modulation llIId few lis tenen co uld even det ect . U nder-mod ulation. ~mate urs would today ht!lit. IJnlea Y'CTY KYCrc.Ilon. lbe so -ar lk:d . simple mo dulation systenu and spco. pro:timity effect" S!lOWI u p on elOfoC .~ fact ort ca n be were graphically iliustTllted by a nal)'lb o f a . It is 001 a lwll)' a pprociated lha l valve dlara. Low.. in t = o f the muimum poss ible s usta iued r.ulalion h85 mueh leMeffcct u pon normal signals tha n WOIIld be ' ''uested from lhe TtlC8'Iuremc nts with s ine-wave siltf\llls...lativdy sim ple measuring instrument. In lbe a ud io field. but it nee ds ooly a lill Ie a .. a ct ua lly lave ooIy 2 _ liS undistortcd out pUI. res i.I understood. The point is proba bly not o f grea t Jrnponance 111 10 fa r as ama teu r operation is conc:emcd.: Ihe nearest aJlprolIC:h-and th'll th e max u num poHible llndis lt>rto:d <>\Itput on Ihe sp iky 1y waveforms of normal speech and music is usu.verse tlt ere. The ribbon microphone has lon. W hile o n the su bject o f a ud io power an a rlic lo In Mulfard Outlook doole with the q uestiotl of why the ilCtua l outPUt power o f a 800d d eal o f audio eq uiPmcPl fal ls well below !be value quoted in the mal er'l liiti fot' the particular outp ut valv«s). ir h~ bQeo th e st.c. Mao y a.gu la tion o f the l upply vo ltqn to Ihe elo. lfCTrnl:e on 1U1 an1JIlCur ba nd .. clippl. Yel. T bc aetUll an<>de >rohqe Is in fact usoaJ ly the h.rorms a rc !lCldom e neount e red In M IIJrea sust a ined wltis tle botn.. mu imum output in lhe rqion o f 30 wa llS. mu sic ra ting . and poaaibh' for this re. <IcbH nd -a n d be error.s o u tp ut POW'" f<Jf a 'l'«ificd dea:roc: o f pe rmissible d istorti o n.. -kinll.m . illclud ina: e.SECTION SIX Audio & Modulation value of a lle'malive modes.ted pOWl. as W SE HC n. M ~ I1Itinp are COIUidcml to be ~ IIIlla" for Il'fIRIistOr I" IOliJslat e ") a ud io cquipments. for microwave oper'l. lD ELS4 which the des1lncl ho ped wn llld pro vide 4·2 wa u s but. It w"uld roq uil'il c::< tremcly acute .t wen:: t he . .pcu rrt.. been 0( lhe best types rc r high-qua lity wo rk and is q ui te widell ~ as 000: u$ed in d<>mestil: la pe: rocord ina: and p ub lic ad dress.

Indicator lamps. . R2 .. llt. lruc lion ..OU M Iu""""" AmpIJtl.. Jl" . A..cP.~ U~ " . In EI~c"Dnle..ol and skim ear thed.. IlIpuT C'. Z729 and Ef 86 have helped panicula rly su scq>lib lc: to hwo and micr o ph ony..j(:ro pl._<l .c.a.D<:<: amplifier sod.AUDIO AND MODULATION • C I ~ cu n J '" .o f>r'O\'kk:s an ad di tiona l inl'U l conl • Ii.hows a cimJil inlen ded fur usc with a d )'lWlllc or 5lmilar microphone &lid d ra winll power from the main spccc. With SOOIC poss ible cin:u. lo r receivers with a 10 O/lm spcccb coil.' lUll r .. '. Shoo k! it be mtui..... to a standard hiah-lmpOO... Constructiall Th e fitlll $laIC o f I( hillh p in lI.. r .OSS R4 (I " lowe r tJ.:urrcn t (or !he o ther vnlws).I .. the llOCd oft en ari scs fo r additioo&l Pl e-amplifiallio n o r fo r ' lmpedana: mal chin lil.-0. movin ll QOillowlspealr. with both . ' " microphone a n a ddi lional rr. i leaka ge types (c.-.In. 3 from Furtk_TuJrnik .tlould be adeqoately bypassed (I. ..... . This Qrcuit atJ..it which lak n the micm phon e 01.n. Fig . The WIe r Ihould begin to cut oll"ar OlJ nd 200<:Is IltId be a ro Wld 16d b d oWll at SO cli. vefve. World (February . "i. ud ia 1_ i • • ~ " .10 _ p" _ ..f. Iu... d Ilt hi.'... .eulll 10 be used as a. uansi$tor oho uld be ouilllble.l ors whidllhoWd n ol be o verlooked il based 00 Ibeir a bilily to n an$form impedances..".. nc<.-UP lrand omltr The tran~or prov~ a mod~1 gaiu while lI1lowin.+ .tage wh ich is opcnIlcd .. 1962).T . . ( IiCC&2) &]29 1O ~ ~m pliflCt ..... _ ~.I ~ . tile • a:otre-ta pped b ealer supp ly a. 5.. I . Specia l Me bile opot.C . etc .. ...alf4 10 cruWlc a IlI"IWl 2 in. It. i~p a' . !ICC I'i. The spea ker WlU on e of the type used in lran. ror exam ple by ltavin l a separate .llor as Dc:llI" as possibl e to t he sillM-l IUld pin /Uld th e ca pacilor urtbed a l the signal Inpul eocket.Utcd. Cllre m ou ld be W<en 10 a void oornooon 'lltfled. I ~owa.llW. &I Ihe incr ease in mic ro phone: ~nml mor e than COmlX'lliales fo r the 10M d ue 10 ITIlHnlttdlinl : ICC F ig.. Ha ler supply wirn should be twisled and \UTanged liD thai Ihe c url'e".1• • ... l "' '" FOU r WCROI'HO Hl f i.. . " 'N PUTOi:'r---1 ·.11 of Ihe bias clrcutt Oul re tains all Ike a dvan lllgC$.arbun mit:ropoone) Dr T . Ilc:mlltivcly belWl'ell II . iro .I.-.. . and the ju net ion or R21R4 (tu mcrcese Cltrlmn microphone euncnl an d heeee pin). is as low as possible Ohis is achicvQ:l by lTUI. with the lead s o f th e bypasl c:apa. MI. When a.--. i. 2 sIIows a simp le whkb ap pcan:d in Eleclran} "...bililY n raistot1 In lhe an ode and IPid circui ts oC Ihe f11'l11 litage.new or better qualily n...< ooIA: ' " ".e gain fro m the c.) IttU . transi. .. ". ClStf)'in1l 1eIda(aWns Input.... grid Input l lallC. 1. lI/. thaI th e leads to the valveholder d o 001 QfT)' o...• an ar hi oh hn~ u. KlI!RV·.II. A w e for .~ ..r . M Ic/'OflItotl. >h 12 AU 7 . .. Pre ferab ly..F. designed for 11\ im pul im redancc D )O-SO ohms Ilnd with C an OUlpu l iml'Cdan<:e o r a boul 4000 oruns .h ampliAer.. U N .... p 'I~ 1\d . ket'P III • .....r -...one rniJbLncc: is HI. 10 avoid ma gnetic indu ctJon. It i.. isto r C&It be shun ted *. .m a great d ea l in Ibis respo. T. K8l!R V liu l itema_ + t ively ind icated Ihlll a mall wilh Ihe usual s~ lern is thal Un: ehange of nUcrolJl.. WlI U C Ioopoo. s p«dl "mplifiet is .tion ror usc wilh liiah· •f ••.o nc il obta.. 4.i..kin ll Ihe lirsl Slal:e the end of the hc. maIdUn.-t. R3 sn d C2 will be the norm al compone" l valu es for the pa rtil"U lur vulue ul<:</.il val ue clw1sca almost lUly . th skirts an d • mellli cent re bOloS..e micr opho ne in cathode circuil of lhe finl Ilmplifier . amLn semC1lI is m uch im pro ved b y t he UK o r a low anode: load resistor. ph a n .-. . Vllh -e h oldcn for this stage sltOllId be low. In Iayou l.h-et. The earhcde b ias raislor .anoc COUplinll lO other sta l es.. from lhe valve . 4.ra lON and olhers who usc carbo n mkropho~ illY!' Ionll used Ihe Irick of conneclinll tJ. Rut th e benefits confotrr<! by low noise valves can be IO'l1 un les s reasonab le precaulions are tak lt:ll in layout and «..e.. oJ. arounded.a. TIle followin " n ot es are based on """Clitions In GEe lUId M uI1ard pu blICatio ns o n aud io amplificn..' a n ...ler line. - + Lo w Nok .ln' ... This elim ina les Ihe n«d (o r 111 illput lran d ormcr and ba n eI)'.el. 1 "'" &. IOK A IO~ ' " H~o~ 1 T U I0 9 -f£ O~ Ir~ T 9Y : ~ I !-l Ui '11. im podan<:e m il:rophonn . K8ERV gives a l. microp hone Wilhoul a.ed in o rd er 10 ob taJn negatJve eurrenl feedback)... d o no l laY!' th c resist or un b)1lllS....udio valve:s su<:b M tM l'iBR7.er cin:u...w to adju'<t Ihe l\iI in o f lhe sta ge 10 equalize the OUII'UI of the Ivro I y"". (Voco_a 11I_04).. Fig. cGu it used wilh is 470 ohm impcdaooe 'ra nsmor pre&mpliliu.. n yl"n·IDltded phenolic) .lud M. dlr«1 W 5S UC ha s shown Iha t the gain of lhi.f.I somduna suf&knl to Inlroduce disl o n ion by I" ~ I elIOeSIive Vlrillion or tile operaling point of th e y ..

a.. ps II is clearly an economic lid. _ wl.I.. . .. .... QODIpcHile ?thode modulallon offen a &impleeohntoa ...·7 K e:-. 0·' . lel rodcs o r penlodcs...wio &mpWlen an d l?1taK Ifllilun.... it il worth n acin.'.. .t twisted leads.. we: no tice thai a number 0( tape rocordcn ".~ It pomly in order to _ Ll .... f""" seap as pouible..I. p rima ry wirin. ... a • modulaIOC" ·· which CllII bejust ptuued 1010 the usua l kerial jack: on DWly traru... i. 11M: rQCfYOir eapaator is then ut\bcd by mc&DS of a ieJIlLl'ate kad taken to the input AMATEUR R ADIO TE CHNIQU E S PLUG toeicl ..i ana! circuil-hut this wo u l4 nol iDdicale thst the unit had eeeeive ImOOlh.a1ly crid ·blu modu lation.. . pro""iin.uan of ttle lint • . '" that hum Is 10 JM.... 0.t. le"b . tlIOU&!l ~ I CROPHON E lh.(I~y­ m.hlch Ibemo4ula lor b. aensibly rO<..in. Iwlsled lca4s for a .. lbe p. The lransmiu er Is. ' . _ ~ _ • •h.Ige from the beater timlit UJually prod~ T' lUIsisto n can be made rela tively Immune to hum -pick-up SO ell hum .• • •m. . '" ~ • • : ...OUn UT lieId. ca thode Ic.t.. A major dilllculty In tnu::lng hum in new design...: If--''E::I . an " an ode· . m.. 6. A r«cnl double triode forlow 11 is I.m earth rctvrn (or tbe b ier slqa talco dirlect to lhe b...e. po(eot.. tile fllO!'e \ impon&nt beconw:s t ile d. the AC I07 has been l('OCially d~1opN ripple.nd lhi.1'eIen'Oir capacitor. It Is abo nry cuy to produa: m isleading line. Alm ost &fly p.. bus " line are in flCl irrll"<X1&Dl and Ihould be the mirror IlJ\ll~ of the JI... Where equipment ~Iop...' .. posi tive dimibution lyolll1Tl (for this RlUOQ lXXTUIIon eartb ecaeeelio nl in m uh iple section capacilon are tomelimel 10 he "voided). . The bias potelliialsalurales the dco..w.. lhal electronic: WII<1ue:lion befWCICn as a low-no i5e p'&-ampl ifier..ith low applied e.. wilh the input I~ OOllIUlCIed 10 c~1J at the iDput 1IOCk"'. J .t. Wh en the modulator is \n$erlcd In tile p....I. W"'N N • • I m pl _.illJ1 Smoothing capKitor connectiolU 10 the earth ..od. dricd-out elcetrolytk3 o r transfonmr . -' ." ' ' . In this R:SP'ICt..ou t SO volts on the heal« clwtBC:S wtlich reduce bwn from one IOIlI'l'C lI'llly Ilavc lillie effect on othen.u~ he traced 10 defective valve inur· "OK dectro<k lflsulal ion... Inci4cnlal1y Ih is &110 maka it ~er 10 apply oep live flledbac:k becal1le of the redlKtioll m p haJe Ihift..t and microphollY. '~ " WI' H'.w arism.lIod... The small tiltcr choke (L l ) ""moves the L f.. dia#am (Fl.Lr-L---l""':':':'-. • \ ...ulalOC" o r a modulalioo transformer o r eveJI any &dditl Qflal h. The develOpmen l of two-dlutnd audio systems for IICKO reprodllClKm bu JM..t .oOlIly tnmsrnlllers... .I some of the tipple currenl inlO a . . the COlTCCl condition for p kone. aI'IOde CllITeIII sboul4 drop 10 aboUI It&lf the I'""iOUI rudiDl---.. and loaded 10 normal power : the IllO<hIlallJr is !hen pluJ8'fld in. is deri ved) II a boul 400-600 volu. y... due to the hea ler &ctin. sbO'Q ODe version of lhis IdIcme by WIPH ..--.~"" . fit'It luned u p all tor c. but who fcc1 the I.. WRONG Pli. ld ~u1Itlon ... beltcr wiring ill well known bul a fair ly common faull ill &bown in Fi .. w" •• symp ll>ll'll: fo r example eli ppina on I'lIlra SI'1'IOO\binJ caPKiton may actually ClIU8e the hum ~llo rise bo. YOnl. -The h. tupp ly tor the p.b (the healer vo ll&. ide ...c. Tho . no - ri'" ..... 10.pacilor may Utjoc. la-r than with anode modula.n . cascode cin:uil is Illown In Fla:. . in 1J5C fOI SOlIlll time/ it can u.. from Ille microph one . hum after hein. icalt. ISH pPtItIC. 7. This lrall i istor i.'" t " Ie.onaiderationt afll>/y 10 .. G.. noi'IC audio work il thc ECC807 (Drimar)..J doublo>trlode c:awodc eircuit ~ for w-llOi5e a. .ia. A rypica1 L f.-. 8). Many of the _ c. The imponanoe o f ~. With the low o utp ut or many hiih Mdity pK:k:.ld. ata ge. it pro vid es prlncip..m. that .. . IUpply fOC" the two-slalC l peech liUIIpli1leT: in th is c:ase a 6S L7..... ' n. I"I .~.c. . used along_ cathode an 4 hea ler..."".. n. pro vided tblll the calhode/bcalcr insu1lllion will 11&1I4 Ihis..11 II po l itiVl! b iu o f d..$'C)...Il"IC to make &fl O<:CllSional p houe conw:c without lhe or " high power • .e.. KII.. HI. _ ..70 .f.. H _ CO RRECT • • " .. are used for p ilo t 1am~ and a..1so necessary 10 watd:l Ih. f»m pol>Cn1 from tbe h.•..alva In • Ilum ber <>f modem tape m:orden. I D m canb. Cln cauae eitller SO or 100 cll hutll.n SOO K (and I' leasl one hi&!> fidelity atn(lliller) haw: adopted the '":l:::!::::::!~.miuen. van lago (an d d O\lbly 10 with Itl:f"CO) tO llmp lif'y the sigrt&b in .. .. al thO\lgh there Il is a IIITI& amoun t 0( U'c:oInpalIyin ll anode aDd sc:m::n·.. l:lIpeIl'" .. o pJlO5ed to the 100 cis bum from f\lll·wavc b.1.trQflic: o:<lnd uClion. T he lower the output U ~7 . .. (from .. wo rk . The ""medy for this I)"JIC 01 it m a y be from several d ifferen t f..aUses. supllly. SImfII-I Modulotot' For those who ron e.::ausc incolTCCl of the e. (~ r ). _ VI l lA X J (I"C•e •o). sm&le-cndcd or puab· pu11---aould respond to this trealmen t The elftdcnc:y is a 100d dcal.1I Ill _ impro\'C high frequency res.--triodce. While L C. b UI GOOd qualily can be obW:Dcd ejnce the f»rJIU operaling condihOl1S ~ developed aImo$l automalically..1n 1'/ooa SpJlrl e". lio n.1t a p l'ml iwn on !he WoO o f hillh pin .

. . OUT PUT I .n transistOrs capable o f pr oviding a g.j ....' com.1 F ! UOl( I NPUT .. and it may therefore be useful 10 drllw attention to $OmCl cireLliI m amngerne:ots DOW llttractinl interest in hi·fi cirelcs. ...0..0 '. T h... audio co mpJeslion. wmetimes in co njunction witll a pos itive feedback: loop. ~.p and n·p.. sece ..nVE fEEDBACK -$0 'If. '" vr V2 RI 0· 5 1. '" r-r- O-OS)'F N ·..lIy.. '" " . 11. to proylde ..S}'F . BasicllUy th~ systems amount to an a. " 100.mlt n .""... '" . :~ . yo 2}'F r-- icc ~ 'f: I I "'" ''''')'' I... voltage d rop will bring!h<': anode voltage weu below the SlOl1:CII potential. O.. It cons.. With con ventiona l (6)......AUDIO AND MODULAT ION . TIle sc:reen potential may be obtained fT the cathod e of the s~in/l om Slag. R-C co upled stages there is II practical limit to lhe w. TIley eould be of interest to operators wishing to change to a belletquality microphone with out fittinlan additionalatage in the speec h &mplificr. and " vogad" (voico-opera tod p in adj ustmCl1t device ).l_ l n • • • _ .1_ Fo r many years.. automatic volume ccecoi to bo ld thcl o utput of the modutato r reasonably level for fairly ' wide variations of input.. Origina lly the circu it wss publi shed in Efecl'Qllie Deslgll.h 8 d..e.. _ t l.0 " M . klrh h l. ""U..slng vollall" ampliflClltion is to ope rate the vallll: under" starvation" conditions with an eK:tn:mcly low ser~ vol~ which permits the load rtlSistor to be raised col\$idcrably.. providing both phasc-lplitting and ap preciab le gain with a small number of comp onents. MOlt IYStc:ms m:tify • small portion of the modulator output and \IlIO: .:: ...11. n. "" . 'hole • • • D...... :fn·· . ~ .. 11'" to the _ _ of the . Fl•• 10. 1_ _• I....S). automati~ modulation con trol ..... 2·7 K O ..hal is theoretically possible. ohtaln h llh pin In the .1 ...:..->-- A tra nsistor phase spliuer using a complo:rtJl'lllasY pair of /1"n.. WD'.). and the voltal!'l= amplifier/ phase spliner pert of the circuit is shown in Fig.. 9.... . . c.t1on a1"'_' _101_ ...... .-. All exam ple of a 20 watt am plifier using this a)'Stern appeared in HI-Fi Ne ws (March ...... The IlLin of a pemode is lovcmcd 10 a great CJl1cnt by the \'lIue of the load into which it o pcra u:a. Ie«_ _ eo..a... .F ..lue of the load resistor becacsc the d.. '" NEGA..:i...l. Audio Con1I' I"ftIIon ..... t. 0·' '" "" '0' "70K E : : r: ... Thi s means lhal in practice the stage lains realized are often far below ".....n....f......tl et. .on. One way of inerca. .. FI.. 1961).-tooI.ll .t co fttPDl ..... The sensitivity for 20 watts outf'ut frnm the pair of El34 output valves is given as 400mV but this co uld be considerably improved upon fOT co mmunication purposes by reducing the amoun t of negative feedback ... ' h.. ... .. ....pl'l/cll amplifiers for use with low output microphoncil..U " nl~ '''''' • .in of around I~ is shown in Fil. 801Tl8 comm ercial trarWnitten and public: addreill amplifiers ha ve Incorporated circuits prov iding what il variously termed automatic: level con trol (a.. they thus eliminate the DClCld for constant ercee !peaking and can also be a4justed to make it imp<)!Sible to over-modulate the transmitter.o4lD " ·7M b8R.!ts basically of a tw o-stage direct -coupled amplifier co nnected as II co mplementary pair with fOcdback.n.

I'Ml ..r...l ' . The a udio in put Qtl be f.. World. C II I. IS. ' TI ."M " diode . a ma tn. . As In reoelYer • . rem oved . oa m _ _• • ell. but a1so rOl the tape ro. Q2 is atl ltm plifier whose INPUT OUTPuT gain is con tro lled by th~ =tiflCf and ave raged output from Q 3... $lagc in the amplifier..1.. ST. If the gain o f Q2 is eJlca.'. - .._ .". .. - va .o.F.. - fl • . (De:silPl by W9C ZZ ln ftppticatio"" and which i. the ecmpressio n 10 Ia$t too Ionl. level c lipp iolt it is po ssible to we a ""P"Jl'IC e.. .. Vll....e. . lyatern should be " _ . too rmaU II ODe would renck:r the AM ATEUR .. II ncp.....lvaln .H. 1ltJd~ MdnlIaI by P. -.la&\.. - 1 .. •• •• >QI" f...010 SIt noJ Pow*... ~~ v- "'" " eees .. po ten tial obtai.. <_.... .te ..llCS III a bool-stm Pfl<:d cmi ll er_ llower providiog fo a high_iInpet.~. ....n...nducu is determine<! by !he "" lI i1l g o f the p Olenciomc ln RI.ic:e whic h CftJ\ be used for a n umber o f such spnrll ampllfiao is iIbowu in F ig. "'" .... '" . om -... . A _-... 12.... . 14 from a design by W2ZL F in E1HI. A\I4io co mpressors aro uWul oo t o nly for tnutlmitl i~ A s pccc:h compraso r sui l ab!~ for u." Aotd/o Compren ... Jk~lI y similar C1rcui.l"ly the oega tivc d . An example of an . ..~ . S_I> _ . Jt~" " '10 'CO ~ fII I ~J "......" 4. _ . o r a. with low ' Is.:I: order. h.b. Where .. n . a... a .onic~ lIIusI.. '" '0.. Keller) is !Ihown In Fi.n be made l oad in • .. o r speec h l igna b oll" the air . .lioon with h ell")' l J'l'.. I~ "' . .'"' ...11 . ..oonl." V2. VI . IRA' bu' 0... " . R... 13.... 1N»lICJ ..hLncc inp ut c ircuil wita hle f Ol USt: dir«tly WIth aystal or ceramic m icrophones.'"""'.... • ' '- .... .. . pnctice... .. ADIO TECHNIQU ES KT+ e c v Al':G an e8. e\rI. iV(!.1 uxd OIl a small ~ ...ol(liD... ::= ' control ecuce rut enouab to cut OUI Donna! .. Part of the audio OUlplll II """' pled 10 the rect ifier val. lhoo. t he devia! _ inserted between me OUlpu t of. ~..tIt~d. '" cu .. QI Op" r..... "1 '" M ' ".u.. am p lifier ...._ d. commercial transmitter (from V.... Q1.. ta F i. entirely ~rcd by the Signlll QST).~ audl...ooN_ VI. '" :J I . 1 .I.yO do no t m ind iOIsinl a m""iIl mum o f 60db in the rJT ocen (thi s toss eo.. producinJr.. a $(IJ :. are find ing th~ir way ........I.ft(QM . i t.---l• .ed 10 control lbe pin of "'" . The point I I which the . _1 . IS from beinI: eompresmJ is d>own in a design in EIff. r'''. WJCU 1ft ' • •1 taken bef"re dippin.. u. cquipmeot." I>a ..... in the carly pan of the Ipt«h lUTlplilIo::r.uncd uni t between Ihe microphone and the usual A limp~ dn. 1Ht)..: of wUt but with transistOR a rJlown in 470K F ig. '" ' )0.ubscqll~nt IlmrJlifict.~ . a..>cch volume.. \00 101l1l a time wmtllllt win C1.h cimliu are lISC'd ill cvnjuoc.. '" I "' I~.0.e. +.. A similar typ..teady to within about ld b r an!!'" o lhe : • orderroof input chpro vided f that ~ 2Odb. ~" . ta p" recc rder) . 00' . roceiYCI and the in put of Il domc:$t . !be diode flller Mou ld have II tiDle-<:oI»taDt of about the wm:o.. N U A.boUI 0"2 volll to 6 vol tl. capacitor C7 shou ld be .<'Ch dippina: it is desirab le tha i (he contro l voltage far the e. . fo r c~amp1c. 2.. Gil.. an d uwd a....r. 00 . 'b4OW. 1"".R YR" ""Ra "R _ 1..I< " ...~ f l• .live bias IP9lied to II varia ble $lope valve.e.m. ""'" . This device will hold a udio o ut pu t .tiOllS In •p. . h no sepa rate amplifkor wOllld be needed if..' .

