World of the Common Soldier

(Articles, Published and Unpublished)

John U. Rees 136 North Sugan Road, New Hope, Pa. 18938 Phone: (215) 862-2348 Email: Campaign, Battle, Combat, and Operational Studies (List 2 of 15) “`What is this you have been about to day?’: The New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of Monmouth,” Narrative 1. Introduction 2. "In readiness to march at a moment's warning ...": Pre-Battle Dispositions and Plans 3. "To get up with the enemy": Major General Charles Lee's Force Sets Off 4. "I found the whole of the troops upon my right retreating ...": Morning Confrontation at Monmouth Courthouse 5. "The day was so excessively hot ...": Lee’s Retreat 6. “They answered him with three cheers ...”: Washington Recovers the Day 7. “The Action was Exceedingly warm and well Maintained …”: Infantry Fighting at the Point of Woods, Hedge-row, and Parsonage 8. "The finest musick, I Ever heared.": Afternoon Artillery Duel, and Cilley’s Attack on the 42nd Regiment 9. “Detached to assist in burying the dead …”: Battle’s Aftermath 10. “The March has proved salutory to the troops.”: Post-Battle: The Continental Army Moves North 11.“A very irregular & ill managed Embarkation.”: Post-Battle British March to Sandy Hook 12. "The defective constitution of our army ...": Casting Blame for the Morning Debacle 13. Battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778: Event Synopsis Appendices A. “Beware of being Burgoyned.”: Marching Toward Monmouth, Delaware River to Freehold, 18 to 27 June 1778 B. “The whole army moved towards the Delaware …”: Continental Army March from Valley Forge to Englishtown, N.J., 18 to 27 June 1778 C. “General Lee being detached with the advanced Corps …”: Composition of Charles Lee’s Force D. “Our Division formed a line on the eminence …”:Washington’s Main Army Order of Battle, 28 June 1778 E. “A large Number of troops …”: Continental and British Army Field Returns, 28 June 1778 F.“I resolved nevertheless to attack them …”: American Monmouth Battle Accounts

G. “Charge, Grenadiers, never heed forming”: British Accounts of the Monmouth Battle H. "More Glorious to America than at first Supposed ...": New Jersey Officers Describe the Battle of Monmouth I. "They answered him with three cheers ...": New Jersey Common Soldiers' Pension Depositions J. “A very smart cannonading ensued from both sides.”: Maxwell’s Jersey Brigade Artillery and the Afternoon Cannonade at Monmouth K. “Jun 29th, Buried the Dead …”: Casualties in the Battle of Monmouth L. “We are informed by several persons …“: Contemporary Newspaper Accounts M. “That damned blue Regiment …”: Continental Army Clothing during the Monmouth Campaign N. “General Wayne's detachment is almost starving.”: Provisioning Washington’s Army on the March, June 1778 O. “The canopy of heaven for our tent”: Soldiers' Shelter on Campaign, June 1778 P. “Be pleased to fill up the vacancy with the eldest Captain in the line …”: Field Officers, Commissioned Officers, and Staff of the 2nd New Jersey Regiment December 1777 to May 1779 Q. “Exceeding Hot & water is scarce …”: Monmouth Campaign Weather, 15 June to 7 July, 1778

“’A very smart cannonading ensued from both sides.’: Continental Artillery at Monmouth Courthouse, 28 June 1778” (Including information on artillery attached to the New Jersey Brigade) “’Reach Coryels ferry. Encamp on the Pennsylvania side.’: The March from Valley Forge to Monmouth Courthouse, 18 to 28 June 1778”“Reach-Coryels-ferry-Encamp-on-the-Pennsylvaniaside-”-The-March-from-Valley-Forge-to-Monmouth-Courthouse-18-to-28-June-1778 Endnotes:“Reach-Coryels-ferry-Encamp-on-thePennsylvania-side-”-The-March-from-Valley-Forge-to-Monmouth-Courthouse-18-to-28June-1778 Contents
1. “We struck our tents and loaded our baggage.”: Leaving Valley Forge 2. Progress, June 18, 1778. 3. Progress, June 19, 1778. 4. “Crost the dilliware pushed on about 5 milds …”: June 20, 1778: Progress and a River Crossing 5. “4 Wagons & Horses, and 1000 Men at a Try.”: The Mechanics of Ferrying an Army 6. “Halt on the first strong ground after passing the Delaware ...”: June 20th River Crossing

