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1sts Se

em..200
08.P
PHYSIC
CS
UPLLBPHYSIICS @ IM
MSP
Teo
odorick Barry
B Rica
ardo Ma
anguerra
a

[ CTURE NOT
[LEC N TES]]
The extent
e of ele
ectricity and
d magnetism in human n lives has le
ead to numerous disco
overies
and
d innovationns. This seme
ester, let us, together, re
ediscover electricity an
nd magnetism…
PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |2

UN
NIT ONE:: ELECTR
ROSTATIICS

P
PART ONE
E: ELECTRIC
C CHARGE
E
OUTLINE
E OBJECTIVES

1. Electric Charge At the
e end of this chapter,
c you
u must be
able to:
t
Cha
arge Quantiza
ation
1.. Define and explain thee concept
Cha
arge Conserv
vation ctric charge and its
of the elec
propertiess;
2. Conducto
ors and Insula
ators
2.. Differentia
ate a conduc
ctor from
The Electroscope
e
an insulato
or;
Cha
arging by Conduction
3.. Enumerate and explaiin the
different charging
c processes;
Cha
arging by Ind
duction

4.. Define Co
oulomb’s Law
w;
3. Coulombss Law and the
e Electric Forrce

5.. Define the e Electric Field and
4. The Electriic Field
Electric fie
eld lines; and
Elec
ctric Dipoles
6.. Illustrate th
he motion off charges
5. Electric Fie
eld Lines in an elec ctric field.

6. Motion of Point Charge
es in Electric
Fields

THE ELEC
CTRIC PHENOM MENON
• Humans are extremely de ependent on n electricity.
• The study of electricity da ates back waay before the e first electric
c lamp gloweed.
• The history of electricity re
eaches back k to the Ancient Greeks, whenw attracttion and repu
ulsion are
observed wh hen “rubbed amber” are placed near common materials. m
• Indeed, the word “electrric” comes fro om the Gree ek word for am mber “elektro
on”
• We begin ou ur examinatio on of electric CTROSTATICS – the study of charges at rest.
city with ELEC

1. ELECTR
RIC CHARGE
• Basic element of Electricity
• An intrinsic property
p of th ntal particles that make up matter
he fundamen
• Three types:
▫ Posittive Charge
▫ Neg gative Charge
▫ Neu utral Charge

ATOMIC
C MODEL
• onsists of atom
All matter co ms
• Atoms are made
m of a nucleus (neutro
on and proto on) and
electron/(s) revolving aroound the nuccleus. (Orbital Model)
• Protons are positively
p chaarged and Neutrons are neutrally
n

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PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |3

charged.
• e negatively charged.
Electrons are

Pa
article Mass Charg
ge

ELECTTRON, e- 9
9.11 x 10-31 kg
g - 1.6 x 10
0-19 C

PRO
OTON, p 1.67 x 10-27 kg
g + 1.6 x 10-19 C

NEU
UTRON 1.67 x 10-27 kg
g None

• The electron
n is 2000 less massive
m as a proton, yet they
t possess the
t same am
mount of cha
arge e
(though oppposite in sign)

THE FUND
DAMENTAL LA AW OF ELECTROSTATICS
• Like chargess repel, unlikee charges attract
CHARGE E QUANTIZATIION
• All observabble charges inn nature occur in discrete e packets or in i
integral amo ounts of the fu
undamental unit of charg ge e.
• Any charge Q occurring in nature ca an be written
Q = + Ne, where N is an integer.
• For large systtems, howev ver, N is usually very large and charge appears to b be continuou us, just as
air appears tot be continu uous even th hough air con nsists of manyy discrete mo olecules.
• To give an everyday example of N, charging a pla astic rod typiically require
es a transfer of
o 1010 or
more electro ons to the rodd.
CHARGE E CONSERVATTION
• When 2 obje ects are rubbbed:
▫ The object left with
w an excesss of electron becomes ne egatively cha arged.
▫ The other objectt is left lacking
g electrons, thus
t become es positively c
charged.
• The net charrge of the two o objects rem mains constant; that is, ch harge is conserved.
• This is known as the law of
o conservatio on of chargee, this is one of
o the fundam mental laws of
o
nature.
• Even in certaain interactio
ons, where ch harged particcles are crea ated and ann nihilated, the amount
of charges th hat are prodduced and de estroyed is eq
qual, so there e is conserva
ation.

THE UNITT OF CHARGE E
• Coulomb (abbr. C) is the e SI unit of charge.
• It is defined in
i terms of the unit of elec ctric current, the ampere (A).
• The Coulomb (C) is the amount
a of ch
harge flowingg through a wire
w in one se
econd when the
current in thee wire is 1 Am
mpere.
• The fundame ental unit of charge, e, is related to thhe coulomb by:
b
e = 1.602177 7 x 10 C
-19

• For Physics 13, we will usee e = 1.60 x 10-19 C

EXAMPLE E 1.1:
A charge of magnitu ude 50 nC (1 nC = 10-9C) can
c be prodduced in the laboratory by
y simply rubb
bing two
objects together.
t
How ma any electrons must be tran
nsferred to produce this charge?
c
Hint: (Use
e Q=Ne)

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PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |4

2. CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS
• Conductors
▫ are materials, where electrons are free to move about the entire material (ex. Cu and
other metals)
• Insulators
▫ are materials, where electrons are bound to a nearby atom, rendering no motion (ex.
Wood and glass)
• Ion
▫ An atom where electron/(s) is/are added or removed.
x Normally, a conductor is electrically neutral due to a balance between
positive and negative charges. So in order to create a net charge, free
electrons are added or removed from the lattice.
A macroscopic object can be…
Net Charge Property Process

Electrically Neutral p = e- None

Positively Charged p > e- Remove electron

Negatively Charged p < e- Add electron
• Only electrons can be transferred due to the atomic structure, and the minimal amount of
energy required.
• Protons are bound by very “strong forces” so their removal is very hard to accomplish.

THE ELECTROSCOPE
• The Electroscope
▫ Is a device for detecting electric charges
• The Diverging Leaves:
▫ Two gold “leaves” diverge when a charge is placed near or in contact
with the bob.
▫ The leaves return to normal, when charges are no longer present in the
bob

CHARGING BY INDUCTION AND CONDUCTION

• By Conduction- charging by contact
▫ Implements an effective transfer of electrons
• By Induction – charging without contact, only by placing objects
close to each other
▫ Implements only motion of charges within a material
• How to produce a NET charge?
• RUB!!!

ARBITRARY, BARI-ABLE
• Question1:
When a glass rod is rubbed by silk, which of the two materials acquire a net positive charge?
• Answer 1:
Any of the two, as long as the other gets the opposite. We can not know for certain which charge is
which. We can only arbitrarily assign a charge
• Question 2:
If you walk across a rug and scuff electrons from your feet, are you negatively or positively charged?
• Answer 2:
You are positively charge, since electrons were scuffed off/from your feet!

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PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |5

CHARGING BY INDUC
CTION

CHARGING BY INDUC CTION VIA GRROUNDING
• Ground – A very
v large co
onductor tha
at can supply
y an unlimited
d amount of charge (such
h as the
earth, extrem
mely negatively charged))

3. COULO
OMB’S LAW AND
A THE ELEC
CTROSTATIC FORCE
F
• The Fundamental Law off electrostatic cs is not enouugh to charaacterize fully tthe “Electric
Phenomenon”
• Being able too quantify annd measure the t phenome enon is a muust.
• Cavendish was
w the one who w first expeerimentally verify the Univ
versal Law of Gravitation.
• A similar exp
periment of Coulomb
C gavve the mathe ematical desc cription/quantification of the
fundamenta al law of elec
ctrostatics

• Coulomb's la aw, developeed in the 17880s by French
h physicist Ch
harles Augusttin de Coulommb.
• The magnitude of the eleectrostatic forrce between two point chharges is dire
ectly proportiional to
the magnitud des of each charge and inversely pro oportional to the square oof the distance
between the e charges.
• This has the same
s form ass Newton’s Th
hird Law of Motion:
M
• The electric force exerted
d by the twoo objects on one
o another have the sam me magnitud de but
opposite in direction
d

• Formula:

▫ F is the
t magnitud
de of the elec
ctrostatic forrce exerted, in attractive; F is +, if
i N (F is -, if a
repu ulsive)
▫ |q1|, |q2| are the magnitud de of the chaarges, in C
▫ r is th
he separation of the charges, in m

ROSTATIC CO
ELECTR ONSTANT

PERMITTIVITTY OF FREE SP
PACE

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PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |6

FORCE EXERTED
E BY A SYSTEM OF CHARGES
C
• If you need to
t find the ne
et force exertted on a cha
arge by a gro
oup or system
m of
forces, we need to impleement vectorr addition!
• Because forcces are vectoors, they supe
erimpose!

4. ELECTR
RIC FIELD
• Field-concep pt was introd duced to circcumvent the conceptual
dilemmas off action-at-a--distance forc ces.
• An electric charge
c will se
et-up an ELECCTRIC FIELD in
n space surro ounding it.
• This Electric Field
F will exerrt an electric force on anyy electrical objects
o in it.
• This conceptt was first introduced by Michael
M Faraday.

• Strength/Magnitude:
• The ratio of the electric
e force
e on a charge
e at a point to
t the magniitude of the charge
c
plac
ced at that point.
p
• Direction:
• The direction of the
t electric Force
F on a ch
harge at a point to the direction of th
he
charge placed at a that point..

ELECTRIC
C FIELD PROP
PERTIES
• Symbol: ሬԦ
۳
• Type: Derived, Vector Formula:
• SI Units (duall): N/C or V/m
m

Special Details:
D
1. Electric Field is a ve
ector field*
2. Electric Field propa agates through space at the speed of o light
3. The fo
orce that an electric
e field exerts, acts on
o test charg
ges, not on thhe charge that caused it..
4. We do o not need an a actual “tesst charge” to o calculate th
he electric fie
eld!

• Since the ele
ectric field is a vector, it also
a follows th
he superposition principle.
• This only meaans that if the
ere are a gro oup of charges and a testt charge wass made to ap pproach
these charge es, the test charge will ex xperience a force
f exerted
d by the net eeffect of the
individual ele
ectric fields set-up
s by the e group of ch harges!

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PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |7

THE ELECTRIC FIELD AND COULOMB’S LAW
• Since Force and the Field are both vectors they follow superposition principle!

• Coulomb’s Law:

• Obtaining the Electric Field

Note: We do not need to know the magnitude of the test charge to calculate the electric field, all we
need to know is the magnitude of the charge that produces it, and where we will measure the electric
field!

ELECTRIC DIPOLES
• Electric dipoles are systems composed of two equal and opposite charges q, separated by a
small distance L.
• Electric dipole moment describes the strength and orientation of electric dipoles.

5. ELECTRIC FIELD LINES
• We can picture the electric field by drawing lines to indicated its direction.
• At any given point, the field vector E is tangent to the lines, because they show the direction of
the force exerted on a positive test charge!
• At any point near the positive charge, the electric field points radially away from the charge.
• Similarly the electric field lines converge toward a point occupied by a negative charge!

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PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |8

DRAWING RULES
1. Begin//End:
Field lines be
egin at positiv
ve charge (oor infinity) and
d end at neg gative charge es (or infinity)
2. Symm metry:
Lines are draawn symmetrrically enterinng or leaving an isolated charge
c
3. Numb ber:
The number of lines entering/leaving the charge is proportiona al to the mag gnitude of that
charge
4. Densitty of the Liness:
The number of lines per unit
u area perp pendicular to o the lines, att any point is proportiona al to the
magnitu ude of the field at that po oint
5. When Far:
When very fa ar from the so es are spaced equally an
ource of the field, the line nd radially, ass if they
come fro om a single source
s of chaarge
6. Star-crossed:
o not cross, because if the
Field lines do ey do, they in ndicate two directions
d of the field at that
point whhich is imposssible!