L aaoc a - 10.m...intila r ...lI a:ood 0 bn:al down Insull tion .... Jl). PansnUtten II"' nne the ~hea. can be used for .. .. power mobile ria havina a 6AQS p. 6AQ S modulato r : I « Fig. • p • • I0.. levell on beth neptive IIlId positive peak~.Iard IflWe pu 'lh-pu ll ou tput transformer in.. .AUDIO AND MODULATION m . Ml Y 1%0).hich 'Qu ~_ two output penrod ea and a triod e inlo Ihe WIle min ialUre B9A mvelopcl..o. . 16 cornea fro m F'IIIk .... The 6m...... . . '" I U n Y. .T. .. Audio C/lpp«/fUc.. . 320lt ..w:t .o-ora/Y.." " . ' _ .s.r. u p.olwn d iodes ~ U$Cd ...... . In effoct th1I co nnecllon . pllU II miniatu re do uble-tr iode valve... ma y be fresh to 10_: il is 1 usc a nllim IraMformer {p ro vided this ha..lt lI\Ifly usefu l DeW types cont inu e 10 be int rod uced . n. An :f 4}' F~ ~~ . hiJh po wer ria. 1•• • ..pest of componc:nlS....~ ...------r~. compllC\ po wer . compression units have hoen lno. on).l.JOOO ~/" If the unitla to be pla<:al llhead of lhe main If":CCh amplifier some can: may be needed 10 pn:>ven.. T ."" f '·u J~' ~. 17.. and 1110 r. _.... ~. n~ .tSO~ '..e two.. DLlI1M In DL-Q TC (JlUluary. .. Fla:.ils o f the m ulti·impedance mod ul. ..... ...anrl relea.-:-::-"t". ...M(or . 18.-.. .. Modulat ion l ran sformen fo r I .. " c. The o ther ~cme..letaUI of clip per Wlill.. ... 2...t was lle1t oonlaintld .lno...t .-.Ii. pllller and push. . lIUpply and aboul It 'IOltaoffu. _~ .."'.. .ovidea • I : I lut~ lTansforme r with the .pl i. "" It. . MO DULATOR 'II.. ..11 ... 14 It.~ '" .~. • _ " I. Note Iha t germa.rieta ~ ma in • pauband to about JOO..../. 2" mUli./y.. To pul lhis n&ht. remains w nl lan t at lUll under S mY.stale spf«:h arnp1i6er is fo llowed by a phue ..·t .. '" r---tiOj. the a'lN:k time .... '" _W'OIl .". P OalO-Cu . "~ '00' ".. .....luded In IT.1. The o riainal art i<. . . M04JvI.. From time 10 time several add-on I p«d . . uu r . f2 c-eca ~ .lln p ) :II a modulat ion Iransformer fo r. lJu: OUlpu. Ieetl. .... Such a lIllil would Iho be allraclil'Cl for public addteu work. Some lL ocful n<>!CIo n nn w to calculate pennisstble ra llnS' anti impe<..• .. Ihe olde r type numben 0( valva hi"" b<come 10 ingrain ed thaI we often fo rl et Ul.fR - m 210 V .T«An1k {No....... . .. .' WM /d.t .wal' M oduleC . . .lIlllcr w mponem." -. . b~m plCk. pull oo tpo l ~ : ~ Fig. For ecrne of IU..t. 'P ""o... rJo#I r ." ".e time (1-1 Sl!COud. thouah DOC new ..:1c: a lso provides CDJ11tIUCliol:W dda..ation tramfo rmer.O TM U .up ply 10 that the whole un. -4 ..... 1965) 11II1 In the original d csilJ'l included D...tura te the Inuufonn<T ro re. " W' _ < h o I . and two ideu for IessaJiDI the COI l POlCJn wort/\ PI-'llIin ~ <>n . The low I'U'I filter In the o ut!?"t Ilim<'vq the II. but we cannot roroll oct bsvina: p rovided any -..c tran ...". ~ . eornp3C! modulator or am plifier with an ou tpul of lOme 10 ntlll when UlIcd with a 250-voll h. by K IIEEY (OSTl ill to uw I IWlI.. ~ . _ __ .~ •• ~- . '" t . . We have already referred once before 10 the EC LUlOO ...- . VI.ed llia._. .001 --- ~ .o ...~..rn nn at lo ni _re JiVa1 by K l RGX ( £lUItfHl. . 10. .. _ w I . II.~ Vt~J- r. ~ .. where the mi~rophone OUlput ill llllblc: te vary mu~h nloOn:> than In normal &nUl1eur close ta lkins..._ 4 . ... I% S) MOWI how one o f these. ~ n·5V .. .s«ond. Provilion il mad e far &djUltment o f the d ippin.. and mod ula t"r anode currmts lend ins 10 de-u.. III the cwnplc lbow n...' '= 1.. wilh silieno <Uodenddi!lonal pre-clippin larnplifialtIOfl l& needed.. . -.

. . CQ Ap ril.. vet'I . pid d rcuIUlIl&l _ eno.. ~ of IUJDa mud!..n. _ 20.pow Ole unwllJ1tod lIia/le:r aueUo-f'requmQca.__ I:r:::". 19S9) : we Fi.. 101.lincn aDd. lbc UlOl o f VR·l llbel or neon b1l bl to provldo voltqc 1 droppin. . for K¥mIJ hich-vollqe re. . Tho sim ple twol'Cdi ller net.rJd M . A sim ple dmlit----. very limpk kror lev<:l politi" r-t n pandfr I\q been dclcribcd by W38SA (CO June. D L6KS -. I • ur CIlQll' Il ~. dtoke syslem and if an odd power Illpply llIlll' dloke is UJCld the cI\antQ .udio ~ 10 be pu l OCI 10 lbc: carrier. N_.. in which lhe delftle 0( nqa.r.-.. Be !hal u II may.l of the IlIIlIa1 I : 2._-'_. 19J9) petTllill an &l1dio/c:alTkt r" lio of liP 10 2 : I Insl-. . 1• • 0-"'.l1.. - . the A1Jal ul..ur...11oft cimJiI C ST Odober. wa vdorm ..~ I-ll'l.ra modw.o rk.$ I~-::. For eumpk.l . a .) modest audio requlmnmls. (or lCr'CIeIl.... .) For thoeo woo requ ire only ~o. ptrmi ninl m uch are-l cr positive: peats to be u.. hiah· walla. ~ !heir pown IoeI in lo tha pwduo:tioD of -nen """only lI'e iI 10 eatI5Il: ~erodyne tnlerfen:nec. to IIX:OmmenoJ J<nCIl i I.Clct>hony.-isIor 10 ab50rtl the neplive peats 0( lhe L f.:: thaI III in lcmaJ capacity wIU dfcctlvely by.ee FlI . II • hilh-Jeotcl l)'SIeIn a11in.tIidr.. This 11m a Hci sin....nd DnZU we Ole idea .tioo with '" '0'00'"' c . former IILtioI II described by W1E PM/6 In CQ. " (. IP1d modw.. bic:b ~nlel !he dlffieu!ty of f1ndin. ICYI:l'a! IIChann M ¥e COlTIe alonl . COrrM lfanI. n.W wlthool ownnodula'ion U'OXlJrrlna.~. 22. . 1--::'t~-"i ' . then it I.t er " • (0 ) CMl'UT _ "a~c:A OC« irE! I ~.I.. ~-- ..live: pea k oa the .' .ctIoaI.."... ~. permit • lei mon: . .'" 0" AMAT£UA RADIO TECHNIQU I. /IrII~ fw Eftrt.. .adberaIll ba~ Ev« IinoD a.."". b.. _N' "-" (c:DnAIn te) "'""" + !!J Ib! N' """'" w-.. COOWftllioGal smarud Uflder lhe I&IIIlI that most of IJ:1a7 n .'.

AUD IO AND MODULATION

m

lboblip out or tcftIClI arid modulati on Camenlly re&&nIed u trkky to adiUIC fOl" optimum IUl.Il ts) w d t() provide a form or COlItrollod-m. effect. Fil. 23 Ihows the cin:uit u livm
1)1)8

iD the Germao journal, althoulh theR is no indication of the of p... v.I..., io 11K. On modull.tlon peaks the IICI'C'CD ooltap 00 the p... riles 10 thai USI:d for e.w. o pcnuion.
' llT'-A CHOKE-

'"

." '0'

.

,co

'" "

:!:+,~~

....

:l50-300'l

""

]~"

:~!
.~

'n on

27 5 ""11 ,..-+,'0'"

~+

ra

"

It our dkllOlUUY-f.ided Radiua of the oriii nal al1icJe is eotfe<:t, we p thcr that DJ8ZU po ints ou t that Ilthougll the l yalem worked very satlifaet oril y with a pI1l'tku tar typo of IIOOIl IWilchln a lube (a type ORZI ma4e by O:rbcros of SwillCl'Jaud) wh ich happened 10 be a l lllUld/ il has n OI been l((lled wilh any of the Ulua llypes of VR IUDC,
HT+ 70 C IV

which is DOt Ilways availab le. An<Kher form of acmcn modulation a\!n ll a lintilar outpu t ~t but wi thout nep.tivc bias wu dctcribod by FAORG in El«froIf (October, 1!l61l. MOR! na:ntly C£kCfrClII. Apri1, 1962) he hu delCI"ibed an impm ........ IQllm modula tor of this Iype ,"lna an ECX:81 and inoDrporatin& a dipper and Iow- paa lilta- : ... FI&- 2-&. Th e .. f. mput w the lim triode slage sbould be of the on1cr 6 volts, 10 thai a simple pro.amplifier will be D«Ided in fronl or Ihe ECC8 I .
Z_ BIGI Mod" " ' -

::.
usinJ

~+

'1• . 11 I . .......,.w .......I.lIe. ~ .l ... . _

hoM, lorOUltlIDJn.u.

Much ravounld for many ~ ha ~ been modulalon a ~ of 801s in the class 8 ;n:ro biu &rT&lIteD"'Cftt. F Ktoti to th1IIoololl1alldiD1 popularity ar c tho ~ of components &lid tho elimination of a blas supply. 1be usual elrcuil comms or COIlDeCliD& Ihc aisnal in put diRlcI.Iy 10 !be ICI'llCII &rick. and , via IftiStcm or aboul 22 K DbIIlI, 10th e silDal

arids.

II is thus pouibk thai lOme ex.perimentina with various VR tuM may be 1lOCded, Ilthoualt there -..wId seem to be no fundamental I'C&IOO wh y a1moII any IypC should not wort .
I)'peI of neon or

~ how

biih pcnazx:e leU'Odcs. I... QST(Fd:>roary, 1962) W2YM

This arnoaemml is no l well suited fo r

\IX

with mod em

.../tIt ell,.,.,. The ICric&-ptc type or Ia'eelI modulation ill simple and effective but requirela low im pedaDc:e ~live biallUpply

s.:r-·rrld Modu'_

n. ,W

r Y

M '

V I"

r. \ ., ,

...:!.
" on

.. -,
~O<

Ihc: 5" lern can be adapted 10 mod<:ro valves l ueb as !hole IlICd in Ihe line o Ulput Slap or telcvilio... rrociven (" lweep luber "). Tho:l modil'icat lon consists buic:a11y of the Jl naI input oonncctioo a rrom 1. . 1I1D'1 and OOIUIeclilll theIe to earth: h_ a'"J W2YM also how a doublo-lriodc e:an be \IKId adva.alaaeous/)' as a c:alhocl.....oLkrwa" driver aac: see Fli. 2$.

slm'J!.TemOvitl.1

'",
no

'"
.

1'00'

~

2 '7 1t

""

500 V

220C

"

",

.~

n

,~

'60" :;",.

, -

~'" ~ r--Y

, TO Pol. , seR U N GRI D ,

100 , ..

",.

'"

AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUES
ad"" Mod..1ftIoft
speech in lhe pnIllellCe of noite, panicWarly wilh low l iiD&1-

BRS26OJ9 an d O J PKW "-VC UICd • simple clam p mod ul,tion S)"lml Otl. a.m. tTalUm;t\£~ of up 10 40 ....1 111: Fi&, 26. The dJwjt all shown is l uitable for \&Ie with . Qfboll mi=>pboM;. bill BRS 2fJ039 laYS that with • crystal mictop honc, the m ode portion o f the ECUlO If DOl used bu t the sii""l . ncr ampli fication ~ aay an ECOIJ double triode can bol fed directly to the &rid of the pcn lode Itap.. The degm: of mod uLation can be adjusted by a11e:rin& the potential on lhc Il.nleO grid (112 at the damp valve, but I ' no ) lime should il exceed the anode voltqe otherw iM: Iim;\;CI will oecer .

_

:KXXl

oise ratiOl. A cb&nte 10 500 cis for the lower edge or to ell for the uppa- edge wero both found to dqrade iDlel\iaibility.

....,'"'-

DowTIward f RlqUl!f>C)' sblRirlc tend , 10 produce &"'A lei' deteriontion than upward shi flt., and as the lil tenina: eonditiOlll delerionte lb. tamble I.m()Wl/; of freq w:ncy m ilt is

With a I'CIllly Iood si&noJ. ~h Qn be ah iflcd 400 cis upwanb or 300 ell down.... mb wit hout undul y impairina ru intelligi bility C commuoialt;01\I p urposea. or W ill! . r.ir l ill:Jl,al , pi ta 200 or minus 100 ell ~ abo\It the limi t.. With .. poor sllfll1l. shifll of "'OR than 100 eli I re unsatisfact ory .

o. aS M
EC ~O ~~ ~

'"

Hf+ 300V OIl 1'0 ,~ MY " _MOU llllll tl4~

]1'" \

_v l.'(

Un_...... AJoIl. 1.11 view of the nu mbel o f desiina for 1inear ampWicn il ill .~risinr tllat thoro has DOl been more ~1 in teRs! i ll their UIe for &rnIItau am. traosm iltcB with Iow·~l modulation. ellCCpI pcrbaps in so me tnn5ceivcrs. O no or lhox
who ha ve made df«tive Dill of th il leCbnlq uc .II O K U X who ...:ports thai he U5Jl:$ serlet-p te modulation of lUIbllfl'cr st.~ followed by • linear vsllll pou-al le1 4-12SAs 10 provide IoOrne 600 wIUa p.e. p , He lAr- Ilia! OKI BMW bu funher adopted thiJteehllique to employ the ""ri.,.pte a.m. mod ulator also ~ ar id ItabilizeT 0 11 u .b., and a keyinl valye fo r e.w.

LId",

~M"

'f'

MICROP HONE TIl....I'IV'OIl... EA

as.

$.$.8 . ,,,r.lllr1blllfr

For oevcrlll yean. the civil airl~ have been oollliderinll the use of a.!. b . illltead 01 Un. for lon a-d isl.J.oee ni, hll, and aft ARINC ehaIa<:terilt ic has ncently bocn Iuued on the lu b}cc:l. One o f the m ain q ucs tio ns, for lUChapplical ions , is how fa r QIl the equi pment be •• o lf·tune" (thai Is when tho lllSerted carTiu differs fro m the: ori;ina1suwrcw:d caniCl", as to some ClllClll il will alway!! tend 10 be) . II f'l!:prin t! • rq'>Ort of an [n_;ption made into Ihis ques lMllI, which
it.eludes IIOme points of Inl~ to amateur operators.

II ..... feund that an band of 3(l().)OOO cts prtn'idco higher intelligibility than any other for frequency lh iftcd

a.r.

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AItodoo Mod,,'..tln, . TeIrOde The tClChnl q ue of ampli tud e modu latinll a le trode valYCl wilhout usinl a n ~ modu lati on is ~f",.red to in lDOU thatl one book. One or the places where it appears il in the STC Applic:a. tio n Re port on lhe $B/243M IerieI or powet tetrodeA (ol\en kno wn u miniatllR 8071) : see Fli . 21. It il pointed ou t that the Inclusion or a 30 Henry ehcke e... bIcI the ICreCn to be: " Iloa tlng " 10 Lf. w hi le a l the IlItne time fixed to d.c:. The lQClance of the: choke 10YUlIS the lo~ a .f. to be han dled, a nd should be equal to lhe r.tio of t he d.c. ICftleII voltale divided by dol:. e<;:I"CICIl CUIT'C1I1. It is claimed thalthc: a rr&/1iemenl provides a higher dellT'C o f modulalion fMklity and makes the powet amplifier leN alfect ed by o Yel"drivin,:. The same booklet abo omdcrlinn the iInportangc of drivinaclass CpoweT am plifim from a low impedance ·,5V 1OlJ1U'. u otherwise the waYCl is llanened Ieo.dinl to poor modula tion e/WKtcri.tics, h igher har. mo nic: output an d lower efficiency.

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Ow...rr>od"hrticwl Richard Fu. niak, G1TFX , Iw

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been uMn; a fo rm of overmodula· lion .u~ 00 a low -f\OW1:r

the form of o ycrmodula tion-indica_

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tor which relies on detectiq the app:arana: o f a neptive yoitaae on tilt MOde of a p.a. valve,ra condit iOll which indicates 0".".·
modulation. But In G 3TFX'. U1angemenl, this condition II used to reduce automatica1ly the pin of the lirst L f. am plifler by appIY;"l II ~tatte 0( the rectified YO ta,., to t he IUJlPreIIOf

AUDIO AND MODULATION

Th e s)'ltem dau "'" p"1K1I ".t.tntJ<1ldDII,,~ b ut prevents 1 the del~ o f modlilatioo risin& to a va lllO whe re It uuseo sp1a.llU. U i. puossiblc lhat by placina a fixed bi.. in .me. wilh !he diode il eolild be ilITlUIged t o conduct befOIl: 100 pe r ","I mod ulatio n, allow inl lhe circu it also 10 pravidc
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lrid of th,s stage, resuJ tina in l lHlap~ of a " bole" in lbe au dio peaks.. In hili ~ IHl llnd. thaI 100 lIluch volll&c feo:dbU tend s 1.0mak e !he circui l lou nd " ploppy .. but this c:an be ....riod by rnocam o f !he polenl lOlllclcr. He UllCI a

F il . 29 and comes from £k~mmlcs U arld, Matcll , 1967. This is a rathu more eqlU\t eirtl.lil (inlcudcd primllri ly fo r hillh.quality a udio) Ih. n the more usual li ngle slage step up amlnl"mcnt . II is .. Iorm of .. operalional am plifier " usinl direct OOUplilll: with tbe in pul tr. nsislo r operaled in lhe OOIDmon blllCl confisunlioo, and wllh ll«Ible matcbi~ alld p in cbanlelcrillk$.. Tbc value o r R I is choscll to m.tclt ue ROlTIinal impedance of the microp hone, wbUe R2 I Ovcnu lbc c!oRd.1oop voltage p in (typica l valu e l bout 100 K ohms). ThIs particular unit wu d esil.llcd for lIIe ",ilb hiahbeta 11 1CQII 1nns.i ~1'I (examples 2Nl906. 2N29U or 1 2NJ644) bul ether types cou ld al mosl oertI.inly be usod.

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Dptamlc S,...eh ComjHI_' A oompre50S0r, cap lble or coosidcrablc .....ri.llon in the dewec o f com p ression, is shown in Fia:- 30, ",bJCh coma from an anicle by PAOCHD In Dult" " (Jllluary, 1967) but which we believe is bas<d on. circui t in the ARRL p ublication .. SingJ. Sideband fOf the Rldio AmalCUl'" : It U$Ct tJa principle of splill ina thci d . signal anl1 passitlj OlIO Kellen O&dher with L f. f11terin& 10 limit lb• th rough a COftlpRlSOr. 1 bandwidth . nd lhe harmonic co nte nt.
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lilioon po wer diode (1000 p.tv.) but poinlJo out tha I any SUila ble diode, im:ludi~ .. tubu.... IICIcnlum rectitler mould work. Sinot Ihere will be hla:h peak \I<lllqel at this poi nt, rel llrd should be pa id to lbe IU'tifler p.tv, ,..tm p, particu_ larl y if lhe ~I is lased on a hlchcr power rig.

Ron Gou ldsto lle, GnAG . KTIds.lool a citaUl (o rililllJly teem SOS- Fa irchild Applic.ll ion Report No. 169) on a new balaooed modulator/prod uct delector bued on the BFX 78 MO STfIGFET; the repo rt includes per formance 1l1\ll"C8 fer 4j j kcls Ind 10 MeI'- Fi J. 31 aivcs lhc circu it for a 4jj kc/I deilin . When usod as a. product dekCIo r the i.f. slp lls fed inlO the o utput rocket and the • ta ken from lbc audio inpul JOCkI'!. Clai med carrier reject ion us ina' BFX78 1sup to 90dB belo w usdlll signal. OlTAO rcpo rtllhal he has tried . luh_up version "flhis cil'Cllil usin l lU\ iru mOl' MOST device : I l().t um link wound on I II old H .I. was u!lCd for TJ. and T2 buill up 00 III old

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capacitor tl'Ien adjusted ror minlmwn c:IllTler; audio wu UIca rclll in &rid an output ol.bou l 100 mV p.e » , obIo1.lned.

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MOSFET IS :1 voltagt: variable re".'o rj.U cnt....tor n in_ ina. Th o technique could be readil y adapted for l och other a pplicAlio ll$ u audio-dcriftd • .lJ.C•• or for IVnOlc pin com rol of a.f. amplifk rs by meaRi of a d.c . con trol \'Olla ~. A second MOSFET b; .-d as • hiih-im~dance implilkr, with . two-stage bipola r line d river ampltller. ln ilia l bin for the MOSFET a uenua lur is 101:1 by the SK linear-taper polentiometer. When tile de~i<:e i, bia sed 01T il has hig h rc-j,lanal and IIlere is lillie auenu<1tion of Ihe OW& aod tbe input circuit. All bi.. it rtlduced, c ur rent U dl'lliJl..IO«III= rcWlanCe d fOP', fo rming a ~a riabl c ShUll I across Ille a.f. pa lh, Ihus incrcasin a:auenceucn, To pro vide I S\l;tablc: conlrol voltlll", Il. lillie o f Ihe dri~er OUtpul siiJI ol is Rl;tified and fed bac k to the MOSF ET . Tbcsc three units ca n con~ellienl l ~ be aMCmblcd iOlo I lirlllie COJ\IroI unil o r II' cus to m·buil l control s)'Stems for Lm. or I.s.b.
SImp'- P"""uct M 04.. Iaon>r Lovelock , GlWHC, describes I prod uct modulator which he believes ;' o f ultimale slm plki lY.. In l~oi dlDlt Iht;: llCCd for any b8lanc:in& adjustmenlS, and ideal fer home oon&lrucllon. A disadYilnla~ iI IM I it u nOl intended for U'IC much lbove 465 kC/s. The ~I Fil. 3S, is baled o n Ihe Olrlicr Fai rchi ld desilD (palle 2291 ~I uses a dual.gate MOS F ET. With an . RCA 3N 14 1, a lfpicaI ple-one 10 d rain C&paI.';luce is ODly 0-00 pF Ihlll dimlnll~ the need for Ihe IlCUtl1llil.lllion usocl in the carlier cireuil at 465 ke lso ar A b fQl.d..tJo d etecun resulted in a c:arricr IcvcI of - S4<lB (rela live 1 peak envelope volll&e) IlKIvidcd lha.lllle 0 I .r. is rest ricted to 1 vol l pe.a k·lo·pcak, a nd a pte Iwitch!og
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5.S.8 . G_G'llon .. /tit CAJ02Q U C

, Nick van Weed e, G3YNC, Ila. b\lill I soli d st'Ue n. b. «titer fo r 1·8 Mcis ClPCl1Ilion using II ~cry lntcrellling method o r geoeratinltlle lower siJo.band lill11ll a t 4SS kC/l. His lyatem rcvotves around all RCA CA3OlOlinear inlelrate<l d reuit which is \lSCd IS both bala nced modu lato r Illd micropltonc lmplute.r The CA3020 Is \1&uaJ ly dcwribed IS I m ulti. purpose wide- band power amplifier; Ille cil'Ctlil is a stabilized direcH :OUpled Implifier lind iocludes a tcmpe rl luro-tl'adina: voltajle regu lato r to flcilita te sta b le opua tion over I wide lem pera ture ra n~. The device is = di ly availlble In the UK a t reasona b le cost. G3VNCpoinls o ul Ihlll .. hite possibly a chea per u .b. gene ra to r co uld be made 115'111 dj,.;re tc cemponent• • tile pins in simp licity, me and slabil ity lurely ou tWl:illh the , Ii, hl e~ lra. COSI.

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lie lists poin ts 10 note • • fol lows : Carritt WPl'mJ :dOD b e.wellclot. bein g lim ited mainl y by "ray l'eQel.lncc, dccouplio g, e iC . (2) b.ce llcnl sl.Ibilicy. (l) Su il.able fo r p nnto<!. c1r<.:",it Isy-o ut bu t not e tlta l symmetrical lay-oul lm pro 'oU ca rrie r suppresRlon. (4) The OUlpu t lra nsformer hal I p rim.:u y Imr>e<lancc of 1)() ohms an d I IC:COlldary winding to ma ll;h Ihe liller in use. (5) A ca rriei' voltllp: of 0· 2 ""It e.m.s. 1\1I. been used . bu t th is value h.ils nn l bem optimized. (6) The eerrer rt cons um ption al 9 voila is about 15 m I'.. The sclllng up i. l imr>1e. but VRI mUSI be kept nca r mid·tnodr. to avoid ~ ve d i.ipad oll in One or aliter half of the OUlput tra nsl' to rs; 110 ca.pBcilive bal a nehl, will nceded in lhe prototype. (8) O ood qu.lity ca rbo n trI ck trimmer potcntiomelcn shou ld be used. (') ) A simita r circu it could p roba bly be used as I.r. am pllo fierltlliAu for conveB ion 10 lop ba nd (in pra clice !he 0 3Vl'l"C exciter \ISCI I. COnVCl\ I;01l31 ha lf.Q:>wll.n m ixer immcdi.tely fo Uowinl I. ha lf_lattlc;e IUle r). (10) A lrif~", wou nd ou lpu t tr lllllfonncr is r=lmmcnded 10 ens ure light COOptinl. (I I) t1ilJher c.o rrier f~uencie. co uld be used . although t ltil waul d depend o n lhe (~uency "",POrl3': of lhe CA lOW (Il: CA lisl . typica l ldB bandwMlth of 6 Mclt In widcbllnd a mp lifier a pplicat ion). ( 12) The arnneemcnl has lulflCknl pin for UI;C wilh......,t dYl\ll.ll1.ic a nd Cl'YStal micrQllhonei. (13) When lIeUinl up . it iI ad visable to include " milliImmeter in the lea d . Tho d .-.b. ()U lput a ppclll'5 to be free of ha rm onicJ . un l...., the a udio is 100 h ijOh , whe n limitinl may res ult in the prod uctio n of harnltln"l . The CA3020 il oI'tcn usod III an a ud io amplifier, and in thll role ca n IUl'I'ly an ou tput of aboul200 m W wlth a 6 volt lUI'p ly. In B,rak ·i" November, 1969. R . Mil. m. Z Ll Wl., Ind,ca tod how with the .ddi ooll o f a n MPF I04 F ET pream plifie r to inocnasI: Ihe In",,! Imped a nce it could ta ke care of thc .udio req uiremcnts o f I. typical ".,:elver from d iodedeleclo r onwards. AI 9 vo lts it ca ll delivcr Iibout 5SO mW. "' t the h ialter power levell . a hea l sinlr.lhould he used: the device ila TD- S type pac kage willt 12 leads . Z I.I WI. fOlUld tbal conncctinl ....1J'CI 10 the clO1Cll' spa Ded pins Pl'e$C1l11 pr oblems and u:dn g long....,.., p lien be carefully ben l the 1oa<1s
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Audio Om ill r Fo r IhC'se witb. handful o ra.f. IraMistors (Iyp e should D Ol be erf tl.... O an effective l ud io pell. lim iter suitable for 1.lob.. k e.m • • nd n.b.Lm. a ppl icat)ons is dc:ocri bcd by Ja n Card Do. ZLlUI ( lIrrak .fn. October . 1% <)) . Th is 1I.1I0~ somc IO dD or .... mo re . "" ra ge OUlput. ~ flUl lI.!la ck (about one millisecond, a nd re lease time or ab<,'u t 100 milliseconds). A lIumbe r o f l'l"cw Zeal and sta lions .IC u1ing the limiter (Fig. 37) . <lCOC1oSfully. A hilh -im pedance emittc r·follower (T R I) Is fo llowed by the pin-eon lrolled slaae ITRl) Ullnll common-c miucr CO D· figura tio n with the em lncr byopas1cd thro ugh TR3 which coniro illhe ~ in ; TR4-5 form a e.e. Ilmp lilicr Ihe uutput of wh leb Is n:x:tlficd by lh e d, odes to provi de the conlrol for TR3. lim iled to abou l 002 vo ll by llteO"'85 co nnecled d ;r'Cl;I' b' across CI. II.I10wini fa'lt rdeMe even on loud noise pulsa. 11le who te un il !hOllJd be well sb ielded to pn:venl r.f. pi<:k-up . nd hum. no t for g<': tlln ll the Input an d OUlPUl leads. sellin l up p rocedu re...' o Ul linc<l by Z LIU I, is It! (oUows: Adj"'l trarwniltn a"dio p in fo r C0 I'1"" 1operation before connectl nl the limiler. Nnle !letti", an d <io not chan~ it unl il aner R2 h.ils bee n adj u.led . TrtuI8fer micro p hone from II'ltMmilter to lin,iter, and con nec t limite r 1 Irarumitt er .ud io inpul SwilCh On lhe 0 linlliu and sct RI lit muinwm. Speak mto microphol'lli normal ly and adjusl R2 for correct operalion : do not after. ward s chlnl/C xuing o r R 2. AdjllSl deIt'ee o f limlti,.. by IU (up to about 12to I ~ B of limitinaJ. Adju st IIIllUnlltll7 a udio lIlin conl ro l fo r correct coereoc» with desired smount oflim itin, . Siocc it is po ..ible 10 O\'erJoad the Hrniter, R I should be ad j ustod SO lhat th is does not h1ippe o . W ith. limiter ill circuit It is desirab le 1 a vo id bratlhing a nd backgro UDd 0 no lscs IU far as ~lblc. Remembe r that llle use o f . llmilu will Impose a ddi tio nal demand>; un the lra.nsmlue r. whla. will haw: to o perate almoot u nder C.W co nditlollS_ so watch fOl . o verhcal;nl. Audi o fn:quency res pun.e should be l hapcd II far as POSStble 10 300 10 }OOO eJs.

