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You are on page 1of 55

The Storage of

Electric Energy

PARALLEL PLATE

CAPACITORS

Outline Objectives

**y 1. Capacitors and y At the end of this chapter, you
**

should be able to:

Capacitance

y 2 The

2. Th Combination

C bi i off y 1. Explain how electrostatic

Capacitors energy is stored;

y 3. Energy Storage in y 2. Define capacitance;

Capacitors y 3. Define a dielectric and

explain how dielectrics affect

y 4. Capacitors and the energy stored in a

capacitor; and

Dielectrics

y 4. Solve problems involving

capacitors.

Chapter Two

The First of Three

y The Capacitor is one

of the three simple

circuit elements that

can be connected with

wires to form an

electric circuit!

y Capacitors have

varietyy of uses, ranging

g g

from: radio fine tuner

circuits to camera

flashes to defibrillators

y Capacitor

◦ is a system

y composed

p

1. Definittion of Capacitancce

of two conductors

(plates) with equal

and opposite

pp charges

g

on them!

y ΔV

◦ exists between the

plates because of the

f ld between

field b them

h

y Question???:

Experiment shows that

◦ What determines the the amount Q is

amount of charge Q proportional to ΔV!

on the

th plates

l t att a

given V?

D fi iti

Definition S

Some

of Caapacittancee

Unit

of C Notes

Amount of Charge

Stored in a given The Farad Always positive

Potential

**Does not actuallyy
**

I. Deefinition o

depend on the

C = Q/ΔV 1 F = 1C/1V

charge or potential,

but on the geometry.

C is

The Farad is a large

Proportionality

unit!

Constant

y Initially there are no charges

at the plates.

**y After making the connection,
**

charging happens.

W k?

w Capacittors Work

**y Let us focus on the negative
**

plate

◦ Charging Stops if the wire,

wire plate,

plate

and terminal are all at the same

potential!

**y The positive plate also
**

experiences a similar

phenomenon!

**y In the final configuration the
**

potential difference between

the plates is the same as the

How

battery!

y A capacitor stores charge

h Q at a potentiall

difference ΔV. If the voltage applied by a

battery to the capacitor is doubled to 2ΔV,

y ( ) the capacitance

(a) p falls to half its initial value

and the charge remains the same

(b) the capacitance and the charge both fall

oint 22.1

y

to half their initial values

y (c) the capacitance and the charge both

double

Cheeckpo

**y (d) the capacitance remains the same and
**

the charge doubles.

1. Thhe Capacitaance of Caapacittors y Parallel Plate Capacitors

◦ Th

The Capacitance

C i off PP is

i

related only to the area A of

the plates and the separation

distance d between them!

y Many computer keyboard

buttons are constructed of

capacitors, as shown in the

Figure. When a key is pushed

down, the soft insulator

between the movable plate

and the fixed plate is

compressed.

p When the keyy

is pressed, the capacitance

oint 22.2

y (a) increases,

increases

y (b) decreases, or

y ((c)) changes

g in a wayy that we

Cheeckpo

**cannot determine because
**

the complicated electric

circuit connected to the

keyboard button may cause

a change in ΔV.

y A parallel-plate capacitor with air between

the

h plates

l has

h an area A = 2.00

2 00 x10

10-44 m2 andd

a plate separation d = 1.00 mm.

y Find its capacitance.

y Ans: 1.77 pF

mple 1

Exam

ors

1. Caapacitancce of Capaacito y Cylindrical Capacitors (Coaxial)

**L is length of the conductors, b is
**

outer radius and a is inner radius

y Spherical Capacitors (Concentric)

**a is inner radius, b is outer radius. If b→ ∞ then we
**

have an isolated conductor with a new capacitance

1. An isolated spherical capacitor has a

capacitance of 1F.

1F Calculate the radius of

C citors

the spherical capacitor.

mple: Othher Capac

**2. You bought a 1-m coaxial cable for your
**

TVR If it

TVR. it’ss indicated that the outer radius is

2mm and the capacitance is 2μF, find the

inner radius of the coaxial cable.

3

3. Your laboratory instructor asked you to

create a spherical capacitor with

p

capacitance 12 ppF. The instructor ggave you

y

Exam

**a solid sphere of radius 2.4mm, what should
**

be the diameter of the shell enclosure?

