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08.P

PHYSIC

CS

UPLLBPHYSIICS @ IM

MSP

Teo

odorick Barry

B Rica

ardo Ma

anguerra

a

[ CTURE NOT

[LEC N TES]]

The extent

e of ele

ectricity and

d magnetism in human n lives has le

ead to numerous disco

overies

and

d innovationns. This seme

ester, let us, together, re

ediscover electricity an

nd magnetism…

PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |2

UN

NIT ONE:: ELECTR

ROSTATIICS

P

PART ONE

E: ELECTRIC

C CHARGE

E

OUTLINE

E OBJECTIVES

**1. Electric Charge At the
**

e end of this chapter,

c you

u must be

able to:

t

Cha

arge Quantiza

ation

1.. Define and explain thee concept

Cha

arge Conserv

vation ctric charge and its

of the elec

propertiess;

2. Conducto

ors and Insula

ators

2.. Differentia

ate a conduc

ctor from

The Electroscope

e

an insulato

or;

Cha

arging by Conduction

3.. Enumerate and explaiin the

different charging

c processes;

Cha

arging by Ind

duction

4.. Define Co

oulomb’s Law

w;

3. Coulombss Law and the

e Electric Forrce

**5.. Define the e Electric Field and
**

4. The Electriic Field

Electric fie

eld lines; and

Elec

ctric Dipoles

6.. Illustrate th

he motion off charges

5. Electric Fie

eld Lines in an elec ctric field.

**6. Motion of Point Charge
**

es in Electric

Fields

THE ELEC

CTRIC PHENOM MENON

• Humans are extremely de ependent on n electricity.

• The study of electricity da ates back waay before the e first electric

c lamp gloweed.

• The history of electricity re

eaches back k to the Ancient Greeks, whenw attracttion and repu

ulsion are

observed wh hen “rubbed amber” are placed near common materials. m

• Indeed, the word “electrric” comes fro om the Gree ek word for am mber “elektro

on”

• We begin ou ur examinatio on of electric CTROSTATICS – the study of charges at rest.

city with ELEC

1. ELECTR

RIC CHARGE

• Basic element of Electricity

• An intrinsic property

p of th ntal particles that make up matter

he fundamen

• Three types:

▫ Posittive Charge

▫ Neg gative Charge

▫ Neu utral Charge

ATOMIC

C MODEL

• onsists of atom

All matter co ms

• Atoms are made

m of a nucleus (neutro

on and proto on) and

electron/(s) revolving aroound the nuccleus. (Orbital Model)

• Protons are positively

p chaarged and Neutrons are neutrally

n

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N

PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |3

charged.

• e negatively charged.

Electrons are

Pa

article Mass Charg

ge

ELECTTRON, e- 9

9.11 x 10-31 kg

g - 1.6 x 10

0-19 C

PRO

OTON, p 1.67 x 10-27 kg

g + 1.6 x 10-19 C

NEU

UTRON 1.67 x 10-27 kg

g None

• The electron

n is 2000 less massive

m as a proton, yet they

t possess the

t same am

mount of cha

arge e

(though oppposite in sign)

THE FUND

DAMENTAL LA AW OF ELECTROSTATICS

• Like chargess repel, unlikee charges attract

CHARGE E QUANTIZATIION

• All observabble charges inn nature occur in discrete e packets or in i

integral amo ounts of the fu

undamental unit of charg ge e.

• Any charge Q occurring in nature ca an be written

Q = + Ne, where N is an integer.

• For large systtems, howev ver, N is usually very large and charge appears to b be continuou us, just as

air appears tot be continu uous even th hough air con nsists of manyy discrete mo olecules.

• To give an everyday example of N, charging a pla astic rod typiically require

es a transfer of

o 1010 or

more electro ons to the rodd.

CHARGE E CONSERVATTION

• When 2 obje ects are rubbbed:

▫ The object left with

w an excesss of electron becomes ne egatively cha arged.

▫ The other objectt is left lacking

g electrons, thus

t become es positively c

charged.

• The net charrge of the two o objects rem mains constant; that is, ch harge is conserved.

• This is known as the law of

o conservatio on of chargee, this is one of

o the fundam mental laws of

o

nature.

• Even in certaain interactio

ons, where ch harged particcles are crea ated and ann nihilated, the amount

of charges th hat are prodduced and de estroyed is eq

qual, so there e is conserva

ation.

**THE UNITT OF CHARGE E
**

• Coulomb (abbr. C) is the e SI unit of charge.

• It is defined in

i terms of the unit of elec ctric current, the ampere (A).

• The Coulomb (C) is the amount

a of ch

harge flowingg through a wire

w in one se

econd when the

current in thee wire is 1 Am

mpere.

• The fundame ental unit of charge, e, is related to thhe coulomb by:

b

e = 1.602177 7 x 10 C

-19

• For Physics 13, we will usee e = 1.60 x 10-19 C

EXAMPLE E 1.1:

A charge of magnitu ude 50 nC (1 nC = 10-9C) can

c be prodduced in the laboratory by

y simply rubb

bing two

objects together.

t

How ma any electrons must be tran

nsferred to produce this charge?

c

Hint: (Use

e Q=Ne)

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PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |4

**2. CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS
**

• Conductors

▫ are materials, where electrons are free to move about the entire material (ex. Cu and

other metals)

• Insulators

▫ are materials, where electrons are bound to a nearby atom, rendering no motion (ex.

Wood and glass)

• Ion

▫ An atom where electron/(s) is/are added or removed.

x Normally, a conductor is electrically neutral due to a balance between

positive and negative charges. So in order to create a net charge, free

electrons are added or removed from the lattice.

A macroscopic object can be…

Net Charge Property Process

Electrically Neutral p = e- None

Positively Charged p > e- Remove electron

**Negatively Charged p < e- Add electron
**

• Only electrons can be transferred due to the atomic structure, and the minimal amount of

energy required.

• Protons are bound by very “strong forces” so their removal is very hard to accomplish.

THE ELECTROSCOPE

• The Electroscope

▫ Is a device for detecting electric charges

• The Diverging Leaves:

▫ Two gold “leaves” diverge when a charge is placed near or in contact

with the bob.

▫ The leaves return to normal, when charges are no longer present in the

bob

CHARGING BY INDUCTION AND CONDUCTION

**• By Conduction- charging by contact
**

▫ Implements an effective transfer of electrons

• By Induction – charging without contact, only by placing objects

close to each other

▫ Implements only motion of charges within a material

• How to produce a NET charge?

• RUB!!!

**ARBITRARY, BARI-ABLE
**

• Question1:

When a glass rod is rubbed by silk, which of the two materials acquire a net positive charge?

• Answer 1:

Any of the two, as long as the other gets the opposite. We can not know for certain which charge is

which. We can only arbitrarily assign a charge

• Question 2:

If you walk across a rug and scuff electrons from your feet, are you negatively or positively charged?

• Answer 2:

You are positively charge, since electrons were scuffed off/from your feet!

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**

PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |5

CHARGING BY INDUC

CTION

**CHARGING BY INDUC CTION VIA GRROUNDING
**

• Ground – A very

v large co

onductor tha

at can supply

y an unlimited

d amount of charge (such

h as the

earth, extrem

mely negatively charged))

3. COULO

OMB’S LAW AND

A THE ELEC

CTROSTATIC FORCE

F

• The Fundamental Law off electrostatic cs is not enouugh to charaacterize fully tthe “Electric

Phenomenon”

• Being able too quantify annd measure the t phenome enon is a muust.

• Cavendish was

w the one who w first expeerimentally verify the Univ

versal Law of Gravitation.

• A similar exp

periment of Coulomb

C gavve the mathe ematical desc cription/quantification of the

fundamenta al law of elec

ctrostatics

**• Coulomb's la aw, developeed in the 17880s by French
**

h physicist Ch

harles Augusttin de Coulommb.

• The magnitude of the eleectrostatic forrce between two point chharges is dire

ectly proportiional to

the magnitud des of each charge and inversely pro oportional to the square oof the distance

between the e charges.

• This has the same

s form ass Newton’s Th

hird Law of Motion:

M

• The electric force exerted

d by the twoo objects on one

o another have the sam me magnitud de but

opposite in direction

d

• Formula:

▫ F is the

t magnitud

de of the elec

ctrostatic forrce exerted, in attractive; F is +, if

i N (F is -, if a

repu ulsive)

▫ |q1|, |q2| are the magnitud de of the chaarges, in C

▫ r is th

he separation of the charges, in m

ROSTATIC CO

ELECTR ONSTANT

PERMITTIVITTY OF FREE SP

PACE

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PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |6

FORCE EXERTED

E BY A SYSTEM OF CHARGES

C

• If you need to

t find the ne

et force exertted on a cha

arge by a gro

oup or system

m of

forces, we need to impleement vectorr addition!

• Because forcces are vectoors, they supe

erimpose!

4. ELECTR

RIC FIELD

• Field-concep pt was introd duced to circcumvent the conceptual

dilemmas off action-at-a--distance forc ces.

• An electric charge

c will se

et-up an ELECCTRIC FIELD in

n space surro ounding it.

• This Electric Field

F will exerrt an electric force on anyy electrical objects

o in it.

• This conceptt was first introduced by Michael

M Faraday.

• Strength/Magnitude:

• The ratio of the electric

e force

e on a charge

e at a point to

t the magniitude of the charge

c

plac

ced at that point.

p

• Direction:

• The direction of the

t electric Force

F on a ch

harge at a point to the direction of th

he

charge placed at a that point..

ELECTRIC

C FIELD PROP

PERTIES

• Symbol: ሬԦ

۳

• Type: Derived, Vector Formula:

• SI Units (duall): N/C or V/m

m

Special Details:

D

1. Electric Field is a ve

ector field*

2. Electric Field propa agates through space at the speed of o light

3. The fo

orce that an electric

e field exerts, acts on

o test charg

ges, not on thhe charge that caused it..

4. We do o not need an a actual “tesst charge” to o calculate th

he electric fie

eld!

**• Since the ele
**

ectric field is a vector, it also

a follows th

he superposition principle.

• This only meaans that if the

ere are a gro oup of charges and a testt charge wass made to ap pproach

these charge es, the test charge will ex xperience a force

f exerted

d by the net eeffect of the

individual ele

ectric fields set-up

s by the e group of ch harges!

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PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |7

**THE ELECTRIC FIELD AND COULOMB’S LAW
**

• Since Force and the Field are both vectors they follow superposition principle!

• Coulomb’s Law:

• Obtaining the Electric Field

Note: We do not need to know the magnitude of the test charge to calculate the electric field, all we

need to know is the magnitude of the charge that produces it, and where we will measure the electric

field!

ELECTRIC DIPOLES

• Electric dipoles are systems composed of two equal and opposite charges q, separated by a

small distance L.

• Electric dipole moment describes the strength and orientation of electric dipoles.

**5. ELECTRIC FIELD LINES
**

• We can picture the electric field by drawing lines to indicated its direction.

• At any given point, the field vector E is tangent to the lines, because they show the direction of

the force exerted on a positive test charge!

• At any point near the positive charge, the electric field points radially away from the charge.

• Similarly the electric field lines converge toward a point occupied by a negative charge!

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**

PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |8

DRAWING RULES

1. Begin//End:

Field lines be

egin at positiv

ve charge (oor infinity) and

d end at neg gative charge es (or infinity)

2. Symm metry:

Lines are draawn symmetrrically enterinng or leaving an isolated charge

c

3. Numb ber:

The number of lines entering/leaving the charge is proportiona al to the mag gnitude of that

charge

4. Densitty of the Liness:

The number of lines per unit

u area perp pendicular to o the lines, att any point is proportiona al to the

magnitu ude of the field at that po oint

5. When Far:

When very fa ar from the so es are spaced equally an

ource of the field, the line nd radially, ass if they

come fro om a single source

s of chaarge

6. Star-crossed:

o not cross, because if the

Field lines do ey do, they in ndicate two directions

d of the field at that

point whhich is imposssible!