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AUDIO AND MODULATION

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'r....""'Jn' O"..r/nOd..,..,Jon Harry Burt on. ZL2A PC, !las d rawn our allcn tio n 10 a pea>. limiter, which he described in B,eWl -/" (May, 1%5 ), l uitable for am plit ude_modu lated v.h.1. or h.1. trans mittetll : Fig. 38. The lWO active com ponents are a neon bu lb IUld tho light dependent resistor (LD R) which arc houscd in a Iil!lt-tilbt container with the neon bu lb anunp to illuminate tM LDR . The neon bulb i5 oct to ilP'-itc al say 95 per cent modulation. In its da de. .1.Iltc Ihe LU R (o f t he type: developed for auto ma tic contrast co ntro l In TV ~t, ahhough ~ld om \>$CId in el1fTC1l t models e.lt. 118 731 03) h.aa II resiSl-an QC of &bout 10 M o h!Tl5. A• • con as the neon iltnitcs, the resista nce of the LDR d TOJM """'lily and n:dUCCll the p in of the speoch amplilkr. Si""" lICOns stri ke at II faJrly con. tan t voltage, the whole IUTIln~lIt C'llllbliJl>cs a COll-ltan t limiting level. It will be noted th at Ihe ncon ca n be isolated from Ihe potentials, and the TOI'll'O IUC of Ihe LDR I, ' uch that aud io froqllMCY nrilltioT15 arc no t fed back; recove ry of the LOR ill about 200,000 ohms/, . Zl2APC UBCd the ,ystem wit h II modulato r WliDg pu ,h pull EU45 dril'C'n by a 6BA6 pllMo , plitter an d pair of 68A lI!I as spc:cch amplifiers, and II WAS llmlnged to limit at a lcvel o r about 1O",. . tts. Tests . howod I'C'ry clf«tive limit_

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ing with n~ o bserva ble deterio mt io n of wave .ha pe, fo rminll a limiter WIth sharp o nset and co n,"'nt outpu t t hereaft er.

Quick Guide to Pulse Modulation
In the 19 )/)$ ... hen e n~illa'n " ;:;1'\: de-..:IOflins microw ave il WU rc.Ilizcd lhaltherc wOlJ ld be ad vanlap if Ibe wgnal co uld be tranunit u;d a.. a seric:s of pul_ lal her t han 11'1 co nt;nllOtlS a....1 01U l illMt Th islcd to the ~lopmcnt e (If VllriOUI mud ulatiun $~Ien. wh.ieh W(>uld all ow the lJoLoic ;nlellixcnee , such a. s~h. 10 be Iran!ll1inod in pul~ wavefonm. T1Ic systems tha i were proposed included pulse amplitud e mod ula tion (p.a. m. ); p ulse width mod ulatio n (al'lO kno w n ... p ul", durat ion mod ulali o n. p.w.m . Of p.d.m.l ; pul.., po. ilion n'od " latioo : and p ulse code n>Odula · tion. In pul 'tC lUlIp <k: modulatio n t he amplit ude of t he pubc litu II illCra';ed o r dcaused about a reference Iel clto a <kgee dClcrmincd by the amplitud e of the ori,ina l analogue signal, and wllel""r It is of po , itive ()( nc:i'lIlYe pol;lrjty . In pulse dura!illn mod ulation , the duration o r tlle pulses toceeses of d""rci<<;c:S BfOll nd a reference fi8.ure . In pul,., pos.ition modu l>.tio n the preclse .taning time ofthe pulses is sdvanoed o r delayed by tbe input signa.! . I n Blit he above pulse systems, the fidelity o f the si,nalaftcr transmi!l8 ion is determined by the lLCCW'2l:Y of the reference in lern" of lUllplitllde o r time . To obtain the full bene fit of a pul.., system it is desirable that tbe only fact o r lhat really needs to be dete rmined at lhe distant en!! i. simply the P1'Cl<.'I\OC o r abKlICC of the p ubf;$. If Ihis can be done then one achiCVilS for speech oJl the basic ruggedness of a c.w. Or MOT8C . illna! which can lo lera te very great d istorti on of the " ,n~ lIinil pulses withou t Introducing eIToT1l. This is bas ica lly because a replica o r the o riginal pul. e can be l'C'gcnemted loca lly if necessary. Th ese gre~t ad vantage. Ire ac hie...cd in pulu (od~ modulo/wit IUld in ""me of the related systems such lIS d ifferentia l pulse code mod ulaliu n. In p.c.m. the !IlLII1ple of the inrormat ion to be tnnsmittcd is flm eon~rted 10 the nearest of a IIlled number of disc rete levels. To each of t~ levels h gi~n n spoda l code aroup or 1)mbol. con,ist;nlt or just pulses or the a bsc""" o r pulses. For example, ir a binary ,i sod;git cod e i. !x'inl uwl , the ocquence !KXJOOI mighl be used to ind icate " level I," ‫סס‬oo 10 level:!.:
.~.tems.

lltX.lOll level 3 and 80 o n up to 111111 which would repre5CIl1 " level 63." T hese code .. wo rds " can then be Iranamitted In simple c o-err ly j'>C of . i pUing, f or exampl e I cou ld be rep resented by a pulse. 0 by the a bsence of a pulse. In other wont s nO the infollJ1lltion is ~nt in a form of telegraphy, on-a t! or mark-space . The code gr o up o r word. on receipt , Is decode d to pve 11 level , whiCh ill o ur",ump lcoould be anywhere bet""",," 0 and 6 3. And a signal rep resenting th i, level can be lelletllted. If we transmi t la"", num~ o r t hese eode word s. with le~1s on sam phng lhr o riginn! wa,,,form. M the distant end we can re-create 1hc5c level loamplcs and by the lllrnplini theory meo tioned earlier in t~ introd uctio n to d liPta electronics, we lhen have thcneo::s.saryinformation 10 re<>a.te lhe equivalent o r the orl llinal siplal. The O\Ilpu l si&n&l h0wever will be con fined to the levels " provided hy o ur OO<le iJfOUP o r word ; l here il thus some inheren t d istorti on which .. termed qumtf/r<l11mt N>be . By u teod in, lhe number of levels in o ur code, for elUlmple by usln, eilbt-bitl per word instead of sis bi~ we can reduce lh is q uanlUalion no ise to any dcW ro,Ilcvel. The important advanlallCS o r p .c.m. are ilS czg:pU ona lly lo w slda:plibilily 10 nol.." 10 inlerfcrmce M d 10 di81Ol1ion o f lhe tignal, d urinllfVlSl1liulon or Ilora ae. and the ease: with which t he o rigina l wa~orm ca n be! ~l od . The p.c. m. syslent W devised in 1936 by A. H. ROC'ttS, flS who soon rea lized that it rouId be one of the most powerlul loo ls ever Invented aplnst the ell'fIClS of intcrfercng: and no;'" On lpec:o;h tr-ansmlssio n. BUI it w;U not until 1947-3 that pnu:t ica1 Implementallon of lpeech lransmiu ion by p.c.m . w... aUcmp tod and then , with o nly thermion ic valvea available. il Itill _mod mQlt unli kely lhat it woul d ever be widely u$t:d. 1t will be a ppRlciated lhal all the Iwltching and tliiPtai lulic operaliollJ requ ired to encode 1P"'"'I'h. trammit II. regenerate It and finally decode ll inyolves larwc n umbers of swilehing type ~tionl at ~ry blah I~ ; mo5I un.ultable Ior va lve cm:uita-bul rar. faJ' . impler with llCmi· conductOR an d Intca r& ted cireuitl . For a n umber of yean

""sed

M

.nce usin .. Th is means IM t the tra nsmission (If • sems (If hi(lh speed pul. .' 1O O J .. i. a.: . H . with .. where lbe w. The c rys ta l frequency can be trimmed by C4 for co rrect nettln.. w mpact lUl d self-Q.' ~ .bJ .' n _ of _ p.1 ca h a l _ d ....._ <OdoI .."y shoul d be . . _ d l. J _ .tlv .. . _ 10 . On the o tller hand il sho uld be DOled that speech in telli Kibility is co nveyed almosl elllirdy by f~uency and Iwdly at al l by lUllplitude (thl..c to r diode In conjunction with the 8 Me '.:...••1101..tI•• d 1 •••1 Tho ..."'. CS Ilnd C6 al'<) aft«t Ihe freqllCOCY ()( ope ration . .. d 26d B and l ignal.IHo _ _ • • ..15 and signllJ. the !)'lItem might neve a s.I• •• • !tn l Oa I. IIwI 7OdO... OI '~ d l.p . Ul _ A 14 1 • -•• " fii1 ~. p. I- ~ '. ll d. Tron. dl. ioto:nct ion bet ween lhese components a change In one vatue tnlly require eet c ha ngel elsewhere. in QST (July. ' o v n d .M.n be a good d<:aIless than the th<:on:tica l llglire ... hich en a bles allD05I llIly 144 Mc /~ a.. ..._ a.. D_ _ . 16 . o " a . .locI. Nevert heless bccaUJ<: o f the t ra nsmission bandwidth p . 40 shows the es. j ust a lhree or four bit word.. _ to "". .l" l lll"nod o n. u.I.. described by Austill DaVitt. " Fot hip.c. dl • •• .ll h ". such .w.on. l _ I... frequcncy response to " 1«. "' ~" wi.e Ildapl(l.. .lo. 0 ' ~ - . MV' .. hort ..peceh pro<. .~ ible lyo len. a su iuhle va lue would be ~ K o hms....8. . iper arm to R2 .Iv " ~ ..m . I :" I . alld io Qual ity.... mar&i.n. fun<':lio n of the number of di~le lewis and the b""ic samp lina: ra te.. is lhe fltCl r o tha t mIlkrs ... ~ -... ~ j "'''''n. which IL1ll idOlllly luilN for muJtiplclling tOJlOlhcr II number of ditfemlt speech circui lS.. u adap.... "ne~ ~ . h • di..tion no ise... "' • • • • • • • R 1_ ~ "Vj!!-i rt. repetitive waw:(orm of p ulses of short duration mUSI a lways wntain many bigb (. Si nce Ihe hi... nce II.ntlal delails ...... Adoptor f fH' A. eryslal. T 070< h Dw ' .ocI _ • ••• p • • IocI.... N H <I' . ~inee there I. A wnvenieat ....-dorm of t he outpulIiJR'lI In the hcadplwocs usu a lly has very lilt le resemblance to an ideAl on-o ff seq uence o( M o rse c hanl.. If IlOOCISllIY lin aud iO pin control ._ . . uooted earl ieT. : 0 .h L and microwave b&ndl where t bey ~~t pole nt ially one (If the m 05t elfealve moanl of IrlllWTlill ing ope«h ove r lo og disllUlCCS .le powc r for the t YPl' 74 l op-a mpl.rn.. r.I... hell nmltiplied 16 limes can he to a mulmum of 10 kef..M N hl< . baDdw idlb.l... KI MHD . (this does nol mean that ' ho ld be ~tod with this deviation i). . d l . _ . ~ k -= ~ .lour-dl. h ....m . AMATEUR RADIO T ECHNIQUES now & grea t deal of use has beo:n made of p.teurs . _..es wou ld Rqu inl el<' tremel y wide b8nd wid lh if lhis had t(l be don e without dist ortion of the pulse weverorm. _ . 1973).. and clippin g $0 effect ive) .m.fiddity broadcut Quality..ntd liecoo: nnd the &a:cfllabk: level of quanlw.telepho ne q uality " IlPC«h (about )00 10 3400 cis ntio of bettcr 11w1 4OdBl il t)'l'icaUy sampled llOOO '. +1 . This means th aI the bandwidth of a p. .In .m_oiJDal ea....." INn••..-t. '" " . v l la ~ ' ...Il.'. 11 . Tho d _. panicUJarly (or whal an: ca lled urblin juncliQ Q routes of aboul 10 miles or "'.m.unplill$ nile above 30 ke l' and a 14-bi Lwurd (13 im o n nali" n bill p lM a parity b iLfor errorch<>::kin Rj.IDd.md centre froquelk. H .d ..noise flllio bellu . . II ii sUIted lhat Ihe l de via tWll .c.. It sh ould he no ted t M I th e lr&nlffiissi<>n o f " high ·speed bit Sl ream req uires " subst antial bandw.. . an d IheK io tum depend upon the bandwidth of the opcoch or other ... ...to-noise ...la. . wonls " w mide rably simplll'y the circu itry requ ired to con verl from aD~ 10 di lltal (o rm and 5ho u ld not be (lveTloo kcd as a fea. lIn! . ~ bit rate required fo r p..y hllfRlooia.._ ar _ . h..nay be connected between C2 llnd R2 One e nd or the po t Is grounded..c.. in the ordinary Idc:pbonc net· works.(en)."' <k>nc: with t .. h. lra nsrnille r 10 o pera te On lI.....>ntalncd adapter .. n J..luI .. nus ". ~" od Iv d.. II b Ihus Quile p""ib\e t(l ""nYe)' lnl elli". n. ... ...'tWYwosidembte distortion 01 the waveform can be lolem ted (this is of co une t rue o f c. ... hil. .g. !.. ).<Dd. is .. the other end to C2 and the .. Two smal l 9·v ol t balleries provio. bo .F.mln. n... a varr..... w .. (or IUnl.~ •• . Good . .wn .11 <1••11 .m. ..e. ... techniques are o f main interest fo r the u ... provided that the sampling rato is above 7000 times II sea>nd .c..mclI & second IllId coded into !levcn or ci$lu-bit wo n4 to provide 128 •• ~ls..he w. .cquem. no .. a lld CRI delerminc: the amou nt of de viat ion. 000 . ( H .... (In C R I tllT s lhe junction eapacitanee1 lldjwment o f trllllsmiller freqy I1<. BlIt fortunately for p. s~tems... ...cssin.. hArmonic ._ . .01.. 0.M .' • ." 0 00" • .

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. ." lilt)' " ~. relay B rt:leu es... Urs Hado m .. res tsto r-rra ns.cd by using C MOS devices... co ntac t A I brea ks the supply and (.::J ". rate.'hen worki ng . SO per cen t of (. . described a (. g i ll be adjus ted fro m about 5 word~lminulc "l' to around J(I words/minute lind it shou ld be found Ihat al abollt 18 to:20 word~imlnule a ll the prese u art: ver)' close to mid-positions. uPf'ly voltage Cl n be from 3 10 IS vnlt~). .. .. . .. lty Ke yl" . . TM IOllic M uangtIllcmt is de rived direcdy fro m /I..J."". Oft.. ' . N 0<>0 _". ooR o..l erc:ffik'll of Ihe keylnll. • •ofJ'hIIVI 2:J IIOh. T he keycr is Imcn<1ec. so t«Iuci ng po wer eon <llnlpl ion to. . space . In nrioul fllflm il remained popul ar f<..l.. ..... 'The usual rn. . T .. ~ .. '''.. "". of RV3..~ SPH" " ~ Bob Hearon.y l.. When A releases ..:1 discha ren lhrollll. Til! . ..d ..~I(. .. § .ll"" Ihortly after 8 and Ihis dclerrnin"" Ihe ..6 ... the cycle staru IIp in. ...1 inlaininll H co n. It hili been upd .. . C H 0 1 . tant dil-oJlI. J ..h R V2 and RV3. m... . ma king it suilabl e fo r I"""Ql>lc ojlemlio n...:MOS-ly>'C e1eclro n.po .c~. ••• c . r\'lll impact o n cloc:t ronic: keying in the 'forlies an d ' [..n Nned i"ll... for CM OS I" n Mar t. . GSJt-Y..... • .. .. -t . . Relll)' » isa roed rday fro m an ex-comoerer pan el. .. is i '" "1 r .".. wriles ... p . in..ble ' O<' p o . . Relay A is a minia ture scaled rela y mad e by Ma.. per iod .... ..:irL 2 . . "..l for speNs I I rn>m " ~ 10 ~O halld.I.... modest 2 rnA al ') 'loll s (. ..~ .. _ ohm.'O n~ . .n nstruct"r o r ('le..ri l:>cd $Ome yell" ago in QS7". ". p. . ' " •• • ..1.. ...c keycr wilh low... 1 "" RLAI t '2V 02 780 Key. ..'" 11411. for P o rloble Un In C Q· /)f.. hycr u. ... LA8AK ... VJ 11..L [ VOLUMEI TlIc key. net ic Devices Ltd.!I ~ -c I .. h.. '. 43 ) using. po wer con~umplion.lC5l.. ' Upd"t'fd O ne of th e keyen thai mad\: . _ . C U.ark~paeo rntio chocks CIIll be made uAinK all oh rnn\Cter (t. .... Ihis IS a check wonh makinl sioce it IS slIprisinK how sc:n.IU .I G3JIS. Th e qu an til)' Ilr charge in Cl dccidC'l how lon.... . .. . itIVfl the ea r is to inco rrect dotJ l pace raliO$! The ke)'inK paddle is • piece of "u it. ¥ ¢ ... When tile p.. ".n be acq uirN V<lry cheaply..u put togetbet a keyer (Fill.. . TONEl I + sv •... 12 vollS (H C6U size).~. when the pot cntial between the buse o r TR2 a"d C'OU"th falls below 1)-6 vohs . I .ldd le is operaled bot h relays A and B o perate . tm C MOS dev..onship inc..'" AMAT EUR RADIO TECHNIQUE S No switch is needed since no CUrni m is drawn from tile 9-"011 1rlln~blor radio ba ttery excer>t when the ley iii depressed.. relay A w ill rclc.• NE!I!I!lV . ~ .. . 1978._. OJ Till .lllp le of trBm isto . l 0 .} ~. are Cllpable of millions of operatiom and ea. " 011 1 pola nI)' 11 Re lays are viewed with suspicion bu t sea led un it.I ·b y . ~ eying seemS tn Il'oubie the ... . HIN ABO. . r .fl ics was l/wl by lhe l" lc OZ 7BO using relllys an d tri odes.. . h liminl rchlt... 000 Dh m ' .....bly~haped dou bleaided copper-elad bOllrd atl ached to a small piece of junio r hacks aw blade damped witb smal l b10clLs of foam spongy material.·ll'llic tRT L) c...10.lrunic hyen... but CSSCllu ally the oriainlll OZ 7110 & proa ch.. CMO S £ /_8. s ~ U HO lI v:llIOD . . . No 1. ..• 0 .. 5 Fl f ' <!o d " " ~ ~.. D ua ' Po la .. 1:1 $I"' • 4711 o . I c . par licularly ....e.... U b l.. . .lr many yell. <:l. 12 'lOllS. 00 d o ~ a D<! " per cen t on d MheS) .. RUl! ¢ '¥ ~ o. l)cpendenl upon the sell Ul.00' " . D will hold up and this ISldjusled by RV I 10 de termine the " do ts " . s ~.

. paCiIOr>lind a 100 o hm d .'· ""'" f.e. Ih... I" tra nsm ission . ha ve 1"0 ". .... AI Ihe ra . SUfI'lus I tkprin l~'" may have ~YJlc h ron" lts mo".le /IIA I I I o r 'C even silkon po.~n: ''' 'I:.w." Il" 'C v" h ll ~c II' in t:llhodc t eyin!!) 10 be u<al Ills" in conj urn:li.. Mllny surplus machines are designe fo r ' O· ba ud u~ra l ion (mo lo..A K hu found Ihe . igna l· lo-noisc: rn' jo is net:dOO al lhe nx:civing end 1 provide rcaso nat>l y ~rror· free copy... ..Or I'r< lleclion... fo r 4 " ~ ba uds .I.·aves to elimiM le Ihe dro. a nd ca n be bas ed o n slarl<la. wro n...nsruiuefll a n: a. rreq ucncy shifl keyin... The Icleprinler coce e ronsider('(\ In lite fo rm o r " rnarks" (on ) and '· SPR~ •• ( off)... ull.:>.. d ily derccsed ...lc Iq"" n: .> ". '.... is uSlially possible tor t hese IU be nl<ttJ ifu:d to use at 4' " baud. machines inte nded fo r line o perati o n may 8 110 need modifi cali o n 10 r~duce " hash " R H . r m3Y be used . •• mark" and O •• spoce" . .. wll h II " aooa rd Id cllra ph cod e. peciflc Ira no.• .. hlch can 00 prepa retl prio .. n:l1l II) key lhe d ilrer~ nl I rn lls nliHe r~ wnn Y . lhe ""'" .c.p .. . and d.llntl whcn ' · un " t:otfcs a n. nnd senl eilhc r d i. TS.. irn. <..o uld l>c I'< ihle 10 u".d d....". ilh LA8. S". . b... measu red in haud . r".leg".wl 10 red uce meter speed 10 2727 r.. ~.s.allSC of 1Itt.. C"nve nlionlll RTT Y is 00' a Iully " synch ro no us " sYStCm bUI Ihe IW Omachine... in e~w ooerauo » stncc he has no wi.."'hieh Ihe key.: 4·' von "'U lery. .. using f. i""" . lud inll IllIee CMOS de vice...i gnals 01 opposite po l:lrily ..idely lL5Cd fo r MrtUl lellf RITY (allh uuJ:h Ihe UK tc ee ce no longer Insuts o n Ihis re te).nil l i. in[tU1 le ...1 •.) a nd req uire adjuslmenl (Creetl MlttJc1 7 by 7f ao(ie loek..AUD I O ~OO AND M O DU L ATI ON m up USinll ..1".. R1T Y_lh~ ~a"y way .. .. . LAMAK mou nled a switc h o n the "..p.....a.. hleh Iypically ma y be N:l'llflllcd hy 170 Hz. .'o' '" aL~ ~!@ '" II ~OO<~ . into co nSlanl· amplilu.1c andiu lun"" h. 0 aoo inlerrel'COCC ma ~ ceusc lhe mae hine 10 prim inco rrecl s)·m hok. are bf(lu. .) or .. T he usual code is a ' · unil internmio na l code (CC ITT No 2 code ) • hhou lth oomrnt:l'Cial. . ill iast a long lime. speed 3000 r.... " (T . provid ing meHlIjtCs 0 11 rolls o r raper la pe in II page form al . ly (100 per cenl dUly cy<: lcl b'll Ihe r""luency i5 shifted bclWft'fl lhe " ma rk' and "SPIlt e" l""I uenelCS . ! -" " ...tl" m<tn: ""ph~l ica lcti l mosmi"ion SySlffllS. I~ proteclio n diod e con d ue .r"i.TlInlletl so llla l ' h~ rrcq nency ~hill i5 upf'IiClI h ' lin tlo<: illillur. I rll n smill~r hy fee<l inll the a ppru priM o lllrkist'll< sin.' of one bit per second j in aCCtm la .1 i. en<-':>l-"'lered 'I .. Is this "".he. .l" .>nlinllOU. or eicctro nc system s in .. and Ill.. it sho ul..."el e\ery symbol oceopics the f. u"" .b. i.I".hich lite "'••.rn. tr omaJ:net ic Iclc[trinlc"....u.:rc are Dnllmbe r of '· .."" ap\'Cnr o n a " "Ullt dIsplay unit ( v.ion speed. I ...) is ust:tl 10 co nvert i nco m i . N o pro blems o r RF I a re e~ rtt: rie n"e d. R2(l o n h. Iypically of ± 10 ' ·0111. hlueki "~ k~)'i ntt (' 1 lllive· keyinW )· ..".. This ca n be accom pli. 'el)· lillie ad dil i"nal cu " elll .. s. Olher u ".~ ~OO. Tde"'-. "'.rid. 3 mplifyinil Ihtse " gna ls 10 provide OU lpUI..' And m051 dual pi...io n!rec:eiv inll sP. ."'.. OlllSl he of""aIN r. )... in Ihe keyer pro per. Ihe k ey i n ~ of . ilh"u l . fhe lotal dra ln from Ill..1 pro ve posslhle 1 lind lin Illlen "' I.) th..in<." . Al Ihe lra nsmili ing stalio n.lll1 i" . is puh lished by Ihe British Amat eur Il..rn.d inl 10 II!<' ..e..f... 1rou Nes Itt. e '-------Quick Guide to RTTY--. ~gcs arc IYI.d. ' 1l1.j ' Il "' . ilullli" n·l .k. In Ih ill syslcm II C I Mrle r i5 lransmh lctl ct.II)'..... "I . hillh d Uly cyd~ m".. <-. • • '" '" " .~.t.s ... IN " b tween t he . and " "...~etl : orbe r mac hines "perille a l a st>""d sc i by a " 1I"" ~rIlo r ' a "... A useful guide (0 t he elemen ts o r R·n ·Y. ~ aud io signal. m " f mad .. 'c:d d""ill" in or de r to mabie II k~Jer imen ded ror . " (a. overno r·pdju slinll 8~ n...Irai II 10 be used W C MOS-l) !'C ")'> lCIl1...m ......p\u. slicin.1 vonagcs \II' 10 Sll vnll•.tm" will 1"11"".:<I oUI " n M keyboard.. ~ " n P . td le fo r" Ir~n~m il ".. ch"k e.. uilahle T r r"". lone II I II ..! a ball~ry .nl~rli . a simple 10 .l e " 11 ".wild ) a nd l he jac~ . ilUt..tor ' N . so ar ranJed lhat (u" liLe Mo . Ir h' llher vollUIl"" ure cllCoume rnl .. r' wblch make il d iflk ult 10 vary the lrn nsmi. .alllC period 01 lime. hieh lbe most commo n is .vc 0 oom[tlcmcnlary pa ir or devices. (bu t no le Ihal hc<." ple I>y rnt:lI n~ or '" v"lIlIb var iablc-cilf"'d laIlCC .}. h 1 lISe Ihe v..c.rll< 'lu'r : il reqinr....il>le 1 l" e lhe 0 .eh ellrrcn l .. Each ro-m of telcpri n l~r pro vitles a keyed d ..". f.Ii..rily .1 it is p. ivinll srauon :l l~rnli".....s the m" SI "ommOIl fo. ". n . o prinler : Ihis involves eo nverlloll tile siilna l..gnal· ~nl ·· o r lransm lssioo S)"Slems in use or . A swileh selocls Ihe " m..U. Noi". h a ~ hc:c n meas uretl nl I .k r~ uen cy shiT keyin.<.r. while Ihc mos l tOrn mO" tb la cod e is ASC II or lS07 8· unil code (1· Unil otrmhut C1Mle pillS11 pa . key·...' ilIA.'iMi njt . III "ell below nurmal power level. tIDnsm in. .). 0 even Iho ugh he n il's 200 walls illr"l o n 144 M l tl and II Tri " '" ::J ••• 4' . c''Cf.. inlo II (o.na lly devel"""d lo r Iand·line nper.. fl" .II/I'i' (I. with a Ill1n...... " peenion fo r l1I ninll (i. and ~uth e<roo arc nOI rc..ll.:.. equal to a "Ill. 1 . r""ll" menl uf T'i.n devel"p inl" a c"rn· plic... <l i<Mtcs such '" IIY I06'1 . • polSl livc· key.l ~ of fad in\!: the I lSC of I lreq uency co nverle' 10 conver t Ihe rretjltO IlCY d ifference betwee n IW aud io 10llCS into d. used fOI Rr TY it will be fou nd lhal a \IU<II1 . ad io T elepri nter G rou p.~ r" r C. The ~r>cci r~ed I rlln ~.ht mto synch ro nism Slnrl Ull" sillnal• ..adi" ld erri nling . IlJ . /3 Imud .cclly or a "I {M '~1 I ica lly fro m punc hed tape . " r Iwo 1000 pI'" ..wise lurns of .' (~ J"- r. y ~ 7_uni l < "Ode lo r c.. shou ld r .s. .mille.... ily check I>ill. .litl ..he<J 1M an I ..