Capaacitorrs as Circuuit Eleemennts y As mentioned

earlier

li iin the

h

chapter, capacitors

are usedd in

i electric

l i

circuits.

y In circuit analysis, we

study pictorial

representations of

circuits known as

circuit diagrams

2 Combinations of Capacitors

2.

y There are two types

yp y It’s series if the

of circuit element elements are

combination: connected from end-

to-end.

A. Series

B. Parallel y It’s parallel if the

elements are

connected at

common ends.

With parallel: the

capacitors are at a The equivalent

common potential! capacitance is Ceq

which is the sum of

C binatiion

the individual

capacitances

Parallel Comb

2.1 P

**The individual charges can be
**

found by QN = CNΔV

With series: the same charge Q

is stored among all the capacitors!

**The equivalent capacitance can be
**

on

**found byy takingg the reciprocal
**

p of the

natio

**sum of the reciprocal capacitances.
**

ombin

2.2 SSeriees Co

The individual

voltage across each

capacitor can be

found by

ΔVN = Q/CN

Exam

mple: Seriies

ies--P

Paralleel!

y In eeach circuit, ffind the equiivalentt

capaacitancce andd the chargess storeed

in eeach caapacito

or!

V = 18 Volts

Vab = 15 Volts

0) y Find the equivalent capacitance. Note that

each

h capacitor

i has

h theh same capacitance.

i

2 sheeet, 110/10

QUIIZ #55 (1/2

3. Electro

ostattic Fieeld Energ

E gy

3. Electro

ostattic Fieeld Energ

E gy

E gy Figure to the right

shows the linear

ostattic Fieeld Energ

relationship between

Q and ΔV.

**The Energy U can be
**

computed by taking

the area under the

curve!

**The energy density uE
**

3. Electro

(Energy/Volume)

◦ This is the energy that

is stored in an electric

field, regardless of the

configuration!

You have three capacitors and a battery. In

which

hi h off the

h ffollowing

ll i combinations

bi i off the

h

three capacitors will the maximum possible

energy beb stored d when

h the

h combination

bi i is i

attached to the battery?

(a) series

oint 22.3

(b) parallel

(c) Both combinations will store the same

amount of energy. gy

Cheeckpo

**Ans: (b) for a given voltage,
**

voltage capacitances add up

when in parallel and U = ½ C(ΔV)2

You charge a parallel-plate capacitor, remove it

from the battery, and prevent the wires

connected to the plates from touching each

other. When you pull the plates apart to a larger

separation do the following quantities increase,

separation, increase

decrease, or stay the same?

((a)) C;;

(b) Q;

oint 22.4

**(c) E between the plates;
**

(d) ΔV

(e) Energy stored (U) in the capacitor.

Cheeckpo

**Ans: C decreases, Q stays the same, E remains
**

constant,V increases, U increases because U =

½ QΔV

ors y Dielectrics are

insulators!

4. Dielecctrics and Cappacito

◦ Some examples of

dielectrics are air, paper,

wax rubber,

wax, rubber and glass

glass.

◦ Characterized by the

dielectric constant κ

(>1) which modifies

the permittivity of free

space ε0!

y “When dielectrics

occupy the space

between the plates of

a capacitor, the

capacitance

increases!”

y WARNING!

◦ Before analyzing and solving for the effect of the dielectric on electrical

The Effecct off the Batteery!

properties such as charge and potential… we have to ask…

**“IS THE CAPACITOR CONNECTED TO A
**

BATTERY?”

CASE 1:

If it was connected then removed before dielectric was inserted!

• The charge on the capacitor remain the same

CASE 2:

If it remains connected when the dielectric was connected

• The voltage across the capacitor remains the same

Inserrting a dielectric into

oa

chargged capaci

c itor!

When the dielectric is

inserted, the charge

remains the same, voltage

oa

drops by:

Inserrting a dielectric into

itor!

**If voltage drops, then
**

capacitance

p increases

chargged capaci

by:

c

or is When the dielectric is

inserted, the voltage

Insertiing the dielecttric while the ccapacito

**remains the same, to
**

accomplish this battery

must supply additional

charge

h so charge

h

increases by:

he batteery

If chargeg increases on

onnecteed to th

the plates,

capacitance also

increases by:

still co

y 1. A capacitor is to be constructed by making circular

parallel plates (radius 1cm) and with separation of

2.5mm with a paper dielectric between the plates (κ

= 3.7). Find the capacitance of this capacitor.