7. “The number of boats … will render the passage of the troops very expeditious.”: June 21st Ferry Operation 8. “The Troops are passing the River … and are mostly over.”: June 22d Crossing 9. “The Army will march off …”: June 22d and 23d, Camp at Amwell Meeting 10. “Just after we halted we sent out a large detachment …”: Camp and Council: Hopewell Township, 23 to 24 June 11. “Giving the Enemy a stroke is a very desireable event …”: Advancing to Englishtown, 24 to 28 June a. Progress, June 25, 1778. b. Progress, June 26, 1778. c. Progress, June 27, 1778. d. Forward to Battle, June 28, 1778. 12. “Our advanced Corps … took post in the evening on the Monmouth Road …”: Movements of Continental Detachments Followng the British, 24 to 28 June 1778 a. The Advance Force: Scott’s, Wayne’s, Lafayette’s, and Lee’s Detachments. b. Daily Movements of Detachments Later Incorporated into Lee’s Advanced Corps. 13. Echoes of 1778, Three Years After. Addendum 1. Driving Directions, Continental Army Route from Valley Forge to Englishtown 2. Day by Day Recap of Route 3. The Road to Hopewell. 4. The Bungtown Road Controversy. 5. Weather During the Monmouth Campaign 6. Selected Accounts of the March from Valley Forge to Englishtown a. Fifteen-year-old Sally Wister b. Surgeon Samuel Adams, 3rd Continental Artillery c. Henry Dearborn, lt. colonel, 3rd New Hampshire Regiment d. Captain Paul Brigham, 8th Connecticut Regiment e. Sergeant Ebenezer Wild, 1st Massachusetts Regiment f. Sgt. Jeremiah Greenman, 2d Rhode Island Regiment g. Dr. James McHenry, assistant secretary to General Washington 7. List of Related works by the author on military material culture and the Continental Army Endnotes contain: 1. Army General and Brigade Orders, June 1778. a. Orders Regulating the Army on the March from Valley Forge. b. Orders Issued During the Movement from Valley Forge to Englishtown. 2. Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army to 22 June 1778 3. Washington’s army vehicle allotment for the march to Coryell’s Ferry, 4. Wheeled Transportation (a primer on the vehicles and artillery on the road to Monmouth, including twenty-one illustrations) 5. Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army after 22 June 1778

“`Reach Coryels ferry. Encamp on the Pennsylvania side.’: The Monmouth Campaign Delaware River Crossing,” History in the Making (The Newsletter of the New Hope Historical Society), vol. 4, no. 4 (December 2006), 1-12. "’The Enemy Giting intelligence of our movement ...’: Surprise at Haddonfield, April 1778”