6. MOTIO
ON OF CHARG GES IN ELECTTRIC FIELDS
• When a partticle with cha
arge q is plac ced in an Electric Field E, it experience
es a force qE. Via the
2nd Law of Newton, the particle
p will exxperience ann acceleratio on:

Example
e:
• An electron is projected into a uniform m horizontal electric field (E = 1000 N/C) with a horizontal
velocity (v0= 2 x 106 m/s) in the directiion of the field. How far does
d ctron travel before it is
the elec
brought mom mentarily to rest?
r

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PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |9

P
PART TWO: THE ELEC
CTRIC FIELD
D
OUTLIN
NE OBJECTIVES

1. Electric Field of Discrrete Charge At th
he end of thiss chapter, yo
ou should
Disstributions be able
a to:

2. Electric Field of Conttinuous Charge 1.Ca
alculate the electric
e field o
of different
Disstributions charrge distributio
ons using techniques
prese
ented;
3. Electric Flux and Gauss’s Law
2. Sttate, use, app
ply Gauss’s Law in
4. Discontiinuity of En theo
oretical and practical
p problems; and

5. Charge and Field at Conductor 3. Re
elate Gauss’ss Law and Co
oulomb’s
Surrfaces Law..

6. Derivatio
on of Coulom
mb’s Law from
m
Gaauss’s Law an
nd vice-versa
a

1. ELECTRRIC FIELD OF DISCRETE CH HARGE DISTRIBUTIONS
1. System
m:
Use superposition principle
2. Electrric Dipole
The electric field on the axis
a of the dip
pole at a point a great distance
x away is in the direcction of the dipole moment and has the magnitude e

EXAMPLE E:
A moleccule of water vapor cause es an electricc field in the surrounding
s s
space as if it were an elec ctric
dipole. Itts dipole mom
ment has a magnitude
m p = 6.2 x 10 C-m.
-30

What is the
t magnitudde of the electric field at a distance z = 1.1 nm fromm the molec cule on its dip
pole axis?
ANS: 8.4 x 107 N/C

2. ELECTR
RIC FIELD OF CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTIONS S
y Properties coonvention forr continuous charge distriibutions
Name Symbol SI Unit

Charge q C

Linear ch
harge density
y λ C/m

Surface charge denssity σ C/m2

Volume charge denssity ρ C/m3

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DISTRIBUTION CON
NFIGURATION
N FIELD FO
ORMULA

LINE CHA
ARGE

(1)At the e
perpend dicular
bisector of a
finite line
e
charge

(2) At the e
perpend dicular
bisector of an
infinite lin
ne
charge

CHARGE
ED
RING

z is the distance of P from the
center of the disk

R is the
e radius of the
e charged diisk

DISTRIBUTION CON
NFIGURATION
N FIELD FO
ORMULA

CHARGE
ED
DISK

z is the distance of P from the
center of the disk

R is the
e radius of the
e charged diisk

INFINTIE If we
e let the charge disk
PLANE OFO expand to infinitty, we find thaat
CHARGE E the electric field normal to th
he
planne is,

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SPHERICAL
SHELL OFF
CHARGE E

DISTRIBUTION CO
ONFIGURATIO
ON FIE
ELD FORMULA
A

SOLID SP
PHERE
OF CHARGE

SOLID SP
PHERE
OF CHARGE

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DISTRIBUTION CO
ONFIGURATIO
ON FIE
ELD FORMULA
A

CHARGEED
CYLINDE
ER

3. GAUSS
S’S LAW AND
D ELECTRIC FLU
UX

y The qualitative descriptioon of the elecctric field usin
ng electric fieeld lines, disc
cussed in Cha apter
one, is relate
ed to a mathematical equation known as Gauss’s Law.
y Gauss’s Law:
◦ Nammed after Karrl Friedrich Gauss (1777-18 855)
◦ Presents an Alterrnative to the
e difficult Couulomb’s Law
◦ Usess geometry/symmetry to simplify
s calcuulations
◦ A re
elation betweeen the electtric field at alll points in the
e surface and d the total ch
harge
enclosed within the
t surface

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 13

GAUSSIA
AN SURFACE
y Any hypothe etical closed surface
y Can be any shape, but the most usefful ones are those
t that miimics the sha
ape and symm
metry of
the problem at hand.

ELECTRIC
C FLUX
y Mathematic cal quantity thhat correspoonds to the nu
umber of
field lines cro
ossing a surfa
ace
y Which for a surface
s perppendicular to E is defined as the
product of th he magnitud de of the field
d E and the area
a A

Φ is Elecctric Flux, in Nm2/C
E is Electtric Field, in N/C
N
A is perppendicular to o the area of the Gaussian
n surface, in m2
θ is the smallest
s angle between E and A

EXAMPLES:

1. If the electric
e h a magnitude of 2.0x10
field in a region has 03 N/C
directed d towards the e right as showwn in the figuure, what is the value of
the elec ctric flux passiing through a rectangula ar Gaussian su urface of
cross sec ctional area 0.0314 m2?
2. What is the value of o the electric c flux passing
g through the e
rectangular Gaussian n surface if it is angled 500o with respecct to the
electric field?

MORE NO
OTES ON ELEC
CTRIC FLUX:

y Electric Flux is
i zero, if E an
nd A are perp pendicular too each
other (IMAG GINE THIS!)
y When an E-fiield vector enters
e the surfface, it has a negative va alue.
y When an E-fiield vector le eaves the surrface, it has a positive value!

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FINDING
G THE NET FLUX
X (Φnet)

QUALITA
ATIVE DESCRIP PTION OF GA
AUSS’S LAW
The net flux
f through any
a surface equals
e the ch
harge enclossed over permittivity of fre
ee-space (ε0)

EXAMPLE
ve charges of
Given fiv o values q1 = q4 = +3.1 nCC, q2 = q5 = -5
5.9 nC, and
e net electric flux through the Gaussian surface S.
q3 = -3.1 nC, find the
Refer to the figure.

ATIONS OF GA
APPLICA AUSS’S LAW
y Gauss’s Laww is valid for any distributioon of chargess and for anyy closed surfa
ace
y Gauss’s Laww can be used d in two way ys:
1. If we
e know the charge
c distrib
bution and wee want to find E.
2. If we
e know E and d we want to o find the cha
arge distribution causing EE.

4. DISCO
ONTINUITY OFF En
y When E1
passes
through the
sheet, it
experiences
discontinuity y
as it exits as
E2

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5. CHARGE AND FIELD
D AT CONDUC
CTOR SURFAC
CES

Electrosttatic Equilibrium
y Conductors have free ch harges that are
a able to move
m around the conducttor.
y If there is an electric field d inside the conductor, there will be a net force on n this chargess causing
a momentarry electric cu urrent (CHAPTTER FIVE).
y However, un nless there is a source of energy
e to maaintain this cu
urrent, the ch
harges will me
erely
redistribute ittself to nullify
y the field cre
eated inside the
t conducto or
y This is known as Electrosta atic Equilibriu
um!

CHARGE
E AND FIELD
y VIA GAUSS’SS LAW, the ch harge in a co
onductor will only reside on
o the surface e.
y The consequ uence of this finding is tha at no charge shall exist INSIDE the con
nductor, henc
ce no
field shall exiist INSIDE the conductor. (A finding we e have seen earlier, see SSHELLS)
y Thus conduc ctors provide effective shiielding!
y You will see more
m of this in the problem set!
y Research ab bout Faraday y’s Pail!

6. DERIVA
ATION OF GA
AUSS’S LAW FROM
F COULO
OMB’S LAW AND
A VICE VERSA
Apply Gauss’
G Law

Use E = F/q
F 0

Manipulate, collect k,
k derive Cou
ulomb’s Law

TRY TO DE
ERIVE GAUSS’S LAW FROM CO
OULOMB’S LAW
W BY REVERSING
G THIS PROCES
SS

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PART THREE: THE ELECTRIC POTENTIAL
OUTLINE OBJECTIVES

1. Potential Difference After this chapter you should be able to:

Continuity of V 1. Define and differentiate electric
potential difference, electric potential,
Units and electrostatic potential energy.

Potential and Electric Field Lines 2. Calculate the potential difference
between two points, given the electric
2. Potential due to a System of Point
field in the region.
Charges
3. Define of the electron-volt (eV)
3. Finding the Electric Field from the
energy and the conversion factor
Potential
between eV and the joule.
General Relation between E and
4. Calculate the electric potential of
V
discrete and continuous charge
distributions
4. V of Continuous Charge Distributions

5. Equipotential Surfaces

The Van de Graff Generator

Dielectric Breakdown

__________________________________________________________________

THE CONSERVATIVE ELECTRIC FORCE
ƒ Electric Force between two charges is directed along the line of charges and depends on the
inverse square of their separation (this is the same as the gravitational force between two mass,
Recall Physics 3)
ƒ Like Gravitational Force, electric force is conservative!
ƒ Now, when we say that a force is conservative, there is always a potential energy function U
associated with it!

ELECTRIC POTENTIAL
ƒ If we place a test charge q0 in an electric field, its potential energy is proportional to q0.
ƒ The potential energy per unit charge is a function of the position in space of the charge and its
called ELECTRIC POTENTIAL!

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1. POTEN
NTIAL DIFFERENCE

DEFINITIOON: POTENTIA AL DIFFERENC
CE
For a finiite displacem
ment from po
oint a to point b, the chan
nge in potenttial is

ƒ Notes:
1. The potentia al difference Vb-Va is the negative
n of the work done per unit chharge by the electric
field on a poositive test ch
harge when itt moves from
m point a to point
p b.
2. ∆V is also the
e positive wo ork done per charge that you must do o against the electric field
d to
move the ch harge from a to b

CONCEP
PT RECALL:
ƒ You might bee confused right
r now, so let’s clear things up!!!
ƒ Potential Ene
ergy
ƒ the capacity
c for doing work which
w arises from position
n or configura
ation in a forc
ce field.
ƒ An object moves
m againstt the field
ƒ U inc
creases.
ƒ Worrk is done agaainst the field
d
ƒ An object moves
m with the
e same direc ction of the field
ƒ U de
ecreases.
ƒ The work is donee by the field
d.

ANOTHER CONVENTIO ON TO MAKE E IT EASIER
ƒ If a test charrge (+) move es against the
e direction of
o
electric field, its U increa
ases.

ƒ If a test charrge(+) move es with the sa
ame direction
n as the
electric field, its U decrea
ases

ƒ he electric potential or just the
The function V is called th
potential.

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ƒ Like the elecctric field, the
e potential V is a function of position.
ƒ The electric field
f is a vecctor function, whereas thee electric pottential is a scalar function
n!
ƒ As with pote ential energy U, only chan nges in the pootential V aree important.
ƒ We are agaiin, free to cho oose the pottential to be zero
z at any convenient
c p
point.
ƒ If the electric
c potential and potential energy of a test charge are chosen tto be zero att the
same point they
t are related by:

UITY OF V
CONTINU
ƒ In chapter tw
wo, we saw that
t the electric field is disscontinuous by
b σ/ε0 at a p
point where there is a
surface denssity σ.
ƒ The potentia
al function, on
n the other hand,
h is continuous everyw where in space.

UNITS OFF V
ƒ Electric Pote ential (V) is po
otential energgy per unit charge, hence the SI Unit iis
ƒ 1 J/C = 1 V (Volt, after A.
A Volta)
ƒ In atomic an nd nuclear ph hysics, the unnit used for energy is calle
ed the electro
on-volt (eV). eV
converts to Joule
J by
ƒ 1 eV = 1.6 x 10-19 CV = 1.6 6 x 10-19 J
ƒ For example e, an electron n moving from m the negatiive terminal tot the positive
e terminal off a 12-V
car battery gains
g potentiial energy of 12eV.

POTENTIA
AL AND ELEC CTRIC FIELD LIN
NES
ƒ If we place a positive tesst charge q0 in
i an electricc field E, and release it, it a
accelerates in the
direction of E.
E
ƒ As kinetic en nergy of the charge
c increases, its pote
ential energy decreases.
ƒ The charge therefore
t mooves toward a region of loower potentia al, just as a mmass falls tow
ward a
region of low
wer gravitatio
onal potentia
al energy.
ƒ “ELECTRIC FIELD LINES PO OINT IN THE DIRECTION OF DECREASING G ELECTRIC PO OTENTIAL”

2. POTEN
NTIAL DUE TO A SYSTEM OFF POINT CHAR RGES
ƒ Definition: Th
he Potential iss zero at an infinite distan
nce from the point charge e.
ƒ The electric potential at a distance r from
f a point charge q att the origin is calculated as:
a

ƒ This potentia
al is known ass Coulomb po
otential. It is positive
p or ne
egative depe
ending on the
e sign of
the charge q.
q

ƒ The potentia
al energy U of a test charg
ge q0 placed
d a distance r from the po
oint charge q is

ƒ This is the ele
ectrostatic po
otential energ
gy of the two
o-charge systtem relative to U= 0 at inffinite
separation

EXAMPLE E
1. What is the electric
c potential at a distance r = 0.529x10-10 m from a proton?
p (This is the averag
ge
e between a proton an electron in a H atom)
distance
What is the
t potential energy of th
he electron and
a the proto
on at this sep
paration?