**y 2. A 10nF capacitor is charged with a 12V battery.
**

After fully charging the capacitor,

capacitor the battery was

removed and a dielectric (κ = 2) was inserted

between the plates of the capacitor. Find the

f ll i ((a)) iinitial

following: i i l and

d fifinall charges,

h (b) final

fi l voltage,

l

(c) final capacitance

mples:

**y 3. A 4.7nF capacitor is charged with a 9V battery.
**

Then a glass dielectric was inserted between the

Exam

**plates of the capacitor. Find the following: (a) initial
**

and final charges, (b) final voltage, (c) final capacitance

CHAPTTER TH

This Chapter is

divided into two

parts:

CIRCUIT

ELEMENTS

HREE: D

1.Resistors

2. Batteries

3. Combination of

DIRECT C

Resistors

DC CIRCUITS

1

1. Analysis

CURREN

2. RC Circuits

NT CIRC

CUITS

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

| 1. Define steadyy state currents and its relation to

a material’s resistance.

| 2. Relate voltage, current and resistance of

resistors.

i t

| 3. Differentiate a real from an ideal battery and

monitor the energies of the circuital parameters

| 4. Compute for the equivalent resistance of a

network of resistors

| 5. Analyze Direct Current Circuits using

Kirchhoff’s Rules.

| 6.

6 Analyze the behavior of RC Circuits.

Circuits

1. Electric

Current

2. Resistance

and

Resistors:

CIRCUITT ELEM

Ohm’s Law

3. EMF Sources:

Real and

Ideal

B tt i

Batteries

4. Combination

of Resistors

MENTTS

5. Energy in

Electric

Circuits

ELECTRIC CURRENT

| IIs the

h rate off flow

fl off charges

h

per unit time

**| SI Unit: Ampere (A) after
**

Andre Marie Ampere

p

| 1 A = 1C/1s

**| The direction of current is
**

the direction of flow of

positive charges

| Many types:

1. Electron in Hydrogen

Atom

2. Electron Beam in Cathode

Ray Tubes in TV’s

3. Electricity in Wires

ELECTRIC CURRENT AND THE ELECTRIC

FIELD

I

| Since the

direction of

current is the

direction of

E

flow of positive

charges: OHM’s LAW:

**Current is related to the Electric
**

| The direction of Field via the conductivity σ of the

and cross sectional area A of the

the electric material:

field is in the

same direction

as the electric

current!

ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE

| When a current High V Low V

passes through a

material it I

encounters a

potential drop! E

**| This potential drop
**

is related to the

current via the

Ohm’s Relation!

Ohmic

Non

| R is the Oh i

Ohmic

proportionality

constant called

“RESISTANCE OF

THE MATERIAL”

ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE AND

RESISTIVITY

| The Unit for Electrical

R i

Resistance iis the

h Ohm

Oh (Ω)

( )

after Georg Ohm

ρ iss tthe

e resistivity

es st v ty oof tthe

e

| Just lik

J like capacitance,

i material in (Ω -m), L is the

resistance is not dependent length (m) and A(m2) is the cross

on V or I, it’s dependent on sectional area of the material!

the geometry and the kind

of material we have.

Examples:

**A Nichrome wire ( ρ=10-6 Ω-m) has a radius of 0.65mm. What length
**

of wire is needed to obtain a resistance of 2.0 Ω)?

RESISTANCE AND RESISTORS

Schematic Symbol for Resistors

| Resistors are devices

that provide resistance

in a circuit.

**| Resistors and the
**

resistance they carry

have many purposes

and applications in a

variety circuits.

circuits

(ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE)

EMF SOURCES

| An emf source is a device

th t elevates

that l t ththe

potential of a charge

across its terminal. Positive Terminal

**| The potential gain is the
**

emf of the battery!

**| It serves as the source or
**

the pump of current in

the circuit!

**| A very good example of
**

emf source is the

b

battery!

! +

Negative Terminal

REAL AND IDEAL BATTERIES

| The distinction

Th di i i

between an ideal and

real battery

y is in their

terminal voltages (TV).

| Ideal Battery:

**| Real Battery: (Ideal
**

yp

Battery plus a small

internal resistance r)

IDEAL REAL

BATTERIES…

Rate and

Energy Stored:

| Thus,, the TV of

a real battery is

always less than

an EMF.

