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Puritan Bible

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THE PURITAN BIBLE

Works by

the Rev.

W,

J.

HEATON,

B.D.

Our Own English Bible:
ANU Their Work.

Its Translators
Price
5/net.

The Bible

of the

Reformation.
Price
5
-

net.

The Puritan

Bible.

Price 6/6

net.

London:

FRANCIS GRIFFITHS

.

W. HEATON. ALUMNUS OF THE LONDON UNIVERSITY FELLOW OF THE ROYAL HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND MEMBRE DE l'INSTITUT ET ACADEMIE ILLUSTRATED ILonlion FRANCIS GRIFFITHS 1913 .THE PURITAN BIBLE AND OTHER CONTEMPORANEOUS PROTESTANT VERSIONS BEING THE THIRD VOLDME OF ' OnR OWN English Bible . J. its Translators and their Work ' BY THE Rev. B.D.

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V.G. HOLKHAM HALL NORFOLK .C. C M..THIS THIRD VOLUME IS DEDICATED TO THOMAS WILLIAM EARL OF LEICESTER O.O.

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and one " Thy sacred page defies Craft of destructive art. have made unique. *Verses by T. "t Poets have always found of the latest says : — it a fruitful theme. J.000 sheets of gold are required for gilt lettering.PREFACE Certainly I can never regret having devoted a long time to this special Bible-study. oldest printing business with an This is the unbroken history in England. and time's slow blight Of sure decay. The skins of 100."* fThe spiritual sense in sacred legend. for as Eev. and 400. .000 animals are used every year for the covers of Oxford Bibles alone. Arthur Bailey. E. and since 1874 he has brought into the world and distributed about forty million copies of the Bible. its — its range of subject. and revelation of it God. Mr. Henry Frowde has retired this year from managing the London business of the Oxford University Press. that lies On all things human and of human might. to What a book. insight its into the human of the heart. its un- veiling world. make such " a demand ! But it is more than a book. Brailsford has lately said: Its stretch of time. and have given a Divine authority which increases with the lapse of years. spiritual it its quickening virtue.

Or fancy's fondness for of the Cowper has she said: " Only an author knows an author's cares. Germany. a fairly complete account of the Translators of the Bibles iised by Shakespeare and Queen Elizabeth. in spite of the demands of a busy ministry. . besides endless reading in the British Museum Library. and -Switzerland. of love.— X PREFACE So we ought to of such a hook. Nearly every place historically connected with the subject has been visited in England. and those famous Authorized Version. kuow a good deal about the history and especially in our own country. for the first time. I have done so ever since. more than forty years ago of young men in a Bible a series of articles to try I began these studies and profit a I number Class. When then published in the to " Christian Miscellany." the Editor advised on with tlie me go subject. and it been a labour has been very pleasant to receive such It has certainly favourable reviews as the two preceding volumes have called forth. at Oxford and (Jambridge. This one contains. the child bears." But the children of long research are perhaps more precious than those of fancy.

XXVII. XXII. I.any Fourth Company Fifth Company and that for the Apocrypha Characteristics Biblical 290 300 310 . 156 XIV. HoRNE and Cox Gabriel Goodman and others Its 222 230 240 246 Characteristics Parker's other Fruitful L. XXV. X. XXVI. The Bishops' Bible Alley. Bishops' Bible 17S 1 Grindal 88 Archbishop Sandys 205 213 XIX. XXIII. II. XX. Davies. XXr. XVII. XVIII. and Becon 167 XV. XI. The Boy King Sir John Cheke Close of the too short Reign Queen Mary 24 III. in 121 IX.abors XXIV. Queen Mary VI. XII.320 XXIX. The Genevan Bible Sampson and Gilby BODLEY AND THE OTHER HELPERS Its VIII. What befel the Persecuting Wretches 84 98 VII.hap.acteristics 129 136 143 A Puritan Production Laurence Tomson XIII. XXVIII. English Versifications 333 337 Works Consulted Index to the Three Volumes 339 . 40 65 V.CONTENTS i:. XVI. Char. XXX. The The The The The The The Its Ultra Puritans and Romanists Authorised Version First Company 262 272 282 Second Company Third Comp. IV.

