EGU 2011 3-8 April 2011, Viena, Austria

The Romanian littoral – coastal geomorphologic changes during the last half of Century (1961-2011); its impact on the coastal development and solutions for protection and rehabilitation
Mihaela Laurenta Alexandrov (1), Razvan Doru Mateescu (1), and the Razvan Doru Mateescu Team (1) 1N.I.M.R.D. “Grigore Antipa”, Blvd. Mamaia, no.300, Constanta, code 900581, ROMANIA, (2) University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography, Bd. Nicolae Balcescu no.1 Sector 1, code 010041, Bucharest

BLACK SEA BASIN
• • • • • • - Total area: 4.2 x 105 km2 - Total water volume: 547,015 km3

- Maximum depth: 2,212 m - Drainage basin: > 2 million km2 - Shoreline length: - Population: > 4,100 km

> 160 million people

- Riparian countries: 6 (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, Ukraine)

97 .1 0. coastal structures for protection . from Ucraina border to Midia and consist on shore with delats. of maximum high is ircca 35 m. at Bulgarian border). Southern unit (Cap Midia .2 6. recent shells sands. Represent 6% of total length of Black Sea shore Geographically is formed by:   Natural shore (beach and cliffs – circa 84%)  Artificial shore (ports.4 6. stretching on 170 km. The charactheristical zones of the shore are divided in two geomorphological units:    Northern unit (the Danube Delta and the Razim-Sinoe lagoon complex).. often less than 2m. and small beaches at basis Length OF COASTALINE PER UNIT OF LAND AREA (KM/1000SKM) JAPAN USA GERMANY ENGLAND FRANCE ITALY 91.Vama Veche. mostlly active. lagoons and levees. been formed of marine-river accretions.8 51.circa 16% ).2 17 CANADA KOREA ROMANIA 10 24.ROMANIAN COAST OF THE BLACK SEA  Over 244 km length (between Musura Branch si Vama Veche). with cliffs. desposed under shapes of beach and litoral belts with relativelow cota. it is a relative high shore. with a approximatelly length of 74 km.3 2.

MAIN THREATS in the Romanian coastal zone Coastal erosion / floods threatens most at: Northern sector: -Section between Sulina & St. • increasing land demand for tourism development • increasing land demand for industrialization close to urban centers • unplanned settlements . George and south of St. George Southern sector: • Mamaia • Constanta • Eforie Nord • Eforie Sud • Costinesti • Olimp to Mangalia Pollution caused by: • Non-point sources (agriculture) • Point-sources (ind.+ mun. waste water) • Potential water shortage in North of Constanta County Land use Potential land-use conflicts due to: • increasing land demand due to urban growth.

greenhouse effect gases. s.) Coastal floodings / Transport Over-Exploitation of fish stocks Habitats losing/Endangered species Population growth/ Urban expansion Uncontrolled development of touristic and recreation activities over th tourism carrying capacity (inefficient solid waste management) .ANTHROPOGENIC PRESURES on Romanian CZ zone: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Agriculture and food industry Marin Fishing Constructions/holiday houses Aerial transport/Airports Ports/Navigation Touristic Ports Shipyards Manufacture Industry Extractive Industry Nuclear Industry Petrochemical Industry /Oil-refineries Tourism and recreation Military and Defence Activities (inland/marine) Rapid devlopment of different socio-economic activities within natural space of the c • Environmental problems induced by anthropogenic factor. identified in the Roma coastal zone. are the following: • • • • • • • Coastal Erosion/Unbalanced Sediment situation • Natural resources extraction/beach sand Water pollution /air (hydrocarbons.a.

COASTAL FLOODINGS .

247 (1961-1996) Sediment Discharge Rs (Kg/s) 2000 Iron Gates II y = 0.105108 R2 = 0.the sequential. superposed. redundant development of the hard coastal protection construction 3000 Danube Sediment Discharge at Vadu Oii hydrographic station Km. 1992) LEGEND Natural sites • .0897x3 .the development coastal erosion main river courses.Main Causes of Coastal Erosion The human interventions on ecological value under Romanian Shore: Natural sites with high the influence of of the hydrotehnical works on the • .563x + 51386 R2 = 0. having as effect the decreasing of solid discharge of Danube river with more than 5070% (Bondar et al.831x + 57755 R2 = 0.7E+08 R2 = 0.4908 y = -25.532.the extension of the navigation jetties and port Area in hectares 5000 2000 500 breakwaters having as effect the deviation of coastal 0 sediments drift through distancing/separation of their discharging point in the sea. • .2977 0 .285x .7382 1500 1000 y = 54.1492 500 Iron Gates I 2500 y = -28.18x2 + 1E+06x .

