Virginia

Compared to the other StateS
national rankingS on taxeS, Budgetary ComponentS, and other indiCatorS

2013 edition
JOINT LEGISLATIVE AUDIT AND REVIEW COMMISSION

Prepared by Staff of

JOINT LEGISLATIVE AUDIT AND REVIEW COMMISSION

memBerS of jlarC
Chair

aBout thiS puBliCation
This annual publication contains tables and maps that show how Virginia ranks relative to other states in fiscal and other, related areas. It is designed to be a useful reference for legislators. The Virginia Summary on the next page is a snapshot of the state’s measures, one-year trends, and rankings for the 38 areas included in this edition. What’s new in 2013 Tables 33 and 34 show per capita state support for public and private higher education and public higher education student enrollment. State and local government Budgets, fiscal years (fys) 2010-11 Most of the data herein is for FYs 2010-11. During this period, the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO) noted “tremendous shifts” in state finances, with a decline in state expenditures from 2009 to 2010 followed by an increase in 2011. Federal stimulus funds to states in FY 2010 offset state funding decreases for education, health care, and other activities; these federal funds to states have since decreased. data Sources The data is from the U.S. Census Bureau, NASBO, and other national data collection sources. A new source used this year is Grapevine, an annual compilation of data on state fiscal support for higher education produced by the Center for the Study of Education Policy at Illinois State University (since FY 2010, produced in cooperation with the State Higher Education Executive Officers Association). methods Unless otherwise noted, tables display the most current information available for all 50 states (the District of Columbia (D.C.) and Puerto Rico are excluded) and present a 50-state average. This reporting average weights each state equally. (In contrast, a national average typically includes D.C. and Puerto Rico and is a weighted average, which increases the influence of the largest states.) Per capita amounts were calculated using mid-year population estimates from the Census Bureau. For example, Table 11 tax data is for FY 2010 and population data is for July 1, 2010. For the rankings, states having the same value in the tables are given the same ranking. However, values are displayed only to a certain decimal place, so states may appear to have the same value but have different rankings because actual values are different. personal property tax (Car tax) relief Some tables show how Virginia’s car tax relief program affects the state’s ranking. The effects should be interpreted with caution because data is not available for similar expenditures in other states, and any national ranking may mask substantial variations within a state. Also, the Census Bureau and NASBO treat this type of state expenditure differently.

Delegate John M. O’Bannon III
ViCe-Chair

Senator John C. Watkins Delegate David B. Albo Senator Charles J. Colgan Delegate M. Kirkland Cox Senator Janet D. Howell Delegate Johnny S. Joannou Delegate S. Chris Jones Delegate James P. Massie III Senator Thomas K. Norment, Jr. Delegate Robert D. Orrock, Sr. Delegate Lacey E. Putney Delegate Lionell Spruill, Sr. Senator Walter A. Stosch Martha S. Mavredes, Auditor of Public Accounts
direCtor

Glen S. Tittermary

jlarC Staff for thiS report
Hal Greer, Deputy Director Martha Erwin, Project Leader Paula Lambert Joe McMahon

Copyright 2013, Commonwealth of Virginia Printed by Division of Legislative Automated Systems

Virginia Summary (2013 edition)
Table Measure Trend rank Table Measure Trend rank

(vs. 2012 ed. measure)

(vs. 2012 ed. measure)

1 Population 2 Percentage Change in Population (2002-2012) 3 Per Capita Personal Income 4 annual unemployment rate 5 Percentage of Population in Poverty 6 Per Capita state & local revenue 7 state & local revenue as Percentage of Personal Income 8 Per Capita state revenue 9 Per Capita local revenue 10 Percentage of Total state & local Tax revenue From Individ. Income Tax 11 Per Capita state & local Taxes 12 state & local Taxes as Percentage of Personal Income 13 Per Capita local Taxes 14 Per Capita state Taxes 15 Per Capita Federal Grants 16 Per Capita Federal expenditures 17 Per Capita state expenditures 18 Percentage Change in Total state expenditures (2002-2011) 19 Per Capita General Fund expenditures 20 General Fund expenditures as Percentage of Personal Income 21 Per Capita state & local debt Outstanding 22 bond ratings

8,185,867 12.2% $46,469 6.2% 11.5% $8,892 20.1% $5,777

p q p q p p p p p q q q q q q q p q p p p w

12 16 8 42 43 35 48 35 27 7 24 43 14 32 45 5 31 23 20 34 28 1

23 Per Capita Medicaid expenditures 24 Percentage of Total state expenditures for Public assistance 25 Percentage of Population under 65 Years With Health Insurance 26 Infant Mortality rate 27 state & local Per-Pupil Funding, Pre-k–12 28 state Per-Pupil Funding, Pre-k–12 29 average salary of Public schoolteachers 30 Percentage of Population 25 Years & Older With at least a High school education 31 average annual In-state Tuition & Fees at Public 4-Year Institutions 32 Percentage Change in In-state Tuition & Fees at Public 4-Year Institutions (2007-08 to 2012-13) 33 Per Capita state support for Public & Private Higher education 34 FTe student enrollment in Public Higher education 35 state Motor Fuel excise Taxes 36 Per Capita state & local road expenditures 37 state Corrections expenditures Per Offender 38 state Government FTes Per 100 Persons
Change in meaSure (vs. 2012 edition)

$806 18.4% 84.7% 7.2 $10,574 $4,411 $48,761 87.8%

p p p p q q p p

46 39 25 17 21 38 29 21

$4,471
27.8% $3,885 8.8% $1,840 $2,045 $1,075 $14,463 $5,228 14% $2,030 4.4% $7,699 aaa

$9,907 28.5%

p n.a.

13 15

$201 321,965 17.5¢ $405 $11,858 1.5

n.a. n.a. w q q q

35 11 37 43 13 28

p q w n.a.

Increased decreased unchanged new measure reported in 2013

1

population*
(2012)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

California Texas New York Florida Illinois Pennsylvania Ohio Georgia Michigan North Carolina New Jersey Virginia Washington Massachusetts Arizona Indiana Tennessee 50-State average Missouri Maryland Wisconsin Minnesota Colorado Alabama South Carolina Louisiana Kentucky Oregon Oklahoma Connecticut Iowa Mississippi Arkansas Kansas Utah Nevada New Mexico Nebraska West Virginia Idaho Hawaii Maine New Hampshire Rhode Island Montana Delaware South Dakota Alaska North Dakota Vermont Wyoming

38,041,430 26,059,203 19,570,261 19,317,568 12,875,255 12,763,536 11,544,225 9,919,945 9,883,360 9,752,073 8,864,590 8,185,867 6,897,012 6,646,144 6,553,255 6,537,334 6,456,243 6,269,372 6,021,988 5,884,563 5,726,398 5,379,139 5,187,582 4,822,023 4,723,723 4,601,893 4,380,415 3,899,353 3,814,820 3,590,347 3,074,186 2,984,926 2,949,131 2,885,905 2,855,287 2,758,931 2,085,538 1,855,525 1,855,413 1,595,728 1,392,313 1,329,192 1,320,718 1,050,292 1,005,141 917,092 833,354 731,449 699,628 626,011 576,412

12th 8,185,867

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s population increased by 1.1% from 2011 to 2012. The U.S. population including the District of Columbia (not included in the 50-state average) was estimated to be 313,914,040 in 2012.

g

* Estimated. Population estimates are for July 1, 2012 and are based on the 2010 Census. Source: U.S. Census Bureau (Dec 2012).

2

perCentage Change in population*
(2002-2012) in %

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Nevada Utah Arizona Texas Idaho North Carolina Georgia Florida Wyoming Colorado South Carolina Washington Alaska Delaware New Mexico Virginia Hawaii Tennessee Oregon Montana North Dakota South Dakota Oklahoma 50-State average Arkansas California Maryland Alabama Nebraska Minnesota Kentucky Kansas Missouri Indiana Wisconsin Iowa Mississippi Connecticut New Hampshire Pennsylvania Massachusetts New Jersey West Virginia Maine Louisiana Illinois New York Vermont Ohio Michigan Rhode Island

26.9 23.3 20.1 19.6 19.0 17.2 15.9 15.6 15.6 15.1 15.0 13.6 13.6 13.6 12.4 12.2 11.8 11.4 10.7 10.5 10.3 9.5 9.2 9.2 8.8 8.3 7.8 7.5 7.3 7.2 7.0 6.3 6.2 6.1 5.2 4.7 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.2 2.2 1.5 1.1 -1.7 -1.8

16th 12.2%

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

The U.S. population (including the District of Columbia) increased by 8.9% from 2002 to 2012.

* Estimated. Population estimates for July 1, 2012 are based on the 2010 Census. Source: U.S. Census Bureau (Dec 2002 for 2002 population, Dec 2012 for 2012 population).