“`The Enemy was in Hackansack last night Burning & Destroing …’: British Incursions into Bergen County, Spring 1780” Part 1. “`So much for a Scotch Prize.’: Paramus, New Jersey, 23 March 1780” Part 2. “`Had all the Cavalry been in the front … not one man could have escaped …’: Hopperstown, New Jersey, 16 April 1780,” Barbara Z. Marchant, ed., Revolutionary Bergen County, The Road to Independence (Charleston, S.C. and London: The History Press, 2009), 123-135. Published together in Military Collector & Historian: part 1, vol. 65, no. 1 (Spring 2013), 28-42. “`It appeared to me as if here we should live secure …: A Family’s Precarious Refuge in Paramus, 1776 to 1780,” Barbara Z. Marchant, ed., Revolutionary Bergen County, The Road to Independence (Charleston, S.C. and London: The History Press, 2009), 31-42. “`The road appeared to be full of red Coats …’: The Battle of Millstone, 20 January 1777: An Episode in the Forage War,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 62, no. 1 (Spring 2010), 24-35. “`The Enemy … will have no Mercey upon our loaded barns.’: British Foraging at Hackensack, September and October 1778,” Carol Karels, ed., The Revolutionary War in Bergen County: The Time That Tried Men’s Souls (Charleston, S.C. and London: The History Press, 2007), 112-117. “`Endeavering to Keep them from going to New York ’: The New Jersey Brigade’s Pursuit of the British Army, 18-27 June 1778” (manuscript) “`The devastations of war …’: The New Jersey Brigade, July 1778 to June 1779” (manuscript)

“`Their presence Here … Has Saved this State …’: Continental Provisional Battalions with Lafayette in Virginia, 1781” Part 1. “`This Detachement is Extremely Good …’: The Light Battalions Move South”
A. “`The Fire of the Light Infantry …cheked the Enemys Progress …’: Light Battalion Composition and Service” B. “`Ill founded jealousies, and groundless suspicions.” ‘: Unrest in the Light Battalions” C. “`The Cloathing you … long ago Sent to the light infantry is not Yet Arrived.‘: Apparel and Equipment”

The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXVI, no. 2 (Autumn 2006), 2-23. Appendices for Above 1. Diary of Soldier with Lafayette’s Light Infantry, 1781 2. Asa Redington, Scammell’s Light Infantry Regiment, 1781 3. Barber’s Light Battalion, 1781 (New Jersey Light Company Personnel) “`Their presence Here … Has Saved this State …’: Continental Provisional Battalions with Lafayette in Virginia, 1781” Parts 2-4. “`Almost all old soldiers, and well disciplined …’: Brigadier General Anthony Wayne’s 1781 Pennsylvania Provisional Battalions” A. “I fear it is now too late …”: The Pennsylvania Line Mutiny, January 1781 B. “Our Regiments are yet but very small …”: Settling with the Troops and Rebuilding the Line C. “The whole Line … behaved in a most orderly manner.”: Organizing and Disciplining the Pennsylvania Provisional Battalions for the 1781 Campaign The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXVII, no. 2 (Summer 2007), 2-19; vol. XXXVII, no. 4 (Winter 2007), 2-15; vol. XXXVIII, no. 1 (Spring 2008), 2-21. Appendices for Above 1. “`A Smart firing commenc’d from from both parties …’: Brig. Gen. Anthony Wayne’s Pennsylvania Battalions in Virginia, June to November 1781”
Contents: A. “We will be much inferior to the enemy …”: May 31 to July 5 1781 B. “A charge … under a heavy fire of Grape shot …”: Battle of Green Springs, 6 July 1781 C. “Cornwallis … threatens every Devastation that fire & sword can produce …”: Marching and Countermarching, 9 July to 25 August D. “The batteries were opened and fired with great success …”: September to November 1781 E. “The Cloathing was drawn near twelve month ago …”: 1780-1781 Pennsylvania Clothing, Letters and Returns