lr" n.Jon e by Irc nsmis.... l ' h "" in o t""l . au ..ltli" <'PC'lJli<:In.. Ion.i .udio cqu. lcur< find the .' f'O!I'ihlc to UM: slow-lo-fasl. $~ n.al TV ''«('i vc.·. c l<_...s':'1'l el".II'''' an"l Tl1-ei~er.:ln mk co nv" rsion In allow the 5 S rv p i..n ll ie.." h y"lIn w fille r to mini mize tbe visibility o f the blllC' shott · ren " tc:ncc phOSl'ho r antl h il:hlighl lhoe ltlllfi·!'fncislence yello w plwspho r).. To dis play SST V picture.J " rr... pcrm in ing ." " of co r"'c nl.s"'~'" ~II Jnfornl.is~ion) 1I".. · l f"' r<i< t"oc" I"ho<l"h".n seven or ".r...lUnn is ..). .. lra n'IIl. " >"il able rw U~ on h. .'wcv~ ..ilth! = omls instead o r !$!30 frames per fICl. r<'<lll itC'd (e.t1ctl >iltnal has In < ey inrornHui on On Ihe lumina """ tt\laek Ihtoolh ((ley to "h ilel o f ""... 'n .i~ bl y lower d"rlllilioil lh an hr oaclensl ... 1~""Ut. nnd I:!OO Hz fo .s) w.o nal 1r.:tur. ~ed on onr".r.h...lm"" to he di slll.--Quick Guide to SSTV..< .lh oynctlro n."<hahF o r p holo gra ph" •·. va ryinll fro m 2300 Hz fo r 'p<:~ k white 10 1'00 Hz for bl" . 'M ny " m. lind ~ . al'" Ihl\l1 s..1I"' '''.:d) f o n nudio ta pe casscnes. 11 niclure " lemCllt. P7 phospho.:alhotlc-ray 1Ibc with .Iy a na rrow ba nd o r r~ l&' I< ie5 (nul 3". SSTV 5 i ~ oKIl can be I«Mded (O u. '"n" I'h.AMATEUR RADIO TE CHN IQUE S ' -. i.. The i)">tcnl is Ihus ""IriciN I" Ihc 1I1lnsmi>sil>l\ ur U JCric:s o r "l ill piClur es rUlhc r than Ihc movin~ nictur es "r normal tcl c~ision. h. ro rma tion .....tlro I r<l nsmis.~ion I'<'qui ti nll .zing info rma li" n.". iliary "'d~. lo&elllcr w. pmen l .. io n ur ~n a udio lun e (l ube" " i".. . me ra te Or 0 "'" o:otllp1< l" p.. ~I ~v ..1 is lh. u m~ I('l1r ha nds. T" .II I"W U roc l o f pnUI"u ' ' . nju i ~m('m _ Ill" 'p lelll ":>c:i lI f' f' r"". llh in Ihe boInd widlh nf .han ~-....ilh lhe nccnollry achic~" nnrrow m ndwid lh. ioll (no rma Uy 120 lin"" in' tcud "f 6 2~ /~ 2 ~ Ilou.. ahernalively il IS no . k I~vel.g.'"Ond. p ..". in eunju nclion .. H.Siow-Mdln lc1t~islon is a r' N"m of ~. Tb il is .: "..I"..

. pIU'1lcuinr mains supp ly. deriv cs from Iile power wh id> Is heln l wa:ltcfu11y diss ipaled Th e bllill·ilI protect illn lIpinit \IOltagc transienu vari es Inside it. . lill a req uirement fu r lemperalure l'D. a well-designco:l power supply wilh l ilicon di odcs is net likely 10 pro ve ebev e ncrmal .. and bel simi la rly supported dim::t ly In thc wirinl ..Cl can all 100 eas ily result in scmlcondUl:1ot failurcs. lco.<'Dlll dem and arose fo r unfavourab ly wilh Ihe a vet1l$c selesuum rco.o l>lc" .lchinl/.l Ch O~C5 a nd tmnsrcr mers.reat <ka.p. need 100 vc:ntilation. inle rfCfCncc . dissipaled. of too short du rai ton Man y am a leur s haVCI fouOO 10 their l.a n p rese nl ". or th e dctcrioru.v.l'$ has m<. At ChClUll .. bUI flU rna". Because of th e low forward resist ance. a <1evi!.llC or silicon diode fai lurca in this c:oo. Metal rcct irlCn hllve lIPPreciabl c fOfWllr pJ .ll# Sllrl/. n o h . kIlu lIC Ihe forw ard res i$l. and 8 or 70.10 amp range. A melll ~ rectifier ta kcs up oo nsldcr ab lc sp3OC .nd o f longer du tll.. The !IlI\Illicr l illcon dlod es ha" e no ne<:<l.:a nl lha l lhere . ind ud inll 1'' '' 111 hk: a"..i cnl . . t... llcral le m.l: which o ffers zero few m icmseconds and hav c lillie eaect 011 va lvo rcctiCIcl"I impcdaDco to cum::nt flow In ODC d iRction (fo rwar d rcsi$(cxa:r"t some large lla:I-fillcd types' . Prcs lUllo:l.. etsewbere is now known 10 be th e momentary vO ltaae I urp which ooxur at Irregular in le rvals Oil IlK: d earie lupply Why U.>1tage uni l• . 4 or 40-70 pcr 0 Neither valve nor mctaI rmifien can meel lhc definition t.v... T ills is not due to an.:h niljllCS as ' '''ih:hcoJ.. ket or mo un tinl ap pear on hi. 0 easy 10 des tro y silicon diodca-logcther o flcn enou l/..... he o pcm loo from A frcquenl l. tl'>cy have very low forward resistance and biih rcver5C RSistancc. All these points la 'll" . recorded lian ltlcan tly cl>capcr than with Olher t ypes of rectifiers.I."""" wh ich Wl. 1 main:s. whidl ill why cooling fins a n: filled .. Gennan lum and silicon Junction rcctificn are m IlCh nearer Ihe ideal. o r thc two .. ove rvo lta.. lha l il to say .001Olle. Slleh "on. Suc h ltal w cnts may Iasl o nly a o f the Ideal rect ifier.vol llll-'<' ..\ 00 per cenl. has a "..lll.: con tinue d lhc rm io nic dcv....lppily cnouah for ~ aod have substan tial OVCtVOlla gc:s \VCfC rceordcQ: 3S of 20-40 per cenl them well tamod. but ill llWly of th c earlier di odes th e margin is a aood dcaI less. 7 o r 40-70 per o.. lran sien ts uc more caD be a\lOidcd . both " har d diode QtI readily pt!SI destnlCUvcly hi~ CUlTCIIU if vaeuum" an d . ide r_ add up to a h iihly clrJCimt rectific r with very ~l advan laFS .i der :.nhcrmt bilh cffil. \ wilbltood by diodcs· manul aet ute.. dU rlnl a pe riod o f 121 wceltl.w.r. And . W Ot... The subject is of l ufficienl importan«: to lIt"lUler hal fuoctioocd co tn:<:tly.l mulli l... ofIeli Lllltrnln. aelenium metal rcctirocn h. at rectificn.u\ce is SO lo w.ve In veh i.ulted in hasis T HoEnrise \lSe n f i<:ondhigh-eu"" nl>tasuppli".. caU ICS InInsicntx 10 a ppear on th e power lines by because 1I11u fficicni &lIClltiotl ha s been paid to fundamcnl&1 direct Ilrike 01" b y induct io n. "'l1l'l ifl<. Silicon Aooct . 1in lilt: ""rly 'siXlies o r silicon po_r . who willscldom ward resislaDCC tends to inct'tO$\l with ap:..lio n in Nral &r C8ll IlInn In urban Fint.. ..' " likc ly to and mc talrectificn occu py apprcc:ia.. power . Fo r th e amateur desilflCl"..0: rn:wemplinea r low-voltage. ThUll bo th vlll~ have any n: liable inrormat ion on the o verv oh al/..i l. o perations... II-solid ·l la le " e'l Uip menl h. l upply sw.. It CILll bellho'Nn simpl y (th ou llt painfully) by louchinl/.Il. h ror rncll1<'I<l. inhcre lll unreliabilil y of silicon diodee.liona po i"l increa singly 1 s uch. " pplie< 1(1 e lla ble rc l. aDd llCt\crate a ....a l ma i"" 5UI'pIiM: ah h ()tJgh swilch ing-mo de fro m Ibe rela lively 1 '" tllllllt inverse volla lCS w hich can bel 0 unil' ".h idl may cause Iud! dTccu lIS osc illat o r drin. "' ell·' lal'oi hud h illh-\'<.ntinl/ freq ue ncies lh an th e ~ or 60 Hl Whal thai are the sn" lP? TIle main p ro blems an.mll l a bove aboul 1 limp ..for many ap plicallon s o ver aU th e cartier types o r ~r 0 mode (inverler ) po " .II h i. A M"IIard in\"cstiralion W>owN lhat for llXllml'le.'ted lo r cu.gc on 230 \1011 maim IS cq w~alen l 10 460 volts r.. a l present prices. and t&Il . wilb TbeIc transient overvolla ga enee nti se during po wer l he UIOCi&lcd mains tramlormcr. 5CVCrC a. oo-ver liM.lano and illtCllc rll. we have l:>cm usina thermioni c and Dudley.In&lY in 1M 1.c<!ucing lhe weigh l nod vol ume of r><. Ihou ah .h .es amounlcd 1 27 o r 2040 per ca ll.r u nil' .'OSt th&t it is 1111 too 1 alTet:t electric Ilppliano:::s (K lamps.iency o f the 100 a m v..r unils a nd I\:g Ulnl0rs 10 la ke IId"" ol llge roctilicn ... ter aupplies an nee ded . in o therwi se well dcsi~ed power su pplies . o f <. dis tricts .b le ubinct SflllllC. ean bel made R$ oornlW:t a ImaU l'l:Sisto~.r. and I of 0'1« 100 per cem.. li&htly lcss elT.bly boca o f thc lUfl jUltify a review oI' how these breakdown s OI.:k: ba lleriat. Butl l ince a 100 per eeee ~) an d infin ite impedance In the othcr (revcrac rel lslam:e). t is For ma ny a p plical io ns.. aod how they IIIll1llet usc o r o__bcad lince.rttry and ma illS s up plies as a n " lle rnal.. YCl)' lillIe h. o r r . paTtly u f e" nvm llot...' f in.1". Silicon. the o vcrvolta. . requite wcdaI mo untinjln th c form of a valvc soc. II will bel a p precia ted tha i Ihese envclopc IlIat a valve rectiIIu bas a fairly h iah forw ard rc:sWance-Ihc hich Opcrallnl lcmpaatu rc of the envelope volt... ligh tnill..li f\c-r which i$ hiih·c urre nl .....1 Ihenni<Jn i<: . ludin. the o fsem ucl<>n has ""....CU' .1 of rectl licl'$.m. tins . Itln t>crrnorc the for_ 13ro volts. fu r high _po". Ihere lias been 1I w n lin ued """".l Ileat . durins: a period of tlx wecl<s Iile follow .:l a t th e PTl:"CllI stalc of Many or the presenl In ' hn iq ues COI n be Im C«! d irec lly 10 the art and PArtly fro m 1M i.. con sider why it ill wonh bothering about 11.. The val vc rcctlfler m ust 1\1.:cnt.0be mnsidcrc:d as ha vinj with lhe typcand ma ke of. incma.here tbc normal ~ 1It\Jlinll: dc!IilPl pr oblema.en i".. o r 650 vol ts peak. lICI'TIll\I'1ium h. and wh o may not CYCll ha ve rull malt er'1 information o n th c diadCli he wishes clips.. iro n-co rc<.1ly wed fo r carrenu o f 1c5!I than 1 amp.. Surrey... tht:sc overvollal/.Ul 1. me" ry va po ur " w oes : bUI it was no l voltages a rc a pplied even for a Ih o rt period (Chill com pares un1il l he laIc ''\<'Y<:nli lha l a sign ir.SECTION S E V E N Power Supplies lower lo rward rCSlUarlOC and IS u. Aft er a lt.Uon of rubber wirin llllfld c lectro lytic capacitor&..1livcly high · usuaJIy tl!Ilcd rOl'" un liml led 1ll ~lilll llUlCOUI peak CIllT\'lltl) . low. ev.ioon rnpid ly <>\1." "r =-ve ° . o r fro m llllttninl/ stril C5.... ilioon dloo cs_ somc800voll (c......" " ir. even . A I wilh tnetaI c\' "OlWln ica l way s of oom hall ing Ihe infla li" na ry . types ha vc Il'llrtu cnt invcl"lC \IOllqc n1liIlp or ar(lund rcsl~Wt ce .. lio n. Ihe Iil.es are 1MW...) a IImlled life.

. to r is roughly 30 o bma per di ode: tb ur with a seriGl m i ni o f tlll'tt di odes..~ i cn l vo l la~ o f a peal ampli lu de severa. " because th e In. In th is calcuLt lio n it h. a ~ ('I Pu ll w • • • I>. t nn.."fOII each diode.v.. U o ppo'lCd 10 Ihe tran~cn t ra tinl which is _ hi.. TIll.. in practic1: WIl mighl well decide to nse th ra: 400 p.til1~ oect. Th.:001 <>f lOme lowerinl of d.lue ""ilIonIt.!~JYE ] rl t AU lsrlVt: . o f co W'SC. problC1Tll : In the finl " iaa we rr\lul make IUfC that under normal wo rkin g cond itions we an: kocp lnl well with in the p.. would be t2(X) VGIU o nly If tbe l'C"iCnC l'CIi'l ancc or Cl\<.. P." U Id.hi'" much grealer d.'• • 0•••• 1 . Un(orlW>&ld y. lit leas t . . An lICt. 980 voUs.().Illil' lication fact<. .. l(rnil Is reach ed whe n an y o ne of the r1iodcs hu . CIIpllCilOr fCl"I"C&ClItI an -'most dir«. The a~ acres clea rly sh.tillcatio n clficiClX:1 uK! the ptel'&Ilo~ 01 lIdd illol\lJ heal. ~p "' v .. each diode (u shOll'" be don.I&&C . In sud! (..Y.. mi>cd l ype! WId ma...I. AI wilh mercU!)' vapour an d o ther low impe<!lulcc recti_ 6en.. l {a »).lalioll rcr the: mo.l-V...citlve load soch as ItIaI prc&eIllal by the racrvOl.. . The peak aIff'eIl l wh ich wi] Dow at IWitch-on Wlll lkpend upon Ow: preeae mo ment ¥I the a. To pro vide _ rcasoniIblc margin of . w Ihe advisa bilily o r aIwl yt mini eQualilillg res. will he ad vi<ahlc ro r eacn lO:Iion to hllve a pj v. I -..ticr lIavi"._ I dl 1pow . fro m the theorc\i c....eh r. Cc n si!kr th e cu e o f th e very populu bi-ph a. rather lhan of on e u~ina: a ]<.llanl p. diod cs are likely 10 ha ve _ combined !ll:rics ntt.OIC....i. fo r the power supply...~trin&l o f th ree d iodes each. (.. Un.. ( h dl ) ." o. ~iticrs) o. II 2 (a bou t 2 '8) times tbe IItemo.. a ppr«ia biy hijl.\I .lGl. possi ble wo:I y .l.c.. The p. poli. .uunp lc. G U • I ..I._ Urnlllnl Wicon or mercury-vapeur With an y rcrt.Lv. ld • • •octifie• • ..malt compared with the reverse "". 1 4 0 .. momen l/lry period eore"/.Iiol. appear II<.. _ .I"" of lhe caPKilo r b h igh.v . A ran ll" or u p 10 ) to I Iw bftn quot~ even (or the AmC make and t )'llC of di o.e hi gher Ihe ~VBK m1' laJK:C of an y pul icula r d . ~ wOM flOS!iblc co nditions eccur wilen the swi tch cl o!ltS a a<:tly a l lhl: pu.re o f the t otal inverse \lOlllllle.. g .> th ink in ICrlTll <.'. of <..t do IOmethin l to limit the bi llb volta I C and cw mlt ' W"JCS thai Illcvitabl.fonner.v.i.! limes that of nOrlll:l1 <:an be ~cral ed Ihrou&h the sudden i DlCrruptiO. . ~ will ~ 1' • _ . A typiutl value would be 150.. aut work inS volla p ) wbkh will 'TlIc Ii. to bypa.. some d i. . Ho~er.. ) ). resin or between th e rectifier and the reservca « paci lo r. The rClll. K E" or 1-17 ICrics (we co uld US<" " oe d iode nlleO at 400 p.) - I "I (.... (d) H. the IhFft 400 p.od es thenl$lva.. _ .e..h di ode were Prcclsel1 the sa me. . These rt'5i. " low fnnwllrd J'fti&tanco (..to h. r.. sur ge h mitiJlll l'e'<i.It·Wln . reverse veItage o f 400 vclu. (e. vo lUill" OUlput . TramiCQI . thaI . "1 • <...m .y" '" I j (. the rdalively anon dUly-cyck of the rcdi6er. It ep' '"""" ""nri de M g th e d""i &/l " f a po we r (0) ___ l'Iy. ~ _ _1 . l ok G O-4S K . Some mal e n distinguish bel ween these two pro blem..u bcfl\ ~. cyd c when the OOleh is c1o!iOd . P.. output rs ] ' 18. TbllS with a 3so.".v. rarms o nly /I smo ll pan nl"thc ripple curreet .. . whe re th it.er t han the 2·S used..r II 1l\31"di< com ponen t b ud!. o r choke) is cncrltil.onsidcnlion must be gi¥en 10 ille effoct of o pera tl" . hl .on will be roughly 2·8 x l SO volt.. ~ .te o r fullW\lW ei n:ull (Fig. II lUi14ble value relistOf wo uld be 100 o llm s.ode..._ .u lhe di ad et but thi.o..I. er.1 it q.. reak invenc \loltages . thou ah a t the 0..! can be in."oir . · former.. lypeS in TI1Ul..If.. • E 1 "' _ ~ P.. ericsoO'>tlno.llage d ro tll. t~n large oealu:u rtenlS .rormcr and r«:t.. this problem CIUI be: 1ar"ly $fIlve4 by ""... v.1• • ' o od . ~I.:ef'Iable value for . whim I..i. the IoilJ.. inp ut to the RiClifien and the tt roret ical e.... apptar in power sUl'fllil'$ /II lhc: mome nl o f cwilchml an d durill il mains oveTVo ltages.e... lha t o f a potentiomete r rompr. aUow a certain lUTI<lun l of e. Since.l .l . A~llll." AI Ibe moment of $Wi1chinll OIl. <..000 o hms. .. I llt o "".sl the lwo a re not t he Mme . AMATEUR RADIO TECHNI QUES to I.\I..roortltJll since we enen lettd 1<.. iOlul WD iI in o. $ur..ap'lCilor . bU as we . we C&n 1101 jusl co nnect Itlreoc 400 p. TIli.k or the sine wave. but thill 10 o f lill Ie f'lrartical co noeqnenoc ). incidentall y for . evcIl lhouah Ibis resuru in SOOlC 1055 o( n:o.>f It 3SO volt power supp ly.. .oopting Ihe lerm .v . lhe J{l't\Ittcr will be it ... di odes wo uld be needed in lWO :scries.cd Of oJ_ ". no protective wum-up time so Uu.lon will. across coch Ictt o f lh e rtetifICf \I a pprollimately equal 10 2. tn' au.Ied VR -tllbc:s and el«tro lytic ca pacitn Tl). outpa l. enerola.. em an equaliz7<lg ll:lIi.i .tl... hBll oce 181 the re are I. ...1 d. w .) ] II]I.v . ruting would ten d 10 be rat ha Clrpcrllive.onvnicnl.v.tins voilaI"' ( rnca.. In o rder 10 ob tain a rating or 1200 vo llll p....argjn.w." I• • un<l r Iul..nJuil~ belween !hc e..ill now durin... by . If 11..\I.\iblc fo' II 1~"Y JUf&e of current to now 1 1IIo the ~rv(lir o.v."CIl1hl".'..t co mmonly used d rcui ll ({heac thC<l~tir:al llillfCl igno ~ lran .c. w w ...~ then . c.iSI&nl:Cl " f the diodes. Fo r e..!IC~panaCl ean be found am on. u • tr..i~ 400 p.lpcn sivc COlllpo nent and there are nuuw ap plicatio n.\e. o ~ ." U below 1200 volts unl~ elllb<!r:tte Iters ha ve been taken 10 ma ldl U_ J'on unarcly Ihl.Wl1Stanoc:II it is h ighly adviJable to lit a aurIC Iimilin.i.3SO volt tron..illcr . . P.v. o f a bout 1200 WIlts..ho koInPlIt ra lhcr \haD a CIlpacilivo-UlPUt. G ' -d .>r 10 <.. th e reverse l'CIislan ee of CUlTCrlt t yllCl o( silicon dIodcs vary _PP·e d_bly. m e rex.Lv . Add ilionally.s.\I.U1TtJI1 by " vudtinlWe th us have IWO main dcs i. ~.i.e. . rgilzd.~. am worH... " U .t sh lln -<:in:uit KJ'OSS tbe ou tput o f the TtClificr. are p:neratcd wben e. aero . prote ca n be o vercome by ~~' rmcctin. _ 0·' K f • • I " o t •• 1>• • • 1 . d i<>tia in scrie$. I . _ • 1I.>bta ln the p.mtt three diIJlnIIl v. «) H. cho ke is a bulky and fal rb c. ripple fIIln' . P." . Il_ov. ca pacito r of the con vc:fItloILll rip ple lill". Rm ln• • suppl y using silic:on d iodl'$ ill lO calculate the basie peak in ve_ vo lUlges ( lu t i.. ""hidl ou.. oocondly . ~ OC(lDom 1caJ1y practicLl.etc. 8 ~.wvaJ\lagc:s in mims d i lf~n t Iypes 0( d iooes).IlUcd In r.l i vety .1...lf3&CI.lly the voltage d islrih ution ac ross llle th ree diod es TC-..I f'l.) for the muimum p<lak Yolt."srOtll\C. A Jin gle d iode: ovItlllhi.l ol'l wilh It serics llrl nll' o f dlode3 unlell _ _ _ _ J . 1<1 juat as Imp OfW ll. r/ltlng of ea ch diode. rety. " practlc&l 1a!~lUlIId iJ 10 jeeve t he most .l.. the p.. Fi. _ mus. th il cllanllC Will IIlw im p rovc vo ltaae rqulllCion.~ aJma n cqUAl l1 bc1wem th o dilX!co d""pile any crrrerences in the d .ry . k 10< ( _ a l>o . "..un under n o rmal re perm ve eonl!it ion . .l.v. A sil icon l'1'd i ~ r h.....1S0 volt I""".. Vl)lta~ wllleh ea n be accept ed (o r II.... or ~ E ~ .i. Into a capa. in serics with One of 800 pJ .) lIQ'OU each half oflhe uan~former RCOndary wiro:linl . -. Th e 'IItlllC of lhe resistor rnll11 be ~lll. (or gett ing th.