3

per Capita perSonal inCome
(2011) in $

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Connecticut Massachusetts New Jersey New York Maryland North Dakota Wyoming Virginia Alaska New Hampshire South Dakota Minnesota Colorado Washington Rhode Island California Illinois Hawaii Nebraska Pennsylvania Vermont Delaware Iowa Kansas 50-State average Texas Florida Wisconsin Louisiana Maine Oklahoma Missouri Ohio Oregon Nevada Tennessee Michigan Montana North Carolina Georgia Indiana Arizona Alabama New Mexico Kentucky Arkansas Utah West Virginia South Carolina Idaho Mississippi

57,879 53,615 52,601 51,224 51,144 48,800 48,367 46,469 46,315 46,083 44,858 44,768 44,479 44,408 43,978 43,747 43,653 43,479 42,675 42,527 42,003 41,630 41,581 41,228 41,031 40,479 39,707 39,588 38,727 38,711 38,327 38,222 38,212 37,802 37,002 36,712 36,650 36,460 36,216 36,136 35,889 35,352 35,055 34,323 34,234 33,930 33,861 33,701 33,533 33,029 32,196

8th $46,469

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s per capita personal income increased by $2,093 (4.7%) from 2010 to 2011. Per capita personal income increased in all 50 states from 2010 to 2011, with an average increase of 4.9%. In 1950, Virginia ranked 34th out of the 48 states in per capita personal income.

g

g

definitions Personal income is the income from net earnings (wages, salaries, and other labor income); property (personal dividend, interest, and rental income); and transfer payments such as Social Security and unemployment benefits. Personal income is measured before the deduction of personal income taxes and other personal taxes. Sources: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (Dec 2012), data estimates for 1950 updated Sept 2012; U.S. Census Bureau annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

4

annual unemployment rate
(2011) in %

1 2 3 4 5 5 7 7 9 9 11 11 11 14 15 15 17 17 19 20 21 21 23 24 25 25 27 27 29 30 30 32 32 34 34 36 37 38 38 38 41 42 42 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Nevada California Rhode Island Mississippi Florida North Carolina Michigan South Carolina Georgia Illinois Arizona Kentucky Oregon New Jersey Tennessee Washington Alabama Indiana Connecticut Idaho Missouri Ohio Colorado New York 50-State average Arkansas West Virginia Pennsylvania Texas Alaska Maine Wisconsin Massachusetts New Mexico Delaware Louisiana Maryland Montana Hawaii Kansas Utah Minnesota Oklahoma Virginia Wyoming Iowa Vermont New Hampshire South Dakota Nebraska North Dakota

13.5 11.7 11.3 10.7 10.5 10.5 10.3 10.3 9.8 9.8 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.3 9.2 9.2 9.0 9.0 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.6 8.3 8.2 8.1 8.0 8.0 7.9 7.9 7.6 7.5 7.5 7.4 7.4 7.3 7.3 7.0 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.4 6.2 6.2 6.0 5.9 5.6 5.4 4.7 4.4 3.5

42nd 6.2%

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s annual unemployment rate decreased by 0.7 percentage point from 2010 to 2011. The U.S. unemployment rate including the District of Columbia (not included in the 50-state average) was 8.9% in 2011, also a 0.7 percentage point decrease from 2010. Virginia’s monthly unemployment rate (preliminary data) in December 2012 was 5.5%.

g

g

definitions The unemployment rate is the percentage of people 16 years or older who do not have a job but are available for and have looked for work in the past four weeks. The unemployed are workers expecting to be recalled to a job from which they were laid off, or waiting to start a new job within 30 days, but not those who are unemployed, available, but not looking for work. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (annual rate, Feb 2012; monthly rate, Jan 2013).

5

perCentage of population liVing in poVerty in paSt 12 monthS (2011)
1 2 3 4 5 5 7 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 29 31 31 33 33 35 35 37 38 39 40 40 42 43 43 45 46 47 48 49 50 Mississippi New Mexico Louisiana Arkansas Georgia Kentucky Alabama Arizona South Carolina West Virginia Texas Tennessee North Carolina Michigan Oregon Oklahoma Florida California Idaho Ohio Indiana New York Nevada Missouri 50-State average Illinois Montana Rhode Island Maine South Dakota Washington Kansas Pennsylvania Colorado Utah Nebraska Wisconsin Iowa North Dakota Hawaii Delaware Minnesota Massachusetts Vermont Virginia Wyoming Connecticut Alaska New Jersey Maryland New Hampshire 22.6 21.5 20.4 19.5 19.1 19.1 19.0 19.0 18.9 18.6 18.5 18.3 17.9 17.5 17.5 17.2 17.0 16.6 16.5 16.4 16.0 16.0 15.9 15.8 15.2 15.0 14.8 14.7 14.1 13.9 13.9 13.8 13.8 13.5 13.5 13.1 13.1 12.8 12.2 12.0 11.9 11.9 11.6 11.5 11.5 11.3 10.9 10.5 10.4 10.1 8.8
in %

43rd 11.5%

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

There were 931,109 Virginians living in poverty in 2011, an increase of 8% from 2010. There were 48.5 million Americans living in poverty in 2011, an increase of 5% from 2010.

g

definitions The 2011 poverty threshold, as defined by the Census Bureau, was $22,811 for a family of four including two children. This threshold is updated annually for changes in the cost of living. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Poverty: 2010 and 2011, American Community Survey Briefs (Sept 2012).

6

per Capita State & loCal reVenue*
(FY 2010) in $

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Alaska Wyoming New York California North Dakota Massachusetts Wisconsin Rhode Island New Jersey Vermont Connecticut Delaware Nebraska Hawaii Minnesota Ohio Oregon New Mexico Washington Louisiana 50-State average Iowa Colorado Maryland Pennsylvania Montana Illinois Mississippi Michigan Maine Kansas South Carolina West Virginia North Carolina Florida Virginia Oklahoma New Hampshire Kentucky Utah Missouri Tennessee Alabama South Dakota Nevada Arkansas Indiana Arizona Texas Georgia Idaho

22,052 17,863 16,117 12,096 11,598 11,597 11,545 11,361 11,338 11,194 10,982 10,874 10,830 10,764 10,759 10,752 10,623 10,574 10,543 10,299 10,249 10,195 10,087 9,937 9,783 9,746 9,642 9,620 9,553 9,500 9,256 9,119 9,086 8,966 8,898 8,892 8,731 8,663 8,578 8,567 8,560 8,552 8,547 8,512 8,482 8,383 8,372 8,359 8,284 7,937 7,871

35th $8,892

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s per capita state and local revenue increased by $2,963 (50%) from 2009 to 2010. Nationally (50-state average), per capita state and local government revenues increased by 42% from 2009 to 2010. The primary source of Virginia’s state and local government revenue in 2010 was taxes (44% of revenue); tuition, state hospital charges, interest earnings, and other sources (23%), and the federal government (15%).

g

g

* Per capita state and local revenue numbers in Tables 8 and 9 do not sum to the combined per capita state and local revenues in this table because the Census Bureau eliminates intergovernmental transactions—such as state payments to localities for car tax relief—from combined state and local amounts. Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Surveys of State and Local Government Finances (Oct 2012) and annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

7

State & loCal reVenue aS perCentage of perSonal inCome (FY 2010)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Alaska Wyoming New York New Mexico Mississippi Wisconsin Ohio Oregon California West Virginia Montana South Carolina Vermont Michigan Louisiana Delaware Nebraska North Dakota Rhode Island Iowa Utah 50-State average Kentucky Hawaii Maine North Carolina Arkansas Alabama Minnesota Washington Idaho Arizona Indiana Oklahoma Tennessee Pennsylvania Kansas Colorado Nevada Missouri Florida Georgia Illinois Massachusetts New Jersey Texas South Dakota Maryland Virginia Connecticut New Hampshire 50.4 39.4 32.8 32.1 31.2 30.4 29.9 29.6 28.9 28.6 28.3 28.3 28.2 27.8 27.7 27.6 27.5 27.3 27.0 26.9 26.7 26.5 26.4 26.3 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.4 25.3 25.1 24.9 24.7 24.6 24.6 24.4 24.2 24.0 24.0 23.7 23.5 23.2 23.0 22.9 22.7 22.5 21.7 21.5 20.4 20.1 19.8 19.7
in %

48th 20.1%

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia has ranked in the lowest five states in state and local revenue as a percentage of personal income since 2004. Virginia ranked 48th, at 19%, on the measure of state and local revenue as a percentage of gross state product.

g

definitions

Gross state product is the sum of all value added by industries within a state.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Surveys of State and Local Government Finances (Oct 2012); U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (personal income, Sept 2012; gross state product, June 2012).