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2. In nuc
clear fission, a uranium-235 nucleus ca
aptures a neuutron and splits apart into two lighter nuclei.
n
Sometim mes the two fiission produc
cts are a bariium nucleus (charge +56ee) and a kryp pton nucleuss (charge
+36e).
Assuming g that these e two nuclei are point charges sep parated by r = 14.6 x10 0-15 m. Calcu ulate the
potentiaal energy of this two-chargge system in electron-volts.

ƒ al at some po
The potentia oint due to se
everal point charges
c is the
e sum of the potentials du
ue to
each chargee separately. (Superpositiion Principle following thee force and the field)

ƒ MORE Examples are give
en in the exam
mple listings.

3. FINDIN
NG THE ELECTTRIC FIELD FRO
OM THE POTE
ENTIAL: THE GENERAL
G RELA
ATION BETWEE
EN E AND V

ƒ If we know th
he potential,, we can use it to calculate the electrric field using this relation

ƒ Conversely we
w can know
w the potential from the electric
e field as
a was shown
n earlier in this
chapter.

4. V OF CONTINUOUS
C S CHARGE DIS STRIBUTION
ƒ The potentiaal of continuo
ous charge distribution
d ca
an be obtained using techniques furniished by
calculus.
ƒ Only formulaae and speciial propertiess for each disstribution shall be given, lo
osing empha
asis on
the techniqu
ue used to deerive them.

DISTRIBUTIO
ON CONFIG
GURATION and POTENTIA
AL FORMULA

INFINITE LINE CHARGE

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CHARGED RING

CHARGED DISK

INFINITE PLA
ANE

The potential V at a point
P with a disstance x (eith her
to left or to the right) fro
om
the infinite plane

Where V0 iss the potentia
al
at x=0

V0 is not ne
ecessarily zero
o!

SPHERICAL SHELL

The potential inside the
hell of charge
spherical sh e is
constant

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The potential outside th
he
spherical sh
hell of charge
e
depends ono r distance
from the su
urface

WHEN TH
HE FIELD IS ZER
RO…
ƒ It is a commo on mistake th hat when the
e field is zero,, the potentia
al is also zero
o.
ƒ When the fie eld is zero, it only
o means th
hat the potential at that location
l is
constant/unchanging… leading to a “change of potential” equal to zero!!!

5. EQUIPOTENTIAL LIN
NES AND SURFFACES

ƒ Equipotentiaal Line
ƒ are lines drawn in an electric hat that all the points on the line are at the
c field such th
samme potential.
ƒ Equipotentiaal Surface
ƒ is a surface,
s all points
p of whic
ch are at the same potential.

ƒ Equipotentia
al Lines and Surfaces
S are always
a endicular to the electric ffield lines!
perpe

ƒ Movement along
a an equuipotential lin
ne requires no
o work because such mo
ovement is alw
ways
perpendicular to the elec
ctric field.

METALS AND
A THE EQUUIPOTENTIAL
ƒ How much workw g over the surface of a
would it take to drag
conducting metal, a possitive charge q from Pointt A to Point B?
?
ƒ Answer is NOONE!
ƒ Because me etals are equiipotential volumes and thhey have
equipotentia
al surfaces. Se
ee Gauss’s La
aw for explanation!

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VAN DE GRAFF GENERATOR

How does a Van de Graff Generator works?
ƒ Topics that can explain:
1. Potential
2. Electric Field Lines
3. Conductor Property

DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN

ƒ Happens when non-conducting material become ionized when exposed to very high
electric fields and become conductors
Dielectric Strength
ƒ The magnitude of the electric field for which dielectric breakdown occurs in a material
ƒ Emax,air = 3 x 106 V/m = 3MN/C
Arc Discharge
ƒ The discharge through the conducting air resulting from dielectric breakdown.
ƒ An example is the electric shock you receive when you touch the metal door knob
after walking across a rug on a dry day.

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UNIT TW
WO: ELE
ECTRIC ENERGY
E Y AND CAPACI
C ITANCE
OUTLINE OBJJECTIVES

1. Electrosta
atic Potential Energy At th
he end of th
his chapter, you should
be able
a to:
2. Capacita
ance and Ca
apacitors
1. De
efine Electrosstatic Energy;
3. The Stora
age of Electrical Energy
2. Define Capac
citance and
d apply the
and Electro
ostatic Field Energy conccept to exxplain how capacitors
workk;
4. Combina
ations of Cap
pacitors:
3. Exxplain how electrostatic
c energy is
Parallel and
d Series Capacitors
store
ed;
5. Dielectric
cs:
4. Define a Dielectric and how
diele
ectrics store electrostattic energy;
Energy Sto ored in the presence of a
and
Dielectric

5. Solve problems that ca alculate for
ar View of a Dielectric:
6. Molecula D
capaacitance, electrostatic
c energy,
Magnitude of the bound
d charge maggnitude of th
he bound an nd the free
charrge;
The Piezoellectric Effect

INTRODU
UCTION
€ When we briing a point charge
c q fromm a far away y to a region where otherr charges are e present,
WE MUST DO O WORK qV, where
w V is the potential at
a the final poosition due too other charg
ges in the
vicinity.
€ The work done is stored as a electrostattic potential energy.
€ The electrosttatic potentiaal energy of a system of charges is th he total work needed to assemble
a
a system.
€ When a cha arge is placed d on an isolated conducttor, the poten ntial of the conductor inccreases.
€ The ratio of the
t charge to o the potentiial is called th
he capacitance of the conductor.
€ When a cha arge is placed on an isola ated conduc ctor, the poteential of the conductor inncreases.
(Why???)
€ The ratio of the
t charge to o the potentiial is called th
he capacitance of the conductor.
€ A useful devvice for storing
g charge and energy is th he capacitor.
€ A capacitor consists of 2 conductors, closely spac ced but insulaated from ea ach other.
€ When a cap pacitor is attaached to a source
s of potential differe
ence (such a as a battery), the two
conductors carry
c equal and
a oppositee charges.
€ The ratio of the magnitude of the charge on either e condu uctor to the potential difference
between the e conductorss is called thee capacitanc ce of the cappacitor.

CAPACITORS have many
m uses!
€ 1. The flash attachmentt is your cam mera uses a capacitor to o store the
energy need ded to providde the sudde
en flash of ligh
ht.
€ 2. Tuning circuits
c of communicati
c ion devices such as the t radios,
televisions, and
a cellular phones allo
owing them to operate at certain
frequencies.
€ 3. The defibrillator used by paramed dics in revivinng near-dea ath patients
uses capacitors to store charges in order
o to releaase the right amount of

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shock
€ acitor was th
The first capa he Leyden Ja
ar, a glass con
ntainer lined inside and o
out with gold foil.

ROSTATIC PO
1. ELECTR OTENTIAL ENER RGY
€ The Electrosttatic Potentia
al Energy of a system of point
p es is the workk needed to bring the
charge
charges from
m an infinite separation
s to
o their final po
ositions!
€ The electrosttatic potentia
al energy U of
o a system of o n point cha
arges is:

€ Where Vi is th he potential at the location of the ith charge due to all the oth
her charges.
€ This is also tru
ue for continu
uous charge distributions and system of
o conducto ors.

2. CAPACITANCE
€ The potentiaal (relative to
o zero potenntial at infinitty) of a single isolated c
conductor ca
arrying a
charge Q iss proportional to the ch harge Q, an nd dependss on the size e and shape of the
conductor.
ƒ In geeneral, the la nductor, the greater the amount of charge it can carry for
arger the con
a giv
ven potentia al.
€ For examplee, the potential of a spherrical conducttor of radius R carrying a charge Q is

€ The ratio of the
t charge Q to the pote
ential V of an
n isolated co
onductor is ca
alled its capa
acitance
C:

€ Capacitanc ce is the measure of the capacity
c to sttore charge for
f a given p potential diffe
erence.
€ Since the pootential is alw
ways proportiional to the charge,
c this ratio does N
NOT depend on either
Q or V, but only
o on the sizze and shape
e of the cond ductor.

The capacitance of a spherical conductor
c is

€ The SI Unit of
o capacitan nce is the cooulomb per volt,
v which iss called a farad (F) afterr Michael
Faraday:
€ 1 F = 1 C/V
€ Since the farad is a rathe er large unit,, submultiples such as thee microfaradd (1 μF = 10-6 F) or the
picofarad (1pF = 10 F) are
-12 a often use ed.
€ Since capac citance is in farads
f and R is in meters, we can see from the lasst slide, that the
t SI unit
for permittivity of free spa
ace εo can also be written n as farad peer meter.

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HOW BIG G IS THAT???
1. Find th
he radius of a spherical conductor thaat has a capacitance of 1 farad.
Answer, 8.99 x 109 m,, which is aboout 1400 time
es the radius of the earth!!! Whoa!!!

2. A sphe ere of capaccitance C1 carries a charrge of 20μC. If the charge e is increasedd to 60μC, what is the
new cap pacitance C2?
C1 = C2. The capacittance does not n depend on o the charg ge nor the po
otential differrence. If the charge
c is
tripled, the
t potential also triples, hence, ratio is preserved
d. Capacitannce dependss only on the e size and
shape of the conduc ctor and of th he capacitorr!

CAPACITTORS
Is a syste
em of two co
onductors carrying equal but opposite e charges.
€ A capacitor is usually charged by tra ansferring a charge
c Q from
m
one conducctor to the oth
her leaving one
o of the co
onductors witth
a charge of +Q and the other with –Q Q.
€ The capacita ance of this device
d is deffined to be Q/V*
Q
€ In general, too calculate the
t capacita ance,
ƒ 1. We
W place equ ual and oppo osite chargess on the condductors, then
n
ƒ 2. Fiind the pote ential differe
ence V by first finding the electric field E
betwween them.

PARALLLEL PLATE CAPACITORS
€ Parallel plaates are the most
m common capacitor types.
€ In practice e, the plate es may be e thin meta allic foils tha
at are
separa
ated and insu
ulated from one
o another byb a thin plasstic film.
€ The capac citance of the
e parallel pla
ate capacitorrs is:

€ When a cap pacitor is co
onnected to a battery (a as shown
above), charge is transferred frrom one con nductor to the
t other
until the potential difference bettween the co onductors eq
quals the
potentiaal difference across the battery termin
nals.
€ The amount of charge transferred is Q = CV

PARALLE
EL PLATOS

1. A para allel-plate ca
apacitor has square plate
es of side 10c
cm separated d by 1mm.
(a) Calc culate the ca apacitance of
o this device.
(b) If thiss capacitor iss charged to 12 V, how much
m charge is transferred
d?
Ans (a. 88.5
8 pF b. 1.06 nC)

2. How la
arge would the
t plates ha
ave to be forr the capacittance to be 1F if they are
e to be sepa
arated by
1mm?
Ans (1.13
3 x 108 m2, wh
hich correspo
onds to a squ
uare with a siide of 10.6km
m)

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CYLINDR
RICAL CAPAC CITORS
€ A cylindricall capacitor consists
c of a small
s conduc
cting cylinde
er or wire of rradius r1 and a larger,
concentric cylindrical
c she
ell of radius r2.
€ A coaxial cable, such as a that used d for cable television
t can be though ht of as a cylindrical
c
capacitor.