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Paul's 39 41 45 48 49 50 52 53 Smithfield in 155s Dr. Professor of Greek in the Univeh siTV OF Cambridge.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE. Christ's Hospital The Western Qu. Ob.d. St. John's College Sir John Cheke. Sixth Frontispiece Cheapside Cross 3 Statue of William Tvndale on the Thames Emuankment 5 BUCER Petsr Martyr Cambridge. Duke of Northumberland The Mathematical School. M. a. 1541 8 ii 14 15 The Controversy The Coverdale Testament formerly belonging to Queen Elizabeth 19 25 Edward Seyjiour. 35 37 Cross The Forbidden Book Queen Mary Philip the Second Rogers at the Stake Views of St.. Saviour's Church. Southwark The Pl.at P. King Edward thf. Ivy Court The Martyrdom of Archbishop Cranmer Smithfield in Modern Times 1555 55 57 58 59 61 .ace of Burning Identified St. Bishop of London.aul's Cross Nicholas Ridley.A. Duke of Somerset 27 Somerset House and Stairs (as they appeared before they WERE pulled down IN 1776) Supper at Christ's Hospital Lord Dudley. Pembroke College Pembroke College.adrangle of old Cpirist's Hospital about 1780 29 30 31 t^t. Bourne Preaching .

Magnus about St.'DS WEEE Confined The Lollards' Towee^ Lambeth Palace Courtyard in the Fleet Prison The Maeshalsea Peison in the Eighteenth Centuey Queen Elizabeth when Peincess Lady Jane C^eey Lady Jane Geey Declining the Crown 6S 6i) 71 72 73 77 81 Bonner Bishop Bonner's House in 17S0 Cardinal Pole the Pope's Legate. Paul's. Aechbishop of Canterduey Becon Bishop Jewel Zueich 109 109 117 125 130 133 147 149 151 153 161 173 Archbishop Grindal 189 193 19s from a view by Hollar St. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS TAGE 63 67 Ceanmee's Pulpit^ Westminsiek Abbey Lambeth Palace The Ctiaiibee tn La5ibetii Palace in Aviiicbi the ]. Paul's Cross Sandys' Tomb in Southwell Minster Westminster Abbey 203 21. The Interior looking East William Cecil. Matthew Parkee. Lord Bueghley The Monument and the Chuecfi of St. Paul's Old Old iSoo 197 201 Aechbishop Sandys The To wee in the i6th Century Old St. Cakt\veight's Final Retreat Quadrangle Theodore Beza Sir Thomas Bodley First Title Page. Canteruuey The ilAETYEs' Memorial.xiv.6 - 210 212 214 . Leicester Hospital. 1560 Robert Stevens Knox Peeaching before the Lords of the Congregation John Knox Administering the Sacrasient George Buchanan A BIT OF Killearn with Buchanan's Monument Page feom the " Beeeches " Bible De.ollai. Geneva Bible. Canterbury 86 8g Archbishop of 89 96 Geneva John Knox Calvin 99 ioi ios Warwick.

Rainolds George Abbot. PAGE Worms Cathedral Goodman Ruthin Grammar School Dea..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv. Westminster Abbey 257 2511 Entry of James I.^logie IN 234 235 239 243 Xenophon 1560. Bishops' Version Psalm XIX. North Court Dr. Archbishop of Canterbury Interior of Stationers' Hall Printing Office.\^ Queen Elizabeth's Greenwich Palace Cardinal Allen Execution of Father Garnet Sir Francis Walsingham. Theatre and Museum. Queen's College. 1590 Old Palace of Greenwich. Ob.. Oxford 264 265 266 273 275 278 283 283 291 301 318 334 . Henry VIII's Chapel. 1630 Sir Christopher Hatton 248 249 251 254 255 Duke of Alva Font of Queen Elizabeth. Bishops' Version Fac-simile from Elizabeth's Translation of a Di.y James I.alem Chamber. Placenti. Emmanuel College Cambridge.minstee Abbey The Jerus. West. Westminster Abbey Cambridge.n 219 223 225 22(j King's College from PARiHE. 260 261 263 Hampton Court Palace Hampton Court Conference Hampton Court Lancelot Andrews The Jerusalem Chamber. Cambridge Psalm XIX. into London Ambassadors from the States of Holland imploring assistance of Queen Elizabeth to deliver them FROM the yoke of Sfanish Tyran».