8

per Capita State reVenue
(FY 2010) in $

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Alaska Wyoming New York Vermont North Dakota Delaware Hawaii New Mexico Wisconsin Rhode Island Ohio Massachusetts New Jersey Montana Minnesota Connecticut California Oregon West Virginia Louisiana 50-State average Mississippi Maine Iowa Arkansas Michigan Washington Pennsylvania Maryland Kentucky Oklahoma South Carolina North Carolina New Hampshire Kansas Virginia Utah Missouri Idaho South Dakota Alabama Illinois Colorado Nebraska Indiana Nevada Arizona Florida Texas Tennessee Georgia

17,335 13,131 10,078 9,588 9,069 8,864 8,629 8,464 8,449 8,419 7,768 7,683 7,561 7,545 7,511 7,493 7,482 7,478 7,378 7,079 7,063 7,063 6,999 6,938 6,803 6,735 6,571 6,549 6,463 6,388 6,301 6,225 6,011 5,945 5,784 5,777 5,773 5,656 5,639 5,614 5,605 5,552 5,545 5,498 5,481 5,197 5,119 4,871 4,767 4,675 4,621

35th $5,777

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s state government collected $46.4 billion in revenue in 2010. Virginia’s per capita state revenue increased by $2,468 (75%) from 2009 to 2010, and increased by an average of 62% for all states over this period. Virginia’s primary state government revenue sources in 2010 were taxes (35%); other sources such as tuition (24%); and the federal government (20%).

g

g

Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Surveys of State and Local Government Finances (Oct 2012) and annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

9

per Capita loCal reVenue
(FY 2010)

New York Wyoming Alaska California Nebraska Colorado Washington Illinois Massachusetts New Jersey Minnesota Florida Pennsylvania Nevada Tennessee Kansas Wisconsin Ohio Maryland Louisiana Connecticut Texas Iowa 50-State average 24 Michigan 25 Oregon 26 Arizona 27 Virginia 28 Georgia 29 Indiana Virginia without car tax relief 30 Alabama 31 North Carolina 32 North Dakota 33 Mississippi 34 Vermont 35 New Mexico 36 South Carolina 37 Rhode Island 38 New Hampshire 39 Missouri 40 South Dakota 41 Utah 42 Maine 43 Idaho 44 Montana 45 Oklahoma 46 Delaware 47 Kentucky 48 Arkansas 49 West Virginia 50 Hawaii

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

8,998 8,353 7,163 7,035 6,532 5,761 5,605 5,457 5,395 5,288 5,261 5,022 4,955 4,921 4,880 4,845 4,834 4,761 4,760 4,727 4,724 4,724 4,703 4,680 4,664 4,645 4,553 4,471 4,430 4,398 4,352 4,314 4,269 4,269 4,129 4,110 4,057 4,056 4,039 4,009 3,932 3,842 3,842 3,638 3,549 3,491 3,478 3,451 3,297 3,199 2,861 2,303

in $

27th $4,471

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s local governments collected $35.9 billion in revenue in 2010. Virginia’s per capita local revenue increased by $443 (11%) from 2009 to 2010, and increased by an average of $419 (9.5%) for local governments in most (46) states over this period. Virginia’s primary local government revenue sources in 2010 were taxes (41%); the state, including $950 million for car tax relief (29%); and other sources such as fees and interest earnings (16%).

g

g

Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Surveys of State and Local Government Finances (Oct 2012) and annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

10

perCentage of total State & loCal tax reVenue from indiVidual inCome tax (FY 2010)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Oregon Maryland New York Kentucky Massachusetts North Carolina Virginia Ohio Connecticut Minnesota California Pennsylvania Utah Idaho Missouri Wisconsin Kansas West Virginia Georgia Indiana Hawaii Iowa Maine Montana Arkansas Delaware Nebraska South Carolina Alabama New Jersey Colorado Oklahoma Rhode Island 50-State average Vermont Michigan Illinois Mississippi New Mexico Louisiana Arizona North Dakota New Hampshire Tennessee Alaska Florida Nevada South Dakota Texas Washington Wyoming 37.7 35.6 31.2 30.4 30.3 27.9 27.8 27.7 26.9 26.5 26.4 25.4 25.3 24.6 24.3 23.7 23.6 23.5 23.3 23.3 23.2 23.0 22.3 22.2 22.0 22.0 20.6 20.3 20.3 20.2 20.0 19.5 18.9 18.7 16.6 16.4 15.8 15.1 14.6 14.2 12.3 8.7 1.6 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
in %

7th 27.8%

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s per capita individual income tax was $1,079 in 2010, a decrease of $87 from 2009. Nationwide, 40% of state and local government revenue was from taxes in 2010, and about half of that was individual income taxes. The seven states at the bottom of the table have no state individual income tax. These states raise revenue via sales, mineral severance, and other taxes. Two other states, New Hampshire and Tennessee, tax only dividend and interest income.

g

g

Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Surveys of State and Local Government Finances (Oct 2012) and annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

11

per Capita State & loCal taxeS
(FY 2010)

Alaska New York Wyoming Connecticut New Jersey North Dakota Massachusetts Maryland Hawaii Vermont California Minnesota Rhode Island Maine Wisconsin Illinois Pennsylvania Colorado 50-State average 19 Nebraska 20 Kansas 21 Delaware 22 Washington 23 Iowa 24 Virginia 25 New Hampshire Virginia without car tax relief 26 Ohio 27 Nevada 28 Michigan 29 Indiana 30 Louisiana 31 Florida 32 West Virginia 33 Texas 34 North Carolina 35 Oregon 36 Arkansas 37 Montana 38 New Mexico 39 Kentucky 40 Missouri 41 South Dakota 42 Georgia 43 Arizona 44 Oklahoma 45 Mississippi 46 Utah 47 Tennessee 48 South Carolina 49 Alabama 50 Idaho

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

8,636 7,024 6,164 5,989 5,807 5,156 5,106 4,851 4,841 4,719 4,623 4,587 4,571 4,398 4,285 4,182 4,144 4,061 4,037 4,027 3,992 3,979 3,971 3,917 3,885 3,812 3,767 3,762 3,748 3,615 3,595 3,554 3,495 3,490 3,425 3,421 3,419 3,249 3,248 3,170 3,167 3,164 3,164 3,101 3,061 3,032 3,021 2,998 2,870 2,838 2,776 2,763

in $

24th $3,885

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia collected $31.2 billion in state and local taxes in 2010, a decrease of $85 (2.1%) from 2009. Per capita taxes collected by all state and local governments increased slightly, by an average of 0.13% from 2009 to 2010.

g

definitions State and local taxes, as defined by the Census Bureau, include car tax amounts collected by localities but do not include money paid to localities by the state for car tax relief (in Virginia, $950 million in FY 2010). Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Surveys of State and Local Government Finances (Oct 2012) and annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

12

State & loCal taxeS aS perCentage of perSonal inCome (FY 2010)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Alaska New York Wyoming North Dakota Maine Vermont Hawaii New Jersey Wisconsin California West Virginia Rhode Island Connecticut Minnesota Indiana Michigan Nevada Ohio Kansas Iowa 50-State average Pennsylvania Nebraska Delaware Arkansas Massachusetts Maryland Illinois North Carolina Mississippi Kentucky Colorado New Mexico Louisiana Oregon Washington Montana Utah Florida Arizona Georgia Texas South Carolina Virginia Idaho Missouri New Hampshire Oklahoma Alabama Tennessee South Dakota 19.7 14.3 13.6 12.1 12.0 11.9 11.8 11.5 11.3 11.0 11.0 10.9 10.8 10.8 10.6 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.3 10.2 10.2 10.1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.4 9.3 9.1 9.1 9.0 9.0 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.5 8.2 8.2 8.0
in %

43rd 8.8%

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s state and local taxes as a percentage of personal income decreased from 9.2% to 8.8% from 2009 to 2010. Virginia’s state and local taxes were 8.3% of gross state product in 2010, which is less than the 50-state average of 9.8% for this measure.

g

definitions State and local taxes, as defined by the Census Bureau, include car tax amounts collected by localities but do not include money paid to localities by the state for car tax relief (in Virginia, $950 million in FY 2010). Gross state product is the sum of all value added by industries within a state. Sources: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Surveys of State and Local Government Finances (Oct 2012) and U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (personal income, Sept 2012; gross state product, June 2012).

