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A Plan for Monitoring Shorebirds During the Non-breeding Season in

Bird Monitoring Region Georgia - BCR 27

Prepared by: Sandy Chan,

Version *.*

2003
Updated 2008

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Table of Contents
Introduction....................................................................................................................................3
Methods...........................................................................................................................................5
Results - Shorebirds.......................................................................................................................7
Site Descriptions..........................................................................................................................8
Little Tybee Island Natural Heritage Preserve.........................................................................8
Wassaw NWR ...........................................................................................................................10
Ossabaw Island Natural Heritage Preserve................................................................................12
St. Catherine’s Island and St. Catherine’s Island Bar Natural Area...........................................14
Blackbeard Island NWR and Sapelo Island...............................................................................16
Site 1: Blackbeard Island NWR.............................................................................................17
Site 2: Sapelo Island ..............................................................................................................19
Altamaha River Delta ...............................................................................................................21
Site 1: Wolf Island NWR.......................................................................................................23
Site 2: Little Egg Island Bar...................................................................................................24
Site 3: Little St. Simon’s Island ............................................................................................26
Jekyll Island...............................................................................................................................28
Andrews Island..........................................................................................................................30
Cumberland Island National Seashore.......................................................................................32
Acknowledgements......................................................................................................................34
References.....................................................................................................................................35

Figures and Tables

Figure 1. Conceptual framework for integrated bird monitoring............................................3
Figure 2. Shorebird Planning and Bird Conservation Regions in Canada and the United
States...............................................................................................................................................4
Figure 3. PRISM sites in BCR 13, 14, 30, 27, and 31...............................................................5
Table 1. Focal shorebird species for BCR 27..............................................................................7

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Introduction

The bird conservation initiatives - waterbirds, waterfowl, shorebirds and landbirds - are
cooperating to design a comprehensive “integrated bird monitoring” (IBM) program for Canada
and the United States. The conceptual framework for IBM (Fig. 1) includes strong emphasis on
detecting species at risk and helping to protect them. These broad goals are achieved by
estimating population trends and defining requirements for viable populations. These objectives
in turn are accomplished by population modeling based on population levels, demographic rates
and habitat information. Population trends are estimated by surveying breeding populations
whenever possible, and by surveying the species for which this is not feasible at other times of
year. Surveys of all species are made throughout the year to help identify and monitor use of
suitable habitat.

Figure 1. Conceptual framework for integrated bird monitoring.

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Most surveys in upland habitats are designed at a large spatial scale (e.g., southern
Canada and the United States) and do not require detailed information at the local level. Surveys
of wetland habitats, in contrast, must be carefully designed to insure that the habitat is well
covered, and different methods may be needed in different environments. A series of “regional
assessments” is thus being prepared to help design the wetland surveys. Regions were formed by
intersecting a Bird Conservation Region (BCR) map with a Province and State map, deleting
small polygons and smoothing the borders (Fig. 2). The resulting “Bird Monitoring Regions” can
be used to scale up results to either BCRs or Provinces and States.

Figure 2. Shorebird Planning and Bird Conservation Regions in Canada and the United States.

Adapted from: USFWS-U.S. Shorebird Plan and CWS-Canadian Shorebird Conservation Plan

The regional assessments summarize current information about wetland bird distribution,
abundance, habitat relationships and timing of use within the Region and identify information
needed to design reliable monitoring programs. These “needed pilot studies” are then prioritized
by people concerned with monitoring birds in the region and a plan is developed to carry out the
work. Carrying out the pilot studies is expected to take 1-3 years. Long-term surveys will then be
implemented. Additional details are provided in “Managers Monitoring Manual” available at
http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/monmanual/techniques/shorebirdsnonbreedingsites.htm. More
information on regional progress can be found at the U.S. Shorebird Plan’s Regional
Conservation Plan website (http://www.fws.gov/shorebirdplan/RegionalShorebird.htm.

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Methods
Focal wetland species of shorebirds were first identified. The initial list included all
wetland species of shorebirds that are common or abundant at any time of year within the
Region, according to Brian Harrington and based largely upon data from the International
Shorebird Surveys (ISS). Sites in which any of the focal species are common or abundant at any
time of year were then identified using a list prepared for this project and supplemented by
information provided by birding guides, ornithologists and birders knowledgeable of the Region.
Most sites were single areas, such as a National Wildlife Refuge, but dispersed sites, such as
“lakes >10 ha”, could also be identified.