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WOEDSWOETH. I HAVE called this third volume the Puritan Bible because of the predominant element in the era. Makepeace. loved bard! whose spirit often dwelt In the clear land of vision. skilled (O greait precursor. pilgrim's rugged heart did melt. but foreseen King. The Bible was at last a familiar book. Hadst thovi. And many a. though . which was Shakespeare's and Queen Elizabeth's. and Seraph. one of the Puritan leaders. and the Puritans were chiefly responsible for the change. Piercing the Papal darkness from afar. Reynolds.nd simple infancy. Charity. and sometimes much stranger names. Soldiers carried it with them to the battlefield. Instead of being almost an unknown book. blended in the mien Of pious Edward kneeling as he knelt In meek a.THE PURITAN BIBLE CIIAPTEE I THE BOY KING " Sweet is the holiness of yauth " — so felt Time-honoured Chaucer when he framed the lay By whioh the Prioress beguiled the way. what joy For universal Christendoiai ha-d thrilled Thy heart! what hopes inspired thy genius. it became the most familiar in the land. True-love. all A . and named their children Faith. was largely under the inspiration of Calvin and his strong Church at Geneva. The Genevan Bible. one of the household-gods. Child. genuine morning star) The lucid shaifts of reason to employ. And the Authorized Version was the suggestion of Dr. Hope. and members of the Calvinist party amongst the English. Patience. and people used Biblical phrases in their conversation.

however. Edward VI. and to be preferred before these swords.. Once a playfellow having placed a large Bible for him to stand on to reach something from a shelf. Both short. " I should not trample under my feet that which I ought to treasure up in my head and heart. "which is the Sword of the Spirit. he said. as the sign of his being lluler over three kingdoms. by God's appointment. That ought in all right to govern us. and they present the most remarkable contrast that can he found in our history as a people. we can do nothing. A — . he said there was still one wanting. " It is the Bible. and had excellent tutors. who use them for the people's safety. and whatever we have of Divine strength. From that alone we obtain all power and virtue. swords were brought to him. On their looking surprised.. From that we are what we are this day. commence with the reigns following Henry VIII's. as narrated by Strype. During Edward's reign thirty-six Editions of the New Testament saw the light. and fourteen of the entire Bible during Mary's only one New Testament was published." Southey tells us that one of those constantly about his person said: "If ye knew the towardness of that young Prince. we have no power. the one was the rule of a boy with a good deal of the wisdom of a man the other of a woman in whom feminine traits of character had mostly disappeared. and that on foreign soil. We . grace and salvation. sufficiently plain indication of the course he woxild pursue was given by tlie Boy King at the scene of When three his Coronation. did all that he could during a few years to promote the Reformation Qiieen Mary did all that lay in her power for about the same period to re-establish Popery. 2 THIi PURITAN ]HBLE meu of light and leading were engaged in its composition. must. He feared the Lord from his youth. Without that sword we are nothing.'" he said." It is not likely that this was one of those pretty little speeches sometimes prepared by others for special functions.

. in which he says. . " I know very well that our religion consists not of old customs and the usage of our fathers. But otherwise not. written by him.oasionally thua give aiithorities.tive." FROM \ PAINTING OK THE TIME. to the destrnction of the pleasure afforded by an uninterrupted narra. There is some force in the satire in Tristram Shandy on the loadirg of books with endless references. 'I'heie is a (oj)y of a work.u'entlest thing- of all the world. the most aimiable."t tA Plea for the Protestant Canon. and the . CHEAPSIDE CROSS. hut in Holy Scripture and the Divine Word.THE your heart woiild melt J30V KINC . in the British Museum. when they are little known. W© shall o<. 3 to hear him named the beaiitifulest creature that liveth under the sun tlie wittiest.