13

per Capita loCal taxeS
(FY 2010) in $

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

New York New Jersey Connecticut Wyoming Colorado Alaska Maryland New Hampshire Illinois Rhode Island Massachusetts Nebraska Texas Virginia Florida California Pennsylvania Maine Wisconsin Kansas Ohio Iowa Louisiana 50-State average Nevada Washington Georgia South Dakota Missouri Oregon Arizona Indiana Minnesota Michigan Hawaii South Carolina North Dakota Tennessee North Carolina Utah Oklahoma Montana New Mexico Alabama Kentucky West Virginia Mississippi Delaware Idaho Vermont Arkansas

3,749 2,860 2,553 2,414 2,360 2,303 2,220 2,198 2,194 2,130 2,042 1,945 1,865 1,840 1,823 1,816 1,772 1,769 1,761 1,721 1,718 1,685 1,627 1,620 1,590 1,582 1,578 1,546 1,545 1,520 1,473 1,469 1,347 1,324 1,292 1,261 1,234 1,216 1,171 1,163 1,149 1,086 1,075 1,066 975 916 910 901 884 707 662

14th $1,840

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia localities collected $14.8 billion in local taxes in 2010, a decrease of $0.1 billion from 2009. Virginia’s primary local government tax revenue sources in 2010 were property taxes (76%) and sales and gross receipts taxes (16%).

g

definitions Local taxes, as defined by the Census Bureau, include car tax amounts collected by localities but not money paid to localities by the state for car tax relief (in Virginia, $950 million in FY 2010). Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Surveys of State and Local Government Finances (Oct 2012) and annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

14

per Capita State taxeS
(FY 2010) in $

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Alaska Vermont North Dakota Wyoming Hawaii Connecticut New York Minnesota Delaware Massachusetts New Jersey California Maryland Maine Arkansas West Virginia Wisconsin Rhode Island 50-State average Washington Pennsylvania Michigan Kansas North Carolina Iowa Kentucky Montana Nevada Indiana Mississippi New Mexico Nebraska Virginia Ohio Illinois Louisiana Oregon Oklahoma Idaho Utah Alabama Colorado Florida Tennessee Missouri South Dakota New Hampshire Arizona South Carolina Texas Georgia

6,333 4,012 3,922 3,750 3,548 3,436 3,276 3,240 3,078 3,065 2,946 2,808 2,631 2,629 2,588 2,573 2,524 2,441 2,417 2,389 2,372 2,291 2,271 2,251 2,232 2,192 2,162 2,158 2,126 2,111 2,095 2,081 2,045 2,044 1,988 1,927 1,899 1,883 1,879 1,835 1,711 1,701 1,671 1,654 1,618 1,618 1,614 1,589 1,577 1,560 1,522

32nd $2,045

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia collected $16.4 billion in state taxes in 2010, a decrease of $0.2 billion from 2009. Virginia’s primary state tax revenue sources in 2010 were individual income taxes (53%) and sales and gross receipts taxes (36%).

g

Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Surveys of State and Local Government Finances (Oct 2012) and annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

15

per Capita federal grantS
(Federal FY 2011) in $

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Alaska New York New Mexico Massachusetts Rhode Island North Dakota Maine West Virginia Louisiana Mississippi South Dakota Montana Maryland Delaware Wyoming California Minnesota Kentucky Pennsylvania Oregon Illinois Arizona Ohio Wisconsin Missouri Hawaii 50-State average Alabama North Carolina Iowa Tennessee Oklahoma Arkansas Michigan Washington South Carolina Texas New Jersey Idaho Kansas Nebraska Indiana Vermont Florida Colorado Virginia Utah Connecticut Nevada New Hampshire Georgia

3,874 2,358 2,305 2,156 2,093 2,047 2,033 1,994 1,924 1,914 1,820 1,803 1,802 1,764 1,760 1,746 1,740 1,739 1,726 1,705 1,655 1,635 1,628 1,628 1,614 1,600 1,594 1,582 1,574 1,567 1,562 1,556 1,532 1,519 1,493 1,368 1,344 1,326 1,325 1,254 1,248 1,243 1,173 1,128 1,094 1,075 1,029 754 734 670 479

45th $1,075

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia received $8.7 billion in federal grants in 2011. Virginia ranks 20th by this measure of total federal grant amounts. The top three recipients of federal grants in Virginia were the Department of Medical Assistance Services (which administers Medicaid), Department of Transportation, and Department of Social Services.

g

definitions Federal grants data include obligations incurred by federal agencies for grant awards, such as formula grants (e.g., Medicaid) and other types of financial assistance, such as loans and cooperative agreements. Source: USAspending.gov (Dec 2012); U.S. Census Bureau annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

16

per Capita federal expenditureS
(Federal FY 2011) in $

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Florida Louisiana South Carolina Hawaii Virginia Mississippi North Dakota Delaware Texas Maryland New Jersey Maine New Mexico Alabama Connecticut Alaska Rhode Island Massachusetts 50-State average North Carolina West Virginia Arizona New York Washington South Dakota Pennsylvania Kentucky Missouri Tennessee California Montana Oregon Idaho Iowa Arkansas Georgia Vermont New Hampshire Wisconsin Wyoming Oklahoma Colorado Nebraska Minnesota Indiana Michigan Ohio Kansas Illinois Nevada Utah

30,313 30,099 16,456 15,639 14,463 13,127 12,721 12,347 11,451 11,307 11,121 10,917 10,085 9,953 9,914 9,824 9,797 9,381 9,296 8,512 8,085 8,006 7,973 7,774 7,645 7,565 7,553 7,370 7,309 7,259 7,213 7,206 7,066 6,662 6,535 6,500 6,385 6,372 6,355 6,336 6,330 6,313 6,078 5,987 5,984 5,944 5,907 5,851 5,781 5,398 4,650

5th $14,463

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Federal expenditures in Virginia were $117.1 billion in 2011. Virginia ranks 6th by this measure of total federal expenditures. Virginia was the top recipient of federal contract awards in 2011, with almost $60 billion in contracts, mostly with the Department of Defense.

g

definitions Federal expenditures in the states consist of grants, procurement, salaries and wages, retirement and disability payments, and other direct payments such as Medicare benefits, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly known as Food Stamps), and student financial assistance. Sources: USAspending.gov (Dec 2012); U.S. Census Bureau annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

17

per Capita State expenditureS
(FY 2011)

Alaska West Virginia Wyoming Delaware Oregon Hawaii Massachusetts Vermont Wisconsin Mississippi Rhode Island New Mexico North Dakota Connecticut Arkansas New York Louisiana Maine 50-State average 19 Montana 20 Colorado 21 Iowa 22 Minnesota 23 Kentucky 24 Maryland 25 California 26 Oklahoma 27 Pennsylvania 28 New Jersey 29 Nebraska 30 North Carolina 31 Virginia 32 Ohio 33 Kansas Virginia without car tax relief 34 Washington 35 Michigan 36 South Carolina 37 Tennessee 38 South Dakota 39 Utah 40 Alabama 41 Arizona 42 Idaho 43 Georgia 44 New Hampshire 45 Indiana 46 Missouri 47 Illinois 48 Texas 49 Florida 50 Nevada

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

19,265 11,425 10,787 9,273 8,637 8,162 8,091 7,758 7,501 7,462 7,459 7,411 7,337 7,245 6,972 6,821 6,820 6,230 6,202 6,175 6,042 5,895 5,875 5,821 5,808 5,724 5,628 5,425 5,344 5,322 5,295 5,228 5,223 5,115 5,111 4,923 4,919 4,742 4,700 4,696 4,504 4,377 4,338 4,165 4,122 4,051 4,050 3,844 3,815 3,718 3,435 3,123

in $

31st $5,228

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s total state expenditures were $42.3 billion in 2011, an increase of $1.5 billion (3.8%) from 2010. Nationwide, total state expenditures were $1.7 trillion in 2011, an increase of $45 billion (2.8%) from 2010.

g

Sources: National Association of State Budget Officers State Expenditure Report: Examining Fiscal 2010-2012 State Spending (Dec 2012); U.S. Census Bureau annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

18

perCentage Change in total State expenditureS* (FY 2002-FY 2011)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Wyoming West Virginia Mississippi Colorado Massachusetts North Dakota Montana Louisiana North Carolina Vermont Nevada Oregon Arkansas New York Pennsylvania New Mexico Rhode Island 50-State average Oklahoma Maryland Tennessee South Dakota Utah Virginia Minnesota Texas Kansas Maine Nebraska Kentucky New Hampshire California Indiana Ohio Idaho Iowa Delaware Wisconsin New Jersey South Carolina Missouri Georgia Hawaii Arizona Michigan Washington Connecticut Illinois Florida Alabama Alaska
in %

167 102 62 59 55 52 39 38 33 32 31 28 25 23 22 22 21 21 20 18 17 17 16 14 14 14 13 13 12 10 10 9 9 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 2 0 -1 -2 -2 -3 -4 -7 n.d.

23rd 14%

No Data

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Total state expenditures on a nominal basis (not adjusted for inflation and population) increased by 59% in Virginia, and by an average of 65% nationwide from 2002 to 2011.

* Adjusted for inflation (25%) and population growth (11.2% in Virginia) over the 2002-2011 period. Includes capital spending. Fiscal year 2002 data for Alaska is not available. Sources: National Association of State Budget Officers State Expenditure Report: Examining Fiscal 2010-2012 State Spending and 2002 State Expenditure Report (Dec 2012, 2003); U.S. Census Bureau annual population estimates (Dec 2002, Dec 2011) ; U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics; JLARC Review of State Spending: 2011 Update.