6. MOTIO

ON OF CHARG GES IN ELECTTRIC FIELDS

• When a partticle with cha

arge q is plac ced in an Electric Field E, it experience

es a force qE. Via the

2nd Law of Newton, the particle

p will exxperience ann acceleratio on:

Example

e:

• An electron is projected into a uniform m horizontal electric field (E = 1000 N/C) with a horizontal

velocity (v0= 2 x 106 m/s) in the directiion of the field. How far does

d ctron travel before it is

the elec

brought mom mentarily to rest?

r

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PHYSICS 13 LECTURE NOTES |9

P

PART TWO: THE ELEC

CTRIC FIELD

D

OUTLIN

NE OBJECTIVES

**1. Electric Field of Discrrete Charge At th
**

he end of thiss chapter, yo

ou should

Disstributions be able

a to:

**2. Electric Field of Conttinuous Charge 1.Ca
**

alculate the electric

e field o

of different

Disstributions charrge distributio

ons using techniques

prese

ented;

3. Electric Flux and Gauss’s Law

2. Sttate, use, app

ply Gauss’s Law in

4. Discontiinuity of En theo

oretical and practical

p problems; and

**5. Charge and Field at Conductor 3. Re
**

elate Gauss’ss Law and Co

oulomb’s

Surrfaces Law..

6. Derivatio

on of Coulom

mb’s Law from

m

Gaauss’s Law an

nd vice-versa

a

**1. ELECTRRIC FIELD OF DISCRETE CH HARGE DISTRIBUTIONS
**

1. System

m:

Use superposition principle

2. Electrric Dipole

The electric field on the axis

a of the dip

pole at a point a great distance

x away is in the direcction of the dipole moment and has the magnitude e

EXAMPLE E:

A moleccule of water vapor cause es an electricc field in the surrounding

s s

space as if it were an elec ctric

dipole. Itts dipole mom

ment has a magnitude

m p = 6.2 x 10 C-m.

-30

What is the

t magnitudde of the electric field at a distance z = 1.1 nm fromm the molec cule on its dip

pole axis?

ANS: 8.4 x 107 N/C

2. ELECTR

RIC FIELD OF CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTIONS S

y Properties coonvention forr continuous charge distriibutions

Name Symbol SI Unit

Charge q C

Linear ch

harge density

y λ C/m

Surface charge denssity σ C/m2

Volume charge denssity ρ C/m3

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 10

DISTRIBUTION CON

NFIGURATION

N FIELD FO

ORMULA

LINE CHA

ARGE

(1)At the e

perpend dicular

bisector of a

finite line

e

charge

(2) At the e

perpend dicular

bisector of an

infinite lin

ne

charge

CHARGE

ED

RING

**z is the distance of P from the
**

center of the disk

R is the

e radius of the

e charged diisk

DISTRIBUTION CON

NFIGURATION

N FIELD FO

ORMULA

CHARGE

ED

DISK

**z is the distance of P from the
**

center of the disk

R is the

e radius of the

e charged diisk

INFINTIE If we

e let the charge disk

PLANE OFO expand to infinitty, we find thaat

CHARGE E the electric field normal to th

he

planne is,

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 11

SPHERICAL

SHELL OFF

CHARGE E

DISTRIBUTION CO

ONFIGURATIO

ON FIE

ELD FORMULA

A

SOLID SP

PHERE

OF CHARGE

SOLID SP

PHERE

OF CHARGE

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 12

DISTRIBUTION CO

ONFIGURATIO

ON FIE

ELD FORMULA

A

CHARGEED

CYLINDE

ER

3. GAUSS

S’S LAW AND

D ELECTRIC FLU

UX

**y The qualitative descriptioon of the elecctric field usin
**

ng electric fieeld lines, disc

cussed in Cha apter

one, is relate

ed to a mathematical equation known as Gauss’s Law.

y Gauss’s Law:

◦ Nammed after Karrl Friedrich Gauss (1777-18 855)

◦ Presents an Alterrnative to the

e difficult Couulomb’s Law

◦ Usess geometry/symmetry to simplify

s calcuulations

◦ A re

elation betweeen the electtric field at alll points in the

e surface and d the total ch

harge

enclosed within the

t surface

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 13

GAUSSIA

AN SURFACE

y Any hypothe etical closed surface

y Can be any shape, but the most usefful ones are those

t that miimics the sha

ape and symm

metry of

the problem at hand.

ELECTRIC

C FLUX

y Mathematic cal quantity thhat correspoonds to the nu

umber of

field lines cro

ossing a surfa

ace

y Which for a surface

s perppendicular to E is defined as the

product of th he magnitud de of the field

d E and the area

a A

**Φ is Elecctric Flux, in Nm2/C
**

E is Electtric Field, in N/C

N

A is perppendicular to o the area of the Gaussian

n surface, in m2

θ is the smallest

s angle between E and A

EXAMPLES:

1. If the electric

e h a magnitude of 2.0x10

field in a region has 03 N/C

directed d towards the e right as showwn in the figuure, what is the value of

the elec ctric flux passiing through a rectangula ar Gaussian su urface of

cross sec ctional area 0.0314 m2?

2. What is the value of o the electric c flux passing

g through the e

rectangular Gaussian n surface if it is angled 500o with respecct to the

electric field?

MORE NO

OTES ON ELEC

CTRIC FLUX:

y Electric Flux is

i zero, if E an

nd A are perp pendicular too each

other (IMAG GINE THIS!)

y When an E-fiield vector enters

e the surfface, it has a negative va alue.

y When an E-fiield vector le eaves the surrface, it has a positive value!

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 14

FINDING

G THE NET FLUX

X (Φnet)

QUALITA

ATIVE DESCRIP PTION OF GA

AUSS’S LAW

The net flux

f through any

a surface equals

e the ch

harge enclossed over permittivity of fre

ee-space (ε0)

EXAMPLE

ve charges of

Given fiv o values q1 = q4 = +3.1 nCC, q2 = q5 = -5

5.9 nC, and

e net electric flux through the Gaussian surface S.

q3 = -3.1 nC, find the

Refer to the figure.

ATIONS OF GA

APPLICA AUSS’S LAW

y Gauss’s Laww is valid for any distributioon of chargess and for anyy closed surfa

ace

y Gauss’s Laww can be used d in two way ys:

1. If we

e know the charge

c distrib

bution and wee want to find E.

2. If we

e know E and d we want to o find the cha

arge distribution causing EE.

4. DISCO

ONTINUITY OFF En

y When E1

passes

through the

sheet, it

experiences

discontinuity y

as it exits as

E2

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 15

**5. CHARGE AND FIELD
**

D AT CONDUC

CTOR SURFAC

CES

Electrosttatic Equilibrium

y Conductors have free ch harges that are

a able to move

m around the conducttor.

y If there is an electric field d inside the conductor, there will be a net force on n this chargess causing

a momentarry electric cu urrent (CHAPTTER FIVE).

y However, un nless there is a source of energy

e to maaintain this cu

urrent, the ch

harges will me

erely

redistribute ittself to nullify

y the field cre

eated inside the

t conducto or

y This is known as Electrosta atic Equilibriu

um!

CHARGE

E AND FIELD

y VIA GAUSS’SS LAW, the ch harge in a co

onductor will only reside on

o the surface e.

y The consequ uence of this finding is tha at no charge shall exist INSIDE the con

nductor, henc

ce no

field shall exiist INSIDE the conductor. (A finding we e have seen earlier, see SSHELLS)

y Thus conduc ctors provide effective shiielding!

y You will see more

m of this in the problem set!

y Research ab bout Faraday y’s Pail!

6. DERIVA

ATION OF GA

AUSS’S LAW FROM

F COULO

OMB’S LAW AND

A VICE VERSA

Apply Gauss’

G Law

Use E = F/q

F 0

Manipulate, collect k,

k derive Cou

ulomb’s Law

TRY TO DE

ERIVE GAUSS’S LAW FROM CO

OULOMB’S LAW

W BY REVERSING

G THIS PROCES

SS

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 16

**PART THREE: THE ELECTRIC POTENTIAL
**

OUTLINE OBJECTIVES

1. Potential Difference After this chapter you should be able to:

**Continuity of V 1. Define and differentiate electric
**

potential difference, electric potential,

Units and electrostatic potential energy.

**Potential and Electric Field Lines 2. Calculate the potential difference
**

between two points, given the electric

2. Potential due to a System of Point

field in the region.

Charges

3. Define of the electron-volt (eV)

3. Finding the Electric Field from the

energy and the conversion factor

Potential

between eV and the joule.

General Relation between E and

4. Calculate the electric potential of

V

discrete and continuous charge

distributions

4. V of Continuous Charge Distributions

5. Equipotential Surfaces

The Van de Graff Generator

Dielectric Breakdown

__________________________________________________________________

**THE CONSERVATIVE ELECTRIC FORCE
**

Electric Force between two charges is directed along the line of charges and depends on the

inverse square of their separation (this is the same as the gravitational force between two mass,

Recall Physics 3)

Like Gravitational Force, electric force is conservative!

Now, when we say that a force is conservative, there is always a potential energy function U

associated with it!

ELECTRIC POTENTIAL

If we place a test charge q0 in an electric field, its potential energy is proportional to q0.

The potential energy per unit charge is a function of the position in space of the charge and its

called ELECTRIC POTENTIAL!

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 17

1. POTEN

NTIAL DIFFERENCE

**DEFINITIOON: POTENTIA AL DIFFERENC
**

CE

For a finiite displacem

ment from po

oint a to point b, the chan

nge in potenttial is

Notes:

1. The potentia al difference Vb-Va is the negative

n of the work done per unit chharge by the electric

field on a poositive test ch

harge when itt moves from

m point a to point

p b.

2. ∆V is also the

e positive wo ork done per charge that you must do o against the electric field

d to

move the ch harge from a to b

CONCEP

PT RECALL:

You might bee confused right

r now, so let’s clear things up!!!

Potential Ene

ergy

the capacity

c for doing work which

w arises from position

n or configura

ation in a forc

ce field.

An object moves

m againstt the field

U inc

creases.

Worrk is done agaainst the field

d

An object moves

m with the

e same direc ction of the field

U de

ecreases.

The work is donee by the field

d.

**ANOTHER CONVENTIO ON TO MAKE E IT EASIER
**

If a test charrge (+) move es against the

e direction of

o

electric field, its U increa

ases.

** If a test charrge(+) move es with the sa
**

ame direction

n as the

electric field, its U decrea

ases

** he electric potential or just the
**

The function V is called th

potential.

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** Like the elecctric field, the
**

e potential V is a function of position.

The electric field

f is a vecctor function, whereas thee electric pottential is a scalar function

n!

As with pote ential energy U, only chan nges in the pootential V aree important.

We are agaiin, free to cho oose the pottential to be zero

z at any convenient

c p

point.

If the electric

c potential and potential energy of a test charge are chosen tto be zero att the

same point they

t are related by:

UITY OF V

CONTINU

In chapter tw

wo, we saw that

t the electric field is disscontinuous by

b σ/ε0 at a p

point where there is a

surface denssity σ.

The potentia

al function, on

n the other hand,

h is continuous everyw where in space.

UNITS OFF V

Electric Pote ential (V) is po

otential energgy per unit charge, hence the SI Unit iis

1 J/C = 1 V (Volt, after A.

A Volta)

In atomic an nd nuclear ph hysics, the unnit used for energy is calle

ed the electro

on-volt (eV). eV

converts to Joule

J by

1 eV = 1.6 x 10-19 CV = 1.6 6 x 10-19 J

For example e, an electron n moving from m the negatiive terminal tot the positive

e terminal off a 12-V

car battery gains

g potentiial energy of 12eV.

POTENTIA

AL AND ELEC CTRIC FIELD LIN

NES

If we place a positive tesst charge q0 in

i an electricc field E, and release it, it a

accelerates in the

direction of E.

E

As kinetic en nergy of the charge

c increases, its pote

ential energy decreases.

The charge therefore

t mooves toward a region of loower potentia al, just as a mmass falls tow

ward a

region of low

wer gravitatio

onal potentia

al energy.

“ELECTRIC FIELD LINES PO OINT IN THE DIRECTION OF DECREASING G ELECTRIC PO OTENTIAL”

2. POTEN

NTIAL DUE TO A SYSTEM OFF POINT CHAR RGES

Definition: Th

he Potential iss zero at an infinite distan

nce from the point charge e.

The electric potential at a distance r from

f a point charge q att the origin is calculated as:

a

This potentia

al is known ass Coulomb po

otential. It is positive

p or ne

egative depe

ending on the

e sign of

the charge q.

q

The potentia

al energy U of a test charg

ge q0 placed

d a distance r from the po

oint charge q is

** This is the ele
**

ectrostatic po

otential energ

gy of the two

o-charge systtem relative to U= 0 at inffinite

separation

EXAMPLE E

1. What is the electric

c potential at a distance r = 0.529x10-10 m from a proton?

p (This is the averag

ge

e between a proton an electron in a H atom)

distance

What is the

t potential energy of th

he electron and

a the proto

on at this sep

paration?