it was quite a new regime wlien Edward came Throne. Chancellor of the University of Paris. was to be provided within a year. — — — — . There were injunctions also by which the Clergy were to provide within three montlis " one book of the whole Bible of the largest volume in English. and the preference of the people for Tyndale's Version was plainly seen. let it not be thought that his father's action stood alone. Another injunction was a very plain sign of the new times. 's Papal jjower in Spain for a time. Gerson. which had been deluging England with blood were gone at a stroke. The principle from the beginning was non-interference. In 1520 the Grovernor for the French King threw off the jurisdiction of Leo X. downwards gone. published a discourse advocating the total abrogation of the Papal office." so all the hideous laws about treason and felony. There had been boiling alive for poisoning gone. The restrictions set \ipon the publication or reading of the Bible gone. Yes. printers engaged in publishing the Scriptures was 31. "As in tempest or Winter one garment in calm or wariu weather a more liberal is convenient ease and a lighter garment. All the heresy laws from Richard II." And the Paraphrase of Erasmus. The Six Articles gone.4 THE PURITAN BIBLE Not that auy special Royal sanction was given to any of the Editions published now so numerously. Charles V abolished Clement VII. being more than half the entire number belonging to this Reign. so that it was the spontaneous demand of the The number of people that ruled the publication. though Gardiner had a good deal to say against it. And if nothing more was heard of the Pope and his supposed authority. no less than 15 Editions of the Xew Testament having his name on the titles. It ordered that an Alms Chest should be set near the High Altar. and no one was to be discouraged from reading either the one or the other. and the Incumbent was to the . Well may his statue adorn the Thames Embankment.

MJALK 0\ THK TMAMKS f-Mli \.\KMEM .STATUE OF WILLIAM TV.

Cranmer wa. treutals. ment of tke injunctions in tke Province of Canterbury. We . and Fagius and Bucer. to an Englisk Service in tke Ckurclies. Bucer. did not come till it was fiuisked.'-i cliiefly responsible. were appointed to Professorskips at Cambridge. witk kis beautiful diction and sound judgment. Tlie popularity of tke Vernacular Bible naturally led. and otker blind devotions. upon pardons. decking of images. only 28 were retained. pilgrimages.6 to THE PURITAN BIBLE remind kis Hoek tkat. and continued to take tke deepest interest in tke prolie entertained a number gress of tke Eeformation. tke eminent Hebrew and Greek sckolars. offering of candles. will only add to a muck controverted topic tkat tke Liturgy was executed by Englisk bands. and tkeir lectures were to tend tkat way. Saints' Days kad been legion. as one of its first fruits. of eminent Reformers from abroad. and to tkrow an air of wisdom around tke priestkood." tkey skould now be more ready to kelp tke poor and Craumer made strict inquiries as to tke fulfilneedy. as tkey kad formerly bestowed aubstauce " otkerwise tkau God commanded. tkat wkilst notking tkat could offend tke feelings of a reasonable Protestant was left. tke wisest perkaps of tke foreigners. AVkatever was unexceptionable in tke ancient offices was retained. liallam says tkat tke Latin kad lield its ground owing to a sluggisk dislike of innovation. an Englisk Liturgy was compiled. wkilst Peter Martyr was made Tkeological Professor at Oxford. and because tke mysteriousness of an unknown tongue served to impose on tke vulgar. He soon died. but tke first two soon afterwards died. Tkey were to kelp in furtker Bible Revision. But in tke very second year of Edward's reign. and Melanctkon was appointed to kis vacant Professorskip muck . notking was inserted wliicli skould prevent tke most c-onscientious Catkolic from joining in tke Service. and in 1552 it was revised in tke interests of a still ])urer doctrine. and all tkat savoured of superstition discarded and so judiciously was tkis done. says Soutkey.

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8 .BUCEli.