SHORELINE CHANGES The Northern Unit AFP-very strong accretion AP-strong accretion AM-medium accretion AS.00 Sulina Radare Canal So nda Lacul Ro su 1962-2003 EROSION = 78% DYNAMIC STABILITY= 6% ACCRETION = 22% Casla Vadanei No rd Sf Gheo rghe Sf. <-325. +126÷+225. -26÷-125.1÷-35. -126÷-225 -226÷-325. Chituc-Vadu Vadu . -15.1.00 -500. +5÷-5. +25÷-25. <-35. Sud Gura P o rtitei Far P o rtita No rd P eribo ina P eribo ina Edighio l Gr Chituc AS 19% ES 20 % SR 17% Graniceri A FP AP AM AS SR ES EM EP EFP Gr.00 0.00 500. Gheo rghe Cio tica SR 6% Eroziune Acretiune Zato nul M ic EP 11% EM 32% ES 17% Plaje Faleze Activitãti industriale si porturi Statiuni litorale Facilitãti turistice si recreationale Zato nul M are AFP AP AM AS SR ES EM EP EFP Rezervatia Biosferei Delta Dunãrii Zone de pescuit litoral Sisteme de protectie a tãrmului Sections (1km) P eriso r P eriteasca EVOLUTIA LINIEI TARMULUI ROMANESC AL MARII NEGRE The Southern Unit AFP-very strong accretion AP-strong accretion >+35m. A FP EFP 11% 2% AP 4% AM 9% AS 8% Shoreline changes 1962-2007 Sulina-Vadu Erosion/Accretion (m) -1000. -5. Institutul National de Cercetare-Dezvoltare Marinã “Grigore Antipa” Constanta 1981-2003 EROSION = 42% DYNAMIC STABILITY = 18% ACRETIUNE = 40% EFP EP 10 % EM 7% 10 % AFP 3% AP 7% AM 7% No rd Gura P o rtitei EROSION ACCRETION AM-medium accretion AS-low accretion SR-dynamic stability ES-low erosion EM-medium erosion EP-strong erosion EFP-very strong erosion +25÷+15.1÷-25 -25. +26÷+125.low accretion SR-dynamic stability ES-low erosion EM-medium erosion EP-strong erosion EFP-very strong erosion >+325m.1÷-15. +35÷+25.1.1. +226÷+325. +15÷+5.

2009. 2007.SHORELINE MAPPING • GPS measurements Sand-belt closing Musura bay: 2010. 2002 . 2008.

Gheo rghe Cio tica Zato nul M ic Zato nul M are Sections (1km) P eriso r P eriteasca No rd Gura P o rtitei Sud Gura P o rtitei Far P o rtita No rd P eribo ina P eribo ina Edighio l Gr Chituc Graniceri Gr.00 500.00 0.SHORELINE MAPPING .00 Sulina Radare Canal So nda Lacul Ro su Casla Vadanei No rd Sf Gheo rghe Sf.00 -500.cont Shoreline changes 1962-2007 Sulina-Vadu Erosion/Accretion (m) -1000. Chituc-Vadu Vadu .

COASTAL DELINEATION STUDIES: boundaries issues/setbaks GIS Support for Experimental research on the wave run-up .

ASSESSMENT OF COASTAL EROSION / VULNERABILITY  Shoreline position • Beach width • Distance from infrastructure Beach Volume  Temporal change • Accretion or erosion? • How long until • Beach width? • Beach volume? •Infrastructure/ecosystem compromised? .

Also.ACTUAL STATE OF SOUTHERN ROMANIAN LITTORAL The shore of southern sector (Midia .1992). • The Venus . the groins state emphasized 45 % good stage. thus: • The southern sector of Mamaia resort was retreat with circa 50 m (1990-2003). • The area of Neptun Beach had registered more than 24 m loss(1981 . from the constructive point of view. due to absence of maintenance actions. • The northern area of Costinesti’s cliff ware retreat with more than 40m (19882002). • The International Camp Beach (Eforie Sud) was retreat with 50 m (1981 .Vama Veche) due to geological structure. as well as local hydrometeorological conditions were suffered an intense modifications.Saturn Beach was retreat with 36 m (1983 . . and mostly to the hard substrate of platform calcareous.1998).1992). 25 % medium stage of altering and 30 % accentuated stage of deterioration.

DAMAGING OF COASTAL PROTECTION WORKS • 2011 Mamaia Eforie Jupiter .

The implementation of soft solutions for coastal protection .