3. THE STTORAGE OF ELECTRICAL EN NERGY
€ When a ca apacitor is being charged, positiv ve charge is
transferred from the ne egatively ch harged cond ductor to th he
positively charged condu uctor.
€ Work must th herefore be done
d to charrge a capacitor.
€ Some of this work is stored as electrosstatic potentiial energy.
€ When a sm mall amountt of charge e ∆q is mov ved from th he
negative co onductor to the positive conductor,
c itss potential energy is incre
eased by ∆U
U = V(∆q),
where V is thhe potential difference
d be
etween the conductors!
c
€ The potentia al energy inc
crease, is storred in the ca
apacitor via the field. Usiing C = Q/V, we can
express this energy
e in a variety
v of wayys:

Example es:
1. A 15-μ
μF capacitor is charged to
o 60V. How much
m energy y is stored in the
t capacito
or? (Ans 0.027
7J)
2. How much
m energy is stored in
n the capac citor if it 24.5μC of charg ge was transfferred to the
e positive
conducttor using a po
otential of 10
00V? (Ans 0.0
00245J)

PP EXAMMPLE
A paralle
el-plate capa acitor with sq
quare plates 14cm on a side
s and separated by 2.0mm is conn nected to
a batterry and charged to 12V.
The batttery is then diisconnected from the capacitor and the plate sep paration is increased to 3.5mm.
3
Questionns:
1. What is the charge e on the cap pacitor?
2. How much
m energyy was originally stored in th
he capacitor?
3. By how
w much is the e energy increased when n the plate se
eparation is changed?
c

THE ELEC
CTRIC FIELD ENNERGY
€ In the process of charging a capacito or, an electric field is prod
duced betwe een the plate
es.
€ The work req quired to cha arge the cap pacitor can be thought of o as the wo ork required to
t create
the electric field.
f
€ That is, we can
c think of the
t energy sttored in a ca apacitor as energy
e stored
d in the elec
ctric field,
called ELECTTROSTATIC FIE ELD ENERGY
€ The quantity y that charac cterizes electrrostatic field energy is called ENERGY DENSITY (ue), which is
the energy stored per un nit volume of space coverred by the fie eld, given by
y

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PP EXAMMPLE PART TWWO
4. Calcu
ulate the ene
ergy density ue when the plate
p separation is 2.0mm
m
4. COMB
BINATIONS OF CAPACITORS
€ Two or more capacitors are
a often use
ed in combin
nation.
€ Types of Com
mbinations

1. PARALLLEL
| When thhe upper plattes of the two capacitorss are connec
cted by a conducting
wire and
d are therefo
ore at a com mmon poten ntial Va, and the lower plates
p are
connectted togetherr and are at a common potential
p Vb.
| When inn parallel, the
t potentia
al difference
e Va-Vb is tthe same across
a all
capacitors!
2. SERIES
S
| When twot capacittors are connected so that the c charge on the two
capacitors are equa al.
| When in n series, the potential
p diffference is th
he sum of the
e individual potential
differenc
ces in each ofo the capac citors!

PA
ARALLEL CAPACITORS SERIES CAPACITORS

.

Notes for CAPACITORS
C IN PARALLEL Note
es for CAPAC
CITORS IN SERIES

1. The
e voltagge (pote
ential 1.
1 The charrges stored across all the
difference) across each capacito
ors in the circ
cuit are the
ca
apacitor is the same and is same.
eq
qual to the pote
ential
difference of th
he source 2.
2 The poteential differe
ence across
each capacitor
c totals the
2. Thee charge stored in each potential difference o
of source.
caapacitor totals the ch harge
sto
ored in all of the capacittors in 3.
3 As you add capac citors in the
the
e circuit circuit, Ceq
C decrease
es.

3. As you increasse the numbber of 4.
4 Ceq is always lesss than the
caapacitors in the circuit, you al capacitan
individua nces of the
inc
crease Ceq. capacitoors.

4. Ceeq is always greater than the
ind
dividual capacitances of o the
caapacitors in th
he circuit!

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CTRICS
5. DIELEC

€ Dielectric
| Any nonn-conducting g material (i.e
e. an insulato
or). Exampless are air, glasss, paper,
or woodd.
| When a Dielectric is inserted
i in th
he space bettween the ca apacitor…
| The cap pacitance iss increased by a factor κ that is c characteristic of the
dielectric, a fact exp
perimentally discovered
d b M.Faraday
by y.
€ Reasons for the
t Increase…
| The reasson for this increase is that t the electric field be etween the plates is
WEAKEN NED by the diielectric.
| Thus, for a given cha arge on the plates,
p the po
otential differrence is redu
uced and
the Cappacitance (C C = Q/V) is inccreased!
€ κ (Kappa)
| Called the dielectric constant

€ CASE 1:
| A. Charg ge on the plaates did not change
c whe
en the dielecttric is inserted
d
| B. This is only the casse, if the cap
pacitor is charged and the en removed from the
charging g source (in this
t case: the e battery) beffore the inserrtion of the dielectric.
d
| C. Equation to use? “All the equa ations found in the previoous slide”, an nd noting
that Q = Q0
€ CASE 2:
| A. Charg ge will changge accordin ng to Q = κQ Q0 (Q, is the total charge after the
dielectric has been inserted) if thhe dielectric is inserted w
while the batttery is still
connectted!
| B. This ha appens beca ause, the ba attery will sup
pply more ch harge to the plates to
maintainn the originall potential diffference!
| C. Equation to use? “All the equ uations found d in the previious slide, exxcept V =
κV0 (beccause V = V0)
€ e, the capac
In either case citance chan nges according to C = κC C0

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Dielectric Exercises:
1. The 88.5
8 pF capaacitor of “PARRALLEL PLATO OS #1” is filled
d with a diele
ectric consta
ant κ=2.
(a) Find the new cap pacitance.
(b) Find the charge ono the capa acitor with thee dielectric in place if the
e capacitor is attached to
t a 12-V
battery. (THIS IS CASE 2: Ans: (a) 177 pF; (b) 2..12nC)
2. The
e capacitor in the abo ove exercise is charged d to 12V witthout the diielectric andd is then
disconne ected from the battery. The
T dielectric
c κ=2 is then in
nserted. Find the new vallues for
(a) The charge
c Q,
(b) the voltage
v V, an
nd
(c) the capacitance
c e C.
(THIS IS CASE
C 1: Ans: (a)
( Q =1.06nC C; (b) V = 6VV; (c) 177 pF)

ENERGY STORED IN TH
HE PRESENCE OF A DIELEC
CTRIC
€ Recall: the energy
e densitty

€ Now, in the presence
p of a dielectric, the energy density
d becomes

CULAR VIEW OF THE DIELECTRIC
6. MOLEC
€ As we all knnow by now w, the dielecctric weakens the electric field betw ween the plaates of a
capacitor.
ƒ This was seen in the
t equationns in the slide entitled “The
e Increase annd The Decre
ease”.
€ But the true reason
r behin
nd this pheno
omena and the t resulting equations
e is tthat:
ƒ The dielectric pro
oduces a fielld opposite to the field prroduced by tthe capacitoor plates!

Now, Wh
hy does the dielectric
d pro
oduce an eleectric field insside?
1. Molecules in n the dielectric are neutral, but it doesn’t
d meann that they are not affe ected by
electric fields!
2. Because thiss molecules contain
c positiive and nega ative charge
es that respon
nd to the field
ds.

THE ATOMIC MODEL… …
Atoms can be thougght in this mannner:
ƒ The nucleus is ap pproximated as a sphere and is at the
e “geometric” center of th
he atom
ƒ The electrons are distributed d as an electron cloud,, and some of these clo ouds are
distrributed as sph
heres.

POLARITY AND NONPOLARITY
N Y
€ If the nuucleus and the electron n cloud are concentric, the
m/molecule is NONPOLAR because th
atom he dipole mooment is zero
ucleus and th
€ If the nu he electron cloud
c are nott concentric, the
atom
m/molecule is POLAR and
d there is a net dipole mooment

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€ When there is no field, the dipole mom
ments are randomly oriennted.
€ When there is an externa al field:
AR Moleculess:
For POLA
ƒ The dipole moment aligns ac he direction of the field.
ccording to th
For NON
NPOLAR Moleecules
ƒ The field induces a dipole moment
m within the molec cule, and the ey align acco
ording to
the field
f

The Effec
ct of the Pola
arization and the Bound Charge
C
€ The effect of the polariza ation of a ho omogeneous dielectric in a parallel plate is the creation of
a surface chharge on the dielectric faces near the e conductor.
€ The surface charge on the t dielectricc is called a BOUND CHA ARGE becau use it is boun
nd to the
molecules ofo the dielecttric and can nnot move about like the e free charge e on the conducting
capacitor pllates!
€ These bound charges produce an n Electric Fie eld opposite
e to the field produced d by the
conducting capacitor plates!
€ Thus if we ad dd all the ele
ectric fields existing
e in the
e capacitor, the field be
etween the plates
p are
reduced!

Illustratio
on of Field Re
eduction

€ The Magnitu
ude of the Bo
ound Charge is given by:

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€ If κ=1 (Meaning there is no dielectric), the bound charge density, σb, is zero
€ If κ=∞ (Meaning a conducting slab is inserted between the plate), the bound charge density,
σb, is equal to the free charge density, σf!

PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT
€ In certain crystals that contain polar molecules such as quartz, tourmaline, and topaz, a
mechanical stress applied to the crystal produces polarization of the molecules!
€ As we all know, again, these polarization mean an electric field is produced, thus a potential
difference across the crystals!
USES OF PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT
€ Transducers in microphone, phonograph pickups, and vibration-sensing devices

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UNIT THREE: ELECTR
RIC CIRC
CUITS
OUTLINE OBJJECTIVES

1. Current and
a Motion of
o Charges he end of thiss chapter, it is expected
At th
that you would be
b able to:

1. Deefine steady--state currentt and relate
2. Resistanc
ce and Ohm’s Law this to the motion
n of charges;

2. Define
D a maaterial’s resisstance and
relate the threee circuital p parameters:
3. Energy in
n Electric Circ
cuits:
Resisstance, Voltage, and C Current via
Ohmm’s Law;
EMF and Ba
atteries

3. De
efine electric
c energy, eleectromotive
force
e and enume erate their ap
pplications;
4. Combina
ations of Resiistors:
4. Leearn the different comb binations of
Series Resisstors and Para
allel Resistorss resisttors in a DC Circuit
C and ssolve for the
equivalent resistaance of a givven circuit;

5. Use Kirchhoff’s Rules in solving the
5. Kirchhofff’s Rules: Junc
ction, Loops equivalent resisttances of a complex
uit; and
circu
and Measu
uring Devicess
6. So
olve problemms involving rresistors and
Ammeters, Voltmeters, and Ohmme
eters capaacitors in com
mbination.

6. RC Ciircuits: Disc
charging an
nd a
Capacitor

Energy Co onservation in Chargin
ng a
Capacitor

INTRODU UCTION
| When we tu urn on a ligh
ht, we conne ect the wire filament in the light bulb across a potential
difference th
hat causes ellectric charg
ge to flow thro
ough the wiree!
| Very much like the way a pressure difference
d in a garden ho ose causes w
water to flow
w through
the hose
| The flow of electric
e chargge constitutes an ELECTRIC C CURRENT.
Usually, we think of currents as being
b in con
nducting wire es, but the electron beam
m in a videoo monitor
and an electron mo oving aroundd the nucleus of the H atom can also be considered as an ELECTRIC
CURRENT!

ENT AND THE MOTION OF CHARGES
1. CURRE
| ELECTRIC CU URRENT
y The rate of flow w of electric charge through a cross--
secttional area.

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| The SI Unit off current is the
e ampere (A A):
| 1 A = 1 C/s
Conventtions:
1. The directionn of current iss considered to be the dirrection of flow of positive
e charge.
2. This was esta
ablished befo ore it as know
wn that free electrons are e the particle
es that actua
ally move
in a conducting wire!
ons move in th
3. Thus, electro he direction OPPOSITE to the direction n of the curre
ent.

2. RESISTTANCE AND OHM’s
O LAW
| Current in the e conductor
y Is drriven by an electric
e field E inside the conductor that
t exerts a force qE on n the free
charges
| What about Electrostatic c Equilibrium? ?
| Since E is in thet direction of the force on a positive e charge, it iss in the directtion of the cu
urrent!
| Figure showss a wire segm ment
| Electric Field d points in the
e direction off lower poten ntial. (Va>Vb)
| Assume thatt ∆L is small enough so that t we may y consider thhe
electric field E to be consstant in that segment
s
| The potentia al difference V between points
p A and B is given by
y

| Again, we useu V ratherr than ∆V for the potenttial differenc ce
(which in this case is a potential decrrease/drop) to simplify th he
notation.
| The ratio of the potential drop to the current
c is callled the resistance of the ssegment.

| Definition of Resistance:

| The SI Unit off resistance, the
t volt per ampere,
a is ca
alled an ohm
m (Ω): 1 Ω= 1V
V/A

OHM’s LAW
L
| For many materials (Term
med OHMIC), the resistan nce does nott depend on n the voltage e drop or
the current.
| OHM’s Law:
y For Ohmic
O materials, the pote
ential drop across
a a segm
ment is propo
ortional to the
e current:

| *For non-ohm
mic materialss, the resistan
nce dependss on the curre not proportional to I.
ent I, so V is n

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| Ohm’s Law is not a fundamenta al law of nature like Newton’s
N La
aws or the Laws of
Thermodyna amics.
| Ohm’s Law is simply an empirical
e description of a property sha ared by many y materials.
| Examples:
1. A wire of resistance 3 carries a curren
nt of 1.5A. Whhat is the pottential drop a
across the wiire? (Ans:
4.5V)
2. creases, whatt happens to
If current inc o the resistanc
ce of a mate erial?
3. If potential difference
d inc
creases, whaat happens to o the resistance of a mate erial?

