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CAPACITANCE and

The Storage of
Electric Energy

PARALLEL PLATE
CAPACITORS
Outline Objectives

y 1. Capacitors and y At the end of this chapter, you
should be able to:
Capacitance
y 2 The
2. Th Combination
C bi i off y 1. Explain how electrostatic
Capacitors energy is stored;
y 3. Energy Storage in y 2. Define capacitance;
Capacitors y 3. Define a dielectric and
explain how dielectrics affect
y 4. Capacitors and the energy stored in a
capacitor; and
Dielectrics
y 4. Solve problems involving
capacitors.

Chapter Two
The First of Three
y The Capacitor is one
of the three simple
circuit elements that
can be connected with
wires to form an
electric circuit!

y Capacitors have
varietyy of uses, ranging
g g
from: radio fine tuner
circuits to camera
flashes to defibrillators
y Capacitor
◦ is a system
y composed
p
1. Definittion of Capacitancce
of two conductors
(plates) with equal
and opposite
pp charges
g
on them!

y ΔV
◦ exists between the
plates because of the
f ld between
field b them
h

y Question???:
Experiment shows that
◦ What determines the the amount Q is
amount of charge Q proportional to ΔV!
on the
th plates
l t att a
given V?
D fi iti
Definition S
Some
of Caapacittancee
Unit
of C Notes
Amount of Charge
Stored in a given The Farad Always positive
Potential

Does not actuallyy
I. Deefinition o

depend on the
C = Q/ΔV 1 F = 1C/1V
charge or potential,
but on the geometry.

C is
The Farad is a large
Proportionality
unit!
Constant
y Initially there are no charges
at the plates.

y After making the connection,
charging happens.
W k?
w Capacittors Work

y Let us focus on the negative
plate
◦ Charging Stops if the wire,
wire plate,
plate
and terminal are all at the same
potential!

y The positive plate also
experiences a similar
phenomenon!

y In the final configuration the
potential difference between
the plates is the same as the
How

battery!
y A capacitor stores charge
h Q at a potentiall
difference ΔV. If the voltage applied by a
battery to the capacitor is doubled to 2ΔV,

y ( ) the capacitance
(a) p falls to half its initial value
and the charge remains the same
(b) the capacitance and the charge both fall
oint 22.1

y
to half their initial values
y (c) the capacitance and the charge both
double
Cheeckpo

y (d) the capacitance remains the same and
the charge doubles.
1. Thhe Capacitaance of Caapacittors y Parallel Plate Capacitors
◦ Th
The Capacitance
C i off PP is
i
related only to the area A of
the plates and the separation
distance d between them!
y Many computer keyboard
buttons are constructed of
capacitors, as shown in the
Figure. When a key is pushed
down, the soft insulator
between the movable plate
and the fixed plate is
compressed.
p When the keyy
is pressed, the capacitance
oint 22.2

y (a) increases,
increases
y (b) decreases, or
y ((c)) changes
g in a wayy that we
Cheeckpo

cannot determine because
the complicated electric
circuit connected to the
keyboard button may cause
a change in ΔV.
y A parallel-plate capacitor with air between
the
h plates
l has
h an area A = 2.00
2 00 x10
10-44 m2 andd
a plate separation d = 1.00 mm.
y Find its capacitance.

y Ans: 1.77 pF
mple 1
Exam
ors
1. Caapacitancce of Capaacito y Cylindrical Capacitors (Coaxial)

L is length of the conductors, b is
outer radius and a is inner radius

y Spherical Capacitors (Concentric)

a is inner radius, b is outer radius. If b→ ∞ then we
have an isolated conductor with a new capacitance
1. An isolated spherical capacitor has a
capacitance of 1F.
1F Calculate the radius of
C citors
the spherical capacitor.
mple: Othher Capac

2. You bought a 1-m coaxial cable for your
TVR If it
TVR. it’ss indicated that the outer radius is
2mm and the capacitance is 2μF, find the
inner radius of the coaxial cable.