Marine Strategy Framework Directive: establishes a framework within which:  Member States shall take the necessary measures to achieve or maintain good environmental status in the marine environment by the year 2020 at the latest. pollution.60cm/century).Envisaged long term impacts of global Climate Change: . 3. 2.Increase of weather turbulence. .Accelerated Sea Level Rise (+/.Intensive use of resources: over. Population pressure & urbanization: relative high population growth in coastal areas and towns. coastal erosion. .Why ICZM in Romania? 1.Increase of salt water intrusion. .fishing.

Sulina Channel Sulina area Black Sea .

to introduce the ICZM process in the Black Sea coastal zones Black Sea Strategic Action Plan (BS SAP) (1996) The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas.INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS • • • • • • • • • • • • • Rio de Janeiro Declaration on Environment and Development with its ‘Agenda 21’(1992) The Bucharest Convention (1992 -on the protection of the Black Sea against pollution The Odessa Ministerial Declaration (1993) . UNCLOS Ramsar Convention European Landscape Convention Convention on access to information. EIA Convention MARPOL Convention Kyoto Protocol of United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change Recommendation of the Implementation of the Integrate Coastal Zone Management European Union and Council Parliament Water Framework Directives and European Daughters Directives CONVENTION / PROTOCOLS . public participation and access to justice in environmental matters (Aarhus Convention).

LEGAL FRAMEWORK for ICZM in ROMANIA Law on  Law Environmental Protection 137/1995 modified by law of Water 107/1996  Ministry Order  Law  Law  Law for the Methodologies on EIA 184/1997 on Spatial Protected Areas 5/2000 of Fishery 192/2001 on territorial planning and urbanism 488/2001 Law on Juridical Administration of the Maritime Waters 17/1993 and 36/2002  Government decision for approving the norms for discharging condition of the waste waters into the aquatic environment 188/2002  Emergency Ordinance of Government (UOG) on Integrated Coastal Zone Management 202/2002  Law for approval the UOG 202/2002 on ICZM 280/2003 .

guides and oversees the process of strategy development and strategy implementation (assisted by the Techncial Secretariat) .Approves any adjustment. update or new strategy for the coastal zone .Supervises the work done by the (strengthened) Technical Secretariat Technical Secretariat: – Carries out preparatory work and supports the NC in all relevant matters – Monitors the state of the coastal zone – Advises the National Committee Regional and Local Government Agencies: – Transpose the strategy into regional / local sector policies and plans – Implement the integrated sector policies and plans by using the instruments available through existing laws and regulations • • . co-ordinates.Facilitates.MAIN BODIES INVOLVED their roles and instruments • National Committee: .Approves the creation of Working or Expert Groups .

etc Trade & Commerce Agriculture Fisheries Tourism Industry .ICZM Strategy& Action Plan Institutional structure: National Committee.coastal zone law or development . Education.Institutional and legislative measures underlined in Coastal Law • • Specific legislation in course of updating . Working Groups &Technical Secretariat Technical Secretariat National Committee National ICZM Strategy National Level Working Group Working Group Working Group Strategic Monitoring & Control Local & Regional Level Territorial and Urban planning Integrated Water Resources Management Environmental Management & Nature Protection Local sector agencies Health.

licenses). Some important procedures are not clearly defined (e.g. A National stocktaking process is not established. expropriation. The involvement of coastal stakeholders is weak.of the Romanian ICZM law The WEAKNESSES methodology to set the geographical boundaries of the coastal public domain is not yet identified. Vertical integration is not completely developed. concessions. is centralized Planning .

the adoption and the optimisation of the conservationrehabilitation measures (including complementary soft protection methods) for the southern sector will have to include a better regional management of sediments transported by the Danube river into the coastal zone of the Danube Delta. recovery of beach surfaces with sedimentary deficit Developed monitoring-modeling-management systems/tools for flood control Changing the vision: redesign the polders/retention basins/levees Erosion control Floods control • • .Conclusions • • • Romanian coastal area is confronting with a significant issues toward European WFD/ICZM/MSPD’s Implementation and also: Implementation of the national coastal law/ICZM rules and regulations In the near future.

Conclusion – cont. and it is crucial to consider the ecosystem based practices for Romanian BSCZ . • Implementation of CZ/ICZM policies has great socioeconomic importance for coastal stakeholders and contributes to the CZ protection and management. • EU integrated MARITIME Spatial Planning/ICZM policy to supports the coastal delimitation/delineation policy and also contributes to the sustainable development of the CZ • The new setbaks limits&resettlement have an important role in CZ protection and management but it may create a further population/investment pressure in the Romanian BSCZ • The CZ’s ecological&physical condition: not optimal for the ecological integration.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION ! .