NCE AND RES
RESISTAN SISTIVITY
| The resistancce of a cond ducting wire is found to be
e proportiona gth wire and inversely
al to the leng
proportional to its cross-se
ectional area
a:

esistivity of the conducting material. Itts unit is called the ohm-m
| ρ is called re meter (Ω-m)
Example
es:
1. A Nichrome wire ( =10-6 Ω-m) has a radius
r of 0.65 5mm. What le ength of wire
e is needed to
t obtain
a resistance of 2.0 Ω)?
2. Calculate thhe resistance per unit leng
gth of a 14-ga auge coppe er wire.

RESISTAN
NCE AND RES SISTORS
| Carbon, whiich has a relatively high electrical re esistivity, is
used in resisttors found in electric equipment.
| Resistors and their com mbinations, are
a used in circuit to
provide nec cessary resistaance to man nipulate the electrical
property off certain circuits, netw works, and complex
electrical de
evices.

ENERGY IN ELECTRIC CIRCUITS: PO
OWER

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POWER EXAMPLE
E
A 12-Ω reesistor carriess a current of 3 A. Find the
e power dissiipated in thiss resistor.
Solution::
P = I2R = (3A)2 (12 Ω) = 108 W

Other Po
ower Example es:
A wire of resistance 5 Ω carries a current of 3AA for 6s.
(a) How much powe er is put into th
he wire? (45W
W)
(b) How much therm mal energy is produced?
p (
(270 J)

EMF AND
D BATTERIES
| In order to maintain
m a ste
eady current in a conductor, we nee ed a constannt supply of electrical
e
energy
| Devices thatt can supply electrical en
nergy are called source of
o emf (electroomotive forc
ce)
| Examples of sources of emf
e are a batttery (converrts chemical energy to electrical enerrgy), and
generator (cconverts mecchanical eneergy to electrical energy)

OES “SOURCE OF EMF” WO
HOW DO ORK?
| A source of emf does wo ork on the chharge passing through it by raising the potential energy
e of
the charge.
| The work per unit charge e is called the
e emf ξ,of the
e source.
| The unit of emf is still the volt,
v the sam
me as the unit of the poten
ntial differenc
ce.

E RESISTIVE CIRCUIT
A SIMPLE

1. Symbols usedd
2. What does the source of EMF maintain?
3. What is Vab,, Vac, Vdb, and
a Vcd?’
4. What is the direction
d of th
he current I?
5. What is the power
p delive
ered by the soource of EMFF and the pow
wer dissipate
ed at the resisstor?

IDEAL AN
ND REAL BATTTERIES
| Inside the ba
attery, charge flows from a region of lo ow potentiall to a region of high potenntial, so it
gains potenttial energy
| IDEAL BATTERRY
| Maintain ns a constant potential differenc ce between n its two terminals,
t
indepen
ndent of the flow
f rates of the charge between
b the
em.
| The pote ential difference betwee en the terminnals of an ideeal battery is equal in
magnitu
ude to the em mf of the battery.
| REAL BATTERY Y
| The potential difference across the batttery termina als, called TERMINAL
T
VOLTAGGE, is not simp
ply equal to the emf of the
e battery.

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| Consider thiss simple circu
uit:

| onsists of the following: Re
The circuit co eal Battery and a Resistorr
| If the currennt is varied by
b varying th he resistancee and the teerminal volta
age is measu ured, the
terminal volttage is found d to decreasse slightly as the current increases, ju
ust as if there
e were a
small resistan
nce inside thee battery

REAL BATTTERIES GETTING REAL
| The terminall voltage of the battery is always lesss than the emf, e since th
he internal reesistance
reduces the emf!
y Real batteries ha ave very smaall internal re
esistances, meaning there e is a small difference
betw
ween the terminal voltage and the em mf, unless the arge current.
ere is a very la
y Malffunctioning batteries
b havve very large e internal resisstances! Whiich results to very low
term
minal voltage
es
| Batteries are e often rated in Ampere-h hours (A•h), which
w is the total charge they can deliver
| 1 A•h= 1 C/ss (3600s) = 36 600 C
| The total ene ergy stored in
n the battery
y (W) is the to
otal charge times the emff!
| W = Qξ

I’M REALL BATTERY
An 11-Ω resistor is connected acrross a battery y of emf 6V and
a internal resistance
r 1Ω
Ω.
Find the following
a) The current
b) The te erminal voltage of the baattery
c) The power deliverred by the em mf source
d) The power deliverred to the extternal resistorr
e) The power dissipated by the battery’s internal resistance
f) If the battery
b ed at 150 A•h, how much
is rate h energy doees it store?

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4. COMB
BINATIONS OF RESISTORS

| Two or more resistors cann be used in combination
c s.
| The analysis of a circuit can often be simplified by
b replacing
g two or more resistors by
y a single
equivalent resistor that carries
c the sa
ame current with the sam
me potential drop as thee original
resistors.
| Types of Com mbinations:
1. SERIES Resisto
ors
2. PARALLEL Re esistors

STORS
SERIES RESIS PARALLLEL RESISTORS

| No
otes for Resistors in Series | Notes forr Resistors in P
Parallel

1. All resistors have
h the same
s 1.
1 The curre
ent splits as itt leaves the
current flowing through them point of separration of
connection (terme ed as a
2. The
e total pote
ential drop is the junction) and rejo oins as it
sum
m of the inddividual pote ential reaches the other jun nction
dro
ops in each of
o the resistorrs
2.
2 The pote ential drop in
n any of the
resistors are
a equal in v value.

3.
3 The currrent in an ny of the
junction is the sum of all the
currents through all the paths
leading out
o and in the junction.

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5. KIRCH
HHOFF’s RULES
S

| There are many
m circuits such as the
e one given above
that can no ot be analy yzed by me erely replacing the
resistors by equivalent
e ressistors.
| Thus we dev vise another technique that can do so with
breeze!
| e Kirchhoff’s Rules and apply
We will utilize a them in
nto two
different con nfigurations.

Two Kirchhoff’s Rules:
1. Junction Rule e
2. Loop Rule
Two Connfigurations:
1. Single Loops
2. Multiple Loops

| KIRCHHOFF’ss JUNCTION RULE
R
y At any
a junction point
p in the circuit,
c the current can divide, the sum m of the currents into
the junction
j musst equal the sum
s of the cuurrents out off the junction
n.
| KIRCHHOFF’ss LOOP RULE
y Whe en any closeed-circuit loop is traversedd, all potentiial gains musst be equal to all the
poteential drops
a changes in potentials must
y Or, all m add up p to zero!

HOW TO O APPLY KIRCHOFF’s RULESS
1. Draw a sketch of the circuit
2. Choo ose a directio on o currentt in each brranch of the e circuit, andd label the c currents in th
he circuit
diagramm. Add plus or minus sig gns to indica ate the high h- and low- potential sid des of each h resistor,
capacito or or source of emf.
3. Replace any combination of re esistors in series or parallel with the equuivalent resistance.
4. Applyy the junction rule to each h junction wh here the curre ent divides.
5. Applyy the loop rulee until you ob
btain as man ny equations as the unkno owns.
6. Solve the equation ns to obtain the
t values of the unknowns.
7. Check k your result by
b assigning a potential of o zero to one e point in the
e circuit and uses the valuues of the
currents found to determine the potentials
p at other points in the circuitt.

MEASURING DEVICESS
| The devices that measurre electric cu
urrent, potenntial differenc
ce, and resisstance are called the
ammeter, vooltmeter, and
d the ohmme eter respectiv
vely.
| They are combined into a single dev vice called a multimeter that can be switched intto any of
evices above
the three de ementioned.

DEVICE HO
OW TO CONS
STRUCT

ER
AMMETE

VOLTMETTER Yo
ou will need to
t refer to the
e appendix to
t this hando
out!

OHMMETER

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6. RC CIR
RCUITS
| RC Circuits
y Con ntain a resisto
or and a capacitor
y Currrent I, flows in n a single dire
ection, but itss magnitude varies with tiime
y App plications lie in
i the behav vior of the RCC Circuit, thaat is, RC Circ
cuit has charg ging and
discharging abilities
| When we sa ay charging, we put the maximum amount a of chharge possib ble for that capacitor
c
over a speciific time consstant
| When we say discharg ging, we rem move all the e charge in the capac citor until its value is
negligible.
DISCHAR RGING A CAP PACITOR
| Discharge happens because when the t switch is closed at t
= 0, there iss a potential drop acrosss the resisto or, meaning
there is curre
ent in it.
| The current is due to the flow of ch harge from thet positive
conductor of o the capa acitor through the resisstor to the
negative conductor of th he capacitorr.
| After some time, t the chharge on the e capacitor is reduced,
hence the current is also reduced! (WWhy is this hap
ppening?)
| This happenns again and d again, until at some time, the cha arge
and the currrent are both
h negligible hence
h “discharge”
1. Q0 is known as th he initial chaarge containned in the capacitor
c beefore
being discharged.
d It has a vaalue of CV0, where V0 is the potential
differenc
ce between the plates off a capacitor
2. The ch
harge in the capacitor “d decays exponentially “
3. The tiime constan nt τ is the tim
me it would take the ca apacitor to fully
dischargge if at a con
nstant rate

CHARGING A CAPAC CITOR
| We assume thatt the cap
pacitor is initia
ally uncharge
ed.
| Charging ha appens because when the switch iss closed at time t=0,
charge imm mediately be egins to flow w through the
t resistor onto
o the
positive plate
e of the capacitor.
| Charge will increase in th
he capacitorr, however, current
c decreeases.
| Charge in th he capacitoor at some time later, will reach its maximum
m
value of Q = Cξ when the e current I eqquals zero.
1. Qf is th
he maximum m charge that can be storred in the ca apacitor, it is dictated by
the emf source and the t capacitaance of the capacitor.
c
2. When the capacittor is fully cha arged, no mo ore current will
w flow in it!
3. Charg ge will increase logarithmiically and tends to approoach a satura ation value.

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UNIT FOUR: THE MAGNETIC FIELD AND ITS SOURCES
OUTLINE OBJECTIVES
1. THE FORCE EXERTED BY A MAGNETIC At the end of this chapter you must be
FIELD able to:
2. MOTION OF A POINT CHARGE IN A 1. Calculate the force exerted by a
MAGNETIC FIELD magnetic field;
3.THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF MOVING 2. Calculate the magnetic field from
POINT CHARGES various field-source configurations;
4. THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS 3. Calculate parameters from velocity-
5. GAUSS’S LAW FOR MAGNETISM selector applications;
6. AMPERE’S LAW: LIMIT AND 4. Define the Ampere;
CORRECTION 5. Apply Gauss’s Law for Magnetism;
7. MAGNETISM IN MATTER and
6. Apply Ampere’s Law;

PART 1: THE MAGNETIC FIELD

BRIEF HISTORY
€ Ancient Greeks (around 2000 years ago) were aware that magnetite attracts pieces of iron.
€ There are written references to the use of magnets for navigation during the 12th century.
€ In 1269, Pierre de Maricourt discovered using simple observations, the existence of magnetic
poles. Note that like poles repel and unlike poles attract.
€ In 1600, William Gilbert discovered that the earth itself is a natural magnet.
€ Although electric charges and magnetic poles are similar in many respects, there is an
important difference:
Magnetic Poles always exist as pairs. No isolated magnetic poles were ever observed.

1. THE FORCE EXERTED BY A MAGNETIC FIELD
In this course, we will examine the force exerted by a magnetic field on a
› Moving point charge
› Current-Carrying Wire
€ Before we proceed, there are something we need to convene with
€ F is force, q is charge, v is velocity, B is the magnetic field
€ F is force, I is current, ∆L is the length vector, B is the magnetic field
€ We will also, exhaustively discuss, the right-hand rule, to determine the direction of the vector
that results from a cross product.

Magnetic Force on a Moving Point Charge
€ Experimental observations reveal that magnetic force on a moving point charge
› Is proportional to q and v, and to the sine of the angle between v and B.
› Surprisingly perpendicular to both the velocity and the field.
€ The abovementioned observations are summarized as the equation below

€ This is the force exerted on a point charge moving with a velocity v in a magnetic field
€ Since F is perpendicular to both v and B, it is perpendicular to the plane defined by this two
vectors.
€ The direction of F is given by the right-hand rule as v is rotated into B, as illustrated below.