19

per Capita general fund expenditureS
(FY 2011)

Alaska Connecticut Wyoming Hawaii Delaware Massachusetts New Jersey Minnesota Rhode Island New York New Mexico California Ohio Wisconsin North Dakota Maryland 50-State average 17 Washington 18 Maine 19 West Virginia 20 Virginia 21 Indiana 22 Kentucky 23 Kansas 24 Pennsylvania 25 Illinois 26 North Carolina Virginia without car tax relief 27 Nebraska 28 Iowa 29 Montana 30 Louisiana 31 Texas 32 Tennessee 33 Utah 34 Georgia 35 Idaho 36 Arkansas 37 Oregon 38 Mississippi 39 Alabama 40 Colorado 41 South Dakota 42 Oklahoma 43 Arizona 44 Missouri 45 Florida 46 Nevada 47 Vermont 48 South Carolina 49 New Hampshire 50 Michigan

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

12,286 5,006 4,986 3,614 3,606 3,458 3,166 3,056 2,812 2,739 2,586 2,429 2,394 2,375 2,361 2,279 2,271 2,170 2,153 2,032 2,030 2,000 1,989 1,974 1,968 1,961 1,916 1,913 1,804 1,748 1,704 1,701 1,654 1,645 1,643 1,592 1,546 1,514 1,463 1,448 1,425 1,422 1,416 1,288 1,281 1,270 1,248 1,217 1,188 1,127 1,006 846

in $

20th $2,030

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s per capita general fund expenditure increased by $157 from 2010 to 2011. Virginia’s total general fund expenditures were $16 billion in 2011, an increase of $1 billion (9.6%) from 2010. General fund and non-general fund expenditures made up almost 74% of Virginia’s total state expenditures in 2011, with funds from the federal government and bond sales making up the remainder.

g

g

definitions The general fund is the predominant fund for financing a state’s operations and receives revenues from broad-based state taxes. Specific functions, however, are financed differently from state to state. Sources: National Association of State Budget Officers State Expenditure Report: Examining Fiscal 2010-2012 State Spending (Dec 2012); U.S. Census Bureau annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

20

general fund expenditureS aS perCentage of perSonal inCome (FY 2011)
Alaska Wyoming Delaware Connecticut Hawaii New Mexico Minnesota Massachusetts Rhode Island Ohio West Virginia New Jersey Wisconsin Kentucky Indiana Maine California 50-State average 18 New York 19 North Carolina 20 Washington 21 Utah 22 North Dakota 23 Kansas 24 Idaho 25 Montana 26 Pennsylvania 27 Mississippi 28 Illinois 29 Tennessee 30 Arkansas 31 Maryland 32 Georgia 33 Louisiana 34 Virginia 35 Nebraska 36 Iowa Virginia without car tax relief 37 Texas 38 Alabama 39 Oregon 40 Arizona 41 South Carolina 42 Oklahoma 43 Missouri 44 Nevada 45 Colorado 46 South Dakota 47 Florida 48 Vermont 49 Michigan 50 New Hampshire 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 26.5 10.3 8.7 8.6 8.3 7.5 6.8 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.8 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.3 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1 2.8 2.3 2.2
in %

34th 4.4%

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s general fund expenditures as a percentage of personal income increased from 4.2% to 4.4% from 2010 to 2011.

definitions The general fund is the predominant fund for financing a state’s operations and receives revenues from broad-based state taxes. Specific functions, however, are financed differently from state to state. Sources: National Association of State Budget Officers State Expenditure Report: Examining Fiscal 2010-2012 State Spending (Dec 2012); U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (Dec 2012).

21
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

per Capita State & loCal deBt outStanding (FY 2010)
New York Massachusetts Alaska Rhode Island Connecticut New Jersey California Illinois Washington Nevada Kansas Colorado Texas Kentucky Pennsylvania Hawaii Oregon Delaware Minnesota New Hampshire 50-State average South Carolina New Mexico Florida Indiana Michigan Arizona Louisiana Virginia Nebraska Wisconsin Vermont Missouri Maryland Maine South Dakota Utah North Dakota Ohio Montana Tennessee West Virginia Alabama North Carolina Georgia Oklahoma Iowa Arkansas Mississippi Wyoming Idaho
in $

6,678 11,279 8,935 9,024 8,451 6,929 3,989 4,782 4,075 1,640 2,266 3,310 1,664 3,311 3,518 5,648 3,520 6,129 2,200 6,339 3,850 3,401 4,231 2,194 3,641 3,255 2,177 3,838 3,122 1,273 3,921 5,580 3,406 4,230 4,546 4,265 2,334 3,259 2,600 4,440 918 3,853 1,836 1,972 1,420 2,650 1,685 1,454 2,178 2,682 2,465

sTaTe

lOCal sTaTe & lOCal

9,649 3,556 5,334 2,565 2,968 4,214 6,831 5,807 6,463 8,784 7,851 6,739 8,230 6,307 6,100 3,619 5,337 2,538 6,342 2,009 4,367 4,814 3,922 5,800 4,238 4,572 5,614 3,897 4,577 6,307 3,649 1,874 4,020 3,123 2,167 2,427 4,291 3,364 4,011 1,607 5,115 1,956 3,945 3,450 3,980 2,323 3,216 3,236 2,480 1,693 1,433

16,327 14,836 14,268 11,589 11,418 11,143 10,820 10,590 10,538 10,424 10,117 10,050 9,895 9,618 9,618 9,267 8,857 8,667 8,542 8,348 8,217 8,215 8,153 7,993 7,879 7,826 7,791 7,735 7,699 7,580 7,571 7,454 7,426 7,353 6,713 6,692 6,624 6,623 6,611 6,048 6,033 5,809 5,781 5,422 5,400 4,972 4,902 4,689 4,658 4,376 3,898

28th $7,699

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s per capita state and local government debt outstanding increased by $253 (3%) from 2009 to 2010. Virginia’s total state and local debt outstanding in 2010 was $61.8 billion, an increase of $2.8 billion (5%) from 2009. Nationwide, total state and local debt outstanding increased by 3.8% over the one-year period.

g

g

Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Surveys of State and Local Government Finances (Oct 2012) and annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

22
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 12 12 12 12 12 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 28 28 28 28 28 28 34 34 36 36 36 39 39 39 39 39 44 45 45 47 47 49 50

Bond ratingS
(deCeMber 2012)

Virginia Delaware Georgia Iowa* Maryland Missouri North Carolina Utah Indiana* Wyoming* Nebraska* South Carolina Tennessee Texas Vermont Florida Alaska New Mexico Massachusetts Minnesota Ohio Oregon Washington Idaho* Kansas* North Dakota* South Dakota* Alabama Montana New Hampshire Pennsylvania West Virginia Oklahoma Arkansas Colorado* Maine Mississippi Nevada Hawaii Louisiana New York Rhode Island Wisconsin Connecticut Kentucky* Michigan New Jersey Arizona* Illinois California

AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AAA AAA AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA AA AA AA AA AA+ AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AAAAAAAAA+ A-

s&P

MOOdY’s

Aaa Aaa Aaa Aaa Aaa Aaa Aaa Aaa Aaa --Aaa Aaa Aaa Aaa Aa1 Aaa Aaa Aa1 Aa1 Aa1 Aa1 Aa1 Aa1 Aa1 Aa1 -Aa1 Aa1 Aa1 Aa1 Aa1 Aa2 Aa1 Aa1 Aa2 Aa2 Aa2 Aa2 Aa2 Aa2 Aa2 Aa2 Aa3 Aa2 Aa2 Aa3 Aa3 A2 A1

FITCH

AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA ---AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AA+ -AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ ----AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ --AA+ AA+ AA+ AA AA AA AA AA AA AAAAAA-A A-

AAA

States with AAA Bond Ratings

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia has maintained a AAA rating since 1938, longer than any other state. All seven states with a AAA rating and some general obligation debt as of December 2011 retained that rating. Average bond ratings decreased for three states and rose for two other states from December 2011 to December 2012.

g

* States with no outstanding general obligation debt. Ratings are rates these states would likely receive if they decided to issue general obligation debt. definitions States are ranked based on the average value of their bond ratings on a 10-point scale, with a AAA rating equal to 10 points. Source: Virginia Department of Treasury (Dec 2012).