EMF

Rate:

1 Ah = 3600 C

| Malfunctioning

batteries have

very large

internal Totall Energy

T E

resistances. Stored

W = Qξξ

ANALYZING A BASIC CIRCUIT

ENERGY IN ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

| The Unit of Power is Watts.

| Power delivered by

ideal real

a battery

**| Powered dissipated If V and R
**

are g

given

across a resistor

i t

If I and R are given

Example:

1. A 12-Ω resistor carries a current of 3 A. Find the power

dissipated in this resistor.

**2. A wire of resistance 5 Ω carries a current of 3A for 6s.
**

(a) How much power is put into the wire? (45W)

(b) How much thermal energy is produced? (270 J)

EXAMPLE:

| An 11-Ω resistor is connected across a battery

y of

emf 6V and internal resistance 1 Ω.

**| Find the following
**

(a) The current

(b) The terminal voltageg of the batteryy

(c) The power delivered by the emf source

(d) The power delivered to the external resistor

(e) The

Th power dissipated

di i t d by b the

th bbattery’s

tt ’ iinternal

t l

resistance

(f) If the battery is rated at 150 A•h, how much

energy does it store?

COMBINATIONS OF RESISTORS

| Resistors are also known as “Loads”

SERIES PARALLEL

RESISTORS IN SERIES oYou can replace R1

and R2 with a single

g

resistor with a

resistance Req.

oFor series

Req connection, the

current is

i the

h same

across each capacitor

but there is a

potential drop across

each resistor!

RESISTORS IN PARALLEL | You can replace R1 and

R2 with a resistor with

resistance Req.

**| For parallel connection
**

the voltage across each

Req resistor is the same

but the current splits

along the junctions.

EXAMPLE:

For the circuit that appears below find the following:

a) I, I1 and I2

b) Req

c) Voltage drop across each resistor

1. Kirchhoff’s

Rules

CIRCUIIT ANA

2 RC

2.

Circuits

ALYSIIS

I2

KIRCHHOFF’S RULES

I1 I3

| Junction Rule:

y All currents in and all

currents out the I4 = I1+I2+I3

junction are equal I4

y Iin = Iout

**| Loop Rule: Current I
**

Current, Loop direction

y In a single loop, all DROP GAIN

voltage gain is equal to

all voltage drop

y Vgain = Vdrop

y It is important to take Loop Direction

note of the loop

direction GAIN DROP

ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS

| 1 Si

1. Single

l Loop

L | 2 M

2. Multiloop

l il Circuits

Ci i

**y Find the current in this y Find the currents I1, I2,
**

circuit and I3.

MORE KIRCHHOFF’S

| Find all the currents through

g jjunction b

RC CIRCUITS

| Contains

C i a resistor

i and

da

capacitor.

| I flows in a single

direction but its

magnitude varies with

time.

| RC Circuit “charges”

g and

“discharges”

| For charging:

g g we p put in

the maximum amount of

charge possible in the

capacitor over a time

constant

**| For discharging: we drain
**

the charge until it

it’ss value

is negligible!

CHARGING RC

| We assume that

W h theh

capacitor is initially

uncharged.

g

**| Charge will increase in
**

the capacitor, however,

current decreases.

**| Charge in the capacitor
**

at some time later, will

reach its maximum Qf is the maximum charge

that can be stored in a

value of Q = Cξ when capacitor

the current I equals

zero. I0 is the initial current in

the circuit

DISCHARGING RC

| Discharge happens

because when the switch

is closed at t = 0, there is

a potential drop across

the resistor, meaning

there is current in it.

**| After some time,
**

Af i the

h

charge on the capacitor is

reduced, hence the

current is also reduced!

(Why is this happening?)

| This happens

pp again

g and

again, until at some time, Qo is the initial charge that

the charge and the is stored in a capacitor

current are both

negligible hence I0 is the initial current in

“discharged” the circuit

EXAMPLES:

| 1. An uncharged capacitor

and a resistor are connected

in series to a battery. If ξ =

12 0 V

12.0 V, C = 5.00

5 00 μF,

μF and R =

8.00 x 105 Ω, find the time

constant of the circuit, the

maximum charge on the

capacitor,

it and d the

th

maximum current in the

circuit.

| 2. Consider a capacitor of

capacitance C that is being

discharged through a

resistor of resistance R, as

shown in the figure. After

how many time constants is

th charge

the h g on th the capacitor

it

one-fourth its initial value?

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