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 19

2. In nuc

clear fission, a uranium-235 nucleus ca

aptures a neuutron and splits apart into two lighter nuclei.

n

Sometim mes the two fiission produc

cts are a bariium nucleus (charge +56ee) and a kryp pton nucleuss (charge

+36e).

Assuming g that these e two nuclei are point charges sep parated by r = 14.6 x10 0-15 m. Calcu ulate the

potentiaal energy of this two-chargge system in electron-volts.

al at some po

The potentia oint due to se

everal point charges

c is the

e sum of the potentials du

ue to

each chargee separately. (Superpositiion Principle following thee force and the field)

** MORE Examples are give
**

en in the exam

mple listings.

3. FINDIN

NG THE ELECTTRIC FIELD FRO

OM THE POTE

ENTIAL: THE GENERAL

G RELA

ATION BETWEE

EN E AND V

If we know th

he potential,, we can use it to calculate the electrric field using this relation

Conversely we

w can know

w the potential from the electric

e field as

a was shown

n earlier in this

chapter.

4. V OF CONTINUOUS

C S CHARGE DIS STRIBUTION

The potentiaal of continuo

ous charge distribution

d ca

an be obtained using techniques furniished by

calculus.

Only formulaae and speciial propertiess for each disstribution shall be given, lo

osing empha

asis on

the techniqu

ue used to deerive them.

DISTRIBUTIO

ON CONFIG

GURATION and POTENTIA

AL FORMULA

INFINITE LINE CHARGE

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CHARGED RING

CHARGED DISK

INFINITE PLA

ANE

**The potential V at a point
**

P with a disstance x (eith her

to left or to the right) fro

om

the infinite plane

**Where V0 iss the potentia
**

al

at x=0

V0 is not ne

ecessarily zero

o!

SPHERICAL SHELL

**The potential inside the
**

hell of charge

spherical sh e is

constant

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**The potential outside th
**

he

spherical sh

hell of charge

e

depends ono r distance

from the su

urface

WHEN TH

HE FIELD IS ZER

RO…

It is a commo on mistake th hat when the

e field is zero,, the potentia

al is also zero

o.

When the fie eld is zero, it only

o means th

hat the potential at that location

l is

constant/unchanging… leading to a “change of potential” equal to zero!!!

5. EQUIPOTENTIAL LIN

NES AND SURFFACES

Equipotentiaal Line

are lines drawn in an electric hat that all the points on the line are at the

c field such th

samme potential.

Equipotentiaal Surface

is a surface,

s all points

p of whic

ch are at the same potential.

Equipotentia

al Lines and Surfaces

S are always

a endicular to the electric ffield lines!

perpe

Movement along

a an equuipotential lin

ne requires no

o work because such mo

ovement is alw

ways

perpendicular to the elec

ctric field.

METALS AND

A THE EQUUIPOTENTIAL

How much workw g over the surface of a

would it take to drag

conducting metal, a possitive charge q from Pointt A to Point B?

?

Answer is NOONE!

Because me etals are equiipotential volumes and thhey have

equipotentia

al surfaces. Se

ee Gauss’s La

aw for explanation!

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 22

VAN DE GRAFF GENERATOR

**How does a Van de Graff Generator works?
**

Topics that can explain:

1. Potential

2. Electric Field Lines

3. Conductor Property

DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN

** Happens when non-conducting material become ionized when exposed to very high
**

electric fields and become conductors

Dielectric Strength

The magnitude of the electric field for which dielectric breakdown occurs in a material

Emax,air = 3 x 106 V/m = 3MN/C

Arc Discharge

The discharge through the conducting air resulting from dielectric breakdown.

An example is the electric shock you receive when you touch the metal door knob

after walking across a rug on a dry day.

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 23

UNIT TW

WO: ELE

ECTRIC ENERGY

E Y AND CAPACI

C ITANCE

OUTLINE OBJJECTIVES

1. Electrosta

atic Potential Energy At th

he end of th

his chapter, you should

be able

a to:

2. Capacita

ance and Ca

apacitors

1. De

efine Electrosstatic Energy;

3. The Stora

age of Electrical Energy

2. Define Capac

citance and

d apply the

and Electro

ostatic Field Energy conccept to exxplain how capacitors

workk;

4. Combina

ations of Cap

pacitors:

3. Exxplain how electrostatic

c energy is

Parallel and

d Series Capacitors

store

ed;

5. Dielectric

cs:

4. Define a Dielectric and how

diele

ectrics store electrostattic energy;

Energy Sto ored in the presence of a

and

Dielectric

**5. Solve problems that ca alculate for
**

ar View of a Dielectric:

6. Molecula D

capaacitance, electrostatic

c energy,

Magnitude of the bound

d charge maggnitude of th

he bound an nd the free

charrge;

The Piezoellectric Effect

INTRODU

UCTION

When we briing a point charge

c q fromm a far away y to a region where otherr charges are e present,

WE MUST DO O WORK qV, where

w V is the potential at

a the final poosition due too other charg

ges in the

vicinity.

The work done is stored as a electrostattic potential energy.

The electrosttatic potentiaal energy of a system of charges is th he total work needed to assemble

a

a system.

When a cha arge is placed d on an isolated conducttor, the poten ntial of the conductor inccreases.

The ratio of the

t charge to o the potentiial is called th

he capacitance of the conductor.

When a cha arge is placed on an isola ated conduc ctor, the poteential of the conductor inncreases.

(Why???)

The ratio of the

t charge to o the potentiial is called th

he capacitance of the conductor.

A useful devvice for storing

g charge and energy is th he capacitor.

A capacitor consists of 2 conductors, closely spac ced but insulaated from ea ach other.

When a cap pacitor is attaached to a source

s of potential differe

ence (such a as a battery), the two

conductors carry

c equal and

a oppositee charges.

The ratio of the magnitude of the charge on either e condu uctor to the potential difference

between the e conductorss is called thee capacitanc ce of the cappacitor.

**CAPACITORS have many
**

m uses!

1. The flash attachmentt is your cam mera uses a capacitor to o store the

energy need ded to providde the sudde

en flash of ligh

ht.

2. Tuning circuits

c of communicati

c ion devices such as the t radios,

televisions, and

a cellular phones allo

owing them to operate at certain

frequencies.

3. The defibrillator used by paramed dics in revivinng near-dea ath patients

uses capacitors to store charges in order

o to releaase the right amount of

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 24

shock

acitor was th

The first capa he Leyden Ja

ar, a glass con

ntainer lined inside and o

out with gold foil.

ROSTATIC PO

1. ELECTR OTENTIAL ENER RGY

The Electrosttatic Potentia

al Energy of a system of point

p es is the workk needed to bring the

charge

charges from

m an infinite separation

s to

o their final po

ositions!

The electrosttatic potentia

al energy U of

o a system of o n point cha

arges is:

** Where Vi is th he potential at the location of the ith charge due to all the oth
**

her charges.

This is also tru

ue for continu

uous charge distributions and system of

o conducto ors.

2. CAPACITANCE

The potentiaal (relative to

o zero potenntial at infinitty) of a single isolated c

conductor ca

arrying a

charge Q iss proportional to the ch harge Q, an nd dependss on the size e and shape of the

conductor.

In geeneral, the la nductor, the greater the amount of charge it can carry for

arger the con

a giv

ven potentia al.

For examplee, the potential of a spherrical conducttor of radius R carrying a charge Q is

** The ratio of the
**

t charge Q to the pote

ential V of an

n isolated co

onductor is ca

alled its capa

acitance

C:

** Capacitanc ce is the measure of the capacity
**

c to sttore charge for

f a given p potential diffe

erence.

Since the pootential is alw

ways proportiional to the charge,

c this ratio does N

NOT depend on either

Q or V, but only

o on the sizze and shape

e of the cond ductor.

**The capacitance of a spherical conductor
**

c is

The SI Unit of

o capacitan nce is the cooulomb per volt,

v which iss called a farad (F) afterr Michael

Faraday:

1 F = 1 C/V

Since the farad is a rathe er large unit,, submultiples such as thee microfaradd (1 μF = 10-6 F) or the

picofarad (1pF = 10 F) are

-12 a often use ed.

Since capac citance is in farads

f and R is in meters, we can see from the lasst slide, that the

t SI unit

for permittivity of free spa

ace εo can also be written n as farad peer meter.

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**HOW BIG G IS THAT???
**

1. Find th

he radius of a spherical conductor thaat has a capacitance of 1 farad.

Answer, 8.99 x 109 m,, which is aboout 1400 time

es the radius of the earth!!! Whoa!!!

**2. A sphe ere of capaccitance C1 carries a charrge of 20μC. If the charge e is increasedd to 60μC, what is the
**

new cap pacitance C2?

C1 = C2. The capacittance does not n depend on o the charg ge nor the po

otential differrence. If the charge

c is

tripled, the

t potential also triples, hence, ratio is preserved

d. Capacitannce dependss only on the e size and

shape of the conduc ctor and of th he capacitorr!

CAPACITTORS

Is a syste

em of two co

onductors carrying equal but opposite e charges.

A capacitor is usually charged by tra ansferring a charge

c Q from

m

one conducctor to the oth

her leaving one

o of the co

onductors witth

a charge of +Q and the other with –Q Q.

The capacita ance of this device

d is deffined to be Q/V*

Q

In general, too calculate the

t capacita ance,

1. We

W place equ ual and oppo osite chargess on the condductors, then

n

2. Fiind the pote ential differe

ence V by first finding the electric field E

betwween them.

**PARALLLEL PLATE CAPACITORS
**

Parallel plaates are the most

m common capacitor types.

In practice e, the plate es may be e thin meta allic foils tha

at are

separa

ated and insu

ulated from one

o another byb a thin plasstic film.

The capac citance of the

e parallel pla

ate capacitorrs is:

** When a cap pacitor is co
**

onnected to a battery (a as shown

above), charge is transferred frrom one con nductor to the

t other

until the potential difference bettween the co onductors eq

quals the

potentiaal difference across the battery termin

nals.

The amount of charge transferred is Q = CV

PARALLE

EL PLATOS

**1. A para allel-plate ca
**

apacitor has square plate

es of side 10c

cm separated d by 1mm.

(a) Calc culate the ca apacitance of

o this device.

(b) If thiss capacitor iss charged to 12 V, how much

m charge is transferred

d?

Ans (a. 88.5

8 pF b. 1.06 nC)

2. How la

arge would the

t plates ha

ave to be forr the capacittance to be 1F if they are

e to be sepa

arated by

1mm?

Ans (1.13

3 x 108 m2, wh

hich correspo

onds to a squ

uare with a siide of 10.6km

m)

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 26

CYLINDR

RICAL CAPAC CITORS

A cylindricall capacitor consists

c of a small

s conduc

cting cylinde

er or wire of rradius r1 and a larger,

concentric cylindrical

c she

ell of radius r2.

A coaxial cable, such as a that used d for cable television

t can be though ht of as a cylindrical

c

capacitor.

**3. THE STTORAGE OF ELECTRICAL EN NERGY
**

When a ca apacitor is being charged, positiv ve charge is

transferred from the ne egatively ch harged cond ductor to th he

positively charged condu uctor.

Work must th herefore be done

d to charrge a capacitor.

Some of this work is stored as electrosstatic potentiial energy.

When a sm mall amountt of charge e ∆q is mov ved from th he

negative co onductor to the positive conductor,

c itss potential energy is incre

eased by ∆U

U = V(∆q),

where V is thhe potential difference

d be

etween the conductors!

c

The potentia al energy inc

crease, is storred in the ca

apacitor via the field. Usiing C = Q/V, we can

express this energy

e in a variety

v of wayys:

Example es:

1. A 15-μ

μF capacitor is charged to

o 60V. How much

m energy y is stored in the

t capacito

or? (Ans 0.027

7J)

2. How much

m energy is stored in

n the capac citor if it 24.5μC of charg ge was transfferred to the

e positive

conducttor using a po

otential of 10

00V? (Ans 0.0

00245J)

PP EXAMMPLE

A paralle

el-plate capa acitor with sq

quare plates 14cm on a side

s and separated by 2.0mm is conn nected to

a batterry and charged to 12V.

The batttery is then diisconnected from the capacitor and the plate sep paration is increased to 3.5mm.

3

Questionns:

1. What is the charge e on the cap pacitor?

2. How much

m energyy was originally stored in th

he capacitor?

3. By how

w much is the e energy increased when n the plate se

eparation is changed?

c

THE ELEC

CTRIC FIELD ENNERGY

In the process of charging a capacito or, an electric field is prod

duced betwe een the plate

es.