Figure 3. PRISM sites in BCR 13, 14, 30, 27, and 31.

The

International Shorebird Survey (ISS) provided species numbers for some of the identified sites.
The ISS is a volunteer based survey initiated in 1974 by Brian Harrington. Volunteers select
their survey sites and are given guidelines on census frequency and data collection for spring and
fall migration. The ISS guidelines ask volunteers to survey once every 10 days from April 1st to
June 10th for spring migration, and once every 10 days from July 11th to October 31st for fall
migration. ISS records provided the maximum counts recorded for species where the identified
site is also an ISS site.

Survey methods for sites include appropriate tide levels for surveys, if that information is
available. Tide levels for surveys are based on the advice of biologists and birders with
knowledge about the sites. Due to the different geography of the sites, different tide levels

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are recommended to concentrate the birds for a survey. While high tide at one site may bring in
birds that are spread out over an expansive area at low tide, high tide at another site may
completely cover the habitat or food resources and scatter the birds elsewhere. Therefore,
different tide levels may be recommended for different sites.

Additional site information may also include information about visibility. Excellent/good
visibility simply means that the birds can be seen without obstruction clearly enough to identify
to species, either by physically getting close enough or with a good scope or binoculars.

Maps showing land ownership, roads and wetlands were prepared for the region. Maps of
each site were also prepared and information useful in designing surveys for the focal species
was presented. The survey objective was assumed to be estimating the average number of birds
of each focal species present within the site during a specified interval. Up to three types of
habitat were described for each focal species: Type 1 habitat, outlined in purple on the maps,
included regularly-used areas that should be sampled using a well-defined sampling plan. Type 2
habitat, which was outlined in red, included areas used sparingly by the focal species. Type 2
habitat is not surveyed as often or with rigorously defined methods, but is surveyed less formally
every few years to document continued low use by the focal species. Type 3 habitat receives
virtually no use by the focal species during the study period and is not surveyed as part of the
monitoring program. Requests, however, are circulated for any records of the focal species
occurring in substantial numbers in these areas.

A description of each site was prepared with the following headings:

Boundaries and ownership
Focal species using the site and timing of use
Location of type 1 and 2 habitat within the site
Access to the type 1 and 2 habitat and visibility of the birds
Past and current surveys
Potential survey methods
Description
Selection bias
Measurement error and bias
Needed pilot studies

We assume for any survey that the study area and study period (within years) have been
defined. The goal of the survey was assumed to be estimating the trend, across several years, in
the average number of birds present during the study period. Bias means a long-term trend in the
ratio (number recorded)/(average number present). Selection bias ensues when some portion of
Type 1 habitat has zero chance of being surveyed, usually due to access problems, and there is a
long-term trend in the proportion of birds using the non-sampled portion. Exclusion of some
Type 1 habitat does not necessarily cause selection bias because trends in the sampled areas
might be the same as trends in the non-sampled areas. Anytime some portion of Type 1 habitat
could not be included in the sampled areas, the potential for selection bias and ways to reduce it
were discussed. Measurement error means not detecting all birds present in the surveyed area at
the time of the survey. Measurement bias is a long term trend in the proportion of birds present at

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the time of the survey that are detected on the survey. Measurement error does not necessarily
cause measurement bias because the proportion of birds detected might not change through time.
Anytime measurement error was probable, its magnitude and probable stability through time
were discussed along with ways to reduce the proportion of birds missed on the surveys.

Results - Shorebirds
Table 1. Focal shorebird species for BCR 27

CODE SPECIES
BBPL Black-bellied Plover
SNPL Snowy Plover
WIPL Wilson’s Plover
SEPL Semipalmated Plover
PIPL Piping Plover
KILL Killdeer
AMOY American Oystercatcher
GRYE Greater Yellowlegs
LEYE Lesser Yellowlegs
SOSA Solitary Sandpiper
WILL Willet
SPSA Spotted Sandpiper
WHIM Whimbrel
LBCU Long-billed Curlew
MAGO Marbled Godwit
RUTU Ruddy Turnstone
REKN Red Knot
SAND Sanderling
SESA Semipalmated Sandpiper
LESA Least Sandpiper
DUNL Dunlin
SBDO Short-billed Dowitcher
COSN Common Snipe