3
3. Your laboratory instructor asked you to
create a spherical capacitor with
p
capacitance 12 ppF. The instructor ggave you
y
Exam

a solid sphere of radius 2.4mm, what should
be the diameter of the shell enclosure?
Capaacitorrs as Circuuit Eleemennts y As mentioned
earlier
li iin the
h
chapter, capacitors
are usedd in
i electric
l i
circuits.

y In circuit analysis, we
study pictorial
representations of
circuits known as
circuit diagrams
2 Combinations of Capacitors
2.
y There are two types
yp y It’s series if the
of circuit element elements are
combination: connected from end-
to-end.
A. Series
B. Parallel y It’s parallel if the
elements are
connected at
common ends.
With parallel: the
capacitors are at a The equivalent
common potential! capacitance is Ceq
which is the sum of
C binatiion
the individual
capacitances
Parallel Comb
2.1 P

The individual charges can be
found by QN = CNΔV
With series: the same charge Q
is stored among all the capacitors!

The equivalent capacitance can be
on

found byy takingg the reciprocal
p of the
natio

sum of the reciprocal capacitances.
ombin
2.2 SSeriees Co

The individual
voltage across each
capacitor can be
found by

ΔVN = Q/CN
Exam
mple: Seriies
ies--P
Paralleel!
y In eeach circuit, ffind the equiivalentt
capaacitancce andd the chargess storeed
in eeach caapacito
or!
V = 18 Volts

Vab = 15 Volts
0) y Find the equivalent capacitance. Note that
each
h capacitor
i has
h theh same capacitance.
i
2 sheeet, 110/10
QUIIZ #55 (1/2
3. Electro
ostattic Fieeld Energ
E gy
3. Electro
ostattic Fieeld Energ
E gy
E gy Figure to the right
shows the linear
ostattic Fieeld Energ
relationship between
Q and ΔV.

The Energy U can be
computed by taking
the area under the
curve!

The energy density uE
3. Electro

(Energy/Volume)
◦ This is the energy that
is stored in an electric
field, regardless of the
configuration!
You have three capacitors and a battery. In
which
hi h off the
h ffollowing
ll i combinations
bi i off the
h
three capacitors will the maximum possible
energy beb stored d when
h the
h combination
bi i is i
attached to the battery?
(a) series
oint 22.3

(b) parallel
(c) Both combinations will store the same
amount of energy. gy
Cheeckpo

Ans: (b) for a given voltage,
voltage capacitances add up
when in parallel and U = ½ C(ΔV)2
You charge a parallel-plate capacitor, remove it
from the battery, and prevent the wires
connected to the plates from touching each
other. When you pull the plates apart to a larger
separation do the following quantities increase,
separation, increase
decrease, or stay the same?
((a)) C;;
(b) Q;
oint 22.4

(c) E between the plates;
(d) ΔV
(e) Energy stored (U) in the capacitor.
Cheeckpo

Ans: C decreases, Q stays the same, E remains
constant,V increases, U increases because U =
½ QΔV
ors y Dielectrics are
insulators!
4. Dielecctrics and Cappacito
◦ Some examples of
dielectrics are air, paper,
wax rubber,
wax, rubber and glass
glass.
◦ Characterized by the
dielectric constant κ
(>1) which modifies
the permittivity of free
space ε0!

y “When dielectrics
occupy the space
between the plates of
a capacitor, the
capacitance
increases!”
y WARNING!
◦ Before analyzing and solving for the effect of the dielectric on electrical
The Effecct off the Batteery!
properties such as charge and potential… we have to ask…

“IS THE CAPACITOR CONNECTED TO A
BATTERY?”

CASE 1:
If it was connected then removed before dielectric was inserted!
• The charge on the capacitor remain the same

CASE 2:
If it remains connected when the dielectric was connected
• The voltage across the capacitor remains the same
Inserrting a dielectric into
oa
chargged capaci
c itor!
When the dielectric is
inserted, the charge
remains the same, voltage
oa

drops by:
Inserrting a dielectric into
itor!