The work req quired to cha arge the cap pacitor can be thought of o as the wo ork required to

t create

the electric field.

f

That is, we can

c think of the

t energy sttored in a ca apacitor as energy

e stored

d in the elec

ctric field,

called ELECTTROSTATIC FIE ELD ENERGY

The quantity y that charac cterizes electrrostatic field energy is called ENERGY DENSITY (ue), which is

the energy stored per un nit volume of space coverred by the fie eld, given by

y

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 27

**PP EXAMMPLE PART TWWO
**

4. Calcu

ulate the ene

ergy density ue when the plate

p separation is 2.0mm

m

4. COMB

BINATIONS OF CAPACITORS

Two or more capacitors are

a often use

ed in combin

nation.

Types of Com

mbinations

1. PARALLLEL

| When thhe upper plattes of the two capacitorss are connec

cted by a conducting

wire and

d are therefo

ore at a com mmon poten ntial Va, and the lower plates

p are

connectted togetherr and are at a common potential

p Vb.

| When inn parallel, the

t potentia

al difference

e Va-Vb is tthe same across

a all

capacitors!

2. SERIES

S

| When twot capacittors are connected so that the c charge on the two

capacitors are equa al.

| When in n series, the potential

p diffference is th

he sum of the

e individual potential

differenc

ces in each ofo the capac citors!

PA

ARALLEL CAPACITORS SERIES CAPACITORS

.

**Notes for CAPACITORS
**

C IN PARALLEL Note

es for CAPAC

CITORS IN SERIES

1. The

e voltagge (pote

ential 1.

1 The charrges stored across all the

difference) across each capacito

ors in the circ

cuit are the

ca

apacitor is the same and is same.

eq

qual to the pote

ential

difference of th

he source 2.

2 The poteential differe

ence across

each capacitor

c totals the

2. Thee charge stored in each potential difference o

of source.

caapacitor totals the ch harge

sto

ored in all of the capacittors in 3.

3 As you add capac citors in the

the

e circuit circuit, Ceq

C decrease

es.

**3. As you increasse the numbber of 4.
**

4 Ceq is always lesss than the

caapacitors in the circuit, you al capacitan

individua nces of the

inc

crease Ceq. capacitoors.

**4. Ceeq is always greater than the
**

ind

dividual capacitances of o the

caapacitors in th

he circuit!

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 28

CTRICS

5. DIELEC

Dielectric

| Any nonn-conducting g material (i.e

e. an insulato

or). Exampless are air, glasss, paper,

or woodd.

| When a Dielectric is inserted

i in th

he space bettween the ca apacitor…

| The cap pacitance iss increased by a factor κ that is c characteristic of the

dielectric, a fact exp

perimentally discovered

d b M.Faraday

by y.

Reasons for the

t Increase…

| The reasson for this increase is that t the electric field be etween the plates is

WEAKEN NED by the diielectric.

| Thus, for a given cha arge on the plates,

p the po

otential differrence is redu

uced and

the Cappacitance (C C = Q/V) is inccreased!

κ (Kappa)

| Called the dielectric constant

CASE 1:

| A. Charg ge on the plaates did not change

c whe

en the dielecttric is inserted

d

| B. This is only the casse, if the cap

pacitor is charged and the en removed from the

charging g source (in this

t case: the e battery) beffore the inserrtion of the dielectric.

d

| C. Equation to use? “All the equa ations found in the previoous slide”, an nd noting

that Q = Q0

CASE 2:

| A. Charg ge will changge accordin ng to Q = κQ Q0 (Q, is the total charge after the

dielectric has been inserted) if thhe dielectric is inserted w

while the batttery is still

connectted!

| B. This ha appens beca ause, the ba attery will sup

pply more ch harge to the plates to

maintainn the originall potential diffference!

| C. Equation to use? “All the equ uations found d in the previious slide, exxcept V =

κV0 (beccause V = V0)

e, the capac

In either case citance chan nges according to C = κC C0

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 29

Dielectric Exercises:

1. The 88.5

8 pF capaacitor of “PARRALLEL PLATO OS #1” is filled

d with a diele

ectric consta

ant κ=2.

(a) Find the new cap pacitance.

(b) Find the charge ono the capa acitor with thee dielectric in place if the

e capacitor is attached to

t a 12-V

battery. (THIS IS CASE 2: Ans: (a) 177 pF; (b) 2..12nC)

2. The

e capacitor in the abo ove exercise is charged d to 12V witthout the diielectric andd is then

disconne ected from the battery. The

T dielectric

c κ=2 is then in

nserted. Find the new vallues for

(a) The charge

c Q,

(b) the voltage

v V, an

nd

(c) the capacitance

c e C.

(THIS IS CASE

C 1: Ans: (a)

( Q =1.06nC C; (b) V = 6VV; (c) 177 pF)

ENERGY STORED IN TH

HE PRESENCE OF A DIELEC

CTRIC

Recall: the energy

e densitty

** Now, in the presence
**

p of a dielectric, the energy density

d becomes

**CULAR VIEW OF THE DIELECTRIC
**

6. MOLEC

As we all knnow by now w, the dielecctric weakens the electric field betw ween the plaates of a

capacitor.

This was seen in the

t equationns in the slide entitled “The

e Increase annd The Decre

ease”.

But the true reason

r behin

nd this pheno

omena and the t resulting equations

e is tthat:

The dielectric pro

oduces a fielld opposite to the field prroduced by tthe capacitoor plates!

Now, Wh

hy does the dielectric

d pro

oduce an eleectric field insside?

1. Molecules in n the dielectric are neutral, but it doesn’t

d meann that they are not affe ected by

electric fields!

2. Because thiss molecules contain

c positiive and nega ative charge

es that respon

nd to the field

ds.

**THE ATOMIC MODEL… …
**

Atoms can be thougght in this mannner:

The nucleus is ap pproximated as a sphere and is at the

e “geometric” center of th

he atom

The electrons are distributed d as an electron cloud,, and some of these clo ouds are

distrributed as sph

heres.

**POLARITY AND NONPOLARITY
**

N Y

If the nuucleus and the electron n cloud are concentric, the

m/molecule is NONPOLAR because th

atom he dipole mooment is zero

ucleus and th

If the nu he electron cloud

c are nott concentric, the

atom

m/molecule is POLAR and

d there is a net dipole mooment

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** When there is no field, the dipole mom
**

ments are randomly oriennted.

When there is an externa al field:

AR Moleculess:

For POLA

The dipole moment aligns ac he direction of the field.

ccording to th

For NON

NPOLAR Moleecules

The field induces a dipole moment

m within the molec cule, and the ey align acco

ording to

the field

f

The Effec

ct of the Pola

arization and the Bound Charge

C

The effect of the polariza ation of a ho omogeneous dielectric in a parallel plate is the creation of

a surface chharge on the dielectric faces near the e conductor.

The surface charge on the t dielectricc is called a BOUND CHA ARGE becau use it is boun

nd to the

molecules ofo the dielecttric and can nnot move about like the e free charge e on the conducting

capacitor pllates!

These bound charges produce an n Electric Fie eld opposite

e to the field produced d by the

conducting capacitor plates!

Thus if we ad dd all the ele

ectric fields existing

e in the

e capacitor, the field be

etween the plates

p are

reduced!

Illustratio

on of Field Re

eduction

The Magnitu

ude of the Bo

ound Charge is given by:

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** If κ=1 (Meaning there is no dielectric), the bound charge density, σb, is zero
**

If κ=∞ (Meaning a conducting slab is inserted between the plate), the bound charge density,

σb, is equal to the free charge density, σf!

PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT

In certain crystals that contain polar molecules such as quartz, tourmaline, and topaz, a

mechanical stress applied to the crystal produces polarization of the molecules!

As we all know, again, these polarization mean an electric field is produced, thus a potential

difference across the crystals!

USES OF PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT

Transducers in microphone, phonograph pickups, and vibration-sensing devices

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 32

**UNIT THREE: ELECTR
**

RIC CIRC

CUITS

OUTLINE OBJJECTIVES

1. Current and

a Motion of

o Charges he end of thiss chapter, it is expected

At th

that you would be

b able to:

**1. Deefine steady--state currentt and relate
**

2. Resistanc

ce and Ohm’s Law this to the motion

n of charges;

2. Define

D a maaterial’s resisstance and

relate the threee circuital p parameters:

3. Energy in

n Electric Circ

cuits:

Resisstance, Voltage, and C Current via

Ohmm’s Law;

EMF and Ba

atteries

3. De

efine electric

c energy, eleectromotive

force

e and enume erate their ap

pplications;

4. Combina

ations of Resiistors:

4. Leearn the different comb binations of

Series Resisstors and Para

allel Resistorss resisttors in a DC Circuit

C and ssolve for the

equivalent resistaance of a givven circuit;

**5. Use Kirchhoff’s Rules in solving the
**

5. Kirchhofff’s Rules: Junc

ction, Loops equivalent resisttances of a complex

uit; and

circu

and Measu

uring Devicess

6. So

olve problemms involving rresistors and

Ammeters, Voltmeters, and Ohmme

eters capaacitors in com

mbination.

6. RC Ciircuits: Disc

charging an

nd a

Capacitor

**Energy Co onservation in Chargin
**

ng a

Capacitor

INTRODU UCTION

| When we tu urn on a ligh

ht, we conne ect the wire filament in the light bulb across a potential

difference th

hat causes ellectric charg

ge to flow thro

ough the wiree!

| Very much like the way a pressure difference

d in a garden ho ose causes w

water to flow

w through

the hose

| The flow of electric

e chargge constitutes an ELECTRIC C CURRENT.

Usually, we think of currents as being

b in con

nducting wire es, but the electron beam

m in a videoo monitor

and an electron mo oving aroundd the nucleus of the H atom can also be considered as an ELECTRIC

CURRENT!

**ENT AND THE MOTION OF CHARGES
**

1. CURRE

| ELECTRIC CU URRENT

y The rate of flow w of electric charge through a cross--

secttional area.

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**| The SI Unit off current is the
**

e ampere (A A):

| 1 A = 1 C/s

Conventtions:

1. The directionn of current iss considered to be the dirrection of flow of positive

e charge.

2. This was esta

ablished befo ore it as know

wn that free electrons are e the particle

es that actua

ally move

in a conducting wire!

ons move in th

3. Thus, electro he direction OPPOSITE to the direction n of the curre

ent.

**2. RESISTTANCE AND OHM’s
**

O LAW

| Current in the e conductor

y Is drriven by an electric

e field E inside the conductor that

t exerts a force qE on n the free

charges

| What about Electrostatic c Equilibrium? ?

| Since E is in thet direction of the force on a positive e charge, it iss in the directtion of the cu

urrent!

| Figure showss a wire segm ment

| Electric Field d points in the

e direction off lower poten ntial. (Va>Vb)

| Assume thatt ∆L is small enough so that t we may y consider thhe

electric field E to be consstant in that segment

s

| The potentia al difference V between points

p A and B is given by

y

**| Again, we useu V ratherr than ∆V for the potenttial differenc ce
**

(which in this case is a potential decrrease/drop) to simplify th he

notation.

| The ratio of the potential drop to the current

c is callled the resistance of the ssegment.

| Definition of Resistance:

**| The SI Unit off resistance, the
**

t volt per ampere,

a is ca

alled an ohm

m (Ω): 1 Ω= 1V

V/A

OHM’s LAW

L

| For many materials (Term

med OHMIC), the resistan nce does nott depend on n the voltage e drop or

the current.

| OHM’s Law:

y For Ohmic

O materials, the pote

ential drop across

a a segm

ment is propo

ortional to the

e current:

**| *For non-ohm
**

mic materialss, the resistan

nce dependss on the curre not proportional to I.

ent I, so V is n

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 34

**| Ohm’s Law is not a fundamenta al law of nature like Newton’s
**

N La

aws or the Laws of

Thermodyna amics.

| Ohm’s Law is simply an empirical

e description of a property sha ared by many y materials.

| Examples:

1. A wire of resistance 3 carries a curren

nt of 1.5A. Whhat is the pottential drop a

across the wiire? (Ans:

4.5V)

2. creases, whatt happens to

If current inc o the resistanc

ce of a mate erial?

3. If potential difference

d inc

creases, whaat happens to o the resistance of a mate erial?

**NCE AND RES
**

RESISTAN SISTIVITY

| The resistancce of a cond ducting wire is found to be

e proportiona gth wire and inversely

al to the leng

proportional to its cross-se

ectional area

a:

**esistivity of the conducting material. Itts unit is called the ohm-m
**

| ρ is called re meter (Ω-m)

Example

es:

1. A Nichrome wire ( =10-6 Ω-m) has a radius

r of 0.65 5mm. What le ength of wire

e is needed to

t obtain

a resistance of 2.0 Ω)?

