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CHAPTER 13 | Test B

1. EachboxplotshowsanSRSofsize15takenfrompopulationsAD.Youwantto

useANOVAtotestwhetherthemeannumberofhoursisthesameforallgroups.Select thebestdescriptionofthissituation.

A.

Therearenoproblemsherewithoutliers,standarddeviations,ornormality. TheconditionsforANOVAhavebeenmet,soyoucanproceed.

B.

Thelargestsamplestandarddeviationlookstobenomorethanthreetimes thesmallest,thedistributionsarenttoostronglyskewed,andthesamples arelargeenoughthatitisreasonabletorelyontherobustnessofthe ANOVAFtest.Youcanproceedwiththetest.

C.

Thelargeststandarddeviationismorethanthreetimesthesmallest.This cantbefixedbyatransformation,solargersamplesizeswillbenecessary beforedoingANOVA.

D.

Theshapes,spreads,andoutliersuggesttransforming.Withalargersample
1

Statistics in Action Chapter 13: Analysis of Variance 2005 Key College Publishing

size,thismightnotbenecessary;but,forskewedsamplesofthissize, transformingisworthatry. E. Notransformationisnecessary,butitwouldbeagoodideatoanalyzethis datasettwice,oncewiththeoutlierandoncewithout. 2. FillinthemissingnumbersinthisANOVAtable.Inthisexperimentwitha

completelyrandomizeddesign,therewere8treatmentsand15observationsforeach treatment.
Analysis of Variance Source DF SS MS F P Sample XX 227.50 XXXXX XXXXX Error XX 735.64 XXXXX Total XX 963.13 Pooled StDev = XXXXX

XXXXX

3.

Findtheoverallmeanandpooledstandarddeviationforthesedata.
Treatment 1 16 2 16 3 17

Mean SD 7.963 1.257 7.422 3.652 8.144 2.407

4.

Inamemorystudydonein1974,anexperimenterrandomlyassigned60subjects

tooneofthreelearninggroups.TheRhyminggroupwasaskedtothinkofarhyming wordforeachwordinthelist.TheImagerygroupwasinstructedtoformvividimages ofeachword.Neitherofthesegroupswastoldtheywouldlaterbeaskedtorecallthe items.Finally,theIntentionalgroupwasaskedtomemorizethewordsforlaterrecall. Afterthesubjectshadgonethroughthelistof27itemsthreetimestheywereaskedto writedownallthewordstheycouldremember.[Source:

Statistics in Action Chapter 13: Analysis of Variance 2005 Key College Publishing

www.statsci.org/data/general/eysenck.html.Theirsource:Eysenck,M.W.(1974).Age differencesinincidentallearning.DevelopmentalPsychology,10,936941.]

a. b.

Whichlearninggrouphasthemostwithingroupvariation?Theleast? Betweenwhichtwotypesoflearninggroupsistherethemostbetween groupvariation?

c. d.

DothesedatameettheconditionsforANOVA?Justifyyouranswer. Regardlessofyouranswertopartc,writethehypothesestotestwhether themeannumberofrememberedwordsisthesameforthesethreemethods oflearning.

5.

Thedisplaybelowshowstheresultsfromafinalprojectofanintroductory

statisticsstudent.Thestudenttookarandomsampleof20femalesfromeachclassyear andhadthemrecordhowmanyhoursofhomeworktheyhaddonethepreviousnight. Theresultsarerecordedintheboxplotsbelow.Testthehypothesisthatthemean numberofhoursofhomeworkperdayisthesameforallfourpopulations.

Statistics in Action Chapter 13: Analysis of Variance 2005 Key College Publishing

6.

Inaonewayanalysisofvarianceforanexperimentwiththreetreatments,

supposeyourejectthenullhypothesisanddecidethatatleastonetreatmentmeanis differentthantheothers.Usingthepooledstandarddeviationineachcase,youthen constructthethreeconfidenceintervalsthatareshownbelow.Betweenwhichpair(s)is thereasignificantdifference? treatment1treatment2:6.38.435 treatment1treatment3:10.127.427 treatment2treatment3:1.56.231 7. Inarandomizedblockexperiment,15subjectsratedthetasteoffourdifferent

drinks.

Statistics in Action Chapter 13: Analysis of Variance 2005 Key College Publishing

a.

FillinthemissingnumbersinthisANOVAtable.
of Variance for Rating DF SS MS F P XX XXXXX 0.8079 XXXX 0.113 XX XXXXX 3.0878 XXXX 0.001 XX XXXXX 0.4979 XX XXXXX

Analysis Source Subject Drink Error Total

b. c. 8.

Issubjectstatisticallysignificant?Explainyouranswer. Isdrinkstatisticallysignificant?Explainyouranswer.

Astatisticsstudentwantedtoexaminetheeffectofdifferentschedulesandstyles

oftutoringonretention.Sherandomlyassigned15settimesubjectsand15flexibletime subjectstooneofthreetutoringgroups.Thesettimegroup(Schedule=1)were studentswhopreferredspecific,unchangingtimes,whereasthestudentsintheflexible timegroup(Schedule=2)preferredflexibletimesfromweektoweek.Intheteaching group,thetutorwasinstructedtodirectthetutoring,teachingeverythingdirectlytothe student.Inthepromptinggroup,thetutorwasinstructedtonotlecturebuttoguidethe studentthroughthematerialwithpromptingandthoughtprovokingquestions.Andin thestudentdirectedgroup,thetutorwasinstructedtoansweronlythequestionsthe studentasked.Thestudentgaveapretesttoallofthesubjectsbeforethetutoringbegan andaposttestonemonthafterthetutoringended.Shethenrecordedtheimprovement scores,posttestpretest.Herearetheresultsofheranalysisofvariance:
Analysis of Variance for Improvement Source DF SS MS F P Schedule 1 0.30 0.30 0.01 0.936 Tutoring Group 2 389.27 194.63 4.31 0.024

Statistics in Action Chapter 13: Analysis of Variance 2005 Key College Publishing

Error Total

26 29

1174.60 1564.17

45.18

a.

Whatarethetreatmentsinthisstudy?Whataretheblocks?Whatisthe responsevariable?

b.

Whatelsewouldyouhavetoknow,ifanything,todetermineifconditions aremetforatwowayANOVAwiththesedata?

c. d. 9.

Isschedulestatisticallysignificant? Istutoringgroupstatisticallysignificant?

Anothertutoringstudywasdonebyastatisticsstudentwhodecidedtoconsider

scheduleasafactorwithtwolevels:settimeandflexibletime.Herandomlyassigned30 studentstoeachcombinationofscheduleandtutoringgroup.Herearehisresults.
Analysis of Variance for Improvement Source DF SS MS F P Schedule 1 0.30 0.30 0.01 0.917 Tutoring 2 389.27 194.63 7.12 0.004 Schedule*Tutoring 2 518.60 259.30 9.49 0.001 Error 24 656.00 27.33 Total 29 1564.17

a.

Isthereadifferenceinthewaythetwoschedulegroupsrespondedtothe tutoring?

b.

Hereistheinteractionplotforthisexperiment.Hereschedule=1istheset timegroupandschedule=2istheflexibletimegroup.Treatments1,2,and3 are,respectively,teaching,prompting,andstudentdirected.Interpretthisplot.

Statistics in Action Chapter 13: Analysis of Variance 2005 Key College Publishing

Statistics in Action Chapter 13: Analysis of Variance 2005 Key College Publishing