CAPACITANCE and The Storage of Electric Energy




1. Capacitors and Capacitance 2. The C bi i 2 Th Combination of f Capacitors 3. Energy Storage in Capacitors 4. Capacitors and Dielectrics

At the end of this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain how electrostatic energy is stored; 2. Define capacitance; 3. Define a dielectric and explain how dielectrics affect the energy stored in a capacitor; and 4. Solve problems involving capacitors.

Chapter Two

The First of Three
The Capacitor is one of the three simple circuit elements that can be connected with wires to form an electric circuit! Capacitors have variety of uses, ranging y gg from: radio fine tuner circuits to camera flashes to defibrillators


1. Definit tion of Capacitanc ce

◦ is a system composed y p of two conductors (plates) with equal and opposite charges pp g on them!


◦ exists between the plates because of the field b f ld between them h


◦ What determines the amount of charge Q on th plates at a the l t t given V?

Experiment shows that the amount Q is proportional to ΔV!

I. De efinition of Ca o apacit e tance

D fi iti Definition of C
Amount of Charge Stored in a given Potential

The Farad

S Some Notes
Always positive

C = Q/ΔV

1 F = 1C/1V

Does not actually y depend on the charge or potential, but on the geometry.

The Farad is a large unit!

C is Proportionality Constant

Initially there are no charges at the plates. After making the connection, charging happens. Let us focus on the negative plate
◦ Charging Stops if the wire plate, wire, plate and terminal are all at the same potential!

How Capacit Work w tors W k?

The positive plate also experiences a similar phenomenon! In the final configuration the potential difference between the plates is the same as the battery!

A capacitor stores charge Q at a potentiall h difference ΔV. If the voltage applied by a battery to the capacitor is doubled to 2ΔV, () (a) the capacitance falls to half its initial value p and the charge remains the same (b) the capacitance and the charge both fall to half their initial values (c) the capacitance and the charge both double (d) the capacitance remains the same and the charge doubles.

Che oint 2.1 eckpo 2

1. Th Capacita he ance of Ca apacit tors

Parallel Plate Capacitors
◦ Th Capacitance of PP is The C i f i related only to the area A of the plates and the separation distance d between them!

Many computer keyboard buttons are constructed of capacitors, as shown in the Figure. When a key is pushed down, the soft insulator between the movable plate and the fixed plate is compressed. When the key p y is pressed, the capacitance

Che oint 2.2 eckpo 2

(a) increases increases, (b) decreases, or () (c) changes in a way that we g y cannot determine because the complicated electric circuit connected to the keyboard button may cause a change in ΔV.

A parallel-plate capacitor with air between the plates has an area A = 2 00 x10-4 m2 and hl h 2.00 10 4 d a plate separation d = 1.00 mm. Find its capacitance. Ans: 1.77 pF

Exam 1 mple

1. Ca itanc of Capa ors apac ce acito

Cylindrical Capacitors (Coaxial)

L is length of the conductors, b is outer radius and a is inner radius

Spherical Capacitors (Concentric)
a is inner radius, b is outer radius. If b→ ∞ then we have an isolated conductor with a new capacitance


Exam : Oth Capac mple her C citors

An isolated spherical capacitor has a capacitance of 1F. Calculate the radius of 1F the spherical capacitor. You bought a 1-m coaxial cable for your TVR. it’s TVR If it s indicated that the outer radius is 2mm and the capacitance is 2μF, find the inner radius of the coaxial cable. Your laboratory instructor asked you to create a spherical capacitor with p p g y capacitance 12 pF. The instructor gave you a solid sphere of radius 2.4mm, what should be the diameter of the shell enclosure?


3. 3

Capa acitor as Circu Ele nts rs uit emen

As mentioned earlier i the li in h chapter, capacitors are used in electric di l i circuits. In circuit analysis, we study pictorial representations of circuits known as circuit diagrams

2. 2 Combinations of Capacitors
There are two types yp of circuit element combination:
A. B.

It’s series if the elements are connected from endto-end. It’s parallel if the elements are connected at common ends.

Series Parallel

With parallel: the capacitors are at a common potential!

2.1 Parallel Comb ion P C binati

The equivalent capacitance is Ceq which is the sum of the individual capacitances

The individual charges can be found by QN = CNΔV

With series: the same charge Q is stored among all the capacitors!

2.2 Serie Co natio S es ombin on

The equivalent capacitance can be found by taking the reciprocal of the y g p sum of the reciprocal capacitances.