2. Calculate thhe resistance per unit leng

gth of a 14-ga auge coppe er wire.

RESISTAN

NCE AND RES SISTORS

| Carbon, whiich has a relatively high electrical re esistivity, is

used in resisttors found in electric equipment.

| Resistors and their com mbinations, are

a used in circuit to

provide nec cessary resistaance to man nipulate the electrical

property off certain circuits, netw works, and complex

electrical de

evices.

**ENERGY IN ELECTRIC CIRCUITS: PO
**

OWER

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 35

POWER EXAMPLE

E

A 12-Ω reesistor carriess a current of 3 A. Find the

e power dissiipated in thiss resistor.

Solution::

P = I2R = (3A)2 (12 Ω) = 108 W

Other Po

ower Example es:

A wire of resistance 5 Ω carries a current of 3AA for 6s.

(a) How much powe er is put into th

he wire? (45W

W)

(b) How much therm mal energy is produced?

p (

(270 J)

EMF AND

D BATTERIES

| In order to maintain

m a ste

eady current in a conductor, we nee ed a constannt supply of electrical

e

energy

| Devices thatt can supply electrical en

nergy are called source of

o emf (electroomotive forc

ce)

| Examples of sources of emf

e are a batttery (converrts chemical energy to electrical enerrgy), and

generator (cconverts mecchanical eneergy to electrical energy)

**OES “SOURCE OF EMF” WO
**

HOW DO ORK?

| A source of emf does wo ork on the chharge passing through it by raising the potential energy

e of

the charge.

| The work per unit charge e is called the

e emf ξ,of the

e source.

| The unit of emf is still the volt,

v the sam

me as the unit of the poten

ntial differenc

ce.

E RESISTIVE CIRCUIT

A SIMPLE

1. Symbols usedd

2. What does the source of EMF maintain?

3. What is Vab,, Vac, Vdb, and

a Vcd?’

4. What is the direction

d of th

he current I?

5. What is the power

p delive

ered by the soource of EMFF and the pow

wer dissipate

ed at the resisstor?

IDEAL AN

ND REAL BATTTERIES

| Inside the ba

attery, charge flows from a region of lo ow potentiall to a region of high potenntial, so it

gains potenttial energy

| IDEAL BATTERRY

| Maintain ns a constant potential differenc ce between n its two terminals,

t

indepen

ndent of the flow

f rates of the charge between

b the

em.

| The pote ential difference betwee en the terminnals of an ideeal battery is equal in

magnitu

ude to the em mf of the battery.

| REAL BATTERY Y

| The potential difference across the batttery termina als, called TERMINAL

T

VOLTAGGE, is not simp

ply equal to the emf of the

e battery.

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 36

**| Consider thiss simple circu
**

uit:

**| onsists of the following: Re
**

The circuit co eal Battery and a Resistorr

| If the currennt is varied by

b varying th he resistancee and the teerminal volta

age is measu ured, the

terminal volttage is found d to decreasse slightly as the current increases, ju

ust as if there

e were a

small resistan

nce inside thee battery

**REAL BATTTERIES GETTING REAL
**

| The terminall voltage of the battery is always lesss than the emf, e since th

he internal reesistance

reduces the emf!

y Real batteries ha ave very smaall internal re

esistances, meaning there e is a small difference

betw

ween the terminal voltage and the em mf, unless the arge current.

ere is a very la

y Malffunctioning batteries

b havve very large e internal resisstances! Whiich results to very low

term

minal voltage

es

| Batteries are e often rated in Ampere-h hours (A•h), which

w is the total charge they can deliver

| 1 A•h= 1 C/ss (3600s) = 36 600 C

| The total ene ergy stored in

n the battery

y (W) is the to

otal charge times the emff!

| W = Qξ

**I’M REALL BATTERY
**

An 11-Ω resistor is connected acrross a battery y of emf 6V and

a internal resistance

r 1Ω

Ω.

Find the following

a) The current

b) The te erminal voltage of the baattery

c) The power deliverred by the em mf source

d) The power deliverred to the extternal resistorr

e) The power dissipated by the battery’s internal resistance

f) If the battery

b ed at 150 A•h, how much

is rate h energy doees it store?

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 37

4. COMB

BINATIONS OF RESISTORS

**| Two or more resistors cann be used in combination
**

c s.

| The analysis of a circuit can often be simplified by

b replacing

g two or more resistors by

y a single

equivalent resistor that carries

c the sa

ame current with the sam

me potential drop as thee original

resistors.

| Types of Com mbinations:

1. SERIES Resisto

ors

2. PARALLEL Re esistors

STORS

SERIES RESIS PARALLLEL RESISTORS

| No

otes for Resistors in Series | Notes forr Resistors in P

Parallel

**1. All resistors have
**

h the same

s 1.

1 The curre

ent splits as itt leaves the

current flowing through them point of separration of

connection (terme ed as a

2. The

e total pote

ential drop is the junction) and rejo oins as it

sum

m of the inddividual pote ential reaches the other jun nction

dro

ops in each of

o the resistorrs

2.

2 The pote ential drop in

n any of the

resistors are

a equal in v value.

3.

3 The currrent in an ny of the

junction is the sum of all the

currents through all the paths

leading out

o and in the junction.

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 38

5. KIRCH

HHOFF’s RULES

S

**| There are many
**

m circuits such as the

e one given above

that can no ot be analy yzed by me erely replacing the

resistors by equivalent

e ressistors.

| Thus we dev vise another technique that can do so with

breeze!

| e Kirchhoff’s Rules and apply

We will utilize a them in

nto two

different con nfigurations.

**Two Kirchhoff’s Rules:
**

1. Junction Rule e

2. Loop Rule

Two Connfigurations:

1. Single Loops

2. Multiple Loops

**| KIRCHHOFF’ss JUNCTION RULE
**

R

y At any

a junction point

p in the circuit,

c the current can divide, the sum m of the currents into

the junction

j musst equal the sum

s of the cuurrents out off the junction

n.

| KIRCHHOFF’ss LOOP RULE

y Whe en any closeed-circuit loop is traversedd, all potentiial gains musst be equal to all the

poteential drops

a changes in potentials must

y Or, all m add up p to zero!

**HOW TO O APPLY KIRCHOFF’s RULESS
**

1. Draw a sketch of the circuit

2. Choo ose a directio on o currentt in each brranch of the e circuit, andd label the c currents in th

he circuit

diagramm. Add plus or minus sig gns to indica ate the high h- and low- potential sid des of each h resistor,

capacito or or source of emf.

3. Replace any combination of re esistors in series or parallel with the equuivalent resistance.

4. Applyy the junction rule to each h junction wh here the curre ent divides.

5. Applyy the loop rulee until you ob

btain as man ny equations as the unkno owns.

6. Solve the equation ns to obtain the

t values of the unknowns.

7. Check k your result by

b assigning a potential of o zero to one e point in the

e circuit and uses the valuues of the

currents found to determine the potentials

p at other points in the circuitt.

MEASURING DEVICESS

| The devices that measurre electric cu

urrent, potenntial differenc

ce, and resisstance are called the

ammeter, vooltmeter, and

d the ohmme eter respectiv

vely.

| They are combined into a single dev vice called a multimeter that can be switched intto any of

evices above

the three de ementioned.

DEVICE HO

OW TO CONS

STRUCT

ER

AMMETE

VOLTMETTER Yo

ou will need to

t refer to the

e appendix to

t this hando

out!

OHMMETER

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 39

6. RC CIR

RCUITS

| RC Circuits

y Con ntain a resisto

or and a capacitor

y Currrent I, flows in n a single dire

ection, but itss magnitude varies with tiime

y App plications lie in

i the behav vior of the RCC Circuit, thaat is, RC Circ

cuit has charg ging and

discharging abilities

| When we sa ay charging, we put the maximum amount a of chharge possib ble for that capacitor

c

over a speciific time consstant

| When we say discharg ging, we rem move all the e charge in the capac citor until its value is

negligible.

DISCHAR RGING A CAP PACITOR

| Discharge happens because when the t switch is closed at t

= 0, there iss a potential drop acrosss the resisto or, meaning

there is curre

ent in it.

| The current is due to the flow of ch harge from thet positive

conductor of o the capa acitor through the resisstor to the

negative conductor of th he capacitorr.

| After some time, t the chharge on the e capacitor is reduced,

hence the current is also reduced! (WWhy is this hap

ppening?)

| This happenns again and d again, until at some time, the cha arge

and the currrent are both

h negligible hence

h “discharge”

1. Q0 is known as th he initial chaarge containned in the capacitor

c beefore

being discharged.

d It has a vaalue of CV0, where V0 is the potential

differenc

ce between the plates off a capacitor

2. The ch

harge in the capacitor “d decays exponentially “

3. The tiime constan nt τ is the tim

me it would take the ca apacitor to fully

dischargge if at a con

nstant rate

**CHARGING A CAPAC CITOR
**

| We assume thatt the cap

pacitor is initia

ally uncharge

ed.

| Charging ha appens because when the switch iss closed at time t=0,

charge imm mediately be egins to flow w through the

t resistor onto

o the

positive plate

e of the capacitor.

| Charge will increase in th

he capacitorr, however, current

c decreeases.

| Charge in th he capacitoor at some time later, will reach its maximum

m

value of Q = Cξ when the e current I eqquals zero.

1. Qf is th

he maximum m charge that can be storred in the ca apacitor, it is dictated by

the emf source and the t capacitaance of the capacitor.

c

2. When the capacittor is fully cha arged, no mo ore current will

w flow in it!

3. Charg ge will increase logarithmiically and tends to approoach a satura ation value.

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 41

**UNIT FOUR: THE MAGNETIC FIELD AND ITS SOURCES
**

OUTLINE OBJECTIVES

1. THE FORCE EXERTED BY A MAGNETIC At the end of this chapter you must be

FIELD able to:

2. MOTION OF A POINT CHARGE IN A 1. Calculate the force exerted by a

MAGNETIC FIELD magnetic field;

3.THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF MOVING 2. Calculate the magnetic field from

POINT CHARGES various field-source configurations;

4. THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENTS 3. Calculate parameters from velocity-

5. GAUSS’S LAW FOR MAGNETISM selector applications;

6. AMPERE’S LAW: LIMIT AND 4. Define the Ampere;

CORRECTION 5. Apply Gauss’s Law for Magnetism;

7. MAGNETISM IN MATTER and

6. Apply Ampere’s Law;

PART 1: THE MAGNETIC FIELD

BRIEF HISTORY

Ancient Greeks (around 2000 years ago) were aware that magnetite attracts pieces of iron.

There are written references to the use of magnets for navigation during the 12th century.

In 1269, Pierre de Maricourt discovered using simple observations, the existence of magnetic

poles. Note that like poles repel and unlike poles attract.

In 1600, William Gilbert discovered that the earth itself is a natural magnet.

Although electric charges and magnetic poles are similar in many respects, there is an

important difference:

Magnetic Poles always exist as pairs. No isolated magnetic poles were ever observed.

**1. THE FORCE EXERTED BY A MAGNETIC FIELD
**

In this course, we will examine the force exerted by a magnetic field on a

› Moving point charge

› Current-Carrying Wire

Before we proceed, there are something we need to convene with

F is force, q is charge, v is velocity, B is the magnetic field

F is force, I is current, ∆L is the length vector, B is the magnetic field

We will also, exhaustively discuss, the right-hand rule, to determine the direction of the vector

that results from a cross product.

**Magnetic Force on a Moving Point Charge
**

Experimental observations reveal that magnetic force on a moving point charge

› Is proportional to q and v, and to the sine of the angle between v and B.

› Surprisingly perpendicular to both the velocity and the field.

The abovementioned observations are summarized as the equation below

** This is the force exerted on a point charge moving with a velocity v in a magnetic field
**

Since F is perpendicular to both v and B, it is perpendicular to the plane defined by this two

vectors.

The direction of F is given by the right-hand rule as v is rotated into B, as illustrated below.

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 42

**Magnetiic Force on a Current-Carrrying Wire
**

Since the Ele ectric curren

nt is basically

y moving charges, the wirew that conntains the current, will

then experie

ence magnettic forces, on agnetic field.

nce it is subjected to a ma

This magnettic force is proportional

p to the current, the lengtth of the wirre segment, and the

magnetic fie

eld.