ueh .. S~proof Mag_Nickel delay fuses ere likely to be more satisfltClory.. ". Eff_ diode will be f"Uo.destructlve M I. break ing down to sho rt .. be • • 1 d locl I. in other words the recnn cr can . In . .v . Ul.lingand to avo id overheat ing of the junction <h. ln .. ulways advisable to check: .' or If cee diode in a string sho rt-ci rcuits. e tc.."... 1 "u. Such a fuse is ve ry useful in mum safe d.. that it will provil1conly limit ed prot ect ion agaiJtllt output o f sllicon dio des m~t be reduced wit h incre.. 3. o f man y kilo. ] ] .!v WId comp<>nal ts. a uni t rated for full o utp u t at 35" C may need con tin ue UDtii all six d iodeo have b roken down . so to spce k.{ t.c.. voltages. likely to blow durina: &witdling on surges .i..v.l. also across the transfo rme r scoondary: each of these:dampinlt ThU! a 250 rnA lliod e mighl have to be ..d!cuit then an effective sh ort-circui t ap pea. polentiomctcr.. . l... hl. or are depcrld~ upo n th e conserva tism of mak:ers' ratin gs.. J .i.. dl .v... mti ngs) . .. o lt p ow. G2BVN passes &long the information tha t on e d locl.e hazard~ be avoid ed by protective fuses? temperature.. of tran sient dampinlt devices across the rectiller out pu t and per cen t lit 100" C1.ti on agai nst II. It is true thai o ne st illll<:e! c 150 K ISDK lOOK llWly published designs in whiclilbis pr(Cllution is omillcd.1 JlO .ever CWUlOt u. enough to o ffer adequate pro lectlon i.. Th• •"u. A good safely marain will Jive you somcthing in hand to meet unavoidable FUSE "'S'" current an d voltage sur~.. rultngs if thi s cart be: avoided. sho rt-circuit across the teed in8 temperature. triet<:d t u a bout devices consists of WI O'!I'F ca pacItor in serid with a 1 K 100 lilA if req uired to operate a t a high tempe rature.' . CI each d iode." ""p..... Fig.. remainin. or have trouble 10 sto re ! Even with equa. Alt hough silicon di odc:sc. O'iKlS u f (5 . British manufacturer ad vises the usc...... for the fo llowing reasons : ambient temperatu re. Typlc... PoInts internal avalanche breakdown 10 project the junction. 1Ii' on diod e ". al <1>0 p . uld b . on es inerC8SC!t. mp_lI.ra tber than to o pcn-circu il. eq ua lizin g cepacitors may sometimes be recommended fo r this purpose.n . the p. 6<'11 connected across the su pply. lu. because the forw ard resistan ce of indi vidual diodes mILl' difTer a ppr cdably so thai the e urfC1lt load will not be shared equally between Ihem .. acrou the l ~ C..t a fa. "ft'umicn t sllp p ression comlX'nCllts of various types The l'\llUling tempef"dtute of any equalizing o r sur gc-lIrnitUig have been developed. nus..uld d.a.cel'on_ . the unforlunalc tend ency of silico n diodes when dcstroying itself. The characteristics o f ~ilioon jundl uo n:ctiilCl"5.ed by others and SO endanger the tram. the maxito the transformer centre-lap.y. ce..u pp '. Ila. Silicon diodes have been d evcl.al though thc figures vary a Iiltle with type. ""... they m ould he kept Bway from heat producing va...h... It m ust be readily adm itt ed. To . h . with 800 p. il Is.. C.asing other faults . ith ma kers' literatu re.affo. They sllould be mounted so that a continue to be developed. . All an ene reenve to resistors. w.. 1. 110 the nwd mum ho wevcr..cl g.. Shoul d par allel o pera· tion be decided UPOIl.. wnOWIt of co ol ai r CWI reach all outside surfaces. p.p.e to be derated b y 25 p« ceJlt a t 55' C an d b y no less than 60 aU short. of course. Thillho. 150 K lOOK ' SOli There are vari ous circu it methods o f reducing the effccls of lransients ar ising fro m switch ing surges Md ma ins over.n be used at temperaThc typica l power su pply of Fig.. T ry to ensWl: that the diod es are no t mounted in CUlTCllts o f general use by amateurs . like those fo rme r and ot he r components in the po wcr pack .v.POW ER SUPPLIE S . Ju st 113 man y transrnluer va lvc:s have to be being fed by t he pl>wer .clf i.v. ollCd capable o f withstanding transtenr p. di odc:s.sona ble fW1 coer...1o r devi=.. .i.. a n example o f cases .. But fo r maximwn prot ect ion what is reall y needed i ..nd thc hermetic sea. Md o f resistors in The lUJIount o f hea l gencrated in th e recti fier ir.00. the un its sho uld eith er be derated by abo ut 30 per cen t o r individ ual CQualizillg res istors of u pwacdao f a bo ut 10 oluns shou ld be connected in scries with fl •..i. oUlput cu rreot falls qui te m pidly with incrcaspr oviding prll\ e<.. fo rming an a. Controlled avalanche rectifiers are like ly to be inere.1 • co • " llIco.I .. ". warm air com ing from valves... 1. here is a great margin of sa.... Di. Better prorecuoc for the Iransf0':lller is . and these in turn arc likely to fail. u p p ly oal .It a t of ot her scmicondlK.d .llsin~IY . 3 shows II fuse in the lead rures well a bo ve the boi~ ng po lnt o f water (l0if C). uch enms resistor (he re a&l\in watch II .rded ~y co nnecting a fuse in th e transformer pnmary C1f'CUIt. ot hers a t 70' C so th is point has 10 be watched .n aero". "" volts. the d iodC!ll various methods of combating high tran sient vcltagea 10 tha t it sbould usuall y be po ssible to en sure that rea.. Th e eJltent of Ihe demtina: necessary can be quite severe: Regardless whether Or no t th e fuse blows.sh over without It I. are sens itive to chan ges in extent can thct. .lizin...inL'C one ra ted 10...u:lIly be done with a conVClltional cartridge fuse .'. mould the. UIC5e have a care full y contro Ued non. uppt •• fc>r.uo I.1Id . altho UJiI these are not in .reslston can be kep t lo w by tilt ing lfCZ\erous ly ra ted typcl.. The conn ection of two silicon diodes 10 paraDcl in o rder to inc rca'iC the maximum curren t rating &:h ould be a voided if ""ssible. Some d iodes are rated at 25' (.me device which would immediately disconn ect the unit on lbe: failun: of on e diode. 2.v.. "derated " with increasin g freq uency. upply. tri •• w.. . resistors it is advi$able 0011 0 ope rate scnes-conoectcd diodes right up to their full P. the tOlal t ran sformCl'socom!ary winding and th " may bum o ut. 2 kV t .ult in one T. grea lly Uicreases the dan ger th . . h• • • mal "ln.' u. the dcsigllCfs hav e either been luck y in their choice ofd iod c:s.c . this I..V) ... the usc o f ca pacaors is shown in Fi g.e1 0 ·001 u F Most malen warn users to take care 10 a void d am age to ( 1-] k V). this process ma y for example. includ ing the use of srnaU rnctal rectt.

.. . Ibowl lbe amLlI ll'ftIlieIll .WUliolW ~tor in put JmOOChlnIm ler 11110 • d1Dke • _ i_ .. 19S1. ))0 mA plu • 220 yolll at u. pace for two 6X~ and . brid«c circuit to J'l'Ovlde lOme 6O()... _ ........ 01 1M 0'01..lct 3SQ... I.•• ' YJlCS in eadllllrini (four altoFtherl wauId ci~ • ft&5OIl&bIc WA4 EPY _ n:sn. lhc powa" OUIJNI caD be .. .m.Todlnkal ii. pu blilhed..... Tan:lan lype I2lJSM.. lip III a1mosI 1IW QlrRPI aI 100 \oOJIs (Ins it ~ ~ i:I dra_ from the " ' .SO ¥Ol" II' 100..... hi. 160 rnA lrun'lformer lu ppliH 1M cnl i ~ h. main h ....] t)1lC' 3 ~3 60 vo ll . f. ....w _.l"'" ror C&padto. SV4 ra:tlftcT valves.. . SIl. eom p. . ' 00".1 lyPe .u!1 ( R I" 4) ..• miUo:nt ~ -. .lI1' or t ilieoro diodes . QDIl O'mlional ) ~ vo ll powet eatI '1ft)' USl ly ~ oon"Uted 10 provide • InntlTlillel' III$lpl or y 100 vol lS by aJdin. t1le mo l'!: dTcctive uliliJatIon of Imll1I JIO'ilf"U tran.... in NO'<mlber. Sup"... 800 vo lt.s. _ II_ . l'llllof7lJ(). < mv lOtt • +2 S0V ~: . A point un<lerliMd by WA4EPY in EIHrr-k. 200 mA aI 3~ voila. r.. The oriPnal dnlcn . 31SoO-3" voll .a. n S U4 Gll 1 00 ".i.in 7.." .._"""" x ..dlcor-W IDF . asr."o v laM.. idchandcT" (Q.lI ddiYeT CODIidcrabIy more po:wa-.. I IOrnA.tvtn. amuaor traDsInJItina. cin:uiI .. O:<juin:m<II'. 1 cal •...(. 0'01 000 • Back........ .ol1' ca 'I ... Il IYfIe . All in tc rnlina a <. rm.. _ ... ..SO mA o Since' III... l 50 volt.) No vember 19"1.." ad". uamforDJa CI. The key compoMil" o f 11111 l:ln..' '" • • C~2 l O~..Ole on ..... ] .. " a-""'" ..... III in. C R I and CR2.rol'Tmn " and ~ ho w II non"....... .l...o r illc riL wilh . W"~ ~I point with l lUl bridce m:tlficr ~eemcur '1OO I .. _ ' . f...*-. we foci II ooouId be Afc:r 10 add an enno.vollqe rail.. it ooould boo..... circui t (111\( inciden tAlly' '' f fKti. in!".. A ph...'" A MA TE UR "'''010 TECHNIQU E S ] (0) .I.:b ... • -.bp lion of th i. III:I'OIOl the siliooll dioda.. F i. "" lIldlln tum provida lWO ted l up plies or l lOand lOS volta. d1lI.. 11 . if allY).ll!'tou#> .!. and ... the " ddil ion of Il llntieftl " N'f'I'UOr IOH 1 00 ...a dwlPnI !he co... A sinlle .to 150 or _ 200 po:r """" ollhc ori$Ulal: iD odla" ~ If tile oriciDal pack ~ . I. rIa for ) 'S-30 Mc/s) was nolod in K4EEU .b. _ _ -.O. Sa ...• 42!1 rnA .. d >o<b with ."fJ (JUM 196) il thai... Ii ~ 0( the f*"" .. . transl'om>c:r. r''''.. Wbile 400 p. _ ~ . this ~ th..trty $ale to dR..:on teCliflen raled II' 840 \'0 I. _ . W. elrcu ll h4lI belen d o""rvNly popular but requ ire!l II KI'l'IllI C matCf IraJUl'o nner lIJId .& .oov 1 n 00: -. Io~ r rai l or 2j(J W>ltll.. . tramful'Tl'Ia w uld bel UJCd in . eireuit iI that the cf5ciax:J is rovllbb' 40 pef QI:III bi&bcr tIIlm fill" the full... . I . diode to -=h ItrinIIO take can! 0( mainI tralWmlL 1\010 800 p.\.. ca aIo_ ' - ~ .. _IM .r HI _ _ Nt _ .

. <aft "'" ~ far <~r.tion and m:I.l... .'" _ h h1lh ~ <wc.. c:ircuilll that it mablca. much bett er -rquwllon I' pollSlble WIth ''':. for e:umple.it<>r an in ICrica with Ule tranJfOm>f:<" ~ windio . .1'. Fil. U5ing exlended le&ds 10 p rovide ~ voltaae dro p.. Tho key totn pooncnt is the 3 . VoIwr.. Tho nw..O-SOO ex-Admiralty tran !f'ormcn around which _ wen ar. Cu'. k _I~"" .n be used fo r the 2 ·' volt 'amp.)8 rnA as the v.:>ltage rqu1ator is exlini" i&hed... H ...Lntin. other than the h.bi llty of reasonably priced sur plU5 silicon power diodcll (we have noted $<'mc 1000 p. WSMCV.... 8..l. _".pablc of bein & so u!lCld... Ho w m uch better it wou ld be if the o utpu t volta IC &imply fell a WllYra pidly if th e ra ted load were lubslantia lly exaedcd .. huldy unitl""ovidcl a variable voltage from O·2-lS vo lll (regul ated 10 within volt) with a continuously variablc curren f limit o f about 3-100 rnA . The _vai l. The I)'Ilcm is ak in 10 II choke inpu t smoolh ingcircu it bul with the thokes o n t t>e e.. 9 &hOWl hill practiell d~ll'I fo r _ power aur pl y wlolch providn a .. _i.in ful rea.. Thi. But ~ are IOrne vcry line 3 ~ noand SCJO. AnoIhct ~ C r th is tvpe o of d KU11 is 10 o btain .. SCQJJIdary are stri~ o lf and the l.UY a .. . unitl in th e Ito ra m:cntly fo r around 1' 1') offen a good opportunity for experimenting with voltage mu ltip liCll:liOll po wer sUI!plic$.. lupply usin g o nly a stan dard ra. Sup p lJe-o Tbele can be few o f U5 who have n OI a t some time o r o thc r had pa. 400 vall pafHT o:apacitor (polarimi clect. Th e VR -tube j um pl:1 ill crnmcctal... ligh t moditlcation to th e usual ciKuil .....uyn llnctrbl Iype of voltaIC doub len permlls th e ~ of th e twin elo..am.. heater o f each 1616..tube ill Inserted. Doe standard o..t lfier valve.. li&l>t riac between J()...e. a SOO voh power uu itlo be eon verted for 800 'l'Ol1$ for linle more tI:'an the I' ria: of a JOO volt tr:anllfonner UIl1 possibly tbe fllCtificn..I. 7..t diOOca.n dra wback IS that Ute MIalion on TI must be IOOd enou.. Ooe of the rcuom why ~ price of thcIe tranllf rmcrs .. r ..l!Ueeeducto r di odes. 1%2) t>t>intl OIIt that th il can be lItT aed Quite limply by al ways uain Cli limi tina ca pac. to . bias .. ages) : Fi g..~I>I .. OClober...ta~ o r dual_wound thoke.iI.al•••• ".. IV. E.r<~. ill a fml uent CilUSC of fllilun:. Bammc1ln RadioEl~ctro"la(January 1963): Fig.. . .. A lI$dul feahll'Co f tb..d .tI the o utput can be aho lH ircui ted inddlnitely without caUl in. The on ly SIllI.. b u t wh idl migh t fo rm the basis 01_ uxful tl1llWTlin.lanee ~f !oC. o ld m. .on to re gret th e effects o f a short ciKuit on the avera~ power IUI' ply-<md mo re particularly on th e reo. combined voltages of T I and 1'2 10 !hat a IGlcrous!y ra ted nndOl'lJln is _ ti&!..u in QST(l'eb ruary 1963) has rou nd that or .. Ooe _ tion is lid for halatio n and lhc other fomu the =etVOir W3FQlt ( QST." 1001.:$ are not lWl4 blc (or Ihis a pplica lio n).---. In all varves used all power recliticra it is important 10 remember tI... uch I cho ke an d a 3JO. one ar.--.. .!!. 2V '1 • • 7....:in:u it which is en ee o verlookal... _ _ . Also in W 1FQ Il·. BeaUle o f the lo w forward !". Pe we .POWER SUPPLIES ICtO«1inC to the: way in which lhey ate IXInnectcd. . II .i• .t · Um ft.. Thls is ln elfe... (or ooe of t' .L-<t--TJ--~J'-~+ .go current regulated IUpp ly for InoruiAtor and .Multlpllcat10n C ll'ClIlU 2<..O... tab i1iud 10' volt o u tpu t for 10adA 0 ()'30 mAo sl>owl II .. With . 11 i5 ctaimed UI.. a ftd ~< . lllCa!\I~ a t the valveho lder..tays fairly lo w ill tha t they o ottm have OfIly ooe e volt hate!" wmdiog.. P~ of a bout 2S V\>ltI from a 6'3 voll windin.scadc in lel'"a to r-type volta ge 1 dou b1eB with the ou tflUt in oerieI. damalC. . 10 that there . lhk I:rI&bIes lhe uu it to be lid fo r QRP o r tu..liolUl is described by S.... article II _ no vel me th od ob taining im proved lCpl1lr. imilar al'pUcu.a:h to wiUt$lan d ttw.ltin.:cd rrx tilkr cu m'llt ill II voltago-doublc:r power IUPply (and such Iupp liea "'e becomin C moR and more po pular to ob tain high transmitt er vol t.'" male.trolrtk eal'llCitor willi lhc out er aue IXlRUnOn 10 both teelloru:. The output volla BC fal ll awayallTlOllt to zero for about 30 per oent overloadl ma king it al mos t impouible to bunt ou t a traJlliltor if the current rtruIator hal been &.. tBnIfonnct'l. two o f th e c:a. _ _ d . ulln Bomallay.. .ls.330 volt transtcrmer h e was able 10 obtain I I BOvoll1 (with II bleeder current o f 40 mA l dfoppml by on ly 100 volts at the fu1l200 rnA load..t in suffJciatt heater vo lta Be.RI d . if thi! is well insulated. up !limpl y by revenin& the IXInncdions to the prim&ry for 11M of t tw.ad. il the need for I a':I1 lfo.. 00 output wtlas the VR.lllfol'T>l« is the voltaIC q uadru pler IbowD ia fi e. Fif....rolylio.ationa restaeked to provide a b utt Jomt. ohio ...v. ~'I.. A low_volla. but then droP'l_wa y ra pi dly 10 0 volts a t about " rnA.. 1ft • _ .tfllJlSformers provide nne so lu lion if a ll windin.. "' Ihnl. • i<Je o f the rectiticn.r caPAcitor..-u I. voltaIC mulllpilcatio n UUU\ Wit possible with thermionic diodes an d telenium met a l recl illers..<t_ h•• WI~ 1ft w hl<h . ] "'. lnt:loknta. It hal been found that.civer mains lIa. Wit h high voltage uni ts luitable aurse an d tTu>licDt JUppreaiorl oom poneota Ihould normally be added. OWl• •.

. shown ill F i•. filler.... The 16 19 val va used b y KOHVK are a larSCr vers ion o r the: 61. n .. Deoernber 1%0) i.." . 'i.. Vorlob'..wI power p&Ck 10 provide a variable su pply of about 75 \0 300 volts. -. _ .... . .. circuit comes frllm III llJticle by W6WTU In Wu.wave eascade doubleT. ] oom~ with 10 UJO II 1l00d . 00AAC<. .aulC: the ripple vol ta"..ined from a 6·3 voll heater windin ll and u sing two small ll':fffiiUlium cry.m .J_~ ': OO>~ ~ po . po L_" O~~ '":!=::::~__ .. ... C .. 1 of. _.-c. as the voltage 1. WiUI rectlflel" I ooly COllJlCICtro.btin s or II . ..md inlRECTI 13 UIowt a v()JtaRc-ronlro~lU1ator clrcuil which eatI eMily bel .e. '-'1 C.. in this cas c with thc d.i~ .o '1ft r.. OUlput obt.... 1 11. ll ft .lfl''' P"we' UnIt A wen reiUlilled.. . cireui l is t hat of. h o . ion for a low vollage e.c. If ' OIJTPUT Fi~ IS and 16 show two compact l la biliUll1 power P1Kks provid.. 11 A .11 _ ... u pp ly Whicll can rcaillIy be adjusted 10 give ""Yeral vo llllge outputs SIMI LA R.. .. IS lIlA an d 40 rnA between 110 and 250 volts.. This t.. 0.. "'. T he unit.... •• h .-If. IS.Wll. provid iD... iftc _ ... o.._ s oon '" '"' .. Fill. outpul controlled by a polmtiome'lcr.I.Jl<Jb ~ to 10. 14.. ' .. This is u$ually a co nl idc ra t>ty cheaper . n e Mo Il. " h ri<ll' iI xe".'.. ft' . ' ...e.libn ted (t he current cal ibra tiun i... llIaled.:. il i.. R4Jlo AmJJu~" " Ano ther ~rul small un it (from Rild/I1oElterr<Htia. t.'_ ul..... .. .. he 11 10 _ I l Oll. al 2llO mA ISdescribed in EIUfrM/u World (Oct ober 1963) : 5CC Fi l .c. _ _ A. i. ~ . d.....l.tOf "al~ also &<... smoolhin a.r) with a voll/lIlA metei'. Included in Iht s circuit II p rovi .woUI 6 vcru d . 1• . ofl h 1ft •• h" . no . but (alb olf -ri.~ " • . in IhC\C citcuil. Podul A usc ful """C'SSOI)' fo r Ihe shac-k 111 11 power .::~:'::::t"11---1:-:· 15o' A '" .in S a biBb· po~r zetlc r diode: regula tor alune..' '" r'"n..lLt or uluuisto r IJ'l\'lli· Qll ions .17. '_ r co ~ IN)01' 0' J"'U4 ote..lngernent.. . To calibrate the "o ltage Ul ob simply co nn ect a vo ltmeter aetOll$lhe ou tpu t 5O'kelS.. "'as lPveII by KOHVK in CQ (November 1960).. ""'"' '"' 1001" non . . convmlional ha lf_wave raotillc:r..... a mi lliam met er in ocrics with VR I wilh the "ullase 1 k. ddW 10 a normal ..'" eo there should be no need In muunl II n n a hut sink. 100 c/o of II ruU·wave 1'IlC\ilicT u il necessary . ". . 111.hm..s as IU1 cmluerfo llower wlwHe input \'Ullage is governed by Ihe Zen er diode.. h . .L_. .ll~ dollb lcr. Qll·N15J - n o .re. ou tpu t appro~jmatcbr Iwiccl tha t of the tran dormer .~ lale ly... 1 ..e. 1• • J. Z....._II ... This mAkes use of Il1I inclusiI:l&ly popullLT foon of voll. .of 1ft r sv . ystem thiut u.. I _pl\ ld. 2$0 mW Zener dfode. Sc~eul simple bul lnJCl'1 lous ~rcuitl Mill: \II .. 1o . 12. i . " A M ATE U R R ADIO TECHN I QUE S socn 1· 2 n ~ 5.6 IllId co uld be ~placed by alrnostlUl)' !arlO oul pu t types IUCb . ~table value. low riJl1'Ic power unil whid! deliver• . 21'1' Will '0' without lreally 1nI. 1lool .n:aain....in."" <Ire GI l. . .V"Il"I. p ro vidinll a co nvenient :suppl y for bl.1 . ToQ!ibn He for curRllt lim itation . VOllAi" l'Ci\1lation will be quilt good on lo w vollallC$.... . t-. 1' . it pot dama&Cd by allY load.. tha SO\JJ'Ce ImpcojalKo by the IlJe of lICrics resistors. in this tho rcvu 1ll.\It! rectt fiera 10 provide a su pp ly whic h can be vlUicd from about 80 to vol ta.....eriC'S Ullulntion IIDd will wilhlland a tl\<Jrt-c:ircuiting o f the OUlrut without dQma lle_ The uni l consis" o f a (X'n'<'e1llional bridll': rcclifter with a sh un t.. ~ I II _ .noI " ' .ula tor a m ... .Uft D ... ppl. I YI . .." Jl«. "" '00' ..l u fu lJ. J N JOI o . Q I act.. CII..ometimci referred to as the .. .. the n. by 00 means IirlCll." nov II01 1..r- S(I 10 . -.ldard power trn nsiot" r witb a 5·7 vo lt. lof n . mainl)' 50 CIs.. The lellu1ltin a: trans isto r dWipation does nol e~ e bout 1·5 . ta l diodC$ in alCCOnd vollaill doubler o f thisl)'pC ..as the edvunllge o fbclnll ]. Th.. but when rectifier 2 II $Witched on i\ becomes a vollql:: 40ubler atr. A huakicr variab le :supp ly unit . c.. INII ... '" • IQO }'F o. P" w. II. . The two co nt rols QUI be d i1'llC\ly u.II..' $hun l n:gul ated un it Illther than tho more usual . illdudiPll a ahort-circnit..0<1 T ..

.l'O. . u~uaHy for the VoIta. . .uI. hn1: it b not wi. l ..a4• • " ...lle1y 370 Wllt$1nd this may not aJ wa~ be .. .1"_. purpo se germ aniu m diooe MY. Z4G-O-:Ho V til mil.. hat similar idell u \IICId i. ~. anall... ~. -1 -.._ N I-J D' ... IES 2<. Im ll 'YPI . and ..imutn r"rwud cu~t . (Apri l 11 19(2) bill for m bilizcd lines \lSln& ... two V • . ... I'whlch Fl• . ..w A \'C'f7 simp k . ..• " • _ . and eontrol V QhallC cou ld be: repteced by a suitable metlll the de aree o f ~KUl alion . In th.\Sii .. need both in M. t hen ro nducts. .._ ... .. 6)(4 11 1.. . 6. circuit dC"Yice (ENc-trOllia WoPld... ~ L O-. 75 &J1d a n"". .... . ..9 1( • " RIOS " " It.... ula .. Co mpa. VI..b... But .~ ~ ... ..'" III " H I.~ IMn Ihe circu it Opelllle'S DonnaUy U l. There is often.. ouflI<l_ .. ll . Out put volta le will be a lill ie 807. Yailabk .w in. u •• ..Z!lll YDI. the a ppl ialtlon is when:: I~ VR lube ] " :<. bcca u!Ie of th e l"C!IiSflntt o f th e d iOolk. The SUQ4 reo.. __ I•1 ~"'~II • ll I. This sup ply is USUD..IolISt o r tile omln Y lts-d ro p through D I.. yolt..yn::ducW bu l q u ite Slll isfllctOl'}" rectifier if an iwlaloo healer l upply il not availnble.. ..ll • dlwit in Ekc'Nmk obtainOll by oon n~ti nB two VR l SO/OA2 rcl(Ulatorlln 1U1e!.y 0( =lucing screen vo lta". s ease .l cd lIill thi.lly '" """""." . mg maxi mum in"". D4 .c rq:u_ Lal r tuba lLte «".. . potenllal of approxim. 18. " O Wt R S UP Pl.l"". ." the val ue o f the voIl.:-drnppinl resis tor. II to UR" volt'ltC'"regu. 20. 20. ~... of ~.Cpl fo r a ' r. . T he onl y oomponents ~uircd an: two "on 47 K ohm 1 wau resi'I"'s all<! II lN69 diode: ~ FiB..VCl1l~ of 40 mAo In 150 K dfllCf.IC'<i by cllUl B o pe ra tion or th e ' n ... ST" I ~ISIO til ". n... Ihan the an ooel : see Fl. rip for . 100_ _h _ ... but o n firing Inc bias is remo. ·n ... 1625..Tuh Scr_ Oro... D~$II .tificr which provi des the lTill . silllle ..8_19 .~ __ 0 1 _ 1_ . G3 WW dntWi lllentlon 10 an .:reau In OUlput vo ltage b«.....nc". ..... . In 1'...+ .tfon of a .ror TIp Krtt7l gri<1s 0 ou tput Ictrndes. V2~ . . .. boye 300 vo ila.. IN69 Is tisted lU . Septem ber 1%0) . 1 TI..k . . _ _ :lOI _h . '1' . and e. Iightl..V 1I h Vl" I CI. -He whereb y a sta biliml 300 ven nne can b<: ubulined from any sup ply delivering aho ut 3 1 ~ vo lts un der loa d. "" 114 'ly 14Ift.. ili<:on d iode D l d isconnoc:LS R I and lhe . orlhe h. line C'a ll. Oooc: Ill k bu h.... b".. 1. urus p lacing -.hcd lu rain. an inilial il1lit in. I" M _ . with l\ilh nlue Iftiston lIICroSSthem 10 ~ lp i!ion..l '0 l-I . It will bI: a pprecia. . . The . '" •• I~ r . eiC. from the v a lube UIltil ancr II Ms tltod . '~lem dOel nOI smooth ou t an)' fluc tuat ion .• .. 'r:: =. 1 Vft lu be..It In..l .m. for mOil purP<'~.ted lIS o t1u lb _ n th uugh in parallel llClV1<I 11K supp ly. .. o VR...l\lI"" ioo . in I'&riollJ C\nnm t oond ll'Oll.6L the two rl'gular l ubes in ~ries . _ Re... 'l"bl ltzed voltaIC rail of abom 300 voru.. common difficuky is tha t such an OlTlUlJiMlCllI feCI". .'1lOCfT-.. . I ~.• . 1 •• .. ro r IPfllialtiom whe re the KTeCJl I require so me 15 101:10 \'Olu k:s:I h.. U.o :J..'''' '" r- ~"'" . c. It unab le to tire becau'I<: 01' ins ufficient polen tial wilh kl&d COMCC1af.lltO! lube M • <\1'OppCr.... before Ignitioll ...!....w from the diod e wlUch " .