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Magnetiic Force on a Current-Carrrying Wire
€ Since the Ele ectric curren
nt is basically
y moving charges, the wirew that conntains the current, will
then experie
ence magnettic forces, on agnetic field.
nce it is subjected to a ma
€ This magnettic force is proportional
p to the current, the lengtth of the wirre segment, and the
magnetic fie
eld.
€ This is summa arized in the equation
e below

€ Where ∆L is called the length vecttor, whose magnitude
m iss the length
h of the wire
e and its
direction is th
he direction of the curren
nt

2. UNITS OF THE MAG
GNETIC FIELD

€ The equation for the ma agnetic force e on a movin ng point charrge allows uss to define th
he unit of
the magnetiic field.
€ The SI unit off the magnettic field is the
e TESLA (T).
€ A charge of o 1C moving g with a ve elocity of 1mm/s perpendicular to a magnetic fie eld of 1T
experiences a force of 1N N
€ The Tesla, ho owever, is a very large quantity;
q we need to deefine the tesla in terms of a more
popular unit–– the gauss.

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EXAMPLE ES
1. A pro
oton is movinng with a ve
elocity of 10
0Mm/s. It exp
periences a magnetic fiield of 0.6G which is
directed
d downward and northw ward, making g an angle of
o 70o with the horizonta
al. Find the magnetic
m
force on
n the proton.

2. A wiree segment 3mmm long carrries a current of 3A in the
e x-direction.. It lies in a m
magnetic field
d of 0.02T
that is in
n the xy-plan
ne and makees an angle of 30o with thet x-axis, ass shown in th he figure. Whhat is the
magnetiic force exerrted on the wire
w segment.

3. MAGN
NETIC FIELD LIINES

€ Just as the Electric
E Field E can be rep presented byy Electric Fielld Lines, the Magnetic Fie
eld B can
be representted by Magn netic Field Lin nes.
€ In both casees
› (1) Direction
D of th
he field is inddicated by the direction of
o the lines
› (2) Magnitude
M off the field is in
ndicated by the density ofo the lines
€ There are ho owever, two important diifferences be etween electtric field line es and magnnetic field
lines:
› (1) Electric
E field lines are in th he direction of the electrric force on a positive charge, the
mag gnetic field lin
nes are perp pendicular to the magnetiic force on a moving cha arge
› (2) Electric field d lines begin on positiv ve charges and end on negative charges;
mag gnetic field lines
l form cllosed loops! Note: Magn nes emerge from the
netic field lin
north pole and enters
e the souuth pole!

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ON OF A POIN
4. MOTIO NT CHARGE IN A MAGNETTIC FIELD
CASE 1: CYCLOTRON N
€ The magnettic force on a charged particle mov ving throughh a
magnetic fie eld is always perpendicular to the velocity of the
t
particle.
€ The magnettic force, thu us changes th
he direction of the veloc
city
but not its magnitude.
€ Therefore, magnetic
m field
ds do no wo
ork on partic
cles and do not
n
change theirr kinetic energy.
€ In the spec cial case, where
w the velocity of a particle is
perpendicular to a unifform field as shown in the figure, the t
particle undergoes uniform circular motion
m (UCM)).

In this spec
cial case, the
e magnetic force
provides thhe centripetaal force nece
essary
for the centripetal
c acceleratio
on in
circular mootion.

We use Neewton’s Seco
ond Law to relate
r
the quantitties.

T and f are
a known asa the cycllotron
period and
d frequency respectively.
r

The cyclotron period and frequ uency
depend on o the charrge-to-mass ratio
q/m but are independ
dent of r and
d v of
e!
the particle

CASE 2: THE HELIX PA
ATH
€ Suppose tha at a charged d particle ennters a uniforrm magnetic c field with a velocity no
ot entirely
perpendicular to the field
d B.
€ The velocity vector is reso olved into tw
wo componen nts
› (1) the v| experie
ences magne etic force, an nd is thus acc
celerated.
› (2) the v|| experiiences no ma agnetic force e, and remains constant.
€ The trajectorry is then callled a helix, which
w is illustra
ated below.

CASE 3: THE MAGNETTIC BOTTLE
€ The motion of o particles in
n non-uniform
m magnetic fiields can be quite compllex.
€ The figure below
b shows a magnetic c bottle. This interesting configuration
c n happens when
w the
field is weak at the centeer and strong
g at both endds.

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€ This configurration is used to trap densse beams of plasmas.
€ A similar pheenomenon iss the oscillation of ions back and fortth between tthe earth’s magnetic
m
poles in the Van
V Allen Beelts

5. THE VE
ELOCITY SELECTOR AND APPLICATIONS
A S

“The maagnetic force e on a charg
ged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field c can be bala
anced by
an electtric force if th
he magnitude
es and directtions of the tw
wo fields are chosen prop
perly.”

€ Since the electric force is in the dire ection of thee electric field (for positiv
ve particles) and the
magnetic foorce is perpen ndicular to thhe magnetic field.
€ The electric and magne etic fields in the region th hrough whic ch the particle is moving must be
perpendicular to each other
o if the forrces are to balance!
b
€ Such regionss is said to ha
ave crossed fields.
f

Th
he Figure shows a reg gion of space
b
between the
e plates off a capacitor
w
where there is an electrric field and
d a
p
perpendiculaar magnetic field into the
t
p
plane of the paper.
p

Consider a pa
C article of cha
arge q enteriing
th
his space fro
om the left, the net forrce
(ttermed Loren
ntz force) onn the particle
e is
g
given by:

Iff q is positive, the ele
ectric force of
m
magnitude qE is dow wn and the t
m
magnetic forcce of magnittude qvB is up
p.

he two force
Th es balances iff qE = qvB or

€ For given ma agnitudes of the electric and magnettic fields, the e forces balance only for particles
with the spee ed v = E/B.
€ The arrangement of the fields f gives us the velocity y selector v = E/B.
€ Any particle e with this sp peed, regard dless of its mass
m or chargge will traveerse the crosssed-field
space undefflected.
› A particle
p with greater spe eed than the e velocity selector will be deflecte ed in the
direcction of the magnetic
m fielld.
› A pa article with le
esser speed than
t the velo
ocity selectorr will be defle
ected in the direction
of th
he electric fieeld.
APPLICA
ATIONS
€ The velocity selector forr crossed-field ds has very important ap pplications that were disscovered
during the laate 19th and early
e 20th cenntury.
€ In this course e, three appliications will be
b discussed:

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1. Thomsson’s Measurrement of q/mm for Electronns
€ JJ Thomson,, in 1897, illustrated the technique fo or measuring
g the
q/m of electtrons.
€ In his experimment, he shoowed that the rays of a cathode-ray
c tube
can be defflected by E and B field ds, thus they y must consiist of
charged particles.
€ By measuring g the deflecttions of these
e particles, Th
homson, showwed that all the particle have the
same q/m.
€ Thomson alsso showed th hat particles with this q/m m can be obtained
o usin
ng any mate erial for a
source, whicch only mea ans that the ese particles (now called d electrons) are a fund damental
constituent of
o all matters.

€ vo is the velo
ocity selectorr (E/B)
€ q/m can be determined from the equation below w.
The magnetic fie
eld is only intrroduced at th
he entrance.

EXAMPLE E
Electrons pass undefflected throuugh the plate es of Thomso on’s apparattus when the e electric fielld is 3000
V/m and d there is a crossed magn
netic field of 1.40G.
If the pla
ates are 4cm long and the ends of the e plates are 30cm
3 from th
he screen.
Find the deflection ono the screen
n when the magnetic
m field
d is turned off.

2. The Mass Spectrom
meter
€ The mass sp pectrometer, first design
ned by Fran ncis William
Aston in
n 1919, was developed
d as
a a means
of meassuring the maasses of isoto
opes.
€ Such mea asurements are an
importaant way of determining g both the
presencce of isotope
es and their abundance
a
in naturre.
€ For examplle, natural magnesium
m
has bee en found to consist of 78.7%
7 24Mg,

10.1% Mg, and 11.2% Mg.
255 26

€ These isotop pes have ma asses in the
approxiimate ratio of
o 24:25:26.
€ Ions ejected d from the soource move in a semi-circ
cular orbit and strike a
photographic film at
a P2.

MASS SP
PECTROMETER
R EQUATION SET
S

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EXAMPLE E
A 58Ni io
on of charge +e and mass 9.62 x 10-226 kg is accelerated throu ugh a potential differenc
ce of 3kV
and deflected in a magnetic
m field
d of 0.12T.
(a) Find the radius off curvature off the orbit of the ion.
(b) Find the differencce in the raddii of curvatuure of 58Ni ion
ns and 60Ni io
ons. (Assume that the maass ratio is
58/60.)

3. The Cy
yclotron

€ The cyclo otron was invented by E.O.
Lawrennce and M.S. Livingsston in 19 934 to
accele es such as protons or deuterons
erate particle
to high
h kinetic enerrgies*.

OTRON EQUATTION SET
CYCLO

EXAMP PLE
A cyclotron for ac ccelerating protons
p has a magnetic c field of 1.5
5T and a
maximmum radius off 0.5m
(a) Wh
hat is the cyclotron freque
ency?
(b) Wh etic energy of the protonss when they e
hat is the kine emerge?

PART 2:: SOURCES OF THE MA
AGNETIC FIELD

STORY
BRIEF HIS
€ Permanent Magnets
M werre the earliest known sourrces of magn netism.
€ Oersted ann nounced his discovery
d tha
at a compasss needle is de eflected by aan electric current.
€ Jean Baptiste Biot and Fe elix Savart an
nnounced the e results of th
heir measurem ments of the force on
a magnet ne ear a long cu
urrent-carryin
ng wire and analyzed
a resu
ults in terms o
of the magne etic field.
€ Andre-Marie e Ampere exxtended the ese experimeents and sho owed that c current elements also
experience a force in the presence of a magnetic field and that two currents exert forces f on
each other.

1. THE MAGNETIC FIELLD OF MOVIN
NG POINT CH
HARGES

€ When a poinnt charge q moves with a velocity v, it
produces a magnetic fie
eld B in space
e given by:

€ (For Left) Wh
here r is calle
ed the positio
on vector tha
at points from
m the charge e to the field
d point P.
μ0 is a constant of propoortionality ca
alled the perm
meability of free space, w
which has the e value

€ (For Right) θ is the angle between r and v.

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EXAMPLE E
A point charge of magnitude
m q = 4.5 nC is moving
m with speed v = 3.6 3 x 107 m/ss parallel to the
t x-axis
along thhe line y = 3m
m.
Find the magnetic fie elds produceed by this chaarge when th he charge is at a the point (x = -4m, y = 3m)
(1) at the
e origin
(2) at the
e point (0,3m
m)
(3) at the
e point (0, 6m
m)
Ans: (1) 3.89 x 10-10 T in the paperr. (2) 0 (Why?
?). (3) 3.89 x 10
1 -10 T out the
e the paper

2. THE MAGNETIC FIELLD OF CURRENTS: BIOT-SA
AVART LAW

The calcculation of thhe magneticc field caused by a point charge
can be extended to o calculate the
t magneticc field cause
ed by an
electric current in a wire.
w

The equation below is known as the
t Biot-Sava
art Law.

ELECTRIC
C-MAGNETIC C ANALOGY
€ The two equ uations used to t calculate the magnetiic field are analogous to Coulomb’s Law.
L
€ However, the ere is a distinct difference
e in the direc
ctional aspec
cts.
€ E is in the dire
ection of the e force.
€ B is in the direction perpe endicular to the
t force.

B DUE TO
O DIFFERE
ENT CON
NFIGURA
ATIONS—
—See APP
PENDIX A
S’S LAW FOR MAGNETISM
3. GAUSS

€ We know thaat magnetic field lines difffer from elec
ctric field lines.
€ Magnetic fie
eld lines form closed loopss.
€ The magnetic equivalen nt of the elec
ctric charge is called a magnetic
m
pole.
€ w for Magnetissm is stated as:
Gauss’s Law a

€ That is, no magnetic mon
nopoles!

RE’S LAW
4. AMPER

€ Ampere’s La aw is very ana
alogous to Gauss’s
G Law fo
or Electricity.
€ It relates thee magnetic field to the current
c enclosed by an im maginary
loop (called Amperian Lo oop).
€ Ampere’s La aw works forr configuratio
ons that havve a high de egree of
symmetry.
€ It is stated ass:

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EXAMPLES:

1. Find the magnetic field caused by a wire that carries a current I at a point P which is at a
perpendicular distance R from the wire.

2. A long straight wire of radius R carries a current I that is distributed uniformly over he cross-sectional
area of the wire. Find the magnetic field both inside and outside the wire.