This is summa arized in the equation

e below

** Where ∆L is called the length vecttor, whose magnitude
**

m iss the length

h of the wire

e and its

direction is th

he direction of the curren

nt

**2. UNITS OF THE MAG
**

GNETIC FIELD

** The equation for the ma agnetic force e on a movin ng point charrge allows uss to define th
**

he unit of

the magnetiic field.

The SI unit off the magnettic field is the

e TESLA (T).

A charge of o 1C moving g with a ve elocity of 1mm/s perpendicular to a magnetic fie eld of 1T

experiences a force of 1N N

The Tesla, ho owever, is a very large quantity;

q we need to deefine the tesla in terms of a more

popular unit–– the gauss.

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EXAMPLE ES

1. A pro

oton is movinng with a ve

elocity of 10

0Mm/s. It exp

periences a magnetic fiield of 0.6G which is

directed

d downward and northw ward, making g an angle of

o 70o with the horizonta

al. Find the magnetic

m

force on

n the proton.

**2. A wiree segment 3mmm long carrries a current of 3A in the
**

e x-direction.. It lies in a m

magnetic field

d of 0.02T

that is in

n the xy-plan

ne and makees an angle of 30o with thet x-axis, ass shown in th he figure. Whhat is the

magnetiic force exerrted on the wire

w segment.

3. MAGN

NETIC FIELD LIINES

** Just as the Electric
**

E Field E can be rep presented byy Electric Fielld Lines, the Magnetic Fie

eld B can

be representted by Magn netic Field Lin nes.

In both casees

› (1) Direction

D of th

he field is inddicated by the direction of

o the lines

› (2) Magnitude

M off the field is in

ndicated by the density ofo the lines

There are ho owever, two important diifferences be etween electtric field line es and magnnetic field

lines:

› (1) Electric

E field lines are in th he direction of the electrric force on a positive charge, the

mag gnetic field lin

nes are perp pendicular to the magnetiic force on a moving cha arge

› (2) Electric field d lines begin on positiv ve charges and end on negative charges;

mag gnetic field lines

l form cllosed loops! Note: Magn nes emerge from the

netic field lin

north pole and enters

e the souuth pole!

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ON OF A POIN

4. MOTIO NT CHARGE IN A MAGNETTIC FIELD

CASE 1: CYCLOTRON N

The magnettic force on a charged particle mov ving throughh a

magnetic fie eld is always perpendicular to the velocity of the

t

particle.

The magnettic force, thu us changes th

he direction of the veloc

city

but not its magnitude.

Therefore, magnetic

m field

ds do no wo

ork on partic

cles and do not

n

change theirr kinetic energy.

In the spec cial case, where

w the velocity of a particle is

perpendicular to a unifform field as shown in the figure, the t

particle undergoes uniform circular motion

m (UCM)).

In this spec

cial case, the

e magnetic force

provides thhe centripetaal force nece

essary

for the centripetal

c acceleratio

on in

circular mootion.

**We use Neewton’s Seco
**

ond Law to relate

r

the quantitties.

T and f are

a known asa the cycllotron

period and

d frequency respectively.

r

**The cyclotron period and frequ uency
**

depend on o the charrge-to-mass ratio

q/m but are independ

dent of r and

d v of

e!

the particle

**CASE 2: THE HELIX PA
**

ATH

Suppose tha at a charged d particle ennters a uniforrm magnetic c field with a velocity no

ot entirely

perpendicular to the field

d B.

The velocity vector is reso olved into tw

wo componen nts

› (1) the v| experie

ences magne etic force, an nd is thus acc

celerated.

› (2) the v|| experiiences no ma agnetic force e, and remains constant.

The trajectorry is then callled a helix, which

w is illustra

ated below.

**CASE 3: THE MAGNETTIC BOTTLE
**

The motion of o particles in

n non-uniform

m magnetic fiields can be quite compllex.

The figure below

b shows a magnetic c bottle. This interesting configuration

c n happens when

w the

field is weak at the centeer and strong

g at both endds.

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 45

** This configurration is used to trap densse beams of plasmas.
**

A similar pheenomenon iss the oscillation of ions back and fortth between tthe earth’s magnetic

m

poles in the Van

V Allen Beelts

5. THE VE

ELOCITY SELECTOR AND APPLICATIONS

A S

**“The maagnetic force e on a charg
**

ged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field c can be bala

anced by

an electtric force if th

he magnitude

es and directtions of the tw

wo fields are chosen prop

perly.”

** Since the electric force is in the dire ection of thee electric field (for positiv
**

ve particles) and the

magnetic foorce is perpen ndicular to thhe magnetic field.

The electric and magne etic fields in the region th hrough whic ch the particle is moving must be

perpendicular to each other

o if the forrces are to balance!

b

Such regionss is said to ha

ave crossed fields.

f

Th

he Figure shows a reg gion of space

b

between the

e plates off a capacitor

w

where there is an electrric field and

d a

p

perpendiculaar magnetic field into the

t

p

plane of the paper.

p

Consider a pa

C article of cha

arge q enteriing

th

his space fro

om the left, the net forrce

(ttermed Loren

ntz force) onn the particle

e is

g

given by:

**Iff q is positive, the ele
**

ectric force of

m

magnitude qE is dow wn and the t

m

magnetic forcce of magnittude qvB is up

p.

he two force

Th es balances iff qE = qvB or

For given ma agnitudes of the electric and magnettic fields, the e forces balance only for particles

with the spee ed v = E/B.

The arrangement of the fields f gives us the velocity y selector v = E/B.

Any particle e with this sp peed, regard dless of its mass

m or chargge will traveerse the crosssed-field

space undefflected.

› A particle

p with greater spe eed than the e velocity selector will be deflecte ed in the

direcction of the magnetic

m fielld.

› A pa article with le

esser speed than

t the velo

ocity selectorr will be defle

ected in the direction

of th

he electric fieeld.

APPLICA

ATIONS

The velocity selector forr crossed-field ds has very important ap pplications that were disscovered

during the laate 19th and early

e 20th cenntury.

In this course e, three appliications will be

b discussed:

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**1. Thomsson’s Measurrement of q/mm for Electronns
**

JJ Thomson,, in 1897, illustrated the technique fo or measuring

g the

q/m of electtrons.

In his experimment, he shoowed that the rays of a cathode-ray

c tube

can be defflected by E and B field ds, thus they y must consiist of

charged particles.

By measuring g the deflecttions of these

e particles, Th

homson, showwed that all the particle have the

same q/m.

Thomson alsso showed th hat particles with this q/m m can be obtained

o usin

ng any mate erial for a

source, whicch only mea ans that the ese particles (now called d electrons) are a fund damental

constituent of

o all matters.

vo is the velo

ocity selectorr (E/B)

q/m can be determined from the equation below w.

The magnetic fie

eld is only intrroduced at th

he entrance.

EXAMPLE E

Electrons pass undefflected throuugh the plate es of Thomso on’s apparattus when the e electric fielld is 3000

V/m and d there is a crossed magn

netic field of 1.40G.

If the pla

ates are 4cm long and the ends of the e plates are 30cm

3 from th

he screen.

Find the deflection ono the screen

n when the magnetic

m field

d is turned off.

**2. The Mass Spectrom
**

meter

The mass sp pectrometer, first design

ned by Fran ncis William

Aston in

n 1919, was developed

d as

a a means

of meassuring the maasses of isoto

opes.

Such mea asurements are an

importaant way of determining g both the

presencce of isotope

es and their abundance

a

in naturre.

For examplle, natural magnesium

m

has bee en found to consist of 78.7%

7 24Mg,

10.1% Mg, and 11.2% Mg.

255 26

** These isotop pes have ma asses in the
**

approxiimate ratio of

o 24:25:26.

Ions ejected d from the soource move in a semi-circ

cular orbit and strike a

photographic film at

a P2.

MASS SP

PECTROMETER

R EQUATION SET

S

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EXAMPLE E

A 58Ni io

on of charge +e and mass 9.62 x 10-226 kg is accelerated throu ugh a potential differenc

ce of 3kV

and deflected in a magnetic

m field

d of 0.12T.

(a) Find the radius off curvature off the orbit of the ion.

(b) Find the differencce in the raddii of curvatuure of 58Ni ion

ns and 60Ni io

ons. (Assume that the maass ratio is

58/60.)

3. The Cy

yclotron

** The cyclo otron was invented by E.O.
**

Lawrennce and M.S. Livingsston in 19 934 to

accele es such as protons or deuterons

erate particle

to high

h kinetic enerrgies*.

**OTRON EQUATTION SET
**

CYCLO

EXAMP PLE

A cyclotron for ac ccelerating protons

p has a magnetic c field of 1.5

5T and a

maximmum radius off 0.5m

(a) Wh

hat is the cyclotron freque

ency?

(b) Wh etic energy of the protonss when they e

hat is the kine emerge?

**PART 2:: SOURCES OF THE MA
**

AGNETIC FIELD

STORY

BRIEF HIS

Permanent Magnets

M werre the earliest known sourrces of magn netism.

Oersted ann nounced his discovery

d tha

at a compasss needle is de eflected by aan electric current.

Jean Baptiste Biot and Fe elix Savart an

nnounced the e results of th

heir measurem ments of the force on

a magnet ne ear a long cu

urrent-carryin

ng wire and analyzed

a resu

ults in terms o

of the magne etic field.

Andre-Marie e Ampere exxtended the ese experimeents and sho owed that c current elements also

experience a force in the presence of a magnetic field and that two currents exert forces f on

each other.

**1. THE MAGNETIC FIELLD OF MOVIN
**

NG POINT CH

HARGES

** When a poinnt charge q moves with a velocity v, it
**

produces a magnetic fie

eld B in space

e given by:

(For Left) Wh

here r is calle

ed the positio

on vector tha

at points from

m the charge e to the field

d point P.

μ0 is a constant of propoortionality ca

alled the perm

meability of free space, w

which has the e value

(For Right) θ is the angle between r and v.

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EXAMPLE E

A point charge of magnitude

m q = 4.5 nC is moving

m with speed v = 3.6 3 x 107 m/ss parallel to the

t x-axis

along thhe line y = 3m

m.

Find the magnetic fie elds produceed by this chaarge when th he charge is at a the point (x = -4m, y = 3m)

(1) at the

e origin

(2) at the

e point (0,3m

m)

(3) at the

e point (0, 6m

m)

Ans: (1) 3.89 x 10-10 T in the paperr. (2) 0 (Why?

?). (3) 3.89 x 10

1 -10 T out the

e the paper

**2. THE MAGNETIC FIELLD OF CURRENTS: BIOT-SA
**

AVART LAW

**The calcculation of thhe magneticc field caused by a point charge
**

can be extended to o calculate the

t magneticc field cause

ed by an

electric current in a wire.

w

**The equation below is known as the
**

t Biot-Sava

art Law.

ELECTRIC

C-MAGNETIC C ANALOGY

The two equ uations used to t calculate the magnetiic field are analogous to Coulomb’s Law.

L

However, the ere is a distinct difference

e in the direc

ctional aspec

cts.

E is in the dire

ection of the e force.

B is in the direction perpe endicular to the

t force.

B DUE TO

O DIFFERE

ENT CON

NFIGURA

ATIONS—

—See APP

PENDIX A

S’S LAW FOR MAGNETISM

3. GAUSS

** We know thaat magnetic field lines difffer from elec
**

ctric field lines.

Magnetic fie

eld lines form closed loopss.

The magnetic equivalen nt of the elec

ctric charge is called a magnetic

m

pole.

w for Magnetissm is stated as:

Gauss’s Law a

** That is, no magnetic mon
**

nopoles!

RE’S LAW

4. AMPER

** Ampere’s La aw is very ana
**

alogous to Gauss’s

G Law fo

or Electricity.

It relates thee magnetic field to the current

c enclosed by an im maginary

loop (called Amperian Lo oop).

Ampere’s La aw works forr configuratio

ons that havve a high de egree of

symmetry.

It is stated ass:

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EXAMPLES:

**1. Find the magnetic field caused by a wire that carries a current I at a point P which is at a
**

perpendicular distance R from the wire.

**2. A long straight wire of radius R carries a current I that is distributed uniformly over he cross-sectional
**

area of the wire. Find the magnetic field both inside and outside the wire.

**LIMITATIONS OF AMPERE’S LAW
**

Ampere’s Law will only work if and only if the following statements hold:

1. The configuration has a very high level of symmetry

2. The current is continuous everywhere in space.

**Therefore, there are only three cases where Ampere’s Law can be used:
**

1. Long straight lines

2. Long, tightly wound solenoids

3. Toroids

5. MAGNETISM IN MATTER

** Unlike the E field and the dipole moment p, magnetic moments inside all materials tend to
**

increase the magnetic field during alignment.