. bad no influence on the composition. And Petor Martyr and A'Lasco.THE BOY KING 9 at Cambridge. thongdi in tbe country. but bis often frustrated residence there never came to i)ass.

be ye howlets. O soul of Sir John Cheke Hated not learning worse than toad or asp When thou taughtst Cambridge and King Edward Greek. and its Service tliat could be understood. but I have read it straight through. AYhy. both argument and style were found to be so masterly. on the light ? Clirist saitli to everyone Search ye the Scriptures they testify of Me.' The Apostles will have us to be ready that we may be able to give every man an account of our Faith ye will us not once to read the Scriptures for fear of knowing our Paith. and Cranmer gave them such a dressing as literature can scarcely match." Sir John Cheke also defended the new order of things ill an admonition which deserves notice as showing how the laity influenced one another.." he cries. . It as is lengthy. St. ! . "Ye would have the Bibles in again. ' ' . rebellions against the new Protestantism. with its Bible that could be read." MILTON'S Sonnets. Cornwall men were the worst. like ours.' You say. however. that ye cannot look. and it was found The Devon and that many people wanted neither. CTIAPTEE SIK II JOHN CIIEKE " Thy age. "It is no marvel your blind guides would lead you blind still. Paul prayeth that every man may increase in knowledge ye desire that our knowledge may decay again. These Devon innocents actually put it in writing that '•the Bible should be called in. and worthy to For without the sword indeed nothing be fought for Theee were . since otherwise the Clergjr could not easily confound the heretics. A true religion ye seek belike. Pull in the Scriptures. for we will have no knowledge of Christ.

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though it soon King's left St. Cambridge. Butts. When he translated a Dialogue of Lucian's. his tutor was George Day. that he was granted an exhibition which paid his expenses in travelling abroad. Cheke afterwards became the first Regius Professor of Greek in the University.SIR can help it. to amend faults. and not as we have devised. especially as his life was so eventful. breaking off. Cheke had for a friend and patron Sir W." So he says in " The hurt of Sedition. When Erasmus had come over to teach Greek he had no pupils at first. and proceeded with iSt. his father being one of the "esquireEntering St. which be full of God's Spirit. and profitable to teach the truth. to bring one up in righteousness. Mark. Trinity had only just started on its way. JOHN CHEKE 13 it. He was born in 1514. which then entirely led the way for learning. who spoke so highly of him to Henry YIII. Matthew for the most part in genuine English words. Cheke's presence and society led to the reading of the best authors. learning. of whom Sir Thomas More said that he was the first man in the realm for wisdom. And that His "Will is wholly in the Scriptures. and afterwards Master of the College. that he that is God's man may be perfect and ready to all good works. that Grod will be worshipped as He hath prescribed. and it soon came to be Cicero and Demosthenes instead of the Schoolmen with their . soon. at the corner of Petty Cury. however. John's far behind. College Chapel was built. John's bedels" of the University. to reprove lies. He produced a version of St. so we must spend a little time in his company. neither Christ nor age can maintain Learn to know this one point of religion. Fisher had been its great patron. how grievous it is to a Commonwealth. and the study of it was opposed as heretical and profane." but he also contributed something to Bible translation. Fellow. College. but the glorious windows were still incomplete. and virtue. 1549. he could find none capable of transcribing the Greek with the Latin. and contributed largely to the restoration of the ancient learning. at least in numbers.

in issued a solemn deci'ee confirming the older pronunciation. and part of Herodotus. if Eegents. A (•oiitioversY ensued as to the right inonuuciatiou which Gardiner figured somewhat as we should expect. CAMIiRllX.K JOHN b COLLECE. He of (ireek. Those who did not were. all l-lomer. But Gardiner was at this time Chancellor of the University and Bishop of "W^inchester. and was what is now called the continental method.H Amongst THE PL'RITAN BIJ5LI rice questions. to be expelled from the Senate. afterwards Lord Bnro-ldey. wlio married his sister. when it was opposed to the teaching of the Regius . and all were to conform. This for a nmtter of pi-onunciation. lie went over Sopliocles twice. all Euripides. the younger sort to be chastised. to lose their scholarships. Roger Ascham was another. especially Aristo plianes. ('heke's pronunciation was based on a thorough study of Greek authors. and he taught him the fair and graceful writing partly for which he was ajijiointeil tutor to the Ladv Elizabeth. his jjiipils Avere Cecil. if scholars.