If voltage drops, then
capacitance
p increases
chargged capaci

by:
c
or is When the dielectric is
inserted, the voltage
Insertiing the dielecttric while the ccapacito

remains the same, to
accomplish this battery
must supply additional
charge
h so charge
h
increases by:
he batteery

If chargeg increases on
onnecteed to th

the plates,
capacitance also
increases by:
still co
y 1. A capacitor is to be constructed by making circular
parallel plates (radius 1cm) and with separation of
2.5mm with a paper dielectric between the plates (κ
= 3.7). Find the capacitance of this capacitor.

y 2. A 10nF capacitor is charged with a 12V battery.
After fully charging the capacitor,
capacitor the battery was
removed and a dielectric (κ = 2) was inserted
between the plates of the capacitor. Find the
f ll i ((a)) iinitial
following: i i l and
d fifinall charges,
h (b) final
fi l voltage,
l
(c) final capacitance
mples:

y 3. A 4.7nF capacitor is charged with a 9V battery.
Then a glass dielectric was inserted between the
Exam

plates of the capacitor. Find the following: (a) initial
and final charges, (b) final voltage, (c) final capacitance
CHAPTTER TH
This Chapter is
divided into two
parts:

CIRCUIT
ELEMENTS

HREE: D
1.Resistors
2. Batteries
3. Combination of

DIRECT C
Resistors

DC CIRCUITS
1
1. Analysis

CURREN
2. RC Circuits

NT CIRC
CUITS
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
| 1. Define steadyy state currents and its relation to
a material’s resistance.
| 2. Relate voltage, current and resistance of
resistors.
i t
| 3. Differentiate a real from an ideal battery and
monitor the energies of the circuital parameters
| 4. Compute for the equivalent resistance of a
network of resistors
| 5. Analyze Direct Current Circuits using
Kirchhoff’s Rules.
| 6.
6 Analyze the behavior of RC Circuits.
Circuits
1. Electric
Current
2. Resistance
and
Resistors:

CIRCUITT ELEM
Ohm’s Law
3. EMF Sources:
Real and
Ideal
B tt i
Batteries
4. Combination
of Resistors

MENTTS
5. Energy in
Electric
Circuits
ELECTRIC CURRENT
| IIs the
h rate off flow
fl off charges
h
per unit time

| SI Unit: Ampere (A) after
Andre Marie Ampere
p

| 1 A = 1C/1s

| The direction of current is
the direction of flow of
positive charges

| Many types:
1. Electron in Hydrogen
Atom
2. Electron Beam in Cathode
Ray Tubes in TV’s
3. Electricity in Wires
ELECTRIC CURRENT AND THE ELECTRIC
FIELD
I
| Since the
direction of
current is the
direction of
E
flow of positive
charges: OHM’s LAW:

Current is related to the Electric
| The direction of Field via the conductivity σ of the
and cross sectional area A of the
the electric material:
field is in the
same direction
as the electric
current!
ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE
| When a current High V Low V
passes through a
material it I
encounters a
potential drop! E

| This potential drop
is related to the
current via the
Ohm’s Relation!
Ohmic
Non
| R is the Oh i
Ohmic
proportionality
constant called
“RESISTANCE OF
THE MATERIAL”
ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE AND
RESISTIVITY
| The Unit for Electrical
R i
Resistance iis the
h Ohm
Oh (Ω)
( )
after Georg Ohm

ρ iss tthe
e resistivity
es st v ty oof tthe
e
| Just lik
J like capacitance,
i material in (Ω -m), L is the
resistance is not dependent length (m) and A(m2) is the cross
on V or I, it’s dependent on sectional area of the material!
the geometry and the kind
of material we have.

Examples:

A Nichrome wire ( ρ=10-6 Ω-m) has a radius of 0.65mm. What length
of wire is needed to obtain a resistance of 2.0 Ω)?
RESISTANCE AND RESISTORS
Schematic Symbol for Resistors
| Resistors are devices
that provide resistance
in a circuit.

| Resistors and the
resistance they carry
have many purposes
and applications in a
variety circuits.
circuits
(ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE)
EMF SOURCES
| An emf source is a device
th t elevates
that l t ththe
potential of a charge
across its terminal. Positive Terminal

| The potential gain is the
emf of the battery!

| It serves as the source or
the pump of current in
the circuit!

| A very good example of
emf source is the
b
battery!
! +
Negative Terminal
REAL AND IDEAL BATTERIES
| The distinction
Th di i i
between an ideal and
real battery
y is in their
terminal voltages (TV).

| Ideal Battery:

| Real Battery: (Ideal
yp
Battery plus a small
internal resistance r)
IDEAL REAL
BATTERIES…
Rate and
Energy Stored:
| Thus,, the TV of
a real battery is
always less than
an EMF.
EMF
Rate:
1 Ah = 3600 C
| Malfunctioning
batteries have
very large
internal Totall Energy
T E
resistances. Stored
W = Qξξ
ANALYZING A BASIC CIRCUIT
ENERGY IN ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
| The Unit of Power is Watts.

| Power delivered by
ideal real
a battery

| Powered dissipated If V and R
are g
given
across a resistor
i t
If I and R are given

Example:
1. A 12-Ω resistor carries a current of 3 A. Find the power
dissipated in this resistor.

