Oral Pathology & Microbiology lecture (3

Prepared by: Dr. Enas Hawari.

Immune system
• Immune system: Is responsible for providing resistance to communicable diseases.
• Communicable disease: Is caused by an infection that can be spread from person to person or through contact with body fluids.

• Immunity allows the body to resist disease and prevents foreign bodies from causing infection.

.• Immunity is classified into:  Naturally acquired immunity.  Artificially acquired immunity.

 Passive immunity. .Naturally acquired immunity • Occurs when a person has previously contracted a disease and recovered. • Two types of naturally acquired immunity:  Active immunity.

it formed antibodies that provide future resistance against that particular pathogen. .  It is called active because the body of the host is actively involved in the process.• Active immunity:  Occurs when the body was fighting the invading pathogen.

 It is called passive cause the antibodies are acquired from an outside source.  Also occurs when the mother breastfeeds the infant. .• Passive immunity:  Occurs during pregnancy when the fetus receives antibodies from the mother placenta.

Artificially acquired immunity • When the human body has not been exposed to a disease. . it has not developed antibodies and is completely defenseless against the disease. • Antibodies can be introduced into the body artificially by immunization or vaccination.

• A vaccine that contains a weakened disease-causing organisms is injected into the body. • Harmful characteristic of the disease are eliminated from the vaccine to make them less likely to cause disease. • The body then forms antibodies in response to the vaccine. . resulting in artificially acquired immunity.


. • It is important for the dental assistant to be able to recognize the difference between normal and abnormal conditions that appear in the mouth.Oral pathology • Is the study of disease in the oral cavity. • Only a dentist or a physician may diagnose disease conditions.

• Before you can recognize abnormal conditions in the mouth. • A dental assistant should understand the terms used to describe pathologic conditions. you must have a solid understanding of the appearance of the normal tissue. . so that you can communicate effectively with other professionals.

• To make an accurate diagnosis.Making a diagnosis • Making a diagnosis is much like putting a puzzle together – many pieces are necessary. • One piece of information alone is not enough to make a diagnosis. . the dentist must rely on a variety of types of information.

 Radiographic.  Differential findings.• Eight sources of information can be used to make a final diagnosis. .  Surgical. • These includes:  Historical.  Clinical.  Laboratory.  Microscopic.  Therapeutic.

• Medical history can provide information about medication the patient may be taking that could have an effect on the oral tissue. • Family history is important because of the genetic disorders. . Dental history. History of a lesion.Historical diagnosis      Personal history Family history. Medical history.


including the:     Color. Location. Size. .Clinical diagnosis • Is based on the clinical appearance of the lesion. Shape.



Radiographic diagnosis • Radiographs are excellent in providing information about:  Periapical pathology.  Internal resorption.  Impacted teeth. .



• This procedure is very often used to make the final diagnosis. tissue is removed from the lesion and is sent to a pathology laboratory. . this is called (biopsy).Microscopic diagnosis • When a suspicious lesion is present.


• Cultures done in the laboratory can be used to diagnose types of oral infection. can provide information that leads to a diagnosis. including urinalysis.Laboratory diagnosis • Blood chemistries and other laboratory tests. .

Therapeutic diagnosis • Is made by providing a treatment and seeing how the condition responds. .

Surgical diagnosis • A diagnosis made on the basis of findings from a surgical procedure. • Surgically open the area and inspect it if it needs a further treatment. .

. • The dentist will determine which tests or procedures should be done to rule out the incorrect cause and make a final diagnosis. a differential diagnosis must be made.Differential diagnosis • When two or more possible causes of a condition are identified.

Thank you .

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