23

per Capita mediCaid expenditureS
(FFY 2010) in $

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

New York Vermont Rhode Island Massachusetts Maine Alaska New Mexico Connecticut Louisiana Pennsylvania Arizona Delaware Minnesota Mississippi West Virginia Missouri Arkansas Tennessee Ohio Kentucky 50-State average Maryland Illinois Michigan New Jersey Wisconsin North Carolina California South Carolina Oklahoma Texas Hawaii Washington Oregon Iowa North Dakota New Hampshire Alabama South Dakota Wyoming Montana Nebraska Florida Indiana Idaho Kansas Virginia Colorado Georgia Utah Nevada

2,687 1,998 1,830 1,797 1,730 1,690 1,667 1,607 1,532 1,476 1,463 1,432 1,429 1,396 1,376 1,354 1,349 1,340 1,323 1,290 1,227 1,224 1,194 1,180 1,162 1,146 1,141 1,129 1,115 1,095 1,077 1,047 1,047 1,044 1,023 1,019 1,011 992 960 952 945 945 923 912 878 853 806 803 802 618 558

46th $806

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s per capita Medicaid expenditure increased by $77 from 2009 to 2010. Virginia’s total Medicaid expenditures were $6.5 billion in 2010*, an increase of $0.7 billion (12%) from 2009. At 12%, Virginia ranked 44th on the measure of Medicaid enrollment as a percentage of total population in 2009.

g

g

* Paid with 61% federal and 39% state funds, which represents an increase in the federal matching percentage for Medicaid from Oct 1, 2008–Dec 31, 2010, as provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. definitions Total Medicaid expenditures include state and federal spending on benefit payments and disproprotionate share hospital payments, but not Medicare, the State Children’s Health Insurance Program, or other medical assistance programs. Sources: Kaiser Family Foundation statehealthfacts.org (2012); U.S. Census Bureau annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

24

perCentage of total State expenditureS for puBliC aSSiStanCe (FY 2010)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Maine Tennessee Rhode Island Minnesota Massachusetts Florida Arizona Mississippi Vermont New Mexico West Virginia Kentucky New Hampshire Arkansas Oklahoma Texas Missouri Iowa Nebraska Pennsylvania Maryland Illinois Indiana South Dakota New York Alabama 50-State average Georgia South Carolina Delaware Idaho Wisconsin Kansas Connecticut Ohio New Jersey Louisiana North Carolina Washington Virginia Michigan Montana Oregon Hawaii Utah Alaska North Dakota Nevada California Wyoming Colorado 32.0 31.1 27.4 26.9 26.0 25.4 24.8 24.5 24.4 24.4 24.3 24.2 24.0 23.8 23.7 23.6 23.5 23.5 23.4 23.4 23.4 22.8 22.5 21.9 21.8 21.5 21.4 21.3 21.1 21.1 21.0 20.8 20.1 20.0 19.9 19.0 18.8 18.5 18.4 18.4 18.4 18.0 17.9 17.4 16.3 16.0 15.9 14.1 14.0 12.7 12.5
in %

39th 18.4%

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’ s per capita expenditure for public assistance was $1,000 in 2010. More than half (60%) of Virginia’s public assistance expenditures were paid with federal grant funds in 2010.

g

definitions State public assistance expenditures include cash assistance through Supplemental Security Income, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, and Medicaid; payments to vendors for program services and to the federal government to offset prescription drug costs under Medicare Part D; and construction and maintenance of government-funded housing and nursing homes for low-income persons. Sources: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Surveys of State and Local Government Finances (Oct 2012), State Government Finances Summary: 2011 (Dec 2012), and annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

25

perCentage of population under 65 yearS With health inSuranCe (2011)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Massachusetts Hawaii Connecticut Vermont North Dakota Minnesota Iowa Delaware Maine Wisconsin Pennsylvania New York Indiana Rhode Island Nebraska Michigan New Hampshire Alabama South Dakota Tennessee Virginia Maryland Kansas Ohio Utah Oregon Washington 50-State average Kentucky Illinois West Virginia Missouri Colorado New Jersey Mississippi North Carolina Arizona Idaho Oklahoma Alaska Wyoming Arkansas Georgia California Montana South Carolina New Mexico Florida Louisiana Nevada Texas 96.2 91.2 90.2 89.9 89.5 89.4 88.6 88.4 88.2 88.0 87.3 86.2 86.1 86.0 85.9 85.9 85.5 85.2 85.0 85.0 84.7 84.4 84.2 84.1 84.0 84.0 83.7 83.6 83.5 83.3 82.9 82.7 82.4 82.4 81.7 81.2 80.6 80.5 80.4 80.4 79.9 79.8 78.7 78.1 78.0 77.9 77.1 76.4 76.1 74.1 73.8
in %

21st 84.7%

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

The percentage of persons under 65 covered by health insurance in Virginia increased from 84.3% to 84.7% from 2010 to 2011.

definitions The Census Bureau broadly classifies health insurance coverage as a plan provided through an employer or a union or purchased by an individual from a private company or government coverage, which includes Medicare, Medicaid, military health care, the Children’s Health Insurance Program, and individual state health plans. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey 2012 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

26

infant mortality rate
(2009)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Mississippi Louisiana Alabama Tennessee North Carolina Delaware Oklahoma Indiana West Virginia Arkansas Ohio Michigan Georgia Maryland Pennsylvania Missouri Virginia South Carolina Kansas Kentucky Illinois Florida Alaska South Dakota 50-State average Colorado Vermont Rhode Island Hawaii North Dakota Wisconsin Arizona Texas Wyoming Montana Nevada Maine Connecticut Idaho Nebraska New York Utah New Mexico New Jersey Massachusetts California Washington New Hampshire Oregon Minnesota Iowa

10.1 8.7 8.3 8.0 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.7 7.5 7.4 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.9 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.6

17th 7.2

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s infant mortality rate increased from 6.9 to 7.2 from 2008 to 2009, the last year for which national-level data is available. The Virginia Department of Health reported an infant mortality rate of 6.7 for the state in 2011.

g

definitions Infant mortality is defined by the number of infant deaths (before age one) per 1,000 live births. Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 60, No. 3 (Dec 2011); Virginia Department of Health Division of Health Statistics at www.vdh.virginia.gov/healthstats/stats.htm (Dec 2012).

27

State and loCal per-pupil funding, pre-k-12* (2009-10)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 New York Wyoming New Jersey Connecticut Massachusetts Vermont Maryland Alaska Pennsylvania Rhode Island New Hampshire Delaware Maine Ohio Hawaii Indiana Wisconsin Illinois Minnesota 50-State average Nebraska Virginia Michigan North Dakota North Carolina Kansas Washington Iowa Louisiana Colorado Oregon Montana West Virginia South Carolina Nevada Georgia Missouri California Arkansas Texas New Mexico Kentucky South Dakota Florida Alabama Oklahoma Tennessee Arizona Mississippi Utah Idaho 19,110 18,100 17,084 16,065 15,488 15,420 14,521 14,194 13,853 13,800 13,282 12,879 12,443 12,147 12,112 11,934 11,486 11,307 11,203 10,914 10,774 10,574 10,516 10,347 10,173 10,137 10,078 9,781 9,776 9,721 9,565 9,552 9,446 9,340 9,208 9,176 9,001 8,999 8,974 8,968 8,704 8,561 8,409 8,382 8,206 7,664 7,491 7,421 7,137 6,703 6,498
in $

21st $10,574

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Total per-pupil public school funding in Virginia decreased by about $1,500 from 2008-09 to 2009-10.

* Data includes pre-kindergarten through 12th-grade regular, special, and vocational education, as well as capital outlay/debt service, transportation, and school lunch programs, but excludes expenditures for community services and adult education programs provided by a public school system. Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Survey of Local Government Finances School Systems (Aug 2012).

28

State per-pupil funding, pre-k-12*
(2009-10) in $

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Vermont Hawaii Alaska Wyoming New York Delaware Minnesota Arkansas Indiana New Mexico Massachusetts Washington New Jersey Maryland Michigan Kansas Ohio Connecticut West Virginia 50-State average North Dakota Maine Wisconsin Pennsylvania California Nevada Kentucky New Hampshire Oregon Montana Rhode Island North Carolina Alabama Louisiana South Carolina Colorado Idaho Iowa Virginia Mississippi Illinois Oklahoma Georgia Nebraska Texas Utah Tennessee Missouri Arizona South Dakota Florida

14,625 11,617 10,335 10,020 8,568 8,437 7,459 7,188 7,156 6,963 6,939 6,698 6,615 6,537 6,362 6,069 5,982 5,962 5,953 5,881 5,817 5,745 5,725 5,570 5,565 5,525 5,386 5,382 5,261 5,257 5,223 5,159 5,074 5,044 4,720 4,623 4,618 4,515 4,411 4,290 4,145 4,067 4,058 4,018 3,997 3,960 3,947 3,869 3,257 3,226 3,127

38th $4,411

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

The majority of public school funding in Virginia is from local and state sources (58% and 42%, respectively) with 12% from federal sources. Per-pupil funding decreased by $704 from the state and by $491 from the federal government, but increased by $127 from Virginia localities from 2008-09 to 2009-10.

g

* Data includes pre-kindergarten through 12th-grade regular, special, and vocational education, as well as capital outlay/debt service, transportation, and school lunch programs., but excludes expenditures for community services and adult education programs provided by a public school system. Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Survey of Local Government Finances School Systems (Aug 2012).