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Site Descriptions

Little Tybee Island Natural Heritage Preserve

Description: Little Tybee Island Natural Heritage Preserve is owned and managed by the
Georgia Department of Natural Resources. Comprising 6,780 acres, Little Tybee is actually more
than twice the size of Tybee Island to the north. Its beach is as long as Tybee's (3.5 miles), but its
upland is half the size of Tybee's and encompasses 600 acres. Many shorebirds and seabirds use
the beaches as migratory stopovers or wintering habitat. Habitat on the island includes tidal
creeks, maritime forest, salt marsh, hammock and beach. The high-use shorebird area at this site
is the beachfront at the mouth of the southern break where Williamson and Myrtle Islands come

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together. Little Tybee is accessible only by boat and a local guide will be needed as the creeks
and shoals are difficult to maneuver.

Survey Method: Access is by boat. Ground surveys of the beaches.

Selection Bias: None as long as surveyor has access to a boat.

Measurement error: *

Measurement bias: *

Pilot Studies: None needed.

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Wassaw NWR

Description: Wassaw National Wildlife Refuge is located in Chatham County and lies 14 miles
southeast of Savannah, Georgia. A migratory bird refuge, it is composed of single barrier island
(Wassaw Island), tidal salt marsh, two barrier islands (collectively known as Little Wassaw
Island) and several small hammocks. The refuge includes seven miles of beach, live oak and
slash pine woodlands, and extensive salt marshes. The refuge is part of the Savannah Coastal
Refuges complex, which is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Wassaw is only
accessible by boat and public access is allowed on the refuge.

High use shorebird areas are on the ocean front beach at the north and south ends. At high tide
most birds are on the north end with smaller numbers on the south end of the beach. Two other
shorebird areas in the refuge are the sound side of Pine Island and the mouth of Curtis Creek,

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inland from Pine Island. These two areas have large flats that are exposed at low tide and attract
many shorebirds, but they are not as accessible as the beach areas.

The most numerous species from ISS maximum count data are: BBPL (127), WIPL (46), SEPL
(822), PIPL (10), WILL (278), RUTU (75), REKN (1,000), SAND (569), SESA (723), LESA
(111), SBDO (356) and DUNL (1,137).

Survey Method: Access is by boat. Ground surveys of the beach at the north and south end of
the island during high tide. Most of the birds will be at the north end at high tide, with a smaller
number of birds at the south end.

There are two potential survey areas on the sound side of Pine Island and inland from Pine Island
at the mouth of Curtis Creek. These areas have large flats that are exposed at low tide, but they
are more difficult to get to than the beach survey areas.

Selection Bias: None.

Measurement error: *

Measurement bias: *

Pilot Studies: None.

Local Contacts: Peter Range, Savannah Coastal Refuges; Steve Calver, Biologist, U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers

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Ossabaw Island Natural Heritage Preserve

Description: Ossabaw Island is Georgia’s third largest barrier island, encompassing nearly
16,000 acres of tidal marsh and 9,000 acres of upland. Habitats include beaches and dunes,
freshwater ponds, saltwater marshes, tidal creeks, one river, meadows and maritime forest.
Ossabaw, Raccoon and the egg islands to the North are a Natural Heritage Preserve, owned and
managed by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. The Ossabaw Island Foundation
manages public use and education on the island. Ossabaw Island is dedicated to research and
educational purposes. High-use shorebird areas include the Northwest corner of the island, the
inlets along Middle Beach and especially the south end of Middle Beach. The island is only
accessible by boat and public access is limited.

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There are no ISS numbers available for this site.

Survey Methods: Access is by boat. Ground surveys of beaches.

Selection Bias: None as long surveyor has access to a boat.

Measurement error: *

Measurement bias: *

Pilot Studies: None needed.

Local Contacts: Brad Winn, Non-game Wildlife Natural Heritage Section, Georgia DNR.

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St. Catherine’s Island and St. Catherine’s Island Bar Natural Area

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Description: St. Catherine’s Island is just off the mid-coast of Georgia between St. Catherine’s
Sound and Sapelo Sound. It is owned and managed by the non-profit St. Catherine’s Island
Foundation. The island’s interior is used for scientific, literary, educational and charitable
purposes. About 14,640 acres, the island supports tidal marsh, wetland meadows and ponds.
There are also about 7,000 acres of upland, maritime forest. Sand beaches with two inlets border
the oceanfront. The 10-mile coast of the island is used by thousands of migratory and resident
shorebirds each year. High-use shorebird areas include the south end of Middle Beach, both
shores of McQueen’s Inlet, the Southwest tip of the island and St. Catherine’s Island Bar.