Materials fall into three categories:

(1) Paramagnetic

(2) Diamagnetic

(3) Ferromagnetic

PARAMAGNETISM

** Paramagnetism arises from partial alignment of the electron spins (in metals) or of atomic or
**

molecular magnetic moments by an applied magnetic field in the direction of the field.

In paramagnetic materials, the magnetic dipoles do not interact strongly with each other and

are randomly oriented.

In the presence of an external magnetic field, the dipoles are partially aligned in the direction

of the field, thereby increasing the field.

However, in external magnetic fields of ordinary strength at ordinary temperatures, only a small

fraction of the molecules are aligned. The total increase in the field is therefore small.

DIAMAGNETISM

** Diamagnetism arises from the orbital magnetic dipole moments induced by an applied
**

magnetic field.

These magnetic moments are opposite the direction of the applied magnetic field so they

decrease the total magnetic field B

This effect actually happens to all material, but because of the induced magnetic moments

are very small compared to the permanent magnetic moments, diamagnetism is masked by

paramagnetic or ferromagnetic moments.

Diamagnetism is thus only observed in materials that have no permanent magnetic moments.

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 50

FERROMAGNETISM

** Ferromagnetism is much more complicated than paramagnetism because of a strong
**

interaction between neighboring magnetic dipoles.

A high degree of alignment occurs even in weak external magnetic fields, thus causing a great

increase in the total field.

Even when there is no external field, ferromagnetic materials may have its dipoles aligned and

have its own magnetic field just like a permanent magnet.

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 51

**UNIT FIVE: MAGNE
**

M ETIC IND

DUCTION

OUTLINE OBJJECTIVES

1. Magnetic c Flux At thhe end of thiis chapter, yyou must be

2. Induced EMF and Farraday’s Law able to:

3. Lenz’s La

aw 1. Define

D and compute

c for magnetic

4. Motionall EMF flux;

5. Eddy Currents 2. Define and utilize

u Faradaay’s Law to

6. Inductannce: Self-Indu

uctance and calculate for the t induced d emf for

Mutual Indu uctance seveeral configuraations;

7. RL Circuits 3. Define

D and utilize Lenzz’s Law to

calculate for the t directio

on of the

induc ced current in

i Faraday’s Law;

4. Ch haracterize and

a enumera ate ways to

reduce Eddy Currrents;

5. Co ompute Inductances;

6. Le earn meanss and wayss in storing

mag gnetic energy y; and

7. Compute for circuital parrameters of

RL Circuits.

INTRODU

UCTION

y 1830’s – Michael Farad day (Englan nd) and Joseph Henry (USA)

independen ntly discovere ed that chan nging magne etic field induuces a

current in the

e wire.

y The emfs an nd currents caused by changing magneticm fields are

called induc ced emfs and d induced cu urrents.

y The process itself, is referrred to as maggnetic induc

ction.

y When you pull p the plug g of an elec ctric cord fro

om its socke et, you

sometimes observed

o a sm

mall spark. Th

his phenomen non is explain ned by magn

netic inductio

on!

1. MAGN

NETIC FLUX

**y The flux of a magnetic fiield through a surface is defined similarly to
**

the flux of an

n electric field.

y The magnetiic flux Φm is defined

d as

**y The unit of flux
**

f is that off a magnetic

c field times area, tesla-m

meter square

ed, which is called a

weber (Wb)

y 1 Wb = 1 T•mm2

**e: Show that a weber per second is a volt.
**

Exercise v

**y We are oftten intereste ed in the flux through a coil
**

containing several turns of

o wire.

y ontains N turrns, the flux through the coil

If the coil co c is N

times the fluxx through each turn.

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EXERCISE

Find the magnetic fllux through a solenoid th

hat is 40cm lo

ong, has a radius

r of 2.5c

cm, as 600 tu

urns, and

carries a current of 7.5A

2. INDUC

CED EMF AND

D FARADAY’S LAW

**y Experiments by Faraday, Henry and others
**

o showed that:

y If the e magnetic flux

f through an

a area bounded by a circuit

c changed by any means,

m an

emf equal in maagnitude to th

he rate of chhange of the flux is induceed in the circuit!

y We usually detect

d the emmf by:

y Observing a currrent in the circuit,

c but it’ss present eve

en when the e circuit is inc

complete

and there is no current.

c

y BEFORE:

y We considered emfs that were w localize

ed in a spec cific part off the circuit, such as

betw

ween the terminals of the

e battery

y HOWEVER:

y Indu uced emfs ca an be consid

dered to be distributed

d thrrough out the e circuit

**y How to chan nge magnetic c flux???
**

1. The current producing

p th

he magnetic field may bee increased or

o decreasedd

2. Permanent Magnets

M may y be moved toward the circuit

c or awa

ay from it

3. Circuit itself may

m be mov ved toward or

o away from the source of

o the flux

4. The orientation of the circ cuit may be changed

5. The area of thet circuit in a fixed magnetic field may be increa

ased or decre

eased.

In every

y case, an emf is induce

ed in the circ

cuit that is equal in mag

gnitude to th

he rate of ch

hange of

magnetiic flux.

**y Figure at the e right shows a single loop p of wire in a magnetic fie eld.
**

y If the flux thro

ough the looop is changing, an emf is induced

i in th

he loop.

y Since emf is W/q, there mustm be forcee exerted on n the charge associated w with

the emf.

y The F/q is thee E, which in this case is in

nduced by th he changing flux.

y E fields that resulted fromm static electtric charges are conserva ative! (Mean

ning,

work done across

a a close

ed curve is zeero)

y E fields tha at resulted from

f changiing magnetic flux is nonconservat

n tive!

(Meaning, workw done ac cross a closed d curve is NOOT ZERO!)

y These finding gs are summa arized as Fara aday’s Law, which

w is give

en below:

y The negativ

ve sign in Fa

araday’s Law

w has to do

o with the direction

d of the

induced emf, which we will

w discuss sh

hortly!

EXAMPLES:

1. A uniform magnetic field d makes an angle

a of 30o with

w the axis of a circularr coil of 300 turns

t and

a radius of 4 cm. The field changes at a a rate of 85T/s.

8 Find the

e magnitudee of the indu uced emf

in the coil.

2. An 80-turn coil has a radius of 5.0cm and a resistance of 30Ω. Att what rate e must a

perpendicular magnetic field to prod duce a current of 4.0A in the

t coil?

3. A solenoid of c and radiius 0.8cm witth 400 turns is in an exterrnal magnetic field of

o length 25 cm

600 G that makes

m an an

ngle of 50o with the axiss of the solenoid. (a) Find

d the magniitude flux

through the solenoid. (b)) Find the ma agnitude of the

t emf induced in the soolenoid if the

e external

magnetic fie eld is reduced

d to zero in 1.4s.

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 53

3. LENZ’SS LAW

**y The negativee sign in Fara
**

aday’s law ha

as to do with

h the directio

on of the indu

uced emf, which

w can

be found fro

om a generall physical prin

nciple knownn as Lenz’s La

aw

“The

e induced em ced current are in such a direction so as to opp

mf and induc pose the cha

ange the

prod

duces them.””

y Note: We diidn’t specify just what kind of chang ge causes thhe induced eemf and currrent. The

statement was

w left vague e to cover a variety of co

onditions we will

w now illustrate.

There is an

a alternative statement to Lenz’s Law w to make it more operattional!

y “For a change in magne etic flux, a counter

c flux is produced so that there

e will be “no

o overall”

change in th

he flux!”

y This “counter flux” will the

en give the direction

d of th

he induced current

c or em

mf!

ENZ’S LAW IN

APPLY LE N EACH

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EXAMPLE

A rectangular coil of 80 0 turns, 20 cm

m wide and 3

30 cm long, iss located

in a magn netic field B = 0.8T direc cted into the page, witth only a

portion of the coil in th

he region of the

t magneticc field. The re

esistance

of the coil is 30Ω.

Find the magnitude

m annd direction of

o the induceed current if the

t coil is

moved witth a speed of 2m/s (a) to the right, (b)) up, and (c) down.

4. EDDY CURRENTS

y Previously, currents produ

uced by cha anging flux we ere set up in definite circu

uits.

y Often a cha anging flux se

ets up circula

ating currentts, called Edddy currents in n conductorrs as they

move througgh a region of

o changing magnetic

m flux.

y The heat prooduced by su uch current constitutes

c a power loss inn the conduc ctor and the system.

s

e Eddies prod

How are duced?

**y Eddy currentts are usuallyy unwanted because
**

b pow

wer is lost in th

he form of heeat generate

ed by the

current, and that heat itsself must be dissipated.

d

y Power loss is reduced by increasing th he resistance

e on the possible paths off the eddies.

y Eddy currentts are not alwways undesiraable.

y Eddies are often

o used to lessen unwa anted oscillations in severa al applications

y Eddies are also

a he magnetic breaking sysstem of magnetic transit ttrains.

used in th

5. INDUC

CTANCE

5.1 SELF--INDUCTANCE E

y The magnettic flux throug i related to the current in that circuit and the currents in

gh a circuit is

other, nearb

by circuits*

y The current produces a magnetic field B that varies from point to po oint, but B is

i always

proportional to I at every

y point.

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 55

**y The magnetiic flux throug
**

gh the coil is therefore

t also

o proportiona

al to I, hence

e the definitio

on of self-

inductance!

**y Where L is a constant called the self-inductance of
**

o the coil.

y The self-inductance depeends on the geometric sh hape of the coil.

c

SI UNIT OF

O INDUCTAN NCE

y From the eq quation that defines

d self-in

nductance, we see that the unit of in

nductance iss the unit

of flux divide

ed by the unit of current.

y 1 H = 1 Wb/A A = 1 Tm2/A, (H) is called the

t henry.

y After Joseph Henry, wh ho also disc covered andd studied thhe phenome enon of ind

ductance

thoroughly during

d the 19th

t century.

CALCULA

ATING SELF-IN

NDUCTANCE

EXAMPLE ES:

1. Find th

he self-inductance of a so

olenoid of len

ngth 10 cm, area

a 5 cm2, and 100 turn

ns.

2. At whhat rate mustt the currentt in the solenoid in the example

e aboove change to induce an

a emf of

20V?

The Equa

ation that rela

ates Faraday

y’s Law with Inductance

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5.2 MUTU

UAL INDUCTA

ANCE

**y When two or o more circu uits are close
**

e to each oth her, as in thee figure abovve, the magnetic flux

through one e circuit does not depend d only to its ow

wn, but the other’s

o contribution as we

ell.

y The flux, for example through circuitt 2, is due to o it’s self-inductance and current I2, and the

mutual induc ctance M(2,1) and currentt I.

**y The mutual in e drop the subscript and call
**

nductance M21 = M12, we c it M.

y Mutual Inducctances, dep

pend on the geometric arrangement

a of circuits!

**SEE DERIVATION ON THE
**

T BOARD ON

O HOW TO CALCULATE

C FO

OR MUTUAL INDUCTANCE

ES:

NOTES HERE:

NETIC ENERGY

6. MAGN Y AND THE IN NDUCTOR

y An inductor stores magnetic energy through the current build ding up

in it, just as a capacitor sttores electric

cal energy.

y Consider the e circuit at the right.

y The energy stored

s in an inductor carrrying a curren

nt I is given by:

b

**y The magnetiic energy de
**

ensity is given by:

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7. RL CIR

RCUITS

y RL Circuit- circuit

c containing a resisto

or and an inductor such as

the one in th

he right.

y For all RL Circuits in Physic cs 13, we ca

an apply Kirchhoff’s Rules to

solve for the circuital parrameters.

y Current I, flo ows in a singgle direction but it’s valuue is changing

with time.

y RL Circuits iss very similar with RC Circuits,

C howe ever, we doon’t

charge/discharge RL circ cuits.

y We just wantt to know the e behavior off currents in them.

t

THE GRO

OWTH OF I IN RL CIRCUITS

y When the sw witch is clossed, current does not

build up instaantaneously..

y It grows expo onentially via

a the equatio on above,

until it reaches the final current

c If = ξ0/R.

/

y τ is called tim

me constant, τ = L/R, whic ch is the time it takes the circuit

c to reac

ch maximum

m current.

y When curren nt reaches itss maximum, the t inductor acts

a as a “sh

hort” or just a wire.

EXAMPLE E:

A coil of

o self-inducta ance 5.0mH and a resisttance of 150 0 Ω is placeed across the

e terminals of

o a 12-V

battery of

o negligible internal resistance.