1 lO P ~ . n _ "..1&e1 **. appro.Ilrml l u luco (C&'I il)' vil ible from a f""" ll'lA to 20 o r mo re mA l. li' ...-r v v.. ~ pao.w i i.m~ is both qu ite ktw and l1iJ.. no. ..{1w Mer . A daI&n wln. T1ley Uti easil)' . b fo r use with t raml'lo r equipment have Men lP~ from time 10 time.e bem qWle Jmall comr-ml with lloe <1..1.lhe aIPPb'.:lably redudnl. Thus lheaddilionola Z . with dwIfe 01 alfl"ef>l bult... ....-nIl low eoou&h 10 ..o...I&e was ranaiDina _ I al -9'1 (U1c ~ diode voIl... Z_ _ "' _ T_ _ ".c.... emc: nl 10 &iV'C a lnd"ul Ind i". Bul tho: ~0I 1) I .er cub or if )'OIt.. .~_.....bk ¥OI~ powu .bid> it.. 11..16 to _ 11'1.parale the diode from !be bypus ~(l.e heromc readll.i. ... suppliQ Q.• ••11 ..". ppl. that thit 1)'51.... IhouuJhI I came 1 !be DDndUlion lhat !be 0 zeeee di ode.. ')'Item islltOWll in Fl.ll from anall pet.. 0 21 0 tIrho .the: enrtre di ochr..T!ltl lJlI diode (1..0 .Oll 10 tho: UillOduWon of .. hln Davis. ._ _ Few amatcw'1......eniD. rio<..urbtb of thaoo dcvia:l ate .5. ¥o:I}' doae rqqlatioe 0( a 6-l yo h G-l amp valw in ~£I«1-W1 (Jan.... _ f ...1 voh !at than the mi nimum work ln. tion was to . tN.rubc chancurirotb llwJ one olIm thirW. dwl..-"_"_ .h ncld l~ble c:urre nl con. O""\&.. .. "' . 1 .e p ~nd ..ID ba ltCTY of appropriale voilaII"' lIal:tss the OUl pu l 0I1he power flIU'k.Uy \'U>able wil h vo~ was Klin.1.nod from ....e .~ okallTKN'l:: to VR .. wone 1IntIIlbc 'h&tr.. from aD UftItabllized.ml' lioo In IIIe ..""'*' aweat aaoa the I. •• ' i......1 .. low ... th .. Voh. '" d rilled in a n nisliDa piVld . H _ .nlea: . ahibitr.. .. from 16V doow to JV .. and Iud RICCCIIlded in . . and lhe: fad thai l he:)' do nol need a hnlckT.r. Ub I IClICI'..... ~ otunl. M)' lOI. .."... eh. har... y a Js. by _:11 k. wo uld llOlIlemplate opcrati:na • v. _ ... if required : PI• . uanlionner W'OItqe chanae or I l per cent... . This n ot onI)' Ita b ihlClll the o ut put but a1Io rcd_ Several methcds o r I la bUirin.:1n1ft IoC1'OSI iu taminals.1ltion it the tUbe it lIllIde 10 operate 0 " 100 wide • CWftllI r&nFThis can also lead 1 • form of reluaholl Okillatioa II 0 e:at*dt_ lfatcr than . TbcK use ful de~io:eI hOl-..1 tipple and can bet UKd 10 replaca Ihe o utpu t tl P1'1e tapaQtor He Fl. A docd &boItr«l llIaI lhe ¥OIl....... DOl by an.ttMJ _ ... Wi th the Inc«asiDI need t. N . the h . 2. 1Lt...D. b. a " oeM balla')' .•. T1ley can 00 lbou&hl or . ... are un(~ ~ 10 $Ulfer 1'00I POOfb rqulatal maiM 5UPPtieIL M The L E... bioi t he r~ue>lf.. . bnct diode. A _ lechnique f"...t" by a ..... Provided thai the vol ~ or Iht pack an d th e baUe r)' arc I'OOIlhJy Ibe 1:Ut'l(l.....d.. .na..... OlOOtbI qo COfKel'N tbe . The ..--.-.o..r... .. UJ><I.. •• _ _ ___ . the totill eurre:D1 drawn from th e ba llery ""... Ielcctcd to be about 0.Ie o f lhe: hol llcry vo lla ge d urln...J rreq~ ~ (particu1&rty <luriDl pow.. U it Is (OIJnd that the l... 1)'pQ 0( banalen. pltIt. durina battel'J' lira R uoeaiYll thi.. .. 01 tlw ~""lucney 011I<ffiQcnI of. .. GlZXV.1 the charac1cNtiQ CUI talc the form of • ~ 1009.abditicl. ppiy. and ' ''-I one: <:aD run IDlo 1Ille1pa:&ed troubleL lie me:. ...om collcc1m' 10 ernlllcr ria p-ound . .c. 1h<t OUlp!.. o f improvll\..r.. can be ~ by p uttiua: • unaJI reaistor in serial with the I.()If/Q WOf'IJ..d>uda ~I«Iabitolllly ~iqtill& l:lul was tboucht WOfth.....led ...'l1er)' lo w " ...liable Zen« i ~ from th e 1...1 . .. me for • few hours . ~ . 196) _ rqK'iDlcdfrorn H~ f f _ ~ AppI~ tW Nom.-:c..nile fOlf mobile ocoer-IMI.cl. T"" ... 1be _ _ ir. tUeu prel ly mudl (or &nnlcd. "'.II _ ew:a I'OOft: subat and.. tin)' Ind k:aI01" bUlbi Openllinl on a falrty wide r&lIll'e of f....aun l lheir Ion...... An dl'«t whil:b puWed.mon.U be Very low ao that the batlcr}' Ihould hut prac.F on 1·7 Mo:/I it abouI I ohm . moke whidr....l:cd by • VR-rubc ror valyc cim>itl or 1M COITCIpOooinl bncr diode for lran.. hi&her ll... n .r. I.o ha"'t been tome . 0IWlat. il II swal. M _ _ .----.. thl..o. proWJc.crlincd in • nol'c from Rca Hanvnans... But h is oCtm fOlf'lOCtI!D thai chaaps in hfIaIer . ... a variable Ih unl KTOSI lbc 0" I ~F by'1"Yt' o:apKilM lZIOd to aJmC)leIc !be r......-----.n"IOf" vaJyQ Uor eumplc IbII GeIoto OaJ9R)..... wno..r. pushed Ihrou&h • Iltna ll h. Jl..no. A MATE UR ItAPI O TE CHN I Q U E S Mo:u orus hlVllIona: acted on the UNmpoOOQ thaI NI CU)' ..... Rut o ne of the limplal dodptl (£1«. .. rolto. 10 NbioIize '-ta' supplies to .. ./I U'&Mislor " . .c..e-d.... DllII-Iu-r Il:PItalKI. l im ply 10 1lOM«:I • IltI'\.'I r... Some: ~ problema can MmiIalb' arDe wit1lo diodes and this . ItKllc<r. .... .d. d l.. _ 21 l howl (UZX V'I utlUI.. MamaIt z.. _ 1__ .IC ind n lOr bttsed on lhe uw or a Ila h.UfI'Cftl variatloa thtouP the I..ld ha-.. CIr no:eivu U .ted ill paralld Wlt1l the rube. 1·1 M.. rclul'D path f.. 21) will n:sull in a beater YOhaae ~io n or lea t han (H)4 per omt fOf". more auentloa could UJduII )' be PO'CIl 10 this ~ Some fKtOrJbuilt RCleivoen have .'I<:kl-OfT most o f lhe bAil er)' vo lta ge wilh the rc<ull lha l o nl)' voll nll" Vllrinlion..bout 0... When lIc:I up COIRICIIy........ _ .. I llit e 1963) i.' dw'ac:teriItiaI and there is • I~ ~l dwl.. The JerKr diode b._ _ .... available and arc 1101 npc:lUiV'C lukinl in lO . . You CIJI Ima$iDe my ~ when 1 fOWld thai lbe tiluatioa 101 viokDu.4.. QPKilllQOC. . voltqc of the equipmerll. t ile lI a bili ly o r lUI otdIlalor 111 lim ply to opente it from • lupply aabili..i rm or lhe 11.. .)... Itoldil oir the .:. .. TbullIe$ hoG z-er dktdcI eonncded Mck~to-bId: in a bridet~ ...tlc::all)' ltnhdflife. I had COMtrw.../I with a ... .. Bul in QST Coaobcr 1964) W6UGAsh there it......OOI!: 10 '1JIloOR Ihe i~ of lhe: ZM« <li lldr wtUc:h can "" ..d. lhrouah it (or $IIlIII volt . o n: x y" . lhe dqftc 0( YOltaae llabili7. Ihas 10 fUQClioa widtiD 2O. Fi...)..c..)' . _ _ "'_ ..JOO c. F.

_ -. isthe " Ii. safety di5Cipline . .. Thl: idea never cauPI OD.n. . turned on... tlte CApacl lor loo k. Z _ ~l .eneraled In the ca p&dlOr would be tile . ' "':'1"':. «lI ~ .. U.. bener o chance of rocovel')' Ih"n th01C lubjQ.---..000 Y lts haye . !he Q PlIcilOr also providQ f. on ly " modrb.. sec F i• ..s Iik. Even Ihe 32 volt ma ins supplies in SO me Amcric. .. ' 11. ."F.ute". used Wldc:r ....e.P.tlInfll limllin• . supplies of 350 vo lts or more.. Pl'rtic:ularly ~wat n>Odeb. bul one .. ~ It's volts lhat jaU" but milo that kill.~ 150 .. so n loou U Ihough resistor d roppers will be wilh us fo r a lOll. I••1 w ho. . In vArious Ipplical ioll!.. wloio. Ihe va. QpaQlOrs fo r voltage droppinl in healer w ins has hem poinled out by """HK..acilo r roiled at 600 volu. 11>4 idea millht be IIfOnh ffil}eJllberinl when a nep. Cllf'l1 backs " or be uMld wi!h exposed con trol spin<1lel or P'Ub 1ICT1'W3 .-_... _ » I_ I... often d o 00 1 comply with BS4I5. ee '" + rav ACCllr.cr~ the valve or valves. E~ yea r there are oyer 100 fataliti~ fro m elc<:trie shOl. VDl ~ :" .... parlicularly with so me of Ihe IlCWl:r lo w curren l drain Y alVC5." -.. "~ r.. All mod em Brilish lelcvlsion sets and a fair proponion of domcsIic: rodio rttdvers faUlo1D this ('IIlelOl)': noI only all the" a..j01la1ly romes across the use of capacil'..... " (or more corrQl. so und -. Indeed... lind worklhoJ"l. however. _ hi .ed-bias da$$ ADI from El«lronleJ World (January 1960). by ehockln lil with a neoll bu lb.>n ill wuncocd.. . Tk on ly hciat . _ I T hl 1'10'" Oft _ up to I '0' . ituali<.= ~. sp iratlon. _I. . to to uch any pan of the chusis and a lso insists on d oub".. .. " W.. I. He writes: " One problem wilh Ihis lcdu1i'l ue is Ihal lhe instanl the equipmenl i. there is some evidence 10 sho w UIllI ~use of Ille d ilJerent phys io loik=J.thou. • . j---f<J='f----.... bUI Wllh Ihe usual 'IOllalO"droppinl power resis to r R!pllleed by & 2.tive bias sou.. In Ihis f". As the jingle saYS..t. . 1lI<! val~ 0-07 .tup -I .... _ •• :u. -'_.. .."h":':r::::'~~" H MeH u:::.."pole on. unfCQ he l1eYclop .. C II. tM . serll:S-Q(lnnoct«l valV(l!l..... ".mall amoun t resullinl from POW"" [ac1or ~. 19$ ~ 'no 1MJf ool _. th.... MllJdi19641 has lak en this a slage further by provillinl a uscfu l lut ohowin& the neplive voll' . . till OOCl!. ".ol Fi. h. m::nt throujb !he valve bea lers aut VCI)' o nen he damagi nG.....e:' Jets bu l also-and this Is not a1way' . ~ H SoIH .poI l COon. '''''1 c h _ Z. ..ted_ M ca ..) Io _ " "I .. Th i." Th is problem oould he oven:ome with a thermlstor bUI tha t ro-lJItroduCe:'l heal and complkalions. obtained wilh V 0U5 values of ""paci tanee . lime 10 come. C1earIy.r circu il the k. !he real dan l[l'e r from mains sup plies is "'here either the sk in rcsistance is 1oO'wc red by dampn_ or per.. 50'_(y In til. o r "' here the victim llnnly gri~ an extensive area of ~ live metal while in JOO4 eOfltl\Ct with carlh.. w li\.k m the UK alone. _1 ..1. would ha ve been calcu lalCd fo r 60 cis f\'\llins.ltn flllltl 1Ltc..1 10 ••1•• . .IQ fo r voItall'l droppin. I.:""gJ::.. t tbe n posed parts are not " live " with the on {olJ swildt in bolh POSilions (n:membcr that a .... EYery amateur soon learns to pay heall hy respect to h.. T ..pprecIs<>od pro po n ion of a.1 etT« IS..:I lH oolta.. m 0-.. H 'Ri m u"... ari A llf'Bctical wal whic:h ari SCI when us in. ~" 'f' c:: ~ . wben the voltage of lhe drop lIQ'OSS the capacilor is relatively hi gh com pared 10 the Y{lllagl: d ro p required a. '!-<or<! " .olJ swllches.:~ ...rd is: equ ipmen l wilh a mains<nnll«led chassi. lhose who rind themselves llCl"05S vo ltages grea ter than 1..c. a 1'fIt'U """..1 C<>p<tcltor.. Th is .' $OF paper- In modulalors Or t~illen . of ca pacitors in bla3 supp lies as discussod.. Shadl Safety in the shack is a subject which should aJ""llys be topk:&I.e a &hort cin..U1icu\a.{d..ul.:. .as have been known 10 proYe lethal .. One tw:a. . the idea IeallM a &ood one.lly the ~ line ") lead of the ma ill' supply. and are a fairly frequen t QlI3Cl of bn:akOOWll..e if req uiftd _. but is also one about which there is II good deal ormi$conccl'tion.ml this ~ possibilily IIuII pa n icuJar care is necesSILt}" in amateur shacks. . 11. _ _.u!t iUld the surge ." von"p 01'Of>ll'llr < hr . These sets are nowadays u_Dy buil l $Irielly 10 comply with Ihe Brilish Standards sa fety sp« illClllo n (BS415) . F2TR (HmJiD-Rf.1_. .h. _ ef . . .. 26.0 .... BUI o ld radi o ICls. y componenl e Is C I .11.:ted to severe nlCtlium yolUlge shoc:ks. type of IUl"gC howeve r has liltle elJco. 100 lod . _ "'.h l amODI man y otbu p rocautloDS. "". I have d one some U PCrimc:nl inl with Ihls circui l and fOWld th is limita tion 10 be a problnn. he will ueualty be well awar e of the possihle danger. inlillo-pole switch in a ne ulrsl Icad will leave the ehaa is " !iI'C " wilh Ihe act orr C'o'CIl if lho chusis M did«tric ClIpow:ilor. 01' Some rc-.1. b ys down Ibat h sbou lJ be Impossible for a ' little ftnaer .". But the Achilles' hcd of mM y amaleur slalion ... 010-.. o r roay have damqed .. thougll it meant tha t tho re..tULATOR .. 2$ &hows the biu wpply of • high liddily amplifier minI a pair of 6913 valvo in li>. If the re l~ an y such equlpmenl around your dl ad< mako lUre....l majorily from 240 yoll 5lIp plics. too o rten fo rgotten or dim:garded.--..ndirions for wblch il WlU not Intended.:c:jver _ IUlla ble on ly Ior 50 ell main~.. ma y ~ prepared to take unn= 5lI1}' n sb from time 10 linle. (tnulm . . lllO tlwre WI' • Wla ll Pbilco broadcast eecQVI:1 usln. II is ap.... Since vollage dro ppinl resistors umally Ol)QtrlbulCl eonslderably to the beal.t on the u.

'insa SO ohll1l'r:$is t:l1lOl: to earth ond a 10amp c:a.. .o...mum volllllll' l uitable for tM particular applica tion. U tIUL /". volts ami thIs dmp:< rairly 51eadi1~ with u"" (with some reeeverv durirll rest periods) so thai if.H. 1. ' It il 00 UK ha.. The Loclan ehe cell starts with a ootl1 ' ... &II. howeve r.. But llI1 C""". n ...l.mrnpOOD o r bl<.. paradoUcally.. I arnltcun will be _ II aware oftbc damage which can u.narise W1<Ier " r.ooornlcoJly wil hout aU the parapilemalia o.e... based On lhe IRE reronUl'lCnd.ASCS the ballery has to til th coWll away wh ile tl. ... I.r. ballet}' of the ' twmrics and 'thirt ies W developed ill from the: original Let:1anc h ~ cell dalinr back so me hundrel yean.t u tra IOCkeli in their shad.I II lh. VCf)' far from beinl lhe f... The h.. . led 10 fa greater COn...pmfessiona! bu t • num ber o f books lrivina: sound advice on modem w iring practi«. hicb the:y I re lntclidod. .e. An o ther polc:ntial danger is lhe el..uipIDCIlI becomes •• live . _ _ ~wl" oh. The ~ weJUard agaimt this i.11Cff._ _ WJMly m LOOKI .. II b by II<) InQlnl unknown (yt:s. li-JJ ..i:. which will live I ~ rnA lit 9 ~oltl Tca$Onably comrurtAbly. Size of the: ce ll. iI still S<><J'\tl ellCtgy lert in it .ry winding to sho n-cin:ult \0 the scrcenina: plale bet~ primary and secondary." r~ M (iYlr. an licipr.in the rale o f d ischar ge for . . _plo.t.l i<ml. ~amples from tile Ever_Ready ranlll' of b..-n. U"( 0": The devclopme. A l' PIO.. Pf"6 In A ... with soldering irons and power dril ls. fOCkelS in the sh ac k (and in the ho . pin . -. li itas happened a t G 3VA) for the primll.uare in section tbey can be grouped tug~ther with a minimum wene of space : they also tend to suffe r Jess deterio ra.:iently low RlistanOCl to l.1n. non. .5 to 1-(.. vibratoc pada an d petrol eenc ralOfl so redo len t o r NFD.o. aa.e ru le tere is that the IafJl"l' the ... fo r eumplc.. They were bu«t o n round cell ~tructl on . M O. o <. u . neut ral " when tho ~ ill OD). a PN d ischar~ at S rnA should have .... tl. that .luc ria for Im nsistor eq uipment arc : P PS 20-1'0 filA . U TlI£ F EE [ID D R S FllIf PI IS Pl.k. because Kldon. E~eD wiLh tramillOrs.nninl a set with hi&!> a udio outrut a:reatly Incrcasea the ba tlctY drain. 12 oz. II it cheaper 10 we a Iaycr boIlltery tllar m ercu ry celli ? Why 00 boIlt1. liE SOC KET lOOllU iT AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUES II I..e Wlwarye&n l pe1I< M WRK (. Th05C who entered rad io via the old h. Many anlatc. we igh.ed o nly in ..u tm-pin main. worth nOlin.:onno. Pl' 1I S-~ rnA. Ott th e omer hand. . .:. have been pu bU." Ihe di<card ~oltagc II often go~emed by Inc amoUllt "r cross-over <. This It rikinl d ifference decreas es with larger batteriell. The eartb .ay be co nsiderably IJTC'It" r in lummer than In win ter ... ... llC"lernUy the wgcr the cell the Icso the wll~taltC) : and finally the min .w. . pen...sshack .. the core or 10 one of the ~ windinp.... tool wh ich hal ' fau ltotl and . t.Ies " an! notioed. . 2 1b. compared with th~ t oz.. it sIloultl not be foraotten !hat ". ..QQ/llXtOd 10 .. .... .. ris~ m.e . so that the chuaia of the eq. PP IO I ~ 1$0 mA : PP I. batte ries a re uouollr lirnilcd by the oscillator fa ilin r below a crit ical VOllll!lC.eriCl $Ometi~ appear to Ii~e sc much beller service than a t oth~r cimcI f The fo llowin J Dotes.bell batteries ban illcd Jarle currents CCOI'lQmicaJiy be<:a. as used in lIle vast majority o f Il/N.. eartb flft " a n:a. tion wilh time than rowId cella. It i. To . may help the amateur te a void Inme p ufalll and 10 obtain C<.lw recei~ a nd tnul. buUery and \V! ' ~ may _ II find tbe pn:scn t pldhor a or ba ne!) c)'JlCI confUlintt. . a_In&..ys eottfo nn with the hi&!> standarlb laid down 10 the T ...upply fuOCI (whkh IhouId a lwllY be tffl: minimum amJlCl1l8C prad i<:able) 10 b low. Z·'-" .. F ~ which I. Witb valYft" h.'. Pl'4 less than 10 mA l PI' S IesI than 8 mA TI..lcut f use..ith this danger very much in min d bUI even so it Ihould be remembered tb&1 in ind ustry It iI oft\:u rooommcndcd m.reversible maln.. Since the c>ulput stq<:S of many tl'llllsistor receivers u. Today. ..1<1 ". gn:alCf huard. n t flnnsl: a ID (all OClll --e. -for also . !r in anydollhl gel upert advke..lfe.ot of ee transistor w ith i15 great powcl savini com pared with va lYe3 has. .e.. they art n:lllti vcly low curreru devices and the round ce ll Ia ul. III . tffl: primary and the other windiDas....mount o n renewwl balt cries. Thcre ill IOIT>C I'CUOll to belie~e th at e!carie Ibod. During tbe 'fo rties a new rOI1l1 of C11 l11lnl\:1ioo ..hkh hal_ "live" o ule r caAin• . Since the layer ce ll.. Irl nl 110 'M .tlle la~er battery-GllnC into &alCrai 1I.. i50laIiDll ma. for h. . _ pin ' 1. grneTaIly) '1': wired eeeeectty." II ill a1Jo weu worth whilo 10 ens ure that . plu.. " _ " A n_n •• IId>M .t .e claM B push-pllil.tioM.. ' '_14 • the. U not t he on ly fa cto r which go verns the to lal amount of power wh ich (:1UI be obtailled from II dry cdl of Ihe l. WlIh tramistor ~ ~e. uO (u on ) LIN ' ...hcd an d cao o ften bcobtalned frnm l()Ql libnrics. can operale eo. . and in~cstipte immcdlatcly if any " tin . life SiK to !ICVm limes &I long as ror a " mA dlsclWll". care tu m in ItWIIlo facture (one of the t:OfISUrTlCr rnagazloes rece ntly publisbld I very illuminallng eruce which shOweol considerable dif· ferences between ba tteries made by dilfe ".imi1al to that developed fo r to rches..usc of the V<:ry lon l felt-tn-nsc ra tio) : the lcrnpcra turt (op timwn temperature is about We).. and o flcn-tn ronjunct ion wit h 1·4 volt filamcnt valv. though brief.re 8l... PP9."." 6.... many <.iJU transformo:r... ror eL'lfllplc..listo n lon whidt can be tolerated....ll8 with watcr-deteriorille wilh sto rage. The ..lImco. prs..ult w ndilioolll " 00 cq uipmcnl fitted with • dOllbJe wOW1d (i. ... Thcoo sho uld a1.. Th ese l1'C rath« formidable read inl for tlte non.. Afte r chcekin l..llUIe tloe . the more sllilabl~ it il fex hea vy' d~ .." S uch equipment will ofl cn con tinue 10 operate qu ite no rma lly aDd can lhul repn:lC1lt _ real danger over a OOtUldenble period . arc rectangular ex lQ. _ .t. PPl . portable " a tloo.. the core and the dlassis lIR! aU errec ti~ cly carthod..'Onomi~ use o f hit ~ • • V . ~.MC in the a~eralf: amateur Wirinc: Rqut.. wltiDa and switch ina . L " u. The modem dorncsli<: drill of repulab lc fTIIIke is dClitploCd . This can hap. Other IlOnsideratiom include the period of usc com pa red wicb tlle rest periods (Ull old hou.(CCJl' the specia l inert tYf'C whidt a.ile of the edb.d~atcd by l Ci11i.:ti n mll-<r be of RJ1r.IJally beller where fairly heavy consumption (30-300 rnA per <:em is req uired over lortll pe riods• For subslantial POW<:l'J Ihe layer cell tcndI 10 be Wlo ceunomlc and e'IIC'Y effort shou ld be made to l1IC IUC~ bull erico witl.cdan~hc type. to cnlUle that the Ihleld belw. car bltttcries. an unrtClCCSmlri ly large a. But there II mtICh m ore to hallc:ry Icchniquc tlwl ill IUlillcsted by the dcocprively sim ple appearance 0: thclrcon tam~B..s and tbe contro l aran gcmeDU may call for 'lu lte a lo t of semipet"rtWlent '. Kcc:p a Cllfd"ul eye o n lhe at:lte o f aU 1ICJ1 (XlnJ. " N" _ MI..lllUd1 tools Iho uld be uo. wi""...