The individual voltage across each capacitor can be found by ΔVN = Q/CN

Exam : Seri -Paralle mple iesies P el!
In each circuit, find the equi e f ivalent t capa acitanc and the charges store ce d s ed in each ca e apacito or!
V = 18 Volts

Vab = 15 Volts

QUI #5 (1/2 she 10/10 IZ 5 2 eet, 1 0)

Find the equivalent capacitance. Note that each capacitor has the same capacitance. h i hh i

3. Electro tic Fie Energ ostat eld E gy

3. Electro tic Fie Energ ostat eld E gy

3. Electro tic Fie Energ ostat eld E gy

Figure to the right shows the linear relationship between Q and ΔV. The Energy U can be computed by taking the area under the curve! The energy density uE (Energy/Volume)
◦ This is the energy that is stored in an electric field, regardless of the configuration!

Che oint 2.3 eckpo 2

You have three capacitors and a battery. In which of the f ll i combinations of the hi h f h following bi i fh three capacitors will the maximum possible energy b stored when the combination is be dh h bi i i attached to the battery? (a) series (b) parallel (c) Both combinations will store the same gy amount of energy. Ans: (b) for a given voltage, capacitances add up voltage when in parallel and U = ½ C(ΔV)2

Che oint 2.4 eckpo 2

You charge a parallel-plate capacitor, remove it from the battery, and prevent the wires connected to the plates from touching each other. When you pull the plates apart to a larger separation, separation do the following quantities increase, increase decrease, or stay the same? () ; (a) C; (b) Q; (c) E between the plates; (d) ΔV (e) Energy stored (U) in the capacitor. Ans: C decreases, Q stays the same, E remains constant,V increases, U increases because U = ½ QΔV

4. Dielec ctrics and Cap ors pacito

Dielectrics are insulators!

◦ Some examples of dielectrics are air, paper, wax, rubber wax rubber, and glass glass. ◦ Characterized by the dielectric constant κ (>1) which modifies the permittivity of free space ε0!

“When dielectrics occupy the space between the plates of a capacitor, the

capacitance increases!”


The Effec of the Batte ery! ct f

◦ Before analyzing and solving for the effect of the dielectric on electrical properties such as charge and potential… we have to ask…

CASE 1: If it was connected then removed before dielectric was inserted!
• The charge on the capacitor remain the same

CASE 2: If it remains connected when the dielectric was connected
• The voltage across the capacitor remains the same

Inser rting a dielectric into a o charg capaci ged c itor!

Inser rting a dielectric into a o charg capaci ged c itor!

When the dielectric is inserted, the charge remains the same, voltage drops by:

If voltage drops, then capacitance increases p by:

Inserti the dielect while the capacito is ing tric c or still co onnecte to th batte ed he ery

When the dielectric is inserted, the voltage remains the same, to accomplish this battery must supply additional charge so charge h h increases by:

g If charge increases on the plates, capacitance also increases by:

1. A capacitor is to be constructed by making circular parallel plates (radius 1cm) and with separation of 2.5mm with a paper dielectric between the plates (κ = 3.7). Find the capacitance of this capacitor. 2. A 10nF capacitor is charged with a 12V battery. After fully charging the capacitor, the battery was capacitor removed and a dielectric (κ = 2) was inserted between the plates of the capacitor. Find the following: (a) initial d final h f ll i ( ) i i i l and fi l charges, (b) final voltage, fi l l (c) final capacitance

Exam s: mple

3. A 4.7nF capacitor is charged with a 9V battery. Then a glass dielectric was inserted between the plates of the capacitor. Find the following: (a) initial and final charges, (b) final voltage, (c) final capacitance


This Chapter is divided into two parts: CIRCUIT ELEMENTS 1.Resistors 2. Batteries 3. Combination of Resistors DC CIRCUITS
1. 1 2.

Analysis RC Circuits

1. Define steady state currents and its relation to y a material’s resistance. 2. Relate voltage, current and resistance of resistors. it 3. Differentiate a real from an ideal battery and monitor the energies of the circuital parameters 4. Compute for the equivalent resistance of a network of resistors 5. Analyze Direct Current Circuits using Kirchhoff’s Rules. 6. 6 Analyze the behavior of RC Circuits. Circuits


Electric Current Resistance and Resistors: Ohm’s Law EMF Sources: Real and Ideal Batteries B tt i Combination of Resistors Energy in Electric Circuits






Is h I the rate of flow of charges f fl fh per unit time

SI Unit: Ampere (A) after Andre Marie Ampere p 1 A = 1C/1s The direction of current is the direction of flow of positive charges Many types:
1. 2. 3.

Electron in Hydrogen Atom Electron Beam in Cathode Ray Tubes in TV’s Electricity in Wires

Since the direction of current is the direction of flow of positive charges: The direction of the electric field is in the same direction as the electric current!