(A) What is the final current?

c

(B) Whatt is the curren

nt after 100μss?

(C) Howw much energ gy is stored in

n this inductor when the final current has

h been atta ained?

THE DECA

AY OF I IN RLL CIRCUITS

y The circuit above is very similar to the e circuit for the “growth

of I”.

y However, we e place add ditional switc

ches in order to remove

the battery and,

a R1 to prrotect the ba attery from suurge and short.

y Here, we let the circuit atttain If, then we proceed with the dec caying proce

ess of I.

y Initially the current

c I0 = ξ0/R

/ then it steaadily decayss until it is neg

gligible.

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U

UNIT SIX

X: ALTER

RNATING

G CURRENT CIR

RCUITS

OUTLINE OBJJECTIVES

1. AC GENE

ERATORS At th

he end of thiis chapter, y you must be

able to:

ATING CURREN

2. ALTERNA NT: 1. Understand how h an AC Generator

RESISTORS & RMS VALUE

ES, workk and comp pute for the e maximum

INDUCTORRS AND CAPAACITORS EMF;

2. Comprehend

C d the behavior of an

S

3. PHASORS Alterrnating currrent in a Resistor,

Capacitor, and d an Indu uctor and

4. LC, RLC CIRCUITS

C calculate for circ cuital parameeters;

LC and RLC C Without a Generator

G 3. Define Ph

hasors andd identify

Series RLC With

W a Generrator relationships betw ween circuital potential

Parallel RLC

C With a Generator differences in AC C;

4. Coompute for AC-circuital

A parameters

ORMERS

5. TRANSFO involved in an LC C and RLC Cirrcuits driven

(or not) by an AC C generator;

5.Coompute for th he Transformeer’s

charracteristics.

INTRODU

UCTION

` More than 99% of the ele ectrical energ

gy used todaay is produce ed

by electricall generators in o alternating current (ac).

i the form of

` AC’s advan ntage over DCD because electrical energy

e can beb

transported over long distances at very

v high voltage and lo ow

currents to re

educe energ gy losses due to Joule hea

at!

` AC can the en be transfoormed, with almost no energy

e loss, to

lower and safer voltage es and correspondingly higher

h currennts

for everyday y use!

ANGE IN WAV

THE CHA VE FUNCTIONSS

` Here are som

me of the bassic formulas for

f obtaining

g changes in wave functio

ons:

**` Constants:ω is angular freequency, δ iss phase difference
**

` These formullas are very im

mportant in obtaining

o thee value of some AC circu

uital parametters.

ENERATOR an

1. AC GE nd the GENER RATION OF ALTERNATING CURRENT

` Figure below w shows a simmple AC gene erator.

` It consists off a coil of arrea A and N turns rotatin ng (with freq quency ω) in n a uniform magnetic

m

field.

` The ends of thet coil are connected

c to

o rings (called slip rings) th

hat rotate wiith the coil.

` They make electrical

e con ntact through

h stationary conducting

c b

brushes in co

ontact with th he rings.

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 59

` The emf in th

he coil will the

en be:

` Or

` Where

**` We can thuss produce a sinusoidal
**

s emmf in a coil by

y rotating it with

w constantt angular velocity in a

magnetic fieeld.

` As we all kno

ow, with an in

nduced emf,, there is alsoo an induced current.

` With an Alternating EMF, there is also an alternatinng current!

EXAMPLE E:

A 250-turn coil has an

n area of 3cm

m2. If it rotate

es in a magne

etic field of 0.4T

0 at 60Hz, w

what is ξmax?

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2. ALTERN

NATING CURRENT IN CIRC

CUITAL ELEMENTS

2.1 RESIS

STORS IN AC

THE POW

WER DISSIPATE

ED IN A RESISTTOR

RMS VALLUES

` Most ac ammeters and voltmeters

v arre designed to measure root-mean-s

r quare (rms) values

v of

current and voltage rather than the maximum

m or peak valuess!

` RULE: The RM MS value of any

a quantity that varies sinusoidally equals

e the ma

aximum valu ue of that

quantity divided by √2.

` *The rms currrent equals the

t steady dc

d current that would pro oduce the sa

ame Joule he eating as

the actual ac

a current.

` Example: The e rms value of

o a current, Irms is given by:

b

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RMS EXE

ERCISE:

**1. Find Pav in terms off Irms and R
**

2. Find Pav in terms off ξmax and Imaax

3. Find Pav in terms off ξrms and Irms

4. Find Irm

ms in terms of ξrms and R

5. A 12-Ω Ω resistor is connected

c a

across a sinussoidal emf th

hat has a pe

eak value of 48V. Find (a) the rms

current, (b) the avera age power, (c) ( the maximmum power.

**Note: In a circuit, th hat consists of
**

o more than a generattor and a re esistor, the vo

oltage drop across a

resistor iss not usually equal to the

e generator voltage,

v so we age drop across a resistor in terms

w write volta

of VR,rms!

**RNATING CURRENT IN IND
**

2.2 ALTER DUCTORS AND

D CAPACITOR

RS

` Alternating current

c behavves differentlly than directt current in in nductors and capacitors.

` When a cap pacitor becomes fully cha arged in a dc c circuit, it sttops the curreent, that is, itt acts like

an open circ cuit.

` But if the cuurrent alterna

ates, charge continually flows onto or o off the pla ates of the capacitor

c

and at highe er frequenciees, the capac citor, will hard

dly impede current

c at all,, which means, it acts

like a short circuit!

c

` Conversely, an inductor coil usually hash a very sm mall resistanc ce and is esse entially a shoort circuit

for dc.

` But when th he current is alternating, a back emf is generate ed in an indductor, and at a higher

frequencies, the back em mf is so large,, the inducto or acts like an n open circuit!

ORS IN AC CIIRCUITS

INDUCTO

**VL Leadss I by 90o
**

` In the previo ous set of slide

es, we see thhe functional difference ofo VL and I.

` This functional difference e is due to the

e current I’s phase

p differe

ence with voltage VL.

` We say that I is “out of ph hase” with VL, more preciisely VL leads current by 9 90o.

` This is illustratted by the plot at the righ ht.

` As with earlie er techniques we can transform the equation to prove p this “lea

ading” pheno

omenon

EXAMPLE E

A 40mH inductor is placed acrosss an ac gene

erator that ha

as a maximum emf of 120

0V. Find the inductive

i

reactance and the maximum

m current when th

he frequency y is

a) 60 Hz

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P H Y S I C S 1 3 L E C T U R E N O T E S | 62

b) 2000 Hz

H

What caan you conclude about th

he relation off inductive re

eactance an

nd current?

CAPACITTORS IN AC CIRCUITS

C

**VC Lags I by 90o
**

` In the previo ous set of slide

es, we see thhe functional difference of o VC and I.

` This functional difference e is due to the

e current I’s phase

p ence with voltage VC.

differe

` We say that I is “out of ph hase” with VC, more prec cisely VC lags current by 900o.

` This is illustratted by the plot at the righ ht.

` As with earlie er techniques we can transform the equation to prove p this “lag

gging” pheno

omenon

EXAMPLE E:

A 20-μF capacitor is placed acro

oss a generaator that has a maximum emf of 100V V. Find the ca

apacitive

reactance and the maximum

m current when thhe frequency y is

A) 60 Hz

B) 5000 Hz

H

What caan you conclude about thhe relation off capacitive reactance and

a current?

3. PHASO

ORS

` The phase relations

r bettween the current

c and the voltage drop in a resistor, cap pacitor or

inductor cann be represen nted by two dimensional vectors calle ed phasors.

` Phasors rottates counterclockwise e (since in ncreasing angular

a degrees are moving

counterclockwise in the CCS).

C

` When severa al components are conn nected togetther in series circuit, theirr voltages ad

dd, when

they are connnected in parallel, their current

c add.

` Meaning, complications

c s in the co omputation of

circuital para

ameters can n be simplifiedd using vector

addition, usin

ng phasors!

` Consider a circuit containing an inductor L, a

capacitor C,C and a resistor R, all connected in

series.

` Since they area in series, they all ca arry the sam

me

current, whic ented as the x-component

ch is represe

of the curren

nt phasor I.

` The voltages are ob btained usin ng the prior

definitions which

w include

es the resistive, capacitive,

and inductivve reactance es.

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4. RLC CIRCUITS

C

**4.1 LC CIRCUITS WITH HOUT A GENER RATOR
**

` Figure to the e right shows an LC Circuitt.

` In an LC Circ cuit, we assum me that the capacitor

c ca

arries an initia

al charge Q0.

` When the sw witch is closed d, charge beegins to flow through

t the inductor.

i

` The effect is that, the ca apacitor is beeing dischargged by the lo oss of charge

e, then it incrrease the

current in the inductor, which

w in turn, re-charges the capacittor and deca ays the curre ent in the

inductor.

` This circuit is very similar to

o a mass attaached to a spring.

s

**There are important parameters involving
**

i LC Circuits witho

out a genera

ator:

` Angular “Na atural” Freque

ency:

` Current:

EXAMPLE:

A 2-μF capacitor

c is charged to 20V and is then connec cted across a 6-μH indu

uctor. (a) Wh

hat is the

frequenc

cy of oscillatiion? (b) Wha

at is the maxim

mum value of

o the currentt?

4.2 RLC CIRCUITS

C WITTHOUT A GENERATOR

` If we includ de a resistor in series with

w a capac

citor and

inductor, we

e have an RLCC Circuit.

` It is basically the same as an LC circuit,

c howev ver, the

charging/disscharging does

d not haappen “forev

ver”

` It is a sprring system that enco ounters frictional

forces!

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**ES RLC WITH A GENERATOR
**

4.3 SERIE R

RESONANCE IN SERIE

ES RLC

**` Resonance ini circuit is wh
**

hen the impeedance is at its smallest, and

a the curre

ent is at its greatest.

` There condittions for reson

nance are giiven in the rig

ght.

` At resonance, the powerr factor is 1.

EXAMPLE ES:

1. A serie

es RLC Circuiit with L = 2H,, C = 2μF, and R = 20Ω is driven

d by a generator

g witth a maximum emf of

100 V an nd a variable frequency y. Find (a) the resonance e frequency (f0), (b) the maximum current

c at

resonanc ce, (c) the phase angle δ, δ (d) the pow wer factor, and

a (e) the av

verage powe er delivered.

2. A serie

es RLC Circuiit with L = 2H,, C = 2μF, and R = 20Ω is driven

d by a generator

g witth a maximum emf of

100 V an nd a variable frequency y. Find the maximum

m volttage across the resistor, tthe inductorr and the

capacito or.

3. A resiistor R and capacitor

c C are in seriess with a gen nerator with

peak vo oltage of 220 0V, 60Hz, as shown in the e Figure. If R=20

R Ω and

C=14.7μF, Find Vout,rm

ms.

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4.4 PARA

ALLEL RLC WITTH A GENERA

ATOR

RESONANCE IN PARA

ALLEL RLC

**` a basically the same, ho
**

Conditions are owever, we note

n some im

mportant fea

atures of reso

onance in

parallel RLC::

1) Impedance is a maximum m, current is a minimum

2) The currents in the induc ctor and cap pacitor are equal, but

they are opp posite, so theey cancel, th he total current is just

the current in

n the resistor..

5. TRANSSFORMERS

` A transformer is a device used

u to raise or lower the voltage

v in

a circuit withoout an appreciable loss of power

` A simple transformer con nsisting of two o wire coils around

a a

common iron n core.

` The coil carryying the input power is calleed the primarry.

` The coil carryying the outpu

ut power is ca alled the seco ondary.

` The transformmer operates ono the princip ple that an alternating currrent in one

circuit induce ating emf in a nearby cirrcuit due to the

es an alterna t mutual

inductances of the two cirrcuits.

` The iron core increases thee magnetic fie n current and guides it so

eld fir a given

that nearly all

a the magne etic flux throuugh one coil goes through h the other

coil.

THE TRAN

NSFORMER EQQUATIONS

` For a transfformer with N1 turns in the primary

y and N2 tu urns in the

secondary, the voltage e across the secondary coil is related to the

generator em

mf across the

e primary coiil by:

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` If there are no

n losses, due

e to Joule He

eating (which

h is due to ne

egligible resisttance in the coils),

EXAMPLE E:

A doorbbell requires 0.4A

0 at 6V. Itt is connecte

ed to a transformer whose primary co

ontaining 200

00turns, is

connectted to a 120-V ac line. (a a) How many turns should there be in the seconddary? (b) Whhat is the

current in the primary

y?

____________________end___

_________________

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