1541. . M.^ PKOFESSOR OF CREEK IN THE LINIVEESITY CASIBEIIJCP.' t SIU JOFIN CHEKK.D. OF A..A.

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where the Fellows showed some reluctance to receive him. Disputations at Cecil's house and also at Sir Richard Morysin's. leading Cheke to speak of " ambition's bitter gall. whatev^er the truth of the matter was. succeeding Richard Cox. qualis. 1552. "' No. the Prince living chiefly at Hertford. answer was. he will not die at this time. and the King He took part in some made him further grants. Then came a very serious illness. should be kis. and was summoned to Court by Henry to act as tutor to Prince Edward. Cambridge. " being.SIR ! JOHN CHEKE 17 Professof of Greek Oheke reluctantly submitted. He was also made Provost of King's College. and obtained it. he received the honour of Knighthood. it is not surprising that there were difEerent pronunciations. for this morning I begged his life from God in my prayers. and one of His principal proctors. But he continued." Worse things followed when he was charged with giving bad advice to Somerset. afterwards Bishop of Ely. Sir Anthony Cooke was associated with him. and became member of Parliament for Bletchingley." though he was somewhat On 11th October. and one of the most remarkable answers to prayer on record. Ridley called him " one of Christ's special advocates. -s'ersity. and was very much what we have to-day. both English and Foreign. and was a great patron of learned and godly men. so it was not only in Greek that opinions differed. Of course. kalis." Shortly after the new King's accession.always at his elbow. but his prouuiiciatiou ultimately conquered. and in — B . In 1544 Oheke became Public (Jrator in the Uni-. Greek having been practically unknown for ages. and betraying him. to enjoy the Eoyal favor. and wrote a valeBut Edward's dictory letter to the young King. offended with him afterwards." He completely recovered. Cheke continued his instructions after Edward came to the Tlirone. About the same time the Doctors of the Theological Faculty at Paris maintained that quis. he received considerable grants of land. He was given up by the physicians.

Cambridge (CXIX MSS.. and he was seized and brought to the Tower. being ushered in by an oration from Feckenham.A. Padua. Strange that he should liave been apprehended at the very place where Tyndale was martyred. the Abbot of Westminster. and Strasburg. F.) shows both his genuine piety.i8 15-3-j THE PURITAN BIBLE was made one of the Secretaries of State. and visited Basle. Worcester. however able and useful life. sworn . Archbishop Parker's charitable remark was " homines sumus. 1557. and afterwards before the whole Court. in his account of him in the Dictionary of National Biography. Cheke favored Lady •Tane Grey. reading Greek lectures for a subsistence. still preserved at Corpus Christi. lamentably down under the severe tests that were For a applied to it in the wretched days of Mary. He had tried to convert Feckenham. the fine to which he was condemned havBut it was alleged that he ing nearly ruined him. In the end he went to Cardinal Pole. and his portrait is preserved at Ombersley Court. King highly valued him. begging to be spared But they were not a the shame of doing so openly. and thirty-three of his Works are given by Thompson Cooper. He had to do it before the Queen. and No doubt the young of the Privy Council. and now Feckenham tried to convert him. the residence of Lord Sandys. and for a day or two But this zeal broke he acted as her Secretary of State. He was an able. When his young Prince died." says Fuller. and was thrown into prison. Strype also wrote his life. " carrying all good men's pity witli him. led him to support her claims.ail man. who himself had some bitter experiences in the next Eeign. and recanted. and beneficent man. communicative. but died of shame and regret 13th September. It was a sad close for an eminently honour" But no fr." Cheke did not long survive. and a letter of his to Catherine Parr. where he was It was his zeal for Protestantism that kept for a year.S. time he obtained leave to travel. sparing sort. and how much he owed to him. did not return by the time specified.