29

aVerage Salary of puBliC SChoolteaCherS (2010-11)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 New York Massachusetts Connecticut California New Jersey Illinois Maryland Michigan Alaska Rhode Island Pennsylvania Delaware Ohio Oregon Wyoming Hawaii Wisconsin Minnesota Nevada Washington Georgia New Hampshire 50-State average Indiana Vermont Iowa Colorado Louisiana Kentucky Virginia Texas Alabama Arizona Idaho Nebraska Maine Montana South Carolina Utah New Mexico North Carolina Kansas Arkansas Tennessee Florida Missouri North Dakota Oklahoma West Virginia Mississippi South Dakota 72,708 70,752 69,165 67,871 66,612 64,509 63,960 63,940 62,918 60,923 60,760 57,934 56,715 56,503 56,100 55,063 54,195 53,680 53,023 52,926 52,815 52,792 52,770 50,801 50,141 49,844 49,228 49,006 48,908 48,761 48,638 47,803 47,553 47,416 47,368 47,182 47,132 47,050 47,033 46,888 46,605 46,598 46,500 45,891 45,732 45,321 44,807 44,343 44,260 41,975 39,850
in $

29th $48,761

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

The national average public schoolteacher salary for 2010-11 was higher than the 50-state average at $55,623. Virginia had a ratio of 11.8 students to every one teacher in 2010 compared to a national average ratio of 15.6.

g

definitions The national average salary includes the District of Columbia (D.C.) and takes into account the different numbers of teachers in the states and D.C. The student-teacher ratio is different from the average class size, which is the number of students assigned to a classroom for instructional purposes. Source: National Education Association Rankings & Estimates: Rankings of the States 2011 and Estimates of School Statistics 2012 (Dec 2011).

30

perCentage of population 25 yearS & older With at leaSt a high SChool eduCation* (2011)
1 2 3 4 5 5 7 7 9 10 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 24 26 27 28 29 29 31 32 33 34 35 36 36 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 48 49 49 Montana Minnesota Wyoming Alaska Vermont New Hampshire Nebraska Maine North Dakota Hawaii Iowa South Dakota Wisconsin Utah Colorado Washington Kansas Oregon Massachusetts Connecticut Maryland Michigan Idaho Pennsylvania Ohio New Jersey Virginia Missouri 50-State average Indiana Illinois Delaware Oklahoma Florida Arizona New York Rhode Island North Carolina Georgia South Carolina Tennessee West Virginia Nevada Arkansas New Mexico Kentucky Alabama Louisiana California Mississippi Texas 92.3 92.0 92.0 91.8 91.8 91.4 91.0 90.9 90.7 90.6 90.6 90.6 90.4 90.3 90.2 90.1 90.0 89.4 89.2 89.1 88.9 88.8 88.6 88.6 88.3 88.1 87.8 87.6 87.5 87.3 87.2 87.0 86.3 85.9 85.7 85.0 84.8 84.7 84.3 84.2 84.2 84.2 84.0 83.8 83.2 83.1 82.7 82.5 81.1 81.1 81.1
in %

27th 87.8%

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

About 35% of Virginians 25 years and older had completed a bachelor’s degree or higher in 2011. Virginia’s on-time high school graduation rate for the class of 2012 was 88%.

g

* Estimated. Includes GEDs and equivalent. definitions The on-time high school graduation rate for Virginia is the percentage of students in a cohort who earned a Board of Education-approved diploma within four years of entering high school for the first time. Sources: U.S. Census Bureau 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates at http://factfinder2.census.gov (Dec 2012); Virginia Department of Education StateLevel Cohort Report (Dec 2012).

31

aVerage annual in-State tuition & feeS at puBliC 4-year inStitutionS* (2012-13)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 New Hampshire Vermont New Jersey Pennsylvania Illinois Michigan Delaware Rhode Island Washington South Carolina Massachusetts Minnesota Virginia Arizona Connecticut Maine California Ohio Alabama Indiana Wisconsin Hawaii 50-State average Kentucky Colorado Texas Oregon Maryland Missouri Iowa Tennessee Georgia Kansas Nebraska South Dakota North Dakota Arkansas New York Nevada Oklahoma Florida North Carolina Mississippi Montana Idaho West Virginia Alaska Louisiana New Mexico Utah Wyoming 14,576 13,582 12,399 12,330 12,118 11,172 10,890 10,849 10,774 10,698 10,619 10,388 9,907 9,729 9,630 9,471 9,368 9,190 8,741 8,704 8,690 8,665 8,475 8,455 8,416 8,354 8,303 8,220 7,917 7,830 7,676 7,504 7,277 7,199 7,082 6,973 6,968 6,560 6,371 6,350 6,232 6,220 6,147 6,139 5,991 5,883 5,818 5,812 5,687 5,595 4,278
in $

13th $9,907

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Average tuition and fees at Virginia’s public four-year higher education institutions increased by $238 (2.5%) from 2011 to 2012 (adjusted for inflation). Average tuition and fees at Virginia’s private non-profit four-year institutions was $28,165 for 2012-13.

g

* Estimated. Tuition and fees amount for Virginia for 2011-12 reported by the College Board was revised to $9,669. Prices are enrollment-weighted average prices, which means that charges reported by colleges with larger FTEs are weighted more heavily than those of institutions with smaller enrollments. Sources: The College Board, Trends in College Pricing 2012, trends.collegeboard. org; Council of Independent Colleges in Virginia (Sept 2012).

32

(2007-08 to 2012-13)

perCentage Change in in-State tuition & feeS at puBliC 4-year inStitutionS*
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Arizona California Florida Washington Georgia Hawaii Alabama Nevada Colorado Louisiana New Hampshire Rhode Island North Carolina Tennessee Virginia Oregon Delaware 50-State average Utah Idaho Wisconsin Kentucky Massachusetts New Mexico West Virginia Minnesota Illinois South Dakota Alaska Michigan Vermont Texas New York Mississippi Maine Nebraska South Carolina Oklahoma Connecticut Kansas Indiana Iowa Pennsylvania Arkansas New Jersey Wyoming North Dakota Montana Missouri Ohio Maryland 78.4 72.0 67.3 63.6 63.2 57.0 51.5 46.7 40.8 38.0 36.7 36.6 31.3 30.1 28.5 27.0 26.8 26.6 25.3 24.3 23.2 22.4 22.4 21.7 21.4 21.1 21.1 20.5 19.5 19.5 17.8 17.8 17.5 17.5 17.4 17.3 16.2 15.6 15.6 15.1 15.1 14.5 14.5 13.1 13.0 9.4 9.3 5.3 5.2 2.8 2.2
in %

15th 28.5%

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

On a nominal basis (not adjusted for inflation), tuition and fees at Virginia’s public four-year higher education institutions increased by 41.4% from 2007 to 2012.

* Adjusted for inflation. The College Board uses the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers to adjust for inflation. Source: The College Board, Trends in College Pricing 2012, trends.collegeboard.org.

33

per Capita State Support for puBliC & priVate higher eduCation* (FY 2012)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Wyoming North Dakota Alaska North Carolina New Mexico Hawaii Nebraska Mississippi Arkansas Alabama West Virginia Kentucky Louisiana Illinois Maryland Georgia Connecticut Utah Kansas California Texas Oklahoma 50-State average Iowa Minnesota New York Indiana Delaware New Jersey Tennessee South Dakota Idaho Maine Montana Wisconsin Virginia Washington Florida South Carolina Massachusetts Ohio Nevada Michigan Rhode Island Missouri Oregon Pennsylvania Vermont Colorado Arizona New Hampshire 592 503 491 405 384 373 353 320 308 306 289 283 282 279 276 268 264 259 258 256 252 249 248 241 240 239 238 235 227 221 218 211 203 202 202 201 199 190 184 175 174 174 166 156 155 154 143 140 127 126 63
in $

35th $201

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia’s per capita state support for public and private higher education in 2012 was less than that for other major state programs. For example, per capita state support in 2010 for pre-K-12 education was $684; for Medicaid, $312; and for roads, $294.** From 2007 to 2012, Virginia’s per capita state support for public and private higher education decreased by 17.3%, which is greater than the 50-state average decrease of 6.4%.

g

* Estimated. Data from Grapevine includes support for state-supported community colleges, two-year colleges, and private colleges and universities, as well as public colleges and universities. ** Total expenditures for Virginia’s pre-K-12 public schools and roads is shared by the state, local, and federal governments; for Medicaid, it is shared between the state and federal governments (the state’s share for FY 2010 was 39%, which reflects a temporary increase in the federal matching percentage for Medicaid from October 1, 2008 through December 31, 2010). Sources: James C. Palmer, ed. Grapevine, Summary Tables, Fiscal Year (FY) 2011-12. http://grapevine.illinoisstate.edu/tables/index.htm (Dec 2012); U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Survey of Local Government Finances (Sept 2012) (Aug 2012 for School Systems data); Kaiser Family Foundation statehealthfacts.org (2012); U.S. Census Bureau annual population estimates (Dec 2011).