Access: St. Catherine’s is only accessible by boat and public access to the interior of the island is
restricted. Contact Royce Hayes for permission to access the island. St. Catherine’s Island Bar is
owned and protected by the state and permission from Brad Winn at Georgia DNR is necessary
for access to this site.

There are no ISS numbers available for this site.

Survey Methods: Access is by boat. Ground surveys on the beach.

Selection Bias: None as long as surveyor has access to a boat.

Measurement error: *

Measurement bias: *

Pilot Studies: None needed.

Local Contacts: Royce Hayes, Manager, St. Catherine’s Island; Brad Winn, Non-game Wildlife
Natural Heritage Section, Georgia DNR.

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Blackbeard Island NWR and Sapelo Island

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Site 1: Blackbeard Island NWR

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Description: Blackbeard Island National Wildlife Refuge is a barrier island located in McIntosh
County off the Georgia coast. It is one of seven refuges in the Savannah Coastal Refuges
Complex, administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Blackbeard encompasses 5,618
acres of maritime forest, saltwater marsh, freshwater impoundments/marsh and sand beach.
Water levels at the impoundments are managed for shorebirds, waterfowl, wood storks and
wading birds. Three thousand acres of the refuge are designated as Wilderness Area. The refuge
is only accessible by boat.

The shorebird hotspot on the island is located on the ocean shore beach near Cabretta Inlet. Most
numerous species from ISS maximum count data are: BBPL (248), WIPL (56), SEPL (328),
LEYE (92), SPSA (38), WILL (297), RUTU (157), REKN (4,564), SAND (2,175), SBDO (114),
DUNL (811) and MAGO (54).

Survey Method: Access is by boat. Ground surveys at the beach near Cabretta Inlet from mid
tide to low tide.

Selection Bias: None

Measurement error: *

Measurement bias: *

Pilot Studies: None needed.

Local Contacts: John Robinette and Peter Range, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Savannah
Coastal Refuges; Deb Barnard, Savannah Coastal Refuges.

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Site 2: Sapelo Island

Description: Sapelo Island is directly adjacent to Blackbeard and is the fourth largest of
Georgia's barrier islands. Sapelo Island consists of 17, 950 acres of forested upland, salt marsh,
tidal creeks, beaches and dunes. Ownership of the island is divided among the R.J. Reynolds
Estate Wildlife Refuge, Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve (SINERR), the
University of Georgia’s Marine Institute and the private community of Hog Hammock. The
island is accessible by boat and public access is coordinated by SINERR personnel, who conduct
tours to points of interest around the island.

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Shorebird survey areas are located on the ocean shoreline, at Nanny Goat Beach on the southern
end and up by Cabretta Inlet on the northern end. According Brad Winn, the beaches at Cabretta
comprise the main shorebird hotspot on the island. Doris Cohrs conducts weekly surveys at
Nanny Goat Beach for the ISS and believes Cabretta Inlet to be superior in terms of shorebird
use as well.

Access to Cabretta Inlet is by boat to Sapelo Island and then by sturdy vehicle out to the beach
area. As visitors to the island, Doris Cohrs and assistant volunteers rely upon SINERR to provide
transportation to and from the island. They report that access to Cabretta is less straightforward.
Once on the island, it is possible to drive out to the Cabretta beach area, but road conditions can
be difficult at times.

Survey Method: According to Brad Winn, the beach at Cabretta should be surveyed from the
entrance of the main inlet down to a smaller inlet, located between Cabretta and Nanny Goat.
Ground surveys should be conducted at the beaches from mid to low tide.

Selection Bias: None.

Measurement error: *

Measurement bias: *

Pilot Studies: None needed.

Local Contacts: Brad Winn, Georgia DNR; Doris Cohrs, ISS Cooperator.

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Altamaha River Delta

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Description: The Altamaha River Delta is the most important shorebird stopover and wintering
site in Georgia. The delta is a WHSRN site and includes sand spit and barrier islands to the north
and south. Wolf Island National Wildlife Refuge, Little Egg Island Bar and Little St. Simon’s
Island are all part of this complex. Prominent features include extensive barrier beaches, dunes,
maritime forest and salt marshes. The islands and their associated habitats offer exceptional
habitat for breeding/wintering birds; the surrounding waters and wetlands provide a readily
available food source. The area serves as a resting site for migrating shorebirds, waterbirds and
landbirds, including high concentrations of American Oystercatcher (migration/winter: 250), Red
Knot (migration 5,000), Dunlin (migration 1,500) and Piping Plover (migration/winter: 65).