...rge ra te for which the)' aa intend ed . b<lttoIty .. .... mercury cdIs _~ ava. baneries in equipment for Ionl The outer zinc Q>I\uUner i.OWER S U.di-..... At p. The cheaper miniature lead-aci d cell! (wilh a nominll 2 volts per cell) ba ~ 10 be trmtcd care ful I)' IlI lC>rne will sta nd only a Umile4 number o f charain.\.. t ho ... . '" 1· 2 ____ 105V H P2 DoItUry U2_typ.a fu ll I1UI IO o f I ' H ...i lable larger uni u intelldcd for ponablc leln. ch ClUl be ta ken rrom" cen of giVCII size .nch~ cen risea I toeply lI.a\in..dy a t th" lhrou llh<JUt by far the p-e:ater part ol. Lec:lll."".... - ... They also ha ve hell.«buu. a high-dcmily manganese dioxide ca thode.... .. Tho 01>0 01 ot. merc:ury celli reta in a IUMtanh aUy oon"a nl Internal resis _ durina tl>eir lirCltme.. .har~ .kG.. ..oh..gures show WI lm pro vcmm t u n CoJ ba tlcrl es for some a ppl ications. UJ . _ fllld bero . an d a hllh p-ade man l l _ dl(lli<le wilh im pro ved dCf':?larizinl .limilecl <:ha'Il"R are U5C!d... ... alkaline manganne lOx.. fOur h . SKoncIa~ Cell.. . The intern lll J'ClIiSl&llCll o f II.. Th c eo-loed vol~1C is about I ·J an d on Iliad this drops I" aooul 1·2....ueries in equi pmen t ArMI Iel t instrumenll required o nl)' infmruently. . whe1"<:M a Slandllrd U2 will su pp ly a continuous ~ rnA cunrol ft>r on l)' a ho ut 18 minutet (with an end _poinl voltare of I vo lt) the hea vy d uly Eve r Relld ) HP2 will p rovide th il CUlTCllt fo r a bout J J ho un. LPU2 (leak prooO 1'21 . n must be po tnted out thaI their prsce is severe! times lha t or lhe LeclancM . .... fi• ..Hi nc cells.... or alterna tively for ap pli<:ation s calling fo r lo n.h~.:ell ~ It ill ('. h l..1'11'1 co.. yo lo ••ho ••11.s several l limes tha t o f thc co rreopondin g Lec lanch~ cell.. ... h. .: ia Jl)' where requlred 10 dt:livcr apprec:iabl~ ' UI'1'Cn l..... fo r Imaller Ina<b the imp ro vemenl woul d be much ItIo ma rked .. of Ja••. 11 11 11ft. ho _ ..... 1 Cu .... aUy. 0r. While the l.hod " " .. <100 r iME 1~ 1"S 1 " . Th ese ce11... .. C'lpeo. . ur rents of the o rder o f ICVerlll hundre d milliampere!) when: the sitlllltion doeI m>t n~ the mOre t:lpensive lllk. h-f>ol'fo.. of di""h~. n be used to power translslor tra nsm illert QYCf" a I'lnl period .h .oct&ncht. h rlo"""n" "'l't . . call ... . We foci that the amateur woul d lind these I'llrlicu lar ly errractfve for the odd lransistori zed Wlil wed o nl)' OlX:Uion... ....::trolytlu capacitor acrog the baile r)' line will o rten im prove rnattera. 2' 2x .....I fOl1T1uJ. With 1a.. batteries could be u-cru lly «tend~ by rellUwly applying a small " rechar&inl" cu~nt o f about ~ rnA . h'_0"" U1. peri ods o f contln uc us dischar&c-though tor the latin lUI allnl. llle amateur o rten USC! b-. An ot her d evelo pmCllt of im ponance is the " a llalinelTllUlgancse " high-C!lle rgy baltery. & call~ic alhll (potMh) c\e(:trolyte and a cat OOde o f OOfnplU. . mw l be avokled ..oo mcn:llric oxidoo I'l'phite ' n ..... 0 \~\\ ". and a h igh-valu e el. " lIno " .H~~caU III 1·5 .<U'C JhouId be UlkCQ to U5C! mercury cells wilhin the discba. <.. low as a bout onc dOJ... . 11a../w"lIeablc n ic~cI cad mium storage battery.. Su _ .. h .Won l'CICeiVet1 wh ieh . .. The total rnergy wh.U.i ~... Un like the Lecl:lneho! il sta)'! almmt nc. ere .. . t. 'howo oh • • of .. \ .vin.. d .. il h...I pr ovide considerahty ar eat cr service lifc than co nven tiona l ca roo.... All with the l.. muc h Ihi nner than the dectro lyte wa ll in the wual f"l'le type. Seriow oVadIar&ing o f sealed «I1r. 0 110 120 11lO 200 2<10 280 320 3&0 li ME: (Mue " .• • .. 10<l4.:tive e ucmeeve power source is the &enlcd m. and they can rCIlIAin wlused for lona periods with o nly little detetiOll'tion and without leaking. n lis cell fea lu res a Sled contAincr. ln J n ·to . tcad y voltaae.C!ll ~les) . particular ly rOt lon g peri od. U2... I.. 10 . c~lC!I (sometimes ..'n l Nch d.. \ :: . .ll"}' <:c:lls and cost.e manpn""" or mercu ry oeili . a nominal l ' ~ vo lls outpu t...t.h. . A~ fro m Iheir . Co 1_ of tho . .hahly l he most "::00ornic&l lype fo r fai rly rqular . a potass ium h ydrol ide eleclrolyte amI a zin c anode..\fly Inlrkcd «twl durinl ret l period s and thus sOOws lillie differ er>t:e in to tal encrgy ! u pplted in intermittenl o rrontinu0U5 ICrvic:e.... ' ''0 _ "a. resull from !ea. HPl.y ~y e1ectJ'o.. Now ada yo."0 HI_. Good qual ity nickel-cadmi um bettenes.. 'h ).per-ho ur r. aceause o f the low inlemal resistaooe ti le)' can be rapid ly dioc:hMted by an aecidenlal mon<itcuil..' "_hool "'_arred ..-.. Fo r . There: are vario us leak reslsl&llt ba tleries aYllllable bu t evtm Ih. merc ury 401.ho llo. D'" Hr .ilable main ly in the rarm o f oom pacl " bullOO . vra<ll.ftc. uch .. ~ clCdf'Ode.Ial ly ea ten a.. a nnc an """'..) of the "rder ... but they are bciltj used iocreuinaly fnT soch a pplicat ions as halld-po rta ble co mmunicatiOOls equipment . This ill lilll hetovy dUly Lectanche oell whk h Ihow! very mar~ed im provemen t over Ihe w nvCT1t ional oell dn e to ooMtnoclio n&! impro vemen ll and to achllnlle in the chemi<:a. 2'~. n'. l. 'helf_Iifc.. N * H I. . .1 o ~" ++-~~---". II hIL' a Pl'per lIC'p&l"a tor which . o r interna l prasul"et will build u p..a.. ..ury ba uc l"ioC!$ similar ill appearance and COllUlc:tl to II&Ildard batterie:t an marketed In rhe Un ited K in gdom by Marklry I1all~riel Lld~ Cnowky .. ""riods. On the other hand...S it deterio rates.. which fo rms thc nc:PI.. liII fairly n · penswe." and 8 volts mcn. I" WCT "'lerna! resIStance an d slan d u p w<'ll tt> adv e~ climnt i' COndil ioos . ntllCl wilh & Jtccl co ntaine. ... Un til quill' eeceeus... A l peci. In a pplgtHms havina: a wKIe voltll&'l lo krallCC.al calelOry o f ba ttery hu been marketed whkh can prove an econ omical su pply for fai rly hea vy-duty ope ra _ tion (ca llinl fo r . cdIs.. J7A.LIES 1<. R~lat.. d. ... 0 1 . ventilalion il necuoary while elIa'sing l inee lhc fwne:o a~ explol. 5 "" '.. ~ pried (U2 si. l'licltel-<:admiwn celli (nom ina l 1·2 \'0111 per cell) will ('f ilm wittlltand vel)' IaflllC nwnhc:n o f c ha rtina cycles provided lha t coowanl-eurt'Clll or cum:nl. Th c mcrc:ury cell.-n t thei r price is intermediate betwoct! e-z eellli IlI\d me=. the mercurr cell hu d edded advanllLp.. but tbeee are a". To set against al l these im porumt advanta aes. > 0 1. lytic action which co ntinues ene.rlICT """led 1)'1'".rio .0 1. ~ I .U life.. ...1' 1 11 I".... For elWnp\c. .. should Do t be lert too lo n" Some yean llgO it W DO ..To . then fiMily falli ns awa y with illCRllsina ra pidi ty to I vo lt Th c memJ ry cell doeo no l recover to .. hown thlll the lif" o f 1ImlL11 h... .

Althouah the dry een is DOmlI.. bIlt O l DY belie'o'al thai thi.. O b. lo nl b y 0-5 in.b . (iii) T be a mpero. the 0 apPropriate ~o noOClio05 10 the meter.. . C..! with lar&er uniIs. rec:ognizcd technique . 2g) hu DO lilt'" aapeciton and ha. is.~..ra l l ·s....un ill in !lC:ries. (a bout 2 -4 in... wide) with a $«Ond I'iooc o f cooper foil lhlcd o n the o lher aide us. ""'O' ~IO to nc~ a . J 96~) qootes tomC a ulhoriu._ value cap acitor. In hit form of probe (fig.... sma ll m ip of ccpper-co veeed p.... G 3DY.n.. Ofleo 0 . . B1... fOf' Silicon C"nltl'oI1edRKt/flwI A further lUueation wu J»1t forward by Joe Croprer ... _ . G.~ ~ C.... .char. dry ce lls.. Street. .Wod thai some degree of " reclwail18 " ol la)'Ct bl.ti vc vlews on m:hari:i"l (:()llveotionaJ carbon·zinc Led .IJ (<krobcl:. o r llOI8 ibly bclWOCO o ne cod of a batt ery an d Ihe Ipriog coniacta.. In his cue !he lraml'ottner IICICOIIdary is 18 voltl to ~ thcl IS VOltl o f lly(\cI bailer)'.1t:4 (October..b.""" P"'mdrf s..~ " bipolar transitton il Ihe r>oNibility . able 1 pro vide dirtlCl: ~I fo r dlar~nt..l'(ull " I d -I'VI Tftin tl.e.ing from 100 hilh cu rrent ma y l. '1.arg<: should no l be below 1. G aRNO. App an:otly din)' ue . R.. .. The tec hniq ue is Ihe" sim ply 10 pu. lIrid1y Ihesc a n>: (... aDd &JlJlt*l" to f'ellia tc the tinc: man:: evenly..A H ATI! U R R A D I O TECHNIQUES . lult deviseu ll ~"dl:"l to make il calY 1 measure ball el')' CUrRnl in the ma ny do mestic an d 0 portable receivers. ft tu -~ . him through two low power field daya and other od d jobll and aRlllili in Ule alk.. h illIH peed Anl ldite adhesi\ e .. lt. . dl 0 1 ~O_cl. a 200-2S0 ohm ruj"tor wind in parallel wilh the r«tiflCf' 10 provide an a.. primuy bolttery It ~y be RdJarpd fO!" • Iimitod num ber of (.aUIC! a tJa htly scaled "II to e~plode:' Oo Ubll.tm p ler 10 u. .. 0 3BY uses !.in rtpLltini operatIons.. R. In ~ rcchargiJlll of dlY cells mlly be eoonomic:ally f<:lUi ble only when quanli l i~ o f d ry eeus arc used under c:o ntrollcd co nd itions wi th a ')'Item o f cxchaqe of wed celli for new 0 0« alread y in practice..h the probe bet.." two \:d l. cassette tape recorders and the like that usc se.nl by the US Nati olUll Bureau of Standards. ~ _ cll l _ . miJht QlU3e . From time to t ime attmtion "'" br:cn turDcd to the probl em o f m... a t lea..) The o pcraliDi voltqe OQ di!ch....b ... U loIlTING JlU l l l'OIt 1 ~_. T~ .)'del und er ceR&in oondi llom..t teri ell it posiblol uMlI& charging cum:ntl of • few milliampcra.:harJm.... (il) Th e bat tery Ibould be p booed on clw'Je very soon after rmloval fro m !lC:rvilx. 2!Jl. .l1y considered ._ u.. llIC l1m'L!1&cmenl show n in F ig... II h.. TbiI anicle described . y (v) Ce lli mUll be pu t inlo IeI'vioc soo n nfier dll rFni as lhe recharFd celli have poor I hcl! life..boun of recharre Iho uld be 120-180 rer eml of Ihe d ischllri e. !ional meter probes a nd wo nCCIOI'1. 'OI O P~... and wilb equipmen t avail..e I piece o f doublo-sided p. u~iOll the wites 1 mak".u often bcell .volt eeus o r similar low-vo lta& ".:I.. 1963) . put r. . 30 il derived from RoJw. ~ .-pf.c. GRONO 1_ ..ck And red witft a re lhen solder ed 10 the IWO eoppcr fo ils. Small transillor ndio cells wwld ad: warm. . oeM d ry cells. G~ O NO poi nts OUI tha t II would be eve n ... in fact il 5CCtIl5 III userul a nC\V p dgel aA if I<Jmebody Iuld jus l Inven ted IIIe t ra d itional crocodi le (all iglltor) dipl Sub. " ...c a home-mad e 1 0.. l (iv) Owi ini rale l bould be l ow enoug h to diltti bu te Mllarlor Mode £ .. It may all sou nd too 51mple a nd obvio us to be reall y usefu l. 1 waya been promptly recharged ..hi.. woo w. ""' "' ." department. Th e whole Ihing is ralher li1r.e: ' The dlarger (Fig.o:.O Olft ll .-.• bUl tbe" stuck-on "version &OCDlSto make II good lub$l' IUle.. w. 1955). wmpoocnt which {If Uling • pair I{I give the eq llivalmt fadlilies o f a small silicon conlrolled l'IlCIi6er in man y oontro l Ipplicaliolll. .".. lin decttolytic: ahakc up l " 1'be ICdlnique d imin&tes her..~ of 0 celli whICh arc 001 1pc<:itica1l designe d for ~1laraiP& can be y d~llinoc CXOCDi vc amountl o f g.. could be taken eee of by \l$ing a low ~rTeIIl bu lb in the " d iny d. ft.:1. E1UIM. ~ 1M many U5Cful ways of ClIploiting tbe co mplemcr:lIllry plfl'1 0( I.tin g of the cera..0 vol t per cell w hen the twrlllcry jl mnoved from ICtVice for ~harainl. ..... mol'll lhlln two )'Rn-e'Ym tho ugh he admits that the od ls have not .atte ntion to an ankle ill WINIku W". ba. preferred n>etllod dcV'c1opod in the Netherlands using " d irty d ..... teGlmlquc for hil panly transistorized equipml:fll and reportl tha t five cycle ba tteries ha ve .eelb are stacked lid_II sprin& co ntaclt and the form of constm~tion rllH ke8 it d ilticull tocon n« t II test meter ill circu il m1na eon. An article in E/«troniu WOf'Id (Cktobc:r-..

nd + .. - k=_.._ wrU o-v_.lio-the peIIk io _ 1lp oaciUalory YOItqe _io p .. One problnn'I01th IhiI I)'pe of WIll il lhltlll h. Ad~ V. lIotes lbe KOHVK uni l { paltC - "ow.rlImfonnc:r.-hidI CUI be IMde dcpctldmI OD the ft:IislOl' ralic.U. \mos l eDlin:l)' p&Ued yla lbe tra nsist or . -.bolixd aiDa! Ihi.ilio:n in ~ with II diode bIu reeci(ocr.bias " uran "emcal ill m Ul:h l imp{«. ..niclI .. .. ill a eeuer a nd more ecolM. Not aU dea..olllOlll. {21 if you QUI.' "dII..>lTlk:a. ea. •Of•_ ..Iion " Rcmomb« lhal ror I ai.._ ... 33(0» Ihows thlt ecrreee noWl lMoullh lite rcal&lon until tbe II. ta il " and m ullS In hllJher mini00 Dwn1 voIb thiI ma..led 1619 valYC1 . Ippc:ared eI»~. pairot2AlI lo provMic..boke If llI ic:oll diodco are used... .. _ _ _ .JoltJ...ten.. . =1. HRO pown supply siooc IhiI alJowa Ihc YOII1 10 Ill " WI'OIlDd up or dC'WD " lIIItii the I"llOeI'feI' e~ filS M caJibntioa curve.. 1 1M dlokHripu. ..DOt radii)' III u.. Consldmtllon of the bQlc (...l .on diodes al lhe ir IIlOII IeIlIil iw volta ge n lina-by len in. . cha.....aliolll ca~ lor fillen a re pr obaby Ille better (... -.. rillS " In QOI'llinu!ll. . 1M INltct In practjcIe. reaulu in " ..n. lhe IrIPff the Watpalton "" l he Iriodc ra:tificn.. rem..7\ + r: "- '31 _ .. Weona: lbnod 0« QUiU:.hcr (wbicb c:amc: mlo UK ia the c:art)' lhiniel) II limilm. tetJUlatad aupplls caD boo obtained with hilt> e. ... '. _ V" ..1 11I1 rated I ..--IloIo_..-... 0 &lIen for hi~" hDIIDiner ~ ckspo lc havin... although il 11I5 • 1 ' . The ~oltalC acroll Iho deyice i...1. turlttio:a • a _ dio<k by a~jf)'i nl 1 emlllCf'-tuc M The ._ JoI:u:i Roscoe.. HI.. .yol talC rmi6cr . 8)' liliQoa tranlistors..... IaYUlJ !be 6'J.. _....1100 ~ oblpxn ani coalCOlt to plod . pe.yoll toilldin& the l.. IIR(I_ + lo) but aiIIOII the resistor current remailll almool! CODitanl..ra. . . liD!: deriwd rfOll' it ClUl... p: 1 hold of them". furiou! . C.. nr ~ r.1 (.icnen ac:apl lhill view-bul It IICCITIS 11'\10 tha t for lIlIlIt amaleUr a pp1k. He a1res1C1 lhal then: is DOthUlI new IbootIl the ._".. A.ttIe . norman)' 't ied.. portiDnal to the ampWIcalion..pac:i1aDc:e GIel.tIictl hi...lIbHizod YOIII .rcue In cu rre nt will be . I'ClIcbca 0-6-\1011.. I r • (. med . 1bc1D-. nlC1. C. And for mon purpcIMa. thua : V_ V...p $ """• • Dr .CW1ftOI OUlput. errIiI&ioll of WQIUIII and .POW ! " SUPPLI!S _ "-.--Sl. rrhich . "" IioeoI of the IrIOIl' ..ins Ilmosl cons tan t. ....' 0I her1Yise <Iisc:Ilpp:d. . the breakdoa-n chlrXlcrialk oermpalft -'I wilb !ow-YOlta...tro!ytk:a wilhOllI ( hobo or blcalcr rcsialOn (thou'" bi&hcr·q lue reslalon are atiU vaI~bIe ill di1c:harp o...n. inslea d o r usislUlL ma)' Ktu&ll)' help <bIro )' lilil. .rridc Idjulllble votll# sabolUa!JoG. I.-el l- s-IIIoI... t he ailiooa d iode slrin...m by IU&Ptint et.era... Ilnce V. .YO! I ~ C.1 ilnOOthin. GJOSU ~ bow t'IYO IiliooD tnrIiaislon c:aa be IIICd 10 pn. _ . .. the IIUIpIlI voltaae. Tho: IWUlam.. capaalon wit h the I Upply IwilChed off) and wilh voila.... bou t 12 timeI raled ..o Vaha. (or a bu_) two trl odM....... He poi I'll <MI.. ~ pea'" rOl"ll'Ud ~ n \Olin. be pro. Ulptll choke. ThOll any runber iol.....hoioc than all)' altel'ftll liY Ohilill\. pa ir of 2Al lriodct will work ce a S.flItod qhe reaifien.. ~ 10 Illlc:ua dio6cL Tho: maia putJ'OIO or the tr ad itiocW ~I 6. .... bow 90 pe r ceot o f AlPpl)' YOItaae pcab . (I ) .tUdl c:aa UIU&Dy hlDdIe ~ted AUTmI u p 10 . G M4QK....I.. d uriDt ahoft-duraliOIl charPn.. _ ~ A I ~ or CIUI. Sma ll ""1I'MUPpratlOIl _ il Io n . Exoelleotl. _ ..) (a) (b) T -L ..ircull (Filii. teII.. lJNI Z~S I . it hu q lw at It oaIel\W'd to ailicoll diodcI -. ..riabll volta ae tdf-biu syok:m (F.. Hc _ lonr..

The minimum ~Ul'TeI"II for atabilw lIlo n will thus btl J.. for • 2ItV .. fo....n!li!llol'1" shown in Fig. ampl ifier . Hcr1)at. A thick ·walled a lumin ium chu&is is prcrClllb le to emutll boLh mcdltlnical strength and itl eITectlYerlCS! a. tioo ulin ..t po ulble to build uscful lOlidsUIte "'lllIlatC'd su pplies at voltaacs which still \I$uaIly teDd to be lISIOCialc<:l wit h thcnnionic rCllllla tof'... A tlUlUiltor ~ed It!I a cons tan t CU rTalt ck:m (F Ig.Od eqoi pcnent for vollage . Z L2BDB. tld·..t l"1'l' loa type. then II COTl...~nce is ob tained by usiD.cfr.. to ".. -a_. SI". QI the insulato.. .. dool". J ..... l4(c)).. tog ether "'. tabiliu lio n ablf: to cepe . _ _ • ""d JOO . ""tra diodes ca ll be ..G-6/R.JJ show only II barely discernsble tWlt~h of a voltmet er when I 200 mA Joa.a. indicated ... a. n·~ •• 1 60 1·60 1·60 (7-3l) n7 <SmA "mA "mA 32 mA (24'S mAl . Th e idea comes rrom EJ. olLallC lrBlI. Ie _ ~ . The tempcratwtl stability is thaI of V This cin. .old coos u"'" mort: than do ub le the current..1rt001.ct voltage ""lwrcd. wi.pplr .with lI'ansistoril. '" 1~. juat zc: n<:J1l all d resil tolS is of limited IIpp licatlon siDOIl II la rge vollag<: drop acl'Ol<l the resis to r is o:sscntilll. '" 8"fta. lempoltll d>ort--eimUt without lIualrm l ance the 180-0hlll resistor limlu the currenl to a safe value... :I&. bM no bt.. . . _ .s a ~t slnlr.. All t he resiston are I . '. I nd .c ...~ volt. Fill. The zener wu a ~ery 1 0W-eoo.."/on A Ileed o ften an. lcb ~pt.lor...ale for varying 1000d current (F ill. DcIlpitc the use of II aericl lLabilizer Ihi."'ata<:/ Powar SOl" ' . ZURDll 5uUCSla tha r the on ly ImponaD{ conslrUCtional i.d is a pplitld..mlc lHslgn. SM"/I/~.. co ml"kte ~isn for a 250 ~olt sUPl?ly wlllch. . ll(c). pro vided.~ fJ leon 4 0 313 ~~. indicaled below. Carr. '.dded 10 obtain the eu...". C.a>mc J ·2-voh total..I.. typically a I N J815.1. 36 sl>o"" II simple way of o btainina both positive an d neG ative voltages rot 0"" with S ICs (uM)nvnetrical vol llLgcs can be obi ained by \l5inll different type! of uncr diodc).. The ava ilability of rairly high volUlge ailioon power tnln sisto f' aDd z... 3l (b» equal to (II x I) V. 1.. The arranJ:<:ment provides a sla bilily tome ten limes better than wilh tile diode etcee.. to ' ''y. W. and by any Increast! in V.. U . othcrwi". wilh cur"..here Y. 2(l Banery volts Output volts at 2(l rnA To ta l curn:nt s-a s-o e... 0"" of the man y applicalion~ for such a supply would be to min i m. then alope r<:liItancc can btl J~ • ~Ia. ..<. . which . If tws is nca:1ectcd....iston aDd a highvolLage zener .& a su rpl. f~ure The part icular al1llll lltment wu dcviocd to r~ a slClldy rnA Inlo a transistor d..l4(all provides u ce llent sta biUmlion a t lin le ""till current...'" --'OJ'' ' OC71 + STAIlIUlED OIJTPUT A MA TE UR R AD IO TECHNIQ U ES S«14-S"' .. Petformance of lhe lltranacment shown in Fill.nds h upon Ihe setli ng uf the variab le "..1ir of t rll. LD tIlOcive and tr ansmit mocee.. ) ""' . " . ~ 4 0 321 '" ~ ~ '" _. tio n device ith an el1"ect iVQ opt!fllting value ..L. rool .._. l4(b)) lVOu ld provi&: evea belle r volllll!" liabil ity or com peru. )...... 030SlJ . 1%9) discusses in detail the da..tb a lay er of silicon grease to improve lhermal cond uc tivity.. A..eoers mak es .all unl"".U BD. Volta. HUll T R2 must be mou nted On one s ide of tbe d wsis wa ll U'..dcred ("Rliit A much 1Illll1let" I lope rcaisl.uil thUi prcvldesrhe deairod sta bili. wlnd'n. )O.. Rtl... Fir:_ 3~ indica les thllt a ! tJ1l ighlfOfWlll"d c ircu it ia u=! incorporatml: two k CA bigh .. ~Ml u tlo ft hue cu rren t is sma ll. .. lIh eonSldcfllble clIanaein batt ery vo ltaJIIC.ool".<1.. u a. ~"" VQl...on too . . 50 that the stabilizer on ee comumao two o r th_ limes Ihe cu=nt ac tually used .'jtant volta g" will btl ma intained ($01: Fi..ian ccnsldermions for Iu~h Inppliea and also prca<:DU. .J ' oJ L.. Dr. J... a Darl ington p. It is ~Ialmcd . po ints ou t Ulllt cOlll'entio nal ata bilir.".. l4(a).nt. ltn l la< ..... lIS1D... 1'1 • • k + ~~ oVrwr I p...'j. NTH IN nu )2f~ >- CQTI.aac dlanaes In tran_h·'C. OC7 1 ....... t'Jllra Itages (Fig. ~ ~ Ilo~ restnaace" II p rod uet:d by base cu=nt in~rcasi!lJ the >'(Ollage across " R. unit C&lI also be subjcclCd to . in CQ (DecembcT. tA<O E " ND INUS6 U •• <If . and with almost no lOll! o f vollage when germani um trnnsiS lo rs art \liM.

olla~ on the base. 31... ll'Ir .uitable for ITJO$I supplie.. . II. mtlar I."."...poweI' zener by form ing a simple shunt relulafor lIS in Fla... ...... than lhc l N711 ..nnce led.... biased to co nnec t the N.. J . sbort4tcW( o r low resistanco Ippea r across the OUtpu t of the supply (hen l!le maximum curren l will be limited 10 the bala.. l .~ . um:nc.. Wich the lOCCltla '0. y a of . A suegest io n by ZUIO (8Tcok.._ " _ _ _ I _ ....Im • • ... pack C reduce ri~ ple and lra nsient volla ifC$ . no drain rl'Of'll the hattery... emersupply for tile eqUipmen t. wh ich a..wcllon The UO\: of a diode in the ball ery lead of tra Mistor~ equipment 10 provide pro tection a& t «.. A l1-volt ha ltery for ms a pnmancntly ava ilab le inS!lltlll netl US .. the tra nsislor Is ill a saturated «. The prob lem of po" u supplies. LIES m ( ..." c.. o utpu t sudrlcnly fall. two ot her am meemenu are suu.. ( . no-break .. in whieh a min iature 12· volt I~u\ator is permanently " llOll ted " 1 " 003 the o utO put of the J2-volt po . Tbe i n d u~ ion of In extra diO<k and bul h l' rovides a reversal indica tor . 19101 no t only oYel" eOOlCS the probl ems le t OU t above bu t also protects the a n:ui t l.. > J ". 1970) nctes Ihat . leads with the wron g po larity hal been widely uoed fo r many )'!\III .ted cir<:uill..".. of the tr alu i.. Ulrick in EI. ••• amer nt ~ 'c... ...." .. A .... " " ELI MI N. ~ ~ ) _ . _... .. 10 ohm&..iven hy Z L410 of l he supply e m ltage to which Ihis circuit can he l.....y aive an idea ". A full bridite ~i n... .. U" ~. .iator it can be ca libra led for RU in.u . "....tc... tor. G SACC/G1SFW{T. inten ded fnr u"' wil h tr ansisIOrs and jnteer. 40.. 4lo<1~ ...flf .l gu lll rn.". involl'eS IW O diode switehes : 01 and 0 2 In Fig. 1I11l)' whik 01 now ~ls di. .'\I i t mlIk cs it ". Surma and G . s.. lind whictl is n~lIy '!f'Craied from a main s ballery eliminat or .... from the malna aupp ly.tonne an imPOf\llnt chlonncl.'"'_ _ ."".cl-hr S... tor ) hut it would prff\lmab ly be .. June.-l~ ~II ". Acllat')'ll.nneaine the \lin...."OW ER SU .ctJo. DlodlNWltdtlft.. h ~ n.n. to the requfred current llmilinl ttveshold.. /hallcry power supply by Sven Weber . hithtine up when lhe haltery is wrongly «. _ _ • ..10 .. No lndlc don Js ..Iol_ . _ .t vohago: abnu t o-S voll o r 10 above the Mtte. of • • udde" run.e its forw ard bias...I zenee plu s a low-<:O'tt po wer tran!ii3tor .aocd and the re . '.. the: diode begins to Jo..ndition I nd offen low fClillanoct: to the supply. .>Uld be a IOCI"ver mon.. nl .. A different Iwlication of...ihle 10 fOf&et 100111 M ileI)' po larity. UHIIEG '" 002mA ""\:b (.cxpeswille. (" • ..... n..bou1d I. septemh<T. Th e details ohown in the d. t or P% r)ty P. Should lhe mlin.. _ .e .ed by a short-circuit o r hea vl o verlolld is well xeewn. • "" PI• . 1')70): i'le.. Yi4n . ".nt woulc1 be SO rnA" and with I ohm a bou t SOO rnA.. base voila II'" across the now bigh intCTnal raisUUlce between emi tter and collcaor.Jcing powered from the effect. S....c(.. Th il simulates 1 hiJh.....pproac ll apreared ill Efn....... . ~... lot _~ •• ~ ••Ir HISII'5 Tranl/..-.ncina dTec! 0_ 1. Ea rlier we Ulle I hown 1 ma in. I Th~ a_ _ _... ZLAIO incliellta tha t if R is 100 o bms then 5 rnA of load cum:n t ~tI 1 drop of 0-5 volt and hence the th=hold of current limltitll . ~ .SCd (depcr>dmt upon tboe voltase ralin....-" 1 _ 41o‫ס‬i _ of u... hile 400 mW an<l I WNIl eeecr diodes I re iJl.- . .I 'OIfIc IH~irll (I Scplcnlbcr. _I of the em ill..I.. 1970) by G .j Za"er C.. this does not I pp ly whcre 1 10 or 50 Wilt ra tin.. D2 is reverseh. S.llOf! w. If R is a wircwound variable -. ' harie through too power supply which should hlo...-""rr O~.. <lI1eoiI. I .1_1 _ _ Pi. th us restrictinl base cu lWl1l I nd ra lsinl the inlunal rcsista neo of (be tnln ... 40. 39.. N. e. As a reoull the currenl /\atlens o ut lit about 6'5 o r 1 mAo Simi1arly. voltlae. Coonu.-..~~ ~~r : 2SB3... " . opcnoting normal?.. n . . is required .. ::...lll item ativc: e"i ~ ls In the form or 1 sm.. So lone . Thi!. lhe thres hold cu m. ~ 50l _ IV 2 NlO55 0_1'" (Yz+v~l .ested by R..m oll ics World (Septembocf. . IMt can u sily be <Wna.. Ampllfl.n uv _I O~... Tt ~IIY l 11 S115 • ~ Bancry rav . But lIS current now incr~-... lr R . n oolp.aJ. N .. L lves (cO. then D2 boecomes forwar d.. oI._ . the cu rrent fiowinl lhrouah R JI such thaI (he lJamistor emiUer voltl SC is len tha n O'S volllo......