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however. his ])()int but for the King and Cranmer arguing that tlie Ilevision should he a llniversity affair. iminortiiliU/. Here are some illustrations: Apostles frosent Crucified crossed — — Centurion. such as f/iviiiiif/oii. wliich would not be generally understood. i'. and done it beautifully. and sat in two of Queen Mary's Parliaments. pvcpard'nin. and about tlie same time. he translated. He had printed the proclamation of Lady Grrey . instead of y he most . lamenting the indictment of such a man. pcnlifinn. . Cheke wanted the common people to uiiderstand tlie Bible. was deprived of his office of printer of State Papers. the printer.?i solntwn contrilnition. Clieke's principle in his Translation was exactly the opposite of Gardiner's. he was soon out of prison again. .Jane as Queen. can be coucluded blest before he die.20 THE PURITAN BIBLE great or high. and his own inability to help him.-hundreder Pr( —fresh-man Regeneration — again birth Lunatic —mooned isely te — Captivity. and put into prison.-out-peopling His orthography certainly was original A long letter lie doubled. Eight years before. (id in in idnifinn consummation. A number of words had already come in. adoption. Sir John C'lieke's Translation was probably begun in 1550. Gardiner had wanted about 100 words left untranslie would probably have carried lated iu the Latin. and he produced it iu order to sliow ihid genuine English words could be usually adliered to." Craiimer wrote to Cecil. from the Latin cliietly. the final e he aliolished. at f'ranmer's request. About the same time Grafton. operation. the English Communion Book into Latin for the use of Peter Martyr. and was jealous of a]] foreign words. a di])hthong he turned into a double vowel. turned grocer. unnecessary letters in tlie middle of a word he omitted. co?niniaiicatio7i. iSfC. vi'inifestation. pi-iiieipuliti/. However. reconciliation. retriljution.

SIK JOHN often CHl'lKI' lie 21 commonly wrote of words. dout.D. CH. though the Preface to this says : — . Here was a revolution.\Ii\ED BOOK of words. a curio. he was obliged to make use of lie wished to several words of foreign derivation. deccir. Pickering. he wrote iiiiiaJ. and so liif got f rules. iiimmiin. alter both the common orthography and proiuiiiciation 'riius lie g-ot sucdi . A remarkable attempt must f'heke lay unpublished till lS4-'{. i. the His work is certainly publisher being Mr. daar. So with the long i he wrote desiir. when he found a competent Editor in l{ev. tuid alieied the termination words as crnix. hole (whole). Letters unsounded he cut out altogether. jJniix. James Goodwin. as —nigheth — — — foreign — A\^elschmen High Priest. t/ic. hut. but in this he few more illustrations of suffice : failed. B. and could have had little influence on the Authorized ^'e^siou. with all his lahor.. and where the a was sounded hnig. draweth nigh on writing sujierscription extortion robri money dealers fablers — this was inevitable.bed bishop Tetrarch — debitee of ye fourth part of ye countree.

was still be read with profit. Cambridge.Edward's. may tanner. and hia other duties hindered him from going beyond the first Chapter in Sedition. and the Greek word is often given in the margin. or Queen Elizabeth's. Matthew. and that they deserve to be had of us and of posterity in everlasting remembrance. a meek and compass- — ionate man : — " Condemn not thy poor brother Sint-o That doth before thee lay. but Cheke was one of the foremost and busiest men of the age.St. 104 in the Library There are a few notes.22 THE PURITAN BIBLE We are so far from coiideiuuiuji' any of their labours that travelled before iis in this kind. He the wrote " Tlie Hurt of when Ket. Mark. There is the whole of St. that we acknowledge them to have been raised up of God for the building and furnishing of His Church. of Corpus Christi." STRYPE's " Cheke. or Eing. the lines of an abbot of old Tohn de Hoo. Norwich Wymondham and it hanged at Castle.s none but falls: T have— thon dust— all may. of Tale lloyal. of ever renowned memory. either in this land or beyond sea." ." ." The original manuscript is No. when he heard of his recantation. either in King. We may add to what Parker said.Henry's time. there i.

ill? If^filj TITLE (SIZE TO CEANMEr'S GliEAT BIBLE.) . 1553. OK OIUOINAL loj IIV 6 IN.