2. A wire of resistance 5 Ω carries a current of 3A for 6s.
(a) How much power is put into the wire? (45W)
(b) How much thermal energy is produced? (270 J)
EXAMPLE:
| An 11-Ω resistor is connected across a battery
y of
emf 6V and internal resistance 1 Ω.

| Find the following
(a) The current
(b) The terminal voltageg of the batteryy
(c) The power delivered by the emf source
(d) The power delivered to the external resistor
(e) The
Th power dissipated
di i t d by b the
th bbattery’s
tt ’ iinternal
t l
resistance
(f) If the battery is rated at 150 A•h, how much
energy does it store?
COMBINATIONS OF RESISTORS
| Resistors are also known as “Loads”

SERIES PARALLEL
RESISTORS IN SERIES oYou can replace R1
and R2 with a single
g
resistor with a
resistance Req.

oFor series
Req connection, the
current is
i the
h same
across each capacitor
but there is a
potential drop across
each resistor!
RESISTORS IN PARALLEL | You can replace R1 and
R2 with a resistor with
resistance Req.

| For parallel connection
the voltage across each
Req resistor is the same
but the current splits
along the junctions.
EXAMPLE:
For the circuit that appears below find the following:
a) I, I1 and I2
b) Req
c) Voltage drop across each resistor
1. Kirchhoff’s
Rules

CIRCUIIT ANA
2 RC
2.
Circuits

ALYSIIS
I2
KIRCHHOFF’S RULES
I1 I3
| Junction Rule:
y All currents in and all
currents out the I4 = I1+I2+I3
junction are equal I4
y Iin = Iout

| Loop Rule: Current I
Current, Loop direction
y In a single loop, all DROP GAIN
voltage gain is equal to
all voltage drop
y Vgain = Vdrop
y It is important to take Loop Direction
note of the loop
direction GAIN DROP
ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS
| 1 Si
1. Single
l Loop
L | 2 M
2. Multiloop
l il Circuits
Ci i

y Find the current in this y Find the currents I1, I2,
circuit and I3.
MORE KIRCHHOFF’S
| Find all the currents through
g jjunction b
RC CIRCUITS
| Contains
C i a resistor
i and
da
capacitor.
| I flows in a single
direction but its
magnitude varies with
time.
| RC Circuit “charges”
g and
“discharges”

| For charging:
g g we p put in
the maximum amount of
charge possible in the
capacitor over a time
constant

| For discharging: we drain
the charge until it
it’ss value
is negligible!
CHARGING RC
| We assume that
W h theh
capacitor is initially
uncharged.
g

| Charge will increase in
the capacitor, however,
current decreases.

| Charge in the capacitor
at some time later, will
reach its maximum Qf is the maximum charge
that can be stored in a
value of Q = Cξ when capacitor
the current I equals
zero. I0 is the initial current in
the circuit
DISCHARGING RC
| Discharge happens
because when the switch
is closed at t = 0, there is
a potential drop across
the resistor, meaning
there is current in it.

| After some time,
Af i the
h
charge on the capacitor is
reduced, hence the
current is also reduced!
(Why is this happening?)

| This happens
pp again
g and
again, until at some time, Qo is the initial charge that
the charge and the is stored in a capacitor
current are both
negligible hence I0 is the initial current in
“discharged” the circuit
EXAMPLES:
| 1. An uncharged capacitor
and a resistor are connected
in series to a battery. If ξ =
12 0 V
12.0 V, C = 5.00
5 00 μF,
μF and R =
8.00 x 105 Ω, find the time
constant of the circuit, the
maximum charge on the
capacitor,
it and d the
th
maximum current in the
circuit.

| 2. Consider a capacitor of
capacitance C that is being
discharged through a
resistor of resistance R, as
shown in the figure. After
how many time constants is
th charge
the h g on th the capacitor
it
one-fourth its initial value?