There are three main survey areas within the Altamaha River Delta: Wolf Island, Little Egg
Island Bar and Little St. Simon’s Island.

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Site 1: Wolf Island NWR

Description: Wolf Island National Wildlife Refuge is located 12 miles east of Darien, GA. The
refuge includes Wolf Island (4,519 acres), Egg Island (593 acres) and Little Egg Island (14
acres). Over 75% of the refuge’s 5,126 acres are salt marsh. Wolf Island encompasses 4,219
acres of salt marsh with tidal creeks and 300 acres of scrub/shrub upland, including a four-mile
long oceanfront beach. The refuge, part of the Savannah Coastal Refuges Complex, is managed
by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a bird sanctuary and also as a National Wilderness Area.
It is only accessible by boat and public access is not allowed.

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The high-use shorebird area on Wolf Island NWR is Wolf Island’s ocean shore from the northern
spit on the island down to the Altamaha Sound. There are no ISS numbers for Wolf Island NWR.

Survey Method: Ground surveys should be conducted along the ocean shoreline, from the
northern spit to the Altamaha Sound, within a few hours of high tide. Surveyor(s) will need
permission from the USFWS to access the refuge.

Selection Bias: Access to the island needs to be arranged with USFWS. Once on the island,
however, all areas should be visible.

Measurement error: *

Measurement bias: *

Pilot Studies: None needed.

Local Contacts: John Robinette (912) 652-4415

Site 2: Little Egg Island Bar

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Description: Little Egg Island Bar is located to the East of the Egg islands and is owned and
managed by the State of Georgia as a protected site with restricted access. The bar encompasses
just 14 acres of salt marsh and it is completely submerged at high tide. Little Egg Island Bar is an
important roost site and the entire bar should be surveyed. There are no ISS numbers for this site.
Access to Little Egg Island bar is by boat.

Survey Method: Access to Little Egg Island Bar is by boat. Surveys should be conducted near
high tide when birds are roosting. Surveyor(s) will need permission from the State of Georgia to
access Little Egg Island Bar.

Selection Bias: Access to Little Egg Island Bar can prove difficult. Thus, selection bias is a
potential problem if this site cannot be surveyed from year to year.

Measurement error: *

Measurement bias: *

Pilot Studies: None needed.

Local Contacts: Brad Winn, Georgia DNR

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Site 3: Little St. Simon’s Island

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Description: Little St. Simon’s Island is a privately owned 10,000-acre barrier island. It includes
maritime forest, marshes, tidal creeks, dunes and a seven-mile beach. The island is undeveloped
except for a small housing compound, which is operated as a low occupancy resort on the island.
There are naturalists on staff at the resort and they have taken part in shorebird surveys for ISS.
The island is only accessible by boat.

The main survey areas are the northeast end of the island at Sancho Panza Beach and the north
end of Main Beach at the mouth of Bass Creek. Sancho Panza is located between the mouth of
Sancho Panza Creek and Bass Creek on the northeast end of Little St. Simon's. North Main
Beach begins at Bass Creek Spit and extends southwards on the eastern shore of the island.

ISS records provided maximum count data for the following survey sites:
Bass Creek: BBPL (107), WIPL (142), SEPL (290), PIPL (42), WILL (28), WHIM (105), RUTU
(140), REKN (8,000), SAND (600), SESA (30), LESA (40), SBDO (135), DUNL (450), and
MAGO (80);
Sancho Panza Beach and River Beach: BBPL (70), WIPL (65), SEPL (80), RUTU (120), REKN
(10,000), SAND (20), SBDO (50), DUNL (50), and MAGO (89).

Other survey areas include South Main Beach and Rainbow Beach. South Main extends further
south to the mouth of Mosquito Creek. Rainbow Beach is located on the southernmost tip of
Little St. Simon's, directly across from Pelican Spit.

Survey Methods: Access to Little St. Simon’s is by boat. Ground surveys at Sancho Panza
Beach and North Main Beach at the mouth of Bass Creek should be done at high tide. If staff
naturalists cannot be recruited to do the surveys then permission should be requested for
surveyors to access the island.