34

fte Student enrollment in puBliC higher eduCation* (FY 2011)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 California Texas Florida New York Ohio Michigan North Carolina Illinois Georgia Pennsylvania Virginia New Jersey Arizona Indiana Washington Wisconsin Maryland 50-State average Minnesota Alabama Tennessee Colorado Louisiana Missouri South Carolina Oregon Massachusetts Kentucky Oklahoma Kansas Mississippi Iowa Utah Arkansas New Mexico Connecticut Nebraska West Virginia Nevada Idaho Montana Hawaii New Hampshire Maine North Dakota Delaware South Dakota Rhode Island Wyoming Vermont Alaska 1,738,294 943,694 648,766 578,411 460,672 432,959 425,779 425,134 385,615 374,997 321,965 277,147 275,071 267,219 258,334 240,625 235,945 235,874 214,342 213,698 201,378 195,621 183,633 181,217 175,722 168,927 168,671 159,805 150,171 141,789 136,487 132,744 125,073 124,204 88,083 86,281 84,384 81,116 69,169 53,201 40,961 40,743 39,504 38,284 37,915 34,925 33,312 31,724 26,392 22,548 21,069

11th 321,965

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

From 2007 to 2011, enrollment at Virginia’s public higher education institutions increased by 18%, which is greater than the 50-state average increase of 15%.

* Data from State Higher Education Executive Officers includes state-supported community colleges, two-year colleges, as well as public colleges and universities’ four-year and graduate programs. definitions Full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollment is equal to one student enrolled full time for one academic year, and excludes most non-credit continuing education, adult education, and extension courses. Source: State Higher Education Executive Officers, State Higher Education Finance FY 2011 (Mar 2012).

35

State motor fuel exCiSe taxeS
(OCTOber 2012) in cents per gallon

1 2 3 4 5 6 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 13 15 16 17 18 18 18 21 21 23 24 24 26 27 27 27 30 30 30 33 33 33 33 37 38 38 38 41 41 41 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

North Carolina Washington California Rhode Island Wisconsin Maine Oregon Kentucky Minnesota Ohio Montana Nebraska Connecticut Idaho Utah Kansas Maryland Nevada Delaware North Dakota South Dakota Colorado Arkansas 50-State average Massachusetts Iowa West Virginia Tennessee Louisiana Texas Illinois Michigan Vermont Indiana New Hampshire Arizona Mississippi Virginia Hawaii New Mexico Missouri Alabama Oklahoma South Carolina Wyoming Pennsylvania New Jersey New York Alaska Georgia Florida

37.5 37.5 36.0 32.0 30.9 30.0 30.0 28.5 28.5 28.0 27.0 26.2 25.0 25.0 24.5 24.0 23.5 23.0 23.0 23.0 22.0 22.0 21.5 21.2 21.0 21.0 20.5 20.0 20.0 20.0 19.0 19.0 19.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 17.5 17.0 17.0 17.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 13.0 12.0 10.5 8.1 8.0 7.5 4.0

37th 17.5 cents

Rank Above 50-State Average (state excise tax) Rank Below 50-State Average (state excise tax)

faSt faCtS
g

The federal gas tax, collected in all states, is 18.4 cents per gallon. Virginia’s state per gallon gas tax was last changed in 1986.

g

Source: American Petroleum Institute (Oct 2012).

36

per Capita State & loCal road expenditureS (FY 2010)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Alaska Wyoming North Dakota South Dakota Montana Vermont Iowa Delaware Minnesota Utah Nebraska Pennsylvania Oklahoma West Virginia Illinois Washington Louisiana Wisconsin Maine 50-State average Idaho Kansas New Mexico Mississippi New Hampshire Oregon New York Hawaii Maryland Nevada Missouri Kentucky Colorado Florida New Jersey Connecticut Alabama California Arkansas Indiana Ohio Arizona Texas Virginia Massachusetts Michigan Rhode Island Georgia North Carolina Tennessee South Carolina 2,435 1,349 1,205 956 927 839 757 703 696 685 677 673 671 667 640 638 636 633 632 619 619 599 596 572 562 553 550 549 538 536 533 521 496 463 456 447 443 443 435 421 414 412 411 405 387 375 375 355 355 354 352
in $

43rd $405

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

The Virginia Department of Transportation maintains 81% of Virginia’s non-federal public roads; other state agencies and local governments maintain the remaining 19%. Of the $3.2 billion Virginia spent on roads in 2010, $1.3 billion (42%) was used for mainly road construction. Virginia ranked 11th in total vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in 2010 at 82.2 billion miles, an increase of 1.3 billion VMT from 2009. Virginia ranked 42nd in road expenditures per VMT in 2010.

g

g

definitions Road expenditures include maintenance, operation, repair, and construction of highways, streets, and roads, and capital expenditure for purchase or construction including purchase of land, equipment, and existing structures, and payments on capital leases. Sources: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Surveys of State and Local Government Finances (Sept 2012) and annual population estimates (Dec 2011); Bureau of Transportation State Transportation Statistics 2010 (2012); Federal Highway Administration Highway Statistics 2009 (May 2012).

37

State CorreCtionS expenditureS per offender (2010)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Alaska Wyoming West Virginia New Mexico Maine New York Utah California Vermont New Hampshire Montana Massachusetts Virginia Wisconsin North Dakota Delaware Maryland Nebraska Oklahoma Nevada North Carolina Kansas New Jersey 50-State average Washington Connecticut South Dakota Oregon Arizona Colorado South Carolina Hawaii Florida Iowa Illinois Michigan Tennessee Mississippi Missouri Rhode Island Kentucky Pennsylvania Louisiana Alabama Arkansas Texas Ohio Idaho Indiana Minnesota Georgia 18,534 17,250 15,921 14,589 14,519 14,296 14,176 13,578 13,245 12,628 12,564 12,197 11,858 11,791 11,483 11,148 11,117 10,869 10,471 9,961 9,721 9,336 9,281 9,164 9,129 8,937 8,569 8,514 7,888 7,486 7,370 7,224 6,933 6,752 6,295 6,272 6,217 6,205 6,198 6,021 5,935 5,576 5,531 5,524 5,477 5,110 4,579 4,250 3,685 3,451 2,558
in $

13th $11,858

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

Virginia spent $1.1 billion on corrections in 2010, a decrease of $0.1 billion from 2009. Virginia had 95,310 offenders in correctional facilities or under community supervision (probation) in 2010, the majority (61%) on probation.

g

definitions Corrections expenditures are funds spent on facilities and activities, including prisons, probation offices, residential work release units, halfway houses, community corrections, inmate health care, and employee training. Offender counts and expenditures include state-responsible inmates in local and regional jails. Sources: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Annual Survey of State and Local Government Finances (Sept 2012); Bureau of Justice Statistics Probation and Parole in the United States, 2011 (Nov 2012) and Prisoners in 2010 (Dec 2011, revised Feb 2012).

38

State goVernment ftes per 100 perSonS
(2011)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Hawaii Alaska Delaware North Dakota Wyoming Vermont New Mexico West Virginia Arkansas Montana Mississippi Utah Alabama Kentucky Louisiana Oklahoma Rhode Island Washington South Dakota Nebraska Connecticut Oregon New Jersey South Carolina 50-State average Iowa Maine North Carolina Virginia Kansas Minnesota Maryland New Hampshire Michigan Missouri Colorado Massachusetts Indiana Idaho Tennessee Pennsylvania Georgia New York Wisconsin Texas Ohio California Arizona Nevada Illinois Florida

4.2 3.7 2.9 2.7 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0

28th 1.5

Rank Above 50-State Average Rank Below 50-State Average

faSt faCtS
g

The extent to which certain major functions are accomplished through state agencies and their employees varies by state. For example, the Virginia Department of Transportation employs about 7,500 persons (about 7% of the state’s FTEs), whereas much of the transportation function in some states is performed by local governments or the private sector.

definitions The Census Bureau defines full-time equivalents as the number of full-time employees added to the number of full-time employees that could have been employed if all part-time hours had been worked by full-time employees. Sources: U.S. Census Bureau 2011 Annual Survey of Public Employment and Payroll (Mar 2011) and annual population estimates (Dec 2011); Virginia Department of Planning and Budget (July 2012).

JOINT LEGISLATIVE AUDIT AND REVIEW COMMISSION

201 North 9th Street • General Assembly Building • 11th Floor Richmond, Virginia 23219 804-786-1258 • http://jlarc.virginia.gov

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