... calli It • f -wltve lripler "...e... F I T . 1bc toroid is co nnected in para lld with I 25 ". • " 2N5136 ' I. _ . 43. He noles that usually when.hand the !\hunt.. ~l. This co lI....hort-drcui led with an immun ily to damage seldom provided In series-regulaled arnna:ernenlS..<erul adj. 490 vo lts 100 mA oand 4((l VOllS al 2. 42. 4 l..bitiD:d IIllllPly is ~ for ... Trlplw 7) M agdZW (December 1965) prac:ols a n attra ctive and prac tica l triplet" arnngc:noent.20 mAo 1l>c aulhol". Nr 10." Z _" Page 251 I hows a u. ! "'" 140 "...... With ailicon diodes . heiDS: pan icular ly effective be twoeo about l i nd 3 ~ollS.i5ts of usin& an 88 DIM toroid 1I5 the inductive clement of a parall el tulled circui llO provide a high impcda noc to ripple frequcnciel of the 0l'dtI of 100 to 12()e/I... Junes M. • 1.slable ~<llta ge stabilizer arnngeroml blIsed on IWO tnl\$i510r1l. ~ .. .._ " . oo ~. 50 I haw: added a transformer : Fis. SUdt .11' _._ thllt 01Ml is eollltll... U.." I 12!l :1: '" .tcd rmm a tripler COllfiguratio n: in the lralJofonnerlc:u. .S4l1'ftl'1 " 0"' • pow• . • 1..ominal ca pacitance) we I USpcc1 11l.10 Gwtval P. ~ _ I _ 1to.. W6l. ama tftlfcan lind llWIy U<lQ : Fi.. W 'LW I ". with eloctronic tunln. A W..WE... . . thal sbun t 0 nculalioa d. bBd ...l _ ftl .001 _ .. The Ill! mH toroid bas an inlernal d.. " ".. ." ' I. ralinp will df!pr nd on the lr3n5fonner""OO. I . or course. . But remember Ibat Ihis form of ripple tiller is designed rot use with full-wave roctific:a tloD. a belief .1<0 _ • . Slllbilized rqulalor for power su pplies for use wilh semiconduetof1.. lhe Iype of unit for which llle traDIIIlittln.. cov ee ~~ .. ~. Murray Baird. and it should thu~ be even more effective on Eur opcao n pple rn>qucnC of 100 efl than 100 Ame rican 120 e!1 for whicb it Q W developed.I'Ce no ma tlet ho w liltle output is ~ taken ..... 1971) COI1le5 a aeneraI purJlOiOe power IUpply wbictl. Teknisk Brevkaac " (Amato> R .. W4YAA daiJ1l5 that as a ripple filter it will be some 10 times mo re effective lhan uaingjult l HI-ohm t esislor.ommcnd it (as we indicate. ¥ef5ioro this is slwn u 520 voliS no load .' 2 V ~ ( "'Poly 'I• . .uipment bas been suggested In QS1' I>l' Richard Malleis W4Y AA. Th is aJTall' CDlcol iI !tated to result in a resonant rroquency of about 106 efa. AdJustDtl'..... 1 u ma~ be wor lh laldnl 1 CITe in the selection of 11 suilab le ca pacilor to bring the circuil near to resonance.F ClIpacilor as shown in Fig.... diodes or o!he r applicatioO$ needing a rairt y his:/! Itability...... 1M •• 1. ""ft. 1970) in tum based on a QTCUi l pu blished Q rlicr in RtvU$ EEE : see fi. ~. . but slightly diffem ll versIon thIS Iccbni'l.ic Frorn LA4HK'. -'1 . . .. II3 reslstance of on ly 10 ohms and will han dle abou l 200 rnA. . Le._ The current . l ~ .. maim but bas bolh posilive and DePtiw: nUb differinS in polCrlliai From either side of lhe IDaJIt$ l upply.t !• • .. wbile perfec tly Or1hodox.. AOcut ecov ~. <. system hal lillie to nx. " " " I ~ '2!l *T "..ov .rq'Ula ted supply can be ufdy s. Thc ~oltacc ra linp ate l hose &5~Io:d wilh a 117_ voll input . Plovi<lQs lktai!s of a 5efies. A related....llUy dntwin& l ome IS walll rrom the ~r IlClU... • ~ T. H """"" t doo~. or b .. -i>Jfued Pow. lk Volta... . ' . 03 0.... a lt a.. ""..ue. . "" . ror eumple. tbe aYCf'Sill amatc:ur tends to usc two zeeer diodes in cascade... ripple rrequeneie5 of 100 or 120 ell and nOI witb a single diode arranaemcnt.w r~'-T ." ~ 603 V I"" • • 11 . mil ht be antlcipa. . ...AMATEUR RADIO TECHNIQUE S or how 1 lUe !he S)'5leta II inWcaIQ.. . ~ • •• '1'1' 1.. The Qrwit is ~~ It$ a tranoformulell . In1 _. Siooe also the to\cnmc:e of typ ical 25 I' P electrolytic Cllpacilon tends to be pretty wide (usually pro~ iding more than the n. turns up in R<Jdio-RBF (June . on lhc otha.. This is l lal ed 10 operate over the range 0-8 to S volts.... G8 FNT .c.. laWre Rip ple Filler ripple filler for UiIC with minia lure power supplicl for lIaIIieonduetor OC!..noe the oulpu t eootalns bo th /ill a nd 120 ell compOnen t. _Ibp ... . lhe regulation is noC . A~ M/. P.. s . l!tyant. ng=lCnt ror 117-voll 60 cia e. IU~ted G 3OSU.j _ l ~p ~ ..

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adl'aDtaae of the &bon d Uly cycle of the Cllfnlll peaks. A _ ~ ;lpproi1dI--whieh a pplies &l$o to hiah"'lIlait' suppl ies for l.S.b. line:an-is 10 use .. vny l~ rew:l'VOir c:ap;lcilor. so allow ;.... a subst an tial reduction In the lnnSfol1l"lU " iron. n A l oad eurnple is liven by J. Ennis in D«trollia (4 Deo:mlber, 19nJ in the form of a pcwe r supply able 10 provilk 0-4 amps. al 20 vctu wilb rqulal iotl benet than S per <::enl " I it lo tal 00$1 (USA p riocs in lbe Sta tc:s) of $13.12 : FiJ. 49. TIle key fe.tlllnl il lhe 32,000 ,. F racO'oir capacitor pennittina the UMl or a IOW-OOSI and klolsy In Dlformer. Apia, to ....ve 00$\$, 1\IlI() car bu/b$ are \QOd for sbo n -cireu it protection ralher lban the moR! conventional system or CUI'l'enl fokl buk. ; (he bul bi DOl only act as I fuse hu t abo rNUO/l the voltaee drop &o:rO$S lhe regula tor tra nsisto r. th us red ucinl ita powe r d issipalio n. To change the l upply" out put voIta;&e 10 I S voIll1 II is J'O""ible j ust 10 ese a !7 · volt zenrr. bu t ror lower voIl. OUIPUIS II u better to lPe a 1 0-. \lollaP' tra,","ormer a nd appropriate zener . lbe plilJl<l'S<: or Ind udin l this item is to draw al teotio o 10 tbe locbniques rat her than 10 111.&:8""1 carbon copy conSIrueliOl'1, bu t lhe 1912 USA component p rioel have been len on lhe diagram as it i, reli lhal pricec;omparisom Ire llwa~ of inlcmrt.

oepll\le supply \loha~. The system dcpeOlb dim;tly on the 300 \loll$ u nregulated sup ply. The .iJ:T TR I wlnw. R l &nO R2 to haY<: tulh values so tha t ou lpul loa d inll ;, kepi 10 a minimum and Iow-w:mage resi,tors can be used. Relati vely low'\lolt.~ lnuui sto", ClIO be II~ 10 rellul. te 2S1> volts supp lies (Mahendlll. Sha h, Eln:lron (cr , 24 A~ril, 1972). By absorbinl the bu ilt "r lb~ o utput voltllilc wilh II 200 volt :tlInef, the Olher oevio;eo can have quire low volta"" f'l l i n~ ; ICe F i, . 51. Th e cin:uit shown I, Intended to Ilrnvide 250vo lu
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A. tip in Rm/u,.EktlrtHlkr (1oly, 1973)noler.thMt when COIlo nectl n, blt.lleriel in p:u'aJ1e1 II It, ad\llln~ to do so lhro uab diodes : see Fil . S2. TIle reasons ale tha t two balleries w:ldom haw nactly the same vol tage and with a Slralahl parallel (Onnect ion one may dill:tw'Jle Ih ro u,h the other; further, lhe d iodes offer ....otflC\lon apimt oonna;linlillem tbe wro n, way rouno , and also pro vide flTOtflCli<,m 10 &0 ClI ' tema l cireu it. will be a voll.l.(l:I: drop lOI;I'()SI the d iodes, eq ual 10 lheir po lent;al hill; Ihls wm be: knott with germanium diOll.". than ~;licon d iodes.

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The current popullu-itr of small hand-held and mob ile equipmcn ls ha s res ulted III II req uirement fOT such ancillary itcmlu ma ins power supplies and battery chargcrs. Stephen Price, G4BWE, h u II simple power su pply which •Uow, him to use II Tri o /Ke nwood TR 2200G transceiver from ll1lIins .uppliCll and wo uld al. o be ~u itllble ro r ma ny Olher units req uiring 12 volts an d wh ich alread y have built-in vollll&e reKUlatio n. In such Ilnils it Is possible 1 dispense with zener rererence 0 diodes and such t~niques as I.e. opera.1iona l am plifiers o r I.e. volta~ regula tio n since the equipment call cope with moderate varialions in l upply vo llul¢. The potentia l d ivider (see Fi~. ~) e<lnsisting of RI , R2 and RV I det crm inl'll Ih" bICIC vo ltage of TR I and t hu, controls the "miller potential of T R 2. The 470 I£F electrolytic: (e2) en sure, that th e co ntr ol voltage . and eon>;eq uenl ly the output , is fru from ripple. RV I i' used to set the ou tp ut voltage anywh ere between 10an d 20 vcru. 1'IIio conlrol . h n uld be pos itlo ncd fo r minimum voltilll'l before f1rsl co n necting lhe TRllOOG: th e slider may then be slowly IIdvan<,JCd , while k.eepi ng an e:le on ' the " batt cry chec k." meter . The T R220Q0 Should draw ju st und er O'S amps 00 transmil. so that for thiS eq uip ment Tal requires on ly a !mIl11 hcat.,l nk d issipati on (a bo ut 4 watts on transmit). Hn_ ver.lf TR2 is mourne d o n II larger extr uded heat -sink and T RI i. ,1$0 provided with hCllt-&inlc. coo lin• • then the su pply sho uld al"" be CIl p;Lble of "ro vidina the 3 am ps or SO needed to ru n a 1I) ·watt transceiver, An ~ltctn Kt i~ to the 1.5-0-I5·volt tran sformer wou ld be 10 UiIO o ne with a single is· volt wind!na in conjunclion with a bridae rectifier .

A uumber of suita ble .. ba tter y sa ver " circu itlthat accc mphsh this sampling process have been described : for exam ple, by Joh n Rum~y, ZL2TN K , an d Peter Williams, ZL2ARW, in Breuk-In, August . 1975. TIlis dCli ign wu inlcrnkd for ~ with It spcc;:ilic walk. i~t ll. lk. ie b"t there il no reason why it should not be used , possibly with minor modificatio nl, fo r ot her equipments. The circui t details arc given in F ig. .54• An astable multivibrator provides tbe ba sic 1: 10 d uty cycle an d thi s is used to control a tnuuistoc po wer ~wilCb which interrupts the power 10 the active eevrces in thercceiver.

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When lIIina hand-held an d otbc.r ballety~ra ted eq uipment over exten ded perlOl1s of lime it is deilr~blc I'" locI' eonsumption 10 the minimum Ihllt aUows the sY!'tmI 10 fuDetioD without sil nillca nt 1 of e/Jk iency. One technique 0&1 used in profcssiona CQulpmen lf, II the low duly cydc d un n. stand.by operauen of t he roccivcr, a uto lJl.llically switehlna the equ ipmcllt to normal rcoc:ive conditio nl when • slana l Ippeal'i. Th e muted roocivw " listens " for perhaps 10 per cent of the to W time, tlltin a a brief ~ loo lt .. al the f~vency every few iCOOmh. If the squekb or mu tin, circu it then indicate! th.1 there ia I ';gnal co ming in, the mtem.opt co nd ition is disabled and the rooeiver SllY!' o n IlIItil perllapa 10 IOCODds aft« c e ~illfllli has gone, when the u mplin, process is restarted .

In o per ation the ,eo;:ei..:r is he ld on either initially Of afler transm ission for aboul 2S KWOOS before the $itffiplong cycle begin!L When tbo receiver is $witched on , CI is initial ly discha.rzed but Ihen chaQ:CI slowly through the 330.()()t)...obm rcsisIor Ind the baso-emiUcr junct.ion o lTR I. boId inlJT R ion .... hkh in tum for ces TR2 off. F.venlltllUy CI bo:<:omea fully ctwlJed , so lha t base cu rrent c:eascs 10 now in TR I , turninlJ this transisto r 0 0: aDd CllISilllJ TR 2 to awitcl\ o n which in tum wo ru lhroulJh the Iy$tcm until TRS is t om ;J on , so pro. iliina po wer lor fhe receiver. If durins the IlUtIple listco ing IlCI'iod th_ ia • sipll1 present, the llIuc k:h cucuit in the oqu ipmcnt provides a n ,np"t vol tage 10 D I. T his causes cu neot 10 lIow thro"sh D I and lbo ~1un resister, so that bMo CWTCIl tll~ in TRI, t W'llina TR2 off and hold in, thc RlCciver 00 , Wilen the signa! disaPJlCltl'S. h _er. CI a p.in c/w'Je5 throUJb thc 330.tlOO-ohm reaistor IUld the orliinal cycle of eYents Ill-OOCW'S. TR' acts mll. o nly as a swilC blU. h in oonjunctioD with 0 3, as a vo ltaac rcll\llalor. It is important to use hiah-,.in Iransistol'll lhrouahout since klw-lJIin typea (e... B0 31, BC307, BC212) do not _ itch cfl'octively and ca n l ive rise to unplcasant noisca fro m
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)'6-vo ll l:Cner d iode , T il.l • TlPlO ilnd Rl 1SOO ohms. o-S walt . Th i. lives bim ... ui t.lblo dui' iling cum:nl or . round SO rnA (lnd i. mon-e~it proo r. 1>4 1I.-.:.-.:nl5 tlv: ~ llC1)" disctlarain ll lh roudt tbe co llfCl.>r'bK'le, R2 circ uit. An If-/NI Il'lIllI iotor cou ld be used for TRI l imply by inver linll all po lllril y.ocMi tive Ctlm""nc:nt5. eren l VlI llJ<:l o f R I the charg in g curn::nt Uv , .. i"; binll in d ilT e8n"be Chllllgcd; in me (;41lXP u nil lo 200 m A whe n RI il 15 ohm. , for U1<: wilh 2 All cc ll ~. The UI1;1 is sim('loe a"'" d":I\\'Ilo bu ild, o fle n fro m ju nk·box COOUtIHIl-e urrent ell.." ... eomponcun, bul OYCrcon>cl t he r rub lc m lh al c hargin. nka4 Nl-cad (nic:kcl-tadlllium) ~Il • • nj'lCCially th ose ~uire.l ceUs fro m II cun ..unl·voll~ae (Iuw.im r><:d anoe) source soo n deliver apprrdable CUffenl , ...e " pclll ive bllt fann a desu oys them . eon-=icnl po wer l upply fot> roru ble o perot;on . W ilh _led Pl::ler Ma rtin , G4AZC, bu desocri lxd two adjust.ble u nitllhere Is n'11o.,... o f Wlter by e'<'ilpor.lt;n n or cllx1ro lY' '' arr.Inpmcnll which he hili fouoo usdul in l ""lIinl in trim a nd !Wl creeflaCC' of cla;trolyte ; nonwnkllana: is nc:«led 1100 ni-cul Qdls whic h IlO""Cf" bi, 144 MilL Iwld-portabk I.Imi. the cdllNY be moun ted in (lny poWtion . If wrr«lly lrealed . T1'lae limvlc but ,e liab le eifcWll may be of inle rell to IMy .. ,11 ....tMund a ~ry 1lu1:c n " mba 0( dL:IrJina cycl.... <>Ihm . ~ Ir.."si,tor t:!o be . ny ccncraI-purJl(lIe lyre Ih. t ill ud lh.... lTIIy ba qUlle econom~. It Is ~ unpo>.l;l.n1, o;:Ip.lblc ofo;:anyilll SO rnA, fo r namr4e the BCl OSo f Fi ... 56 b~. t hlt tt»u'_'~,,"nlr or Ct ffIr'.JI .... rrd dlvF'"~ are " o r lhe fHI""I' ~ DClOll .... u..aI io f l&- ~1. TIl;" ~ UKd. Apan f.om conPdcn.tio ns of 1 0", life, ocrioon OYer- traMiltor", provido:d with . d ipo(ype hca l-s inlt. ""a,..iD, of IUIed celh mll~ be avoided or otlwl'wi,c imCI'NI1 RVI octI l be ellalJinl wrrml (al 4j rnA for AA ;HP7 Jl'I'DSWe will bu,ld ur: ....i lh la..... n><ad cells h:&VIftI .I si.u: nK:ltdlJ s nd I.... cmiftinl diod e ICt5 as • rew:ne~ vlhe , YCnIib.Iion .. nquircd " 'bde lhe grll " p "..n ty pro ledion as .'C1/ as indicatinll thaI et.r.u'IJ II on cII.atF"nee l be fumes iIr1: " riali..... ...lim, pU;;e . The two IN4001 diod"" acI .IS • simple OR K om Ma\lcr6dcl ,G4BX P, ha roMl1cdout IIlaI fOf optimum 1"11'. ano-;.. e ithcf balletWs or nwino-supPy to JIO'*a'the life n i-cad cds Ibooki be chafaed I I _ ten lh of ttw;r one- eq ui pmc1l1 (ria .. sim ple f'CI\loIAtor t:ircu;t 10 red~ hour elI~l.cunetl !e.,. a D-4j Ah cdIlbouid be dlIracd the ::Do..,,11 .... wl)" 10 12 "OI,s) . In the cYCol of mil;,.. r.ilun: l 1101 4j mAl. 1 rr-idcs em:u;t deu.ils f F" H ) 0( . _ . l nl- the eq uir'mml .lu lOlllaliclllly JllCI O'IU 10 ballery flO"""' . c:um:nt charJff thai he IIndl elTn:ti",,: by d>oo.i nc su ila ble The: oompollCn<l Qln be .~mblcd 00 • _ U pioce of vall1C1 of II.1 and OJ the OOITCCl an d _ r .-aJUe o f Vernboard and lftOUlIted in . d i«:all box . cnJlhlin' l he twJd. eharlUll ,;uu e nl is prodllO"d. held cqU;rmcnl lo be pIaocd00 ~ .. bile ...iUin opcratioct. lie ....... the cNflCI' for 10 0 4 S A h cdb lII'hic:tl liwo h .... 12 "01<1 fOf I porr.ble tra nsmiller. TIw Ir.nd'.......- it Bo ll • • , fl lm ,,,,,lo.(o. IJ 'n'l RII" 18 O-II:l.'C'!tlleCt' ntlary, 11.1 it S6 oh llll, Q-j wa ll , D J " . FN a l2 _voll "",.. ." l<lpply in'cnded 10 rn..:..t ,h " rcqu,'" LEO ' ... men' ellCOul1lere,1 ..·I>cn OjlCtiUinll ""nd-Ilchl o r mob'le tiP ·~'!~ ~-.,.-----t.it~--, + as fixed sl ~ t i<>" .•, Iller<: I' no nrc>.! In 1.1 1<: cl a bot-~ tcl y ~ I a bili rcd

"''lIII<i('-,,,I. e. The eu rren t drawn wilh the mute ( low d I~ no rma lly 40 rnA. but wilh the batlcry .,m:r in Of"e.a'ion the M~r.i:<' cu' rent d ro~ In 4 rnA, providing a ",,,.,I!,,,hik: cXlen~ion of h ill er)' life. J"I, tif;ularly where th e cq u'l'II'Cn t i. required to operate ror ulcnllcd period s on .l an.... t.y.

l he: ,«'C'" ccr as ,t ~.. il<;hc:>.. Tantalum (;3p1OC,t Ol'1o ~",,, be used f.... ( "J. 2 and J ; they $INIlkr and Iu~ l~r bloleo:. Since the umrl ,nll lime and " Ul)' C)"'k ace .tI'octed by bo lh CIIp;:lc itor ...1l>C'l and l ra n, i~l .. . p i... ..-.me: cKI"n,men ,a' lion f1\:I)' "" nccckd , especiall y wilh CJ. 10 $C'l the deiin''' fnu ll~ . n.c " ri'lOl l uoi t wae h uilL on 11 r iocc or puohn Its, lhan I in. "l" art "ilh 0- 1''''1111 rnr.lon. 10 til Into /I C""",",C1

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1o.;lir,,,, Ji"Jc$ n hea l spreader c" mprises a II hy 11 ;". ~ h "ll i n i u lll 1.late "' Ith u ~1 3 2 in . h"le in the milldlc if (he KHI'CROO 5 hri<.J ill: rect itier is "s cd . Th e l wall ()'12 ohm resuroe ~a " he Illad c by wind int: 2 in. of cOluta ntan wire (0·6] mm d iameler) arctmd a 1 .....all resistor of no pal1i~ular value (uh crllali vely 1·211'1 1 r, .)or 26 ~ .w ,~. cop per "i", linl: 4 wire). "l'hi. """i. lor, (ojlelher wilh Ihe De lO8 uansmor. [,,(In, Ihe c ur", nl·se "s injl t ircuil ",'hich lil" j,. the 0II1PlIl current under sburt-eircuit co nd il inn, 10 1Ih1.... t 5·2 10 5·<1 amps (if mnsidc Ihi. , Irim the l)· 12 " hm """i,tor unlil Ill<: eurrenl is within TIl " w i1"I'C;\s inll ~i'll.m'e ...ill d~r~>c eOUIPUI curre nt). A hom cla ,i~ l-ho "" 2NlOSS Imns islor Ii .e. ~N lO S SlI). as made by RCA lind ...."h'''''. i> uWle IUllab le fo r Ihi:< i1 Pl'li_ ceuon lha n Ihe II hefua l;vc e pila, ial base I)""". "o1 . llempt to USC 16 V eb.:\",lyl i<.~ in place of Ihe $[""..;[1<"<1 (,lt 2S·voh units. A~ in any U""«-st ~Jte fcedba<:k a mrl ilicr, lhere ;$ II risk uf oKillali" n. allho ugh Ill<: 0'22 \& F 0 {1 1 " f ". I'<'"i\" ", 0 shouh l eli""".. te Ihis in Ihe va" maj il)" of cases. Ho....:-.-cr. if an y lendeney towar ds ~illlll i"" is round, aUen>;I1;v<: ".1 ...,. hiw'ult.l be tried in Ihe!" ...."'iliouh. or addll ,,,n al "" 1""" I" rs fill ed (a 0 '(1047 ;0.1" f;llracihlt fro m collector 10 base of the D(.'212 may a lso h<:lpl. The ~y",l'l oms o r o<eilaliun . .... ",' ro,,~ voltage. o r .. \Ir~ n~", ", .i'4:$ fro m Itle receoer" (if y,," have a n a .f. ,,011~ "",i,io n "" yo ur mut l i· meter, o r cr.n "".:1 a 0· 1 .. F capacucr in scr ic:s w;l h II>c 10"· . a.eA -oIII ra nI:<', II ch ed ~'llll IX made f" r o<.cillalioll: an)~ hi "lt over 0·2 volll r.m.s. slloul <J l:IC vic" ed wilh suspicion ). Perfo rm.1lIX sp«i flClll io"s jrl(ludc: no-t""d ".. Iplll vollage adjusla ble between 12 11..... l ~ voll.$ ; tend ",w lal,,'n " O·~ vc n at 4 amps load; line fCllUl11l i/lM 0' I volts fur 10 re ' s cr:t ll cha nge of m.. ntns volla lle; l h'>rl-c;n;ui t c" rrelll ma \On1 utll 6 am..... ; C O",;"UOI.l'; rar ing 2 " m....; 4 11l1lpll lra n! nllt Hnd O , ~ ..mIlS n:ceive at SO:SOdlUy eyele; sh<>rl-cireuil ratin g J min.

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He<rv y-CII•• enr P ow a. SuppUe. Mod em solid- . tale I r~ n .m i llers and add-Oil po wer amplifiers requi,e h,,"vy-current d.c. supplies up to ab ollt 20 amps ralinll. J. G,een",,.>J. Gl K RZ. i, c" nvillcc<! t iHlt there i. 11" real d illi"",lly '" "u " , " ·"(.li" ll ,,,01, ' III it. al " rc" ""l" hlc Ni ,'"

Ihi", un, ati sfaclory in some r