Selection Bias: None if staff naturalists do the shorebird surveys or if outside surveyors have
permission to access the island.

Measurement error: *

Measurement bias: *

Pilot Studies: None needed.

Local Contacts: Brandon Noel, Island Staff Naturalist, Georgia Southern University; Brad
Winn, Georgia DNR.

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Jekyll Island

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Description: Jekyll Island is owned by the state of Georgia and managed by the Jekyll Island
State Park Authority. About one-third of the 5,000+ acre island is developed, mainly for
recreation and tourism, while the rest remains in its natural state. The island contains salt
marshes, tidal creeks, sand beaches and maritime forest. Jekyll Island is easily accessible by a
causeway connecting it to the mainland.

The survey area for shorebirds is the south end of the island at St. Andrews Beach. There are no
ISS numbers for Jekyll Island.

Survey Method: Ground surveys of the south point at St. Andrews Beach should be conducted
within a couple of hours of high tide.

Selection Bias: None.

Measurement error: *

Measurement bias: *

Pilot Studies: None needed.

Local Contacts:

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Andrews Island

Description: Andrews Island is an U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dredge spoil disposal site
adjacent to the waterfront of downtown Brunswick, Georgia. The disposal area is surrounded by
a 20+ foot tall dike with water control structures to remove the water after the spoil has settled
out. The site is used as a feeding and resting area by a wide variety of local and migrating
species of a wide variety of families. When water is present, shorebirds, wading birds, and ducks
are present in large numbers feeding on the invertebrates, which were introduced by dredging
and flies, and mosquitoes, which lay eggs in the water to use the rich nutrients. When water is
absent, many shorebirds use it as a resting area around high tide when their feeding areas outside

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are flooded. The land owner/managers are the Georgia Ports Authority and the U.S. Army Corps
of Engineers. The island is connected to the mainland by a causeway; however, access to the site
is limited by the Corps, Georgia Ports Authority, and Glynn County.

Survey Method: Ground surveys around the disposal area.

Selection Bias: None as long as surveyor has permission from the appropriate agencies to
access the spoil site.

Measurement error: *

Measurement bias: *

Pilot Studies: None.

Local Contacts: Mike Chapman, Coastal Georgia Audubon Society, IBA Nominator

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Cumberland Island National Seashore

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Description: Cumberland Island is the southernmost barrier island in Georgia, located between
the mouth of St. Andrew Sound and the Florida state line. It is approximately 18 miles long,
comprising over 36,000 acres, including 16,850 acres of marsh, mud flat and tidal creek. The
island also supports maritime forest, sand beaches, inter-dune meadows and freshwater ponds.
Cumberland Island is a National Seashore unit of the National Park Service with designated
National Wilderness Area on the north half of the island. The island has private lands and
holdings, but it is not developed and there is no connection to the mainland. Access to the island
is only by boat.

The shorebird survey area is the high tide roost site located on the southernmost spit of the
island. No ISS numbers are available for this site.

Survey Method: Access to the island is by boat. Permission to survey the area will need to be
arranged in advance with the National Park Service. Ground surveys should be conducted at high
tide when shorebirds roost on the south end of the island.

Selection Bias: None.

Measurement error: *

Measurement bias: *

Pilot Studies: None.

Local Contacts: John Fry, Resource Manager, National Park Service.

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Acknowledgements
I would like to thank the Georgia Important Bird Areas Program and its partners for the work
they have done in identifying IBAs and for sharing their information for use in this report.

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References
Canadian Wildlife Service. Canadian Shorebird Conservation Plan. Accessed August 2008.
http://www.cws-scf.ec.gc.ca/mbc-com/default.asp?lang=en&n=D1610AB7 .

Georgia Department of Natural Resources Website
http://georgiawildlife.dnr.state.ga.us/content/displaynavigation.asp?TopCategory=5

Lenz, R.J. 1999. Longstreet Highroad Guide to the Georgia Coast and Okefenokee. Longstreet
Press. Sherpa Guides Online Website: http://sherpaguides.com/georgia/coast/outline.html

Sapelo Island National Estuary Research Reserve Website: http://www.sapelonerr.org

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. U.S. Shorebird Plan. Accessed August 2008.
http://www.fws.gov/shorebirdplan/RegionalShorebird/RegionsMap.asp

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Refuge fact sheets:
Blackbeard NWR
Wolf Island NWR

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