(continued) 2. “`The British army marched out and grounded their arms …’: Pennsylvania Lt. William Feltman’s Diary, 26 May to 5 November 1781” 3. “`Pennsylvania Battalion Troop Returns, 1781-1783’: (In Camp and on Campaign in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina)” "Eyewitness to Battle: Alexander Dow's Account of Monmouth," The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXIX, no. 1 (Spring 1999), 15-16. “Receivd an Ensigncy in Capt Hagans Company Third Jersey Regt” Ensign George Ewing’s Journal, New Jersey Line, 11 November 1775 to 21 May 1778 (Published as George Ewing, The Military Journal of George Ewing (1754-1824): A Soldier of Valley Forge (Yonkers, N.Y.: Privately printed by T. Ewing, 1928)) "’We ... wheeled to the Right to form the Line of Battle’: Colonel Israel Shreve's Journal, 23 November 1776 to 14 August 1777 (Including Accounts of the Action at the Short Hills)”
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. “The Enemy Came out fired several Cannon At our Pickets”: Journal Entries, 23 November 1776 to 25 June 1777 Composition of Maj. Gen. William Alexander, Lord Stirling's Division, Summer 1777 “Our Canister shot Did Great Execution.”: The Battle of the Short Hills: Journal Entries 26 to 28 June 1777 “There was a steady fire on us from out of the bushes …”: A German Officer’s View of Operations in New Jersey, 24 to 28 June 1777 “A smart engagement ensued …”: A British Private’s View of the Short Hills Battle "I propose leaving Colo. Daytons and Ogden's Regts. at Elizabeth Town … for the present ...”: Movements of the 1st and 3d New Jersey Regiments, July and August 1777 “Crossed Delaware [River], halted At Doctor Enhams …”: Final Journal Entries, 29 July to 14 August 1777 Listing of Field Officers, Commissioned Officers, and Staff of the 2d New Jersey Regiment December 1776 to December 1777 Company Strengths and Dispositions, Colonel Israel Shreve's 2d New Jersey Regiment December 1776 to December 1777 2d New Jersey Regiment, Monthly Strength as Taken From the Muster Rolls, December 1776 to December 1777 2d New Jersey Regiment, Company Lineage, 1777 to 1779 “The Troops of this Army … Appear to Manoeuvre upon false principles …” : The State of Continental Army Field Formations and Combat Maneuver, 1777 Composition of British Columns at the Short Hills Action, 26 June 1777; Organization of British Light Infantry and Grenadier Battalions, Spring and Summer 1777

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

“I have sent down Lord Stirling's Division, to reinforce Genl. Maxwell …” : Summer Campaign Letters, Gen. George Washington and Virginia Captain John Chilton, plus the role of “late Ottendorff’s Corps,” 22 to 29 June 1777 8. “At sunrise the fire began …”: New Jersey Brigade Accounts of the 1777 Philadelphia Campaign 9. "Without Covering but the H[eaven's].C[anop].y and boughs of Trees …": 4th New Jersey Officer's Diary, 21 June 1777 to 18 February 1778 (plus Journal of Ensign George Ewing, 3d New Jersey, 1777-1778) 7. “`None of you know the hardships of A soldiers life …’: Service of the Connecticut Regiments in Maj. Gen. Alexander McDougall’s Division, 1777-1778” (Mss., author’s collection, 2009)
“I am … Packing up my baggage in order to March”: Service on the North River, and Movement into Pennsylvania, May to September 1777 “God Grant I may Always be Preserv'd …”: The Battle of Germantown and Schuylkill Expedition, October 1777 “So small A Garrison never attaind Greater achievments …”: Forts Mifflin and Mercer, and Maneuvers in New Jersey, November 1777 “Nothing to cover us But ye heavens …”: The Whitemarsh Encampment and Early Days at Valley Forge, December 1777 “This is a very Different Spirit in the Army …”: Wintering Over at Valley Forge and Spring Training, January to June 1778 “Sixty three bullet holes were made through the colours …”: Summer Campaign and the Battle of Monmouth, June 1778 “The Troops of the whole line will exercise and manoeuvre …”: The March to New York and the White Plains Encampment, July to September 1778 “The Enemy are upon the eve of some general and important move.”: The Fredericksburgh Camp and Shifting Commanders, September to October 1778 “Their countrymen would … conclude the Devil was in them …”: McDougall’s Division Takes Post in Connecticut, October and November 1778 “Grievances … Justly complained of by your Soldiers …”: The Connecticut Line Winter Camp, December 1778 to January 1779 and and