OHM’s LAW: Current is related to the Electric Field via the conductivity σ of the and cross sectional area A of the material:

When a current passes through a material it encounters a potential drop! This potential drop is related to the current via the Ohm’s Relation! R is the proportionality constant called “RESISTANCE OF RESISTANCE
High V Low V I E

Ohmic Non Ohmic Oh i


The Unit for Electrical Resistance i the Ohm (Ω) Ri is h Oh ( ) after Georg Ohm Just lik capacitance, J like i resistance is not dependent on V or I, it’s dependent on the geometry and the kind of material we have.
Examples: A Nichrome wire ( ρ=10-6 Ω-m) has a radius of 0.65mm. What length of wire is needed to obtain a resistance of 2.0 Ω)? ρ is the resistivity of t e s t e es st v ty o the material in (Ω -m), L is the length (m) and A(m2) is the cross sectional area of the material!

Schematic Symbol for Resistors

Resistors are devices that provide resistance in a circuit. Resistors and the resistance they carry have many purposes and applications in a variety circuits circuits.

An emf source is a device that l th t elevates th t the potential of a charge across its terminal. The potential gain is the emf of the battery! It serves as the source or the pump of current in the circuit! A very good example of emf source is the battery! b !

Positive Terminal

Negative Terminal

The di i i Th distinction between an ideal and real battery is in their y terminal voltages (TV). Ideal Battery:

Real Battery: (Ideal y plus a small Battery p internal resistance r)

Thus, the TV of , a real battery is always less than an EMF EMF. Malfunctioning batteries have very large internal resistances.
Rate and Energy Stored:

Rate: 1 Ah = 3600 C

Total E T l Energy Stored W = Qξ ξ


The Unit of Power is Watts.

Power delivered by a battery



Powered dissipated across a resistor it

If V and R g are given If I and R are given

Example: 1. A 12-Ω resistor carries a current of 3 A. Find the power dissipated in this resistor. 2. A wire of resistance 5 Ω carries a current of 3A for 6s. (a) How much power is put into the wire? (45W) (b) How much thermal energy is produced? (270 J)

An 11-Ω resistor is connected across a battery of y emf 6V and internal resistance 1 Ω. Find the following (a) The current (b) The terminal voltage of the battery g y (c) The power delivered by the emf source (d) The power delivered to the external resistor (e) Th power dissipated by the b tt The di i t d b th battery’s i t ’ internal l resistance (f) If the battery is rated at 150 A•h, how much energy does it store?

Resistors are also known as “Loads”




oYou can replace R1 and R2 with a single g resistor with a resistance Req. oFor series connection, the current i the same is h across each capacitor but there is a potential drop across each resistor!



You can replace R1 and R2 with a resistor with resistance Req. For parallel connection the voltage across each resistor is the same but the current splits along the junctions.


For the circuit that appears below find the following: a) I, I1 and I2 b) Req c) Voltage drop across each resistor

1. Kirchhoff’s



2. 2 RC



I2 I3

Junction Rule:
All currents in and all currents out the junction are equal Iin = Iout
I4 = I1+I2+I3 I4

Loop Rule:
In a single loop, all voltage gain is equal to all voltage drop Vgain = Vdrop It is important to take note of the loop direction

Current, Current I

Loop direction DROP GAIN

Loop Direction GAIN DROP

1. Single L 1 Si l Loop
Find the current in this circuit

2. Multiloop Circuits 2 M l il Ci i
Find the currents I1, I2, and I3.

Find all the currents through j g junction b

Contains a resistor and a C i i d capacitor. I flows in a single direction but its magnitude varies with time. RC Circuit “charges” and g “discharges” For charging: we p in gg put the maximum amount of charge possible in the capacitor over a time constant For discharging: we drain the charge until it s value it’s is negligible!

We W assume that the h h capacitor is initially uncharged. g Charge will increase in the capacitor, however, current decreases. Charge in the capacitor at some time later, will reach its maximum value of Q = Cξ when the current I equals zero.

Qf is the maximum charge that can be stored in a capacitor I0 is the initial current in the circuit

Discharge happens because when the switch is closed at t = 0, there is a potential drop across the resistor, meaning there is current in it. After some time, the Af i h charge on the capacitor is reduced, hence the current is also reduced! (Why is this happening?) This happens again and pp g again, until at some time, the charge and the current are both negligible hence “discharged”
Qo is the initial charge that is stored in a capacitor I0 is the initial current in the circuit

1. An uncharged capacitor and a resistor are connected in series to a battery. If ξ = 12.0 V, 12 0 V C = 5.00 μF and R = 5 00 μF, 8.00 x 105 Ω, find the time constant of the circuit, the maximum charge on the capacitor, and the it d th maximum current in the circuit. 2. Consider a capacitor of capacitance C that is being discharged through a resistor of resistance R, as shown in the figure. After how many time constants is the h g th charge on th capacitor the it one-fourth its initial value?

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