LIMITATIONS OF AMPERE’S LAW
Ampere’s Law will only work if and only if the following statements hold:
1. The configuration has a very high level of symmetry
2. The current is continuous everywhere in space.

Therefore, there are only three cases where Ampere’s Law can be used:
1. Long straight lines
2. Long, tightly wound solenoids
3. Toroids

5. MAGNETISM IN MATTER

€ Unlike the E field and the dipole moment p, magnetic moments inside all materials tend to
increase the magnetic field during alignment.
€ Materials fall into three categories:
(1) Paramagnetic
(2) Diamagnetic
(3) Ferromagnetic

PARAMAGNETISM

€ Paramagnetism arises from partial alignment of the electron spins (in metals) or of atomic or
molecular magnetic moments by an applied magnetic field in the direction of the field.
€ In paramagnetic materials, the magnetic dipoles do not interact strongly with each other and
are randomly oriented.
€ In the presence of an external magnetic field, the dipoles are partially aligned in the direction
of the field, thereby increasing the field.
€ However, in external magnetic fields of ordinary strength at ordinary temperatures, only a small
fraction of the molecules are aligned. The total increase in the field is therefore small.

DIAMAGNETISM

€ Diamagnetism arises from the orbital magnetic dipole moments induced by an applied
magnetic field.
€ These magnetic moments are opposite the direction of the applied magnetic field so they
decrease the total magnetic field B
€ This effect actually happens to all material, but because of the induced magnetic moments
are very small compared to the permanent magnetic moments, diamagnetism is masked by
paramagnetic or ferromagnetic moments.
€ Diamagnetism is thus only observed in materials that have no permanent magnetic moments.

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FERROMAGNETISM

€ Ferromagnetism is much more complicated than paramagnetism because of a strong
interaction between neighboring magnetic dipoles.
€ A high degree of alignment occurs even in weak external magnetic fields, thus causing a great
increase in the total field.
€ Even when there is no external field, ferromagnetic materials may have its dipoles aligned and
have its own magnetic field just like a permanent magnet.

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UNIT FIVE: MAGNE
M ETIC IND
DUCTION
OUTLINE OBJJECTIVES
1. Magnetic c Flux At thhe end of thiis chapter, yyou must be
2. Induced EMF and Farraday’s Law able to:
3. Lenz’s La
aw 1. Define
D and compute
c for magnetic
4. Motionall EMF flux;
5. Eddy Currents 2. Define and utilize
u Faradaay’s Law to
6. Inductannce: Self-Indu
uctance and calculate for the t induced d emf for
Mutual Indu uctance seveeral configuraations;
7. RL Circuits 3. Define
D and utilize Lenzz’s Law to
calculate for the t directio
on of the
induc ced current in
i Faraday’s Law;
4. Ch haracterize and
a enumera ate ways to
reduce Eddy Currrents;
5. Co ompute Inductances;
6. Le earn meanss and wayss in storing
mag gnetic energy y; and
7. Compute for circuital parrameters of
RL Circuits.

INTRODU
UCTION
y 1830’s – Michael Farad day (Englan nd) and Joseph Henry (USA)
independen ntly discovere ed that chan nging magne etic field induuces a
current in the
e wire.
y The emfs an nd currents caused by changing magneticm fields are
called induc ced emfs and d induced cu urrents.
y The process itself, is referrred to as maggnetic induc
ction.
y When you pull p the plug g of an elec ctric cord fro
om its socke et, you
sometimes observed
o a sm
mall spark. Th
his phenomen non is explain ned by magn
netic inductio
on!

1. MAGN
NETIC FLUX

y The flux of a magnetic fiield through a surface is defined similarly to
the flux of an
n electric field.
y The magnetiic flux Φm is defined
d as

y The unit of flux
f is that off a magnetic
c field times area, tesla-m
meter square
ed, which is called a
weber (Wb)
y 1 Wb = 1 T•mm2

e: Show that a weber per second is a volt.
Exercise v

y We are oftten intereste ed in the flux through a coil
containing several turns of
o wire.
y ontains N turrns, the flux through the coil
If the coil co c is N
times the fluxx through each turn.

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EXERCISE
Find the magnetic fllux through a solenoid th
hat is 40cm lo
ong, has a radius
r of 2.5c
cm, as 600 tu
urns, and
carries a current of 7.5A

2. INDUC
CED EMF AND
D FARADAY’S LAW

y Experiments by Faraday, Henry and others
o showed that:
y If the e magnetic flux
f through an
a area bounded by a circuit
c changed by any means,
m an
emf equal in maagnitude to th
he rate of chhange of the flux is induceed in the circuit!
y We usually detect
d the emmf by:
y Observing a currrent in the circuit,
c but it’ss present eve
en when the e circuit is inc
complete
and there is no current.
c
y BEFORE:
y We considered emfs that were w localize
ed in a spec cific part off the circuit, such as
betw
ween the terminals of the
e battery
y HOWEVER:
y Indu uced emfs ca an be consid
dered to be distributed
d thrrough out the e circuit

y How to chan nge magnetic c flux???
1. The current producing
p th
he magnetic field may bee increased or
o decreasedd
2. Permanent Magnets
M may y be moved toward the circuit
c or awa
ay from it
3. Circuit itself may
m be mov ved toward or
o away from the source of
o the flux
4. The orientation of the circ cuit may be changed
5. The area of thet circuit in a fixed magnetic field may be increa
ased or decre
eased.

In every
y case, an emf is induce
ed in the circ
cuit that is equal in mag
gnitude to th
he rate of ch
hange of
magnetiic flux.

y Figure at the e right shows a single loop p of wire in a magnetic fie eld.
y If the flux thro
ough the looop is changing, an emf is induced
i in th
he loop.
y Since emf is W/q, there mustm be forcee exerted on n the charge associated w with
the emf.
y The F/q is thee E, which in this case is in
nduced by th he changing flux.
y E fields that resulted fromm static electtric charges are conserva ative! (Mean
ning,
work done across
a a close
ed curve is zeero)
y E fields tha at resulted from
f changiing magnetic flux is nonconservat
n tive!
(Meaning, workw done ac cross a closed d curve is NOOT ZERO!)
y These finding gs are summa arized as Fara aday’s Law, which
w is give
en below:

y The negativ
ve sign in Fa
araday’s Law
w has to do
o with the direction
d of the
induced emf, which we will
w discuss sh
hortly!

EXAMPLES:
1. A uniform magnetic field d makes an angle
a of 30o with
w the axis of a circularr coil of 300 turns
t and
a radius of 4 cm. The field changes at a a rate of 85T/s.
8 Find the
e magnitudee of the indu uced emf
in the coil.
2. An 80-turn coil has a radius of 5.0cm and a resistance of 30Ω. Att what rate e must a
perpendicular magnetic field to prod duce a current of 4.0A in the
t coil?
3. A solenoid of c and radiius 0.8cm witth 400 turns is in an exterrnal magnetic field of
o length 25 cm
600 G that makes
m an an
ngle of 50o with the axiss of the solenoid. (a) Find
d the magniitude flux
through the solenoid. (b)) Find the ma agnitude of the
t emf induced in the soolenoid if the
e external
magnetic fie eld is reduced
d to zero in 1.4s.

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3. LENZ’SS LAW

y The negativee sign in Fara
aday’s law ha
as to do with
h the directio
on of the indu
uced emf, which
w can
be found fro
om a generall physical prin
nciple knownn as Lenz’s La
aw

“The
e induced em ced current are in such a direction so as to opp
mf and induc pose the cha
ange the
prod
duces them.””

y Note: We diidn’t specify just what kind of chang ge causes thhe induced eemf and currrent. The
statement was
w left vague e to cover a variety of co
onditions we will
w now illustrate.

There is an
a alternative statement to Lenz’s Law w to make it more operattional!
y “For a change in magne etic flux, a counter
c flux is produced so that there
e will be “no
o overall”
change in th
he flux!”
y This “counter flux” will the
en give the direction
d of th
he induced current
c or em
mf!

ENZ’S LAW IN
APPLY LE N EACH

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EXAMPLE
A rectangular coil of 80 0 turns, 20 cm
m wide and 3
30 cm long, iss located
in a magn netic field B = 0.8T direc cted into the page, witth only a
portion of the coil in th
he region of the
t magneticc field. The re
esistance
of the coil is 30Ω.
Find the magnitude
m annd direction of
o the induceed current if the
t coil is
moved witth a speed of 2m/s (a) to the right, (b)) up, and (c) down.

4. EDDY CURRENTS
y Previously, currents produ
uced by cha anging flux we ere set up in definite circu
uits.
y Often a cha anging flux se
ets up circula
ating currentts, called Edddy currents in n conductorrs as they
move througgh a region of
o changing magnetic
m flux.
y The heat prooduced by su uch current constitutes
c a power loss inn the conduc ctor and the system.
s
e Eddies prod
How are duced?

y Eddy currentts are usuallyy unwanted because
b pow
wer is lost in th
he form of heeat generate
ed by the
current, and that heat itsself must be dissipated.
d
y Power loss is reduced by increasing th he resistance
e on the possible paths off the eddies.
y Eddy currentts are not alwways undesiraable.
y Eddies are often
o used to lessen unwa anted oscillations in severa al applications
y Eddies are also
a he magnetic breaking sysstem of magnetic transit ttrains.
used in th

5. INDUC
CTANCE

5.1 SELF--INDUCTANCE E
y The magnettic flux throug i related to the current in that circuit and the currents in
gh a circuit is
other, nearb
by circuits*
y The current produces a magnetic field B that varies from point to po oint, but B is
i always
proportional to I at every
y point.

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y The magnetiic flux throug
gh the coil is therefore
t also
o proportiona
al to I, hence
e the definitio
on of self-
inductance!

y Where L is a constant called the self-inductance of
o the coil.
y The self-inductance depeends on the geometric sh hape of the coil.
c

SI UNIT OF
O INDUCTAN NCE
y From the eq quation that defines
d self-in
nductance, we see that the unit of in
nductance iss the unit
of flux divide
ed by the unit of current.
y 1 H = 1 Wb/A A = 1 Tm2/A, (H) is called the
t henry.
y After Joseph Henry, wh ho also disc covered andd studied thhe phenome enon of ind
ductance
thoroughly during
d the 19th
t century.

CALCULA
ATING SELF-IN
NDUCTANCE

EXAMPLE ES:
1. Find th
he self-inductance of a so
olenoid of len
ngth 10 cm, area
a 5 cm2, and 100 turn
ns.
2. At whhat rate mustt the currentt in the solenoid in the example
e aboove change to induce an
a emf of
20V?

The Equa
ation that rela
ates Faraday
y’s Law with Inductance

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5.2 MUTU
UAL INDUCTA
ANCE

y When two or o more circu uits are close
e to each oth her, as in thee figure abovve, the magnetic flux
through one e circuit does not depend d only to its ow
wn, but the other’s
o contribution as we
ell.
y The flux, for example through circuitt 2, is due to o it’s self-inductance and current I2, and the
mutual induc ctance M(2,1) and currentt I.

y The mutual in e drop the subscript and call
nductance M21 = M12, we c it M.
y Mutual Inducctances, dep
pend on the geometric arrangement
a of circuits!

SEE DERIVATION ON THE
T BOARD ON
O HOW TO CALCULATE
C FO
OR MUTUAL INDUCTANCE
ES:
NOTES HERE:

NETIC ENERGY
6. MAGN Y AND THE IN NDUCTOR
y An inductor stores magnetic energy through the current build ding up
in it, just as a capacitor sttores electric
cal energy.
y Consider the e circuit at the right.
y The energy stored
s in an inductor carrrying a curren
nt I is given by:
b

y The magnetiic energy de
ensity is given by:

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7. RL CIR
RCUITS
y RL Circuit- circuit
c containing a resisto
or and an inductor such as
the one in th
he right.
y For all RL Circuits in Physic cs 13, we ca
an apply Kirchhoff’s Rules to
solve for the circuital parrameters.
y Current I, flo ows in a singgle direction but it’s valuue is changing
with time.
y RL Circuits iss very similar with RC Circuits,
C howe ever, we doon’t
charge/discharge RL circ cuits.
y We just wantt to know the e behavior off currents in them.
t

THE GRO
OWTH OF I IN RL CIRCUITS
y When the sw witch is clossed, current does not
build up instaantaneously..
y It grows expo onentially via
a the equatio on above,
until it reaches the final current
c If = ξ0/R.
/
y τ is called tim
me constant, τ = L/R, whic ch is the time it takes the circuit
c to reac
ch maximum
m current.
y When curren nt reaches itss maximum, the t inductor acts
a as a “sh
hort” or just a wire.