images. and some modern writeis are fond of doubting all such facts. as soon YIII. Legends.'s reign may have 24 . Couchers. aud there was a large sale." ordered also that all superstition and hypocrisy be done away. Prymers. probe. Jouriiales or Ordinales " and ilie great point with all the Protestant Reformers. But the thirty-six editions of the New Testament published. in this sliort Reign of half-a-dozen j-oars." The desire of the people for the Bible in Henry been exaggerated. Pyes. the very lively which exhorted everj^ person to read Word of God. and were now forbidden to be used or kept in the Realm. Antyphons." It was a formidable list of things which had practically usurped tlie place of the Scriptures. was to let the truth speak for itself. Scrayles. as the special food of man's soul. and miracles savouring of trickery and money-getting. relics.CJ[ AFTER III CLOSE OF THE TOO SUOKT HETGX " That. Manuals. ilyssales. without exception. and doubtless sold. scalpel. nor ' . telescope. whose saintly name might move The understanding heart to tears of reverent love. the great Bible-work of this Reigu was the rapid publication of the Bibles already described The people influenced one in our jirecediug volume. Breviaries. The Injunctions another. Portwyses. or elsewhere There were within any of the King's dominions. for " truth fears neither microscope." IIowEVEii. shows plainly enough that. bl&ssed Prince. Processionals. for at that time the Romish system ' ' was " So mixt with power and craft in every part That any shape biit truth might enter there.

and " everything At the same time. TO'O SHORT \i\>AC.CSI.( I. BRITISH and diverted the course of a river into two hundred channels.\ 25 was full liberty to buy and rt-ad. (IN MUSEUM WITH AH INSCRIPTION SAYING THAT TWO DRAWINGS IN IT WERE THE WORK Ol-' KING EDWARD VI. Ol'- THi'.).^tttffi/.Y BELONGING TO QDEEN ELIZABETH. as there fXf ~r- p "• t}*-{?v fcc'. so now the river of life. -^-^-as spread all over the land. set liis whole Army to work. THE COVERDALE TESTAMENT I'OHUEEl. the people wanted nothing more. lived. in one of his Expeditions. whither the river came. As we are told that Cyrus. which is full of water." .

had always been of the "old religion. piinted by the (. Petit. He encouraged a set of profligate . the notes were strongly Protestant. had thought necessary. and Gastalio. 'The Keformation was greatly prejudiced by a succession of greedy courtiers. and others weie the MattJiew's Bible. its tolerance and freedom. "tlie former. published by Grafton and Whitchurch. in dedicating his Latin translation of the Bible to him." as Soutliey says. There were four Editions of the Grreat or Cranmer's Day Bible. in the latter part of the Reign. he pretended he their faithfulness." but probably . published others. Cranmer and Ridley resisted liini in vain.26 THE PURITAN BIBLE the iuHueuce of tlie young King must by uo lueaus Tlie country came to be known for be lost sight of." Northumberland was the worst of the greedy set. and well he might. or Jugg.Jueen's printer all through the reign of ElizabetJi. The best men of the time went hand in liand with the veriest worldlings. and appropriated to himself or his favourites what had escaped plunder. of course. and lie resented At his execution. and Seres. without any of the forms which Somerset. but bitterly he ]}aid for it. as well as far into that of James. witli wliich they agree in date. were accompanied by notes more Calvinistic and Anti-Sacramental than formerly. '' accjuiescing in the evil which they could not prevent for the sake of bringing about tlie good at which they aimed the latter promoting til at good because they made it subservient to their own selfish and rapacious ends.. yives as one of his reason. possibly to f Lirtlier the changes introduced into the Second PrayerThese were rebook. and even TTeiiry ^'III.? that the Kingdom of England had become a refuge for those who were persecxited for This French studying and defending the Scriptures. followers of the (Jourt to scoff at religion. Many combined Tyndale and Erasmus. Tyll. Jugg's Xew Testaments. sometimes coarsely. in which. scholar and Theologian published also a Treatise arguing against the right of the magistrate to punish heretical opinions.

Orn.EDWARD SEYMOUR^