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# Version PREVIEW Review for Momentum Test brown (138) This print-out should have 15 questions.

ns. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page nd all choices before answering. Concept 07 09 001 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points When the velocity of an object is quadrupled, by what factor is its momentum changed? 1. 16 2. 4 correct 1 48 1 4. 4 3. 5. 48 6. 1 1 16 Explanation: Momentum is proportional to speed. 7. 002 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points When the velocity of an object is doubled, by what factor is its kinetic energy changed? 1. 1 2. 2 1 3. 2 4. 4 correct 1 5. 8 1 6. 4 7. 8 Explanation: Kinetic energy is proportional to speed squared. Let : m = 0.26 kg , v = 27 m/s , t = 0.028 s . and Truck: p = mv = (3500 kg)(0.04 m/s) = 140 kg m/s . So the truck has a greater momentum. Conceptual 06 09 003 10.0 points Which object has a greater momentum? 1. They are the same.

2. A 3500 kg truck moving at 0.04 m/s. correct 3. A 0.1 kg bullet traveling at 500 m/s. Explanation: Bullet: p = mv = (0.1 kg)(500 m/s) = 50 kg m/s .

Barefoot Kicker 004 10.0 points A barefoot eld-goal kicker imparts a speed of 27 m/s to a football initially at rest. If the football has a mass of 0.26 kg and the time of contact with the ball is 0.028 s, what is the force exerted by the ball on the kickers foot? Correct answer: 250.714 N. Explanation:

Since the ball is initially at rest, its initial momentum is zero. Its momentum precisely after the kicker kicks it is pf = m v = (0.26 kg) (27 m/s) = 7.02 kg m/s .

Version PREVIEW Review for Momentum Test brown (138) The impulse received by the ball is I = pf pi = (7.02 kg m/s) (0) = 7.02 kg m/s . The impulse is also given by I = Fball t . Solving for the force on the ball gives I Fball = t 7.02 kg m/s = 0.028 s = 250.714 N . Newtons third law states that the force on the ball is equal in magnitude to the force on the kickers foot. Therefore, the above is also the force on the kickers foot. Bouncing a Superball 005 10.0 points A child bounces a 47 g superball on the sidewalk. The velocity change of the superball is from 20 m/s downward to 13 m/s upward. 1 If the contact time with the sidewalk is 800 s, what is the magnitude of the force exerted on the superball by the sidewalk? Correct answer: 1240.8 N. Explanation: Let : m = 47 g = 0.047 kg , vu = 13 m/s , vd = 20 m/s , and t = 0.00125 s Ptot = M v + MTh vTh = 0 .

Decaying Uranium Nucleus 006 10.0 points A uranium nucleus 238 U may stay in one piece for billions of years, but sooner or later it decays into an particle of mass 6.64 1027 kg and 234 Th nucleus of mass 3.88 1025 kg, and the decay process itself is extremely fast (it takes about 1020 s). Suppose the uranium nucleus was at rest just before the decay. If the particle is emitted at a speed of 1.08107 m/s, what would be the recoil speed of the thorium nucleus? Correct answer: 1.84825 105 m/s. Explanation:

## Let : v = 1.08 107 m/s , M = 6.64 1027 kg , MTh = 3.88 1025 kg .

and

Use momentum conservation: Before the decay, the Uranium nucleus had zero momentum (it was at rest), and hence the net momentum vector of the decay products should total to zero:

This means that the Thorium nucleus recoils in the direction exactly opposite to that of the particle with speed v M MTh (1.08 107 m/s) (6.64 1027 kg) = 3.88 1025 kg = 1.84825 105 m/s .

Choose the upward direction as positive. The impulse is I = F t = P = m vu m (vd ) = m (vu + vd ) m (vu + vd ) F = t (47 g) (13 m/s + 20 m/s) = 0.00125 s = 1240.8 N .

vTh =

## AP B 1998 MC 3 007 10.0 points A railroad car of mass m is moving at speed

Version PREVIEW Review for Momentum Test brown (138) v when it collides with a second railroad car of mass M which is at rest. The two cars lock together instantaneously and move along the track. What is the speed of the cars immediately after the collision? 1 v 2 M 2. v = v m m+M 3. v = v m m v 4. v = M m 5. v = v correct m+M Explanation: Momentum is conserved in the instantaneous collision: 1. v = pi = pf m v = (m + M ) v m v. v = m+M HeadOn Collision 01 008 10.0 points A mass 3 m collides head-on with a mass m. Before the collision the masses are moving directly toward one another with the same speed v0 . v0 3m v0 m 4. v = v0 5. v = 2 v0 3

6. v = 0 7. v = v0 3

8. v = 4 v0 Explanation: In a collision in which no external forces act, momentum is conserved, so pi = pf . Momentum is a vector; consider the components of the vector along the line of the collision, and call that line the x-axis. Then pix = pf x 3 m v0 + m (v0 ) = (3 m) 1 m v0 = m v 2 1 v0 = v . 2 v0 + mv 2

After the collision, the mass 3 m is moving v0 in its original direction at speed . 2 v0 v 2 m 3m What is the speed v of the mass m after the collision? v0 correct 1. v = 2 2. v = 3 v0 3. v = 2 v0

Holt SF 06Rev 26 009 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points After being struck by a bowling ball, a 1.4 kg bowling pin sliding to the right at 4.5 m/s collides head-on with another 1.4 kg bowling pin initially at rest. Find the nal velocity of the second pin in the following situations: a) The rst pin moves to the right after the collision at 0.7 m/s. Correct answer: 3.8 m/s. Explanation: Let to the right be positive: Let : m = 1.4 kg , v1,i = 4.5 m/s , v1,f = 0.7 m/s . Since v2,i = 0 m/s, m v1,i = m v1,f + m v2,f

and

Version PREVIEW Review for Momentum Test brown (138) v1,i = v1,f + v2,f v2,f = v1,i v1,f = 4.5 m/s 0.7 m/s = 3.8 m/s to the right. Let :

010 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points b) The rst pin stops moving when it hits the second pin. Correct answer: 4.5 m/s. Explanation: Let : v1,f = 0 m/s . v2,f = v1,i = 4.5 m/s to the right.

(x1 , y1 ) = (3 m, 8 m) , (x2 , y2 ) = (7 m, 6 m) , (x3 , c3 ) = (4 m, 1 m) , m1 = 8 g , m2 = 5 g , and m3 = 5 g . The center of mass of a 3body system is located at m1 r1 + m2 r2 + m3 r3 Rcm = . m1 + m2 + m3 Thus m1 x1 + m2 x2 + m3 x3 xcm = m1 + m2 + m3 (8 g)(3 m) + (5 g)(7 m) + (5 g)(4 m) = (8 g) + (5 g) + (5 g) = 4.38889 m . 012 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points What is the y-coordinate of the center of mass? Correct answer: 5.5 m. Explanation: ycm = m1 y1 + m2 y2 + m3 y3 m1 + m2 + m3 (8 g)(8 m) + (5 g)(6 m) + (5 g)(1 m) = (8 g) + (5 g) + (5 g)

Tipler PSE5 08 35 011 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points Three balls with masses of 8 g, 5 g, and 5 g, respectively, are connected by massless rods. The balls are located (in meter intervals) as in the gure. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 8g 5g

y [m]

= 5.5 m . Holt SF 08Rev 46 013 10.0 points If the torque required to loosen a nut holding a wheel on a car is 71 N m, what force must be exerted at the end of a 0.32 m lug wrench to loosen the nut when the angle is 56 ? Correct answer: 267.63 N. Explanation: Let : = 71 N m , d = 0.32 m , and = 56 .

5g 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x [m]

What is the x-coordinate of the center of mass? Correct answer: 4.38889 m. Explanation:

Version PREVIEW Review for Momentum Test brown (138) 1 1 2 2 I f f I i i 2 2 1 = (8.2 kg m2 ) (4.5622 rev/s)2 2 = 1 (8.7 kg m2 ) (4.3 rev/s)2 2 = 193.616 J .

= F d sin F = d sin 71 N m = (0.32 m) sin 56 = 267.63 N . Tipler PSE5 10 55 014 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points You stand on a frictionless platform that is rotating with an angular speed of 4.3 rev/s. Your arms are outstretched, and you hold a heavy weight in each hand. The moment of inertia of you, the extended weights, and the platform is 8.7 kg m2 . When you pull the weights in toward your body, the moment of inertia decreases to 8.2 kg m2 . What is the resulting angular speed of the platform? Correct answer: 4.5622 rev/s. Explanation: Let : i = 4.3 rev/s , Ii = 8.7 kg m2 , If = 8.2 kg m2 .

2 rev 2 rev

Because no external agent does work on the system, the increase in energy comes from the internal (chemical) energy of the man.

and

## Using conservation of angular momentum, I i i = I f f f = I i i (8.7 kg m2 ) (4.3 rev/s) = If 8.2 kg m2

= 4.5622 rev/s . 015 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points What is the change in kinetic energy of the system? Correct answer: 193.616 J. Explanation: K = Kf Ki