EXAMPLE E:
A coil of
o self-inducta ance 5.0mH and a resisttance of 150 0 Ω is placeed across the
e terminals of
o a 12-V
battery of
o negligible internal resistance.
(A) What is the final current?
c
(B) Whatt is the curren
nt after 100μss?
(C) Howw much energ gy is stored in
n this inductor when the final current has
h been atta ained?

THE DECA
AY OF I IN RLL CIRCUITS
y The circuit above is very similar to the e circuit for the “growth
of I”.
y However, we e place add ditional switc
ches in order to remove
the battery and,
a R1 to prrotect the ba attery from suurge and short.
y Here, we let the circuit atttain If, then we proceed with the dec caying proce
ess of I.
y Initially the current
c I0 = ξ0/R
/ then it steaadily decayss until it is neg
gligible.

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U
UNIT SIX
X: ALTER
RNATING
G CURRENT CIR
RCUITS
OUTLINE OBJJECTIVES
1. AC GENE
ERATORS At th
he end of thiis chapter, y you must be
able to:
ATING CURREN
2. ALTERNA NT: 1. Understand how h an AC Generator
RESISTORS & RMS VALUE
ES, workk and comp pute for the e maximum
INDUCTORRS AND CAPAACITORS EMF;
2. Comprehend
C d the behavior of an
S
3. PHASORS Alterrnating currrent in a Resistor,
Capacitor, and d an Indu uctor and
4. LC, RLC CIRCUITS
C calculate for circ cuital parameeters;
LC and RLC C Without a Generator
G 3. Define Ph
hasors andd identify
Series RLC With
W a Generrator relationships betw ween circuital potential
Parallel RLC
C With a Generator differences in AC C;
4. Coompute for AC-circuital
A parameters
ORMERS
5. TRANSFO involved in an LC C and RLC Cirrcuits driven
(or not) by an AC C generator;
5.Coompute for th he Transformeer’s
charracteristics.

INTRODU
UCTION
` More than 99% of the ele ectrical energ
gy used todaay is produce ed
by electricall generators in o alternating current (ac).
i the form of
` AC’s advan ntage over DCD because electrical energy
e can beb
transported over long distances at very
v high voltage and lo ow
currents to re
educe energ gy losses due to Joule hea
at!
` AC can the en be transfoormed, with almost no energy
e loss, to
lower and safer voltage es and correspondingly higher
h currennts
for everyday y use!

ANGE IN WAV
THE CHA VE FUNCTIONSS
` Here are som
me of the bassic formulas for
f obtaining
g changes in wave functio
ons:

` Constants:ω is angular freequency, δ iss phase difference
` These formullas are very im
mportant in obtaining
o thee value of some AC circu
uital parametters.

ENERATOR an
1. AC GE nd the GENER RATION OF ALTERNATING CURRENT
` Figure below w shows a simmple AC gene erator.
` It consists off a coil of arrea A and N turns rotatin ng (with freq quency ω) in n a uniform magnetic
m
field.
` The ends of thet coil are connected
c to
o rings (called slip rings) th
hat rotate wiith the coil.
` They make electrical
e con ntact through
h stationary conducting
c b
brushes in co
ontact with th he rings.

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` The emf in th
he coil will the
en be:

` Or

` Where

` We can thuss produce a sinusoidal
s emmf in a coil by
y rotating it with
w constantt angular velocity in a
magnetic fieeld.
` As we all kno
ow, with an in
nduced emf,, there is alsoo an induced current.
` With an Alternating EMF, there is also an alternatinng current!

EXAMPLE E:
A 250-turn coil has an
n area of 3cm
m2. If it rotate
es in a magne
etic field of 0.4T
0 at 60Hz, w
what is ξmax?

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2. ALTERN
NATING CURRENT IN CIRC
CUITAL ELEMENTS

2.1 RESIS
STORS IN AC

THE POW
WER DISSIPATE
ED IN A RESISTTOR

RMS VALLUES
` Most ac ammeters and voltmeters
v arre designed to measure root-mean-s
r quare (rms) values
v of
current and voltage rather than the maximum
m or peak valuess!
` RULE: The RM MS value of any
a quantity that varies sinusoidally equals
e the ma
aximum valu ue of that
quantity divided by √2.
` *The rms currrent equals the
t steady dc
d current that would pro oduce the sa
ame Joule he eating as
the actual ac
a current.
` Example: The e rms value of
o a current, Irms is given by:
b

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RMS EXE
ERCISE:

1. Find Pav in terms off Irms and R
2. Find Pav in terms off ξmax and Imaax
3. Find Pav in terms off ξrms and Irms
4. Find Irm
ms in terms of ξrms and R

5. A 12-Ω Ω resistor is connected
c a
across a sinussoidal emf th
hat has a pe
eak value of 48V. Find (a) the rms
current, (b) the avera age power, (c) ( the maximmum power.

Note: In a circuit, th hat consists of
o more than a generattor and a re esistor, the vo
oltage drop across a
resistor iss not usually equal to the
e generator voltage,
v so we age drop across a resistor in terms
w write volta
of VR,rms!

RNATING CURRENT IN IND
2.2 ALTER DUCTORS AND
D CAPACITOR
RS

` Alternating current
c behavves differentlly than directt current in in nductors and capacitors.
` When a cap pacitor becomes fully cha arged in a dc c circuit, it sttops the curreent, that is, itt acts like
an open circ cuit.
` But if the cuurrent alterna
ates, charge continually flows onto or o off the pla ates of the capacitor
c
and at highe er frequenciees, the capac citor, will hard
dly impede current
c at all,, which means, it acts
like a short circuit!
c
` Conversely, an inductor coil usually hash a very sm mall resistanc ce and is esse entially a shoort circuit
for dc.
` But when th he current is alternating, a back emf is generate ed in an indductor, and at a higher
frequencies, the back em mf is so large,, the inducto or acts like an n open circuit!

ORS IN AC CIIRCUITS
INDUCTO

VL Leadss I by 90o
` In the previo ous set of slide
es, we see thhe functional difference ofo VL and I.
` This functional difference e is due to the
e current I’s phase
p differe
ence with voltage VL.
` We say that I is “out of ph hase” with VL, more preciisely VL leads current by 9 90o.
` This is illustratted by the plot at the righ ht.
` As with earlie er techniques we can transform the equation to prove p this “lea
ading” pheno
omenon
EXAMPLE E
A 40mH inductor is placed acrosss an ac gene
erator that ha
as a maximum emf of 120
0V. Find the inductive
i
reactance and the maximum
m current when th
he frequency y is
a) 60 Hz

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b) 2000 Hz
H
What caan you conclude about th
he relation off inductive re
eactance an
nd current?

CAPACITTORS IN AC CIRCUITS
C

VC Lags I by 90o
` In the previo ous set of slide
es, we see thhe functional difference of o VC and I.
` This functional difference e is due to the
e current I’s phase
p ence with voltage VC.
differe
` We say that I is “out of ph hase” with VC, more prec cisely VC lags current by 900o.
` This is illustratted by the plot at the righ ht.
` As with earlie er techniques we can transform the equation to prove p this “lag
gging” pheno
omenon
EXAMPLE E:
A 20-μF capacitor is placed acro
oss a generaator that has a maximum emf of 100V V. Find the ca
apacitive
reactance and the maximum
m current when thhe frequency y is
A) 60 Hz
B) 5000 Hz
H
What caan you conclude about thhe relation off capacitive reactance and
a current?

3. PHASO
ORS
` The phase relations
r bettween the current
c and the voltage drop in a resistor, cap pacitor or
inductor cann be represen nted by two dimensional vectors calle ed phasors.
` Phasors rottates counterclockwise e (since in ncreasing angular
a degrees are moving
counterclockwise in the CCS).
C
` When severa al components are conn nected togetther in series circuit, theirr voltages ad
dd, when
they are connnected in parallel, their current
c add.
` Meaning, complications
c s in the co omputation of
circuital para
ameters can n be simplifiedd using vector
addition, usin
ng phasors!
` Consider a circuit containing an inductor L, a
capacitor C,C and a resistor R, all connected in
series.
` Since they area in series, they all ca arry the sam
me
current, whic ented as the x-component
ch is represe
of the curren
nt phasor I.
` The voltages are ob btained usin ng the prior
definitions which
w include
es the resistive, capacitive,
and inductivve reactance es.

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4. RLC CIRCUITS
C

4.1 LC CIRCUITS WITH HOUT A GENER RATOR
` Figure to the e right shows an LC Circuitt.
` In an LC Circ cuit, we assum me that the capacitor
c ca
arries an initia
al charge Q0.
` When the sw witch is closed d, charge beegins to flow through
t the inductor.
i
` The effect is that, the ca apacitor is beeing dischargged by the lo oss of charge
e, then it incrrease the
current in the inductor, which
w in turn, re-charges the capacittor and deca ays the curre ent in the
inductor.
` This circuit is very similar to
o a mass attaached to a spring.
s

There are important parameters involving
i LC Circuits witho
out a genera
ator:
` Angular “Na atural” Freque
ency:

` Current:

EXAMPLE:
A 2-μF capacitor
c is charged to 20V and is then connec cted across a 6-μH indu
uctor. (a) Wh
hat is the
frequenc
cy of oscillatiion? (b) Wha
at is the maxim
mum value of
o the currentt?

4.2 RLC CIRCUITS
C WITTHOUT A GENERATOR
` If we includ de a resistor in series with
w a capac
citor and
inductor, we
e have an RLCC Circuit.
` It is basically the same as an LC circuit,
c howev ver, the
charging/disscharging does
d not haappen “forev
ver”
` It is a sprring system that enco ounters frictional
forces!

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ES RLC WITH A GENERATOR
4.3 SERIE R

RESONANCE IN SERIE
ES RLC

` Resonance ini circuit is wh
hen the impeedance is at its smallest, and
a the curre
ent is at its greatest.
` There condittions for reson
nance are giiven in the rig
ght.
` At resonance, the powerr factor is 1.

EXAMPLE ES:
1. A serie
es RLC Circuiit with L = 2H,, C = 2μF, and R = 20Ω is driven
d by a generator
g witth a maximum emf of
100 V an nd a variable frequency y. Find (a) the resonance e frequency (f0), (b) the maximum current
c at
resonanc ce, (c) the phase angle δ, δ (d) the pow wer factor, and
a (e) the av
verage powe er delivered.
2. A serie
es RLC Circuiit with L = 2H,, C = 2μF, and R = 20Ω is driven
d by a generator
g witth a maximum emf of
100 V an nd a variable frequency y. Find the maximum
m volttage across the resistor, tthe inductorr and the
capacito or.
3. A resiistor R and capacitor
c C are in seriess with a gen nerator with
peak vo oltage of 220 0V, 60Hz, as shown in the e Figure. If R=20
R Ω and
C=14.7μF, Find Vout,rm
ms.

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4.4 PARA
ALLEL RLC WITTH A GENERA
ATOR

RESONANCE IN PARA
ALLEL RLC

` a basically the same, ho
Conditions are owever, we note
n some im
mportant fea
atures of reso
onance in
parallel RLC::
1) Impedance is a maximum m, current is a minimum
2) The currents in the induc ctor and cap pacitor are equal, but
they are opp posite, so theey cancel, th he total current is just
the current in
n the resistor..
5. TRANSSFORMERS
` A transformer is a device used
u to raise or lower the voltage
v in
a circuit withoout an appreciable loss of power
` A simple transformer con nsisting of two o wire coils around
a a
common iron n core.
` The coil carryying the input power is calleed the primarry.
` The coil carryying the outpu
ut power is ca alled the seco ondary.
` The transformmer operates ono the princip ple that an alternating currrent in one
circuit induce ating emf in a nearby cirrcuit due to the
es an alterna t mutual
inductances of the two cirrcuits.
` The iron core increases thee magnetic fie n current and guides it so
eld fir a given
that nearly all
a the magne etic flux throuugh one coil goes through h the other
coil.

THE TRAN
NSFORMER EQQUATIONS
` For a transfformer with N1 turns in the primary
y and N2 tu urns in the
secondary, the voltage e across the secondary coil is related to the
generator em
mf across the
e primary coiil by:

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` If there are no
n losses, due
e to Joule He
eating (which
h is due to ne
egligible resisttance in the coils),

EXAMPLE E:
A doorbbell requires 0.4A
0 at 6V. Itt is connecte
ed to a transformer whose primary co
ontaining 200
00turns, is
connectted to a 120-V ac line. (a a) How many turns should there be in the seconddary? (b) Whhat is the
current in the primary
y?

____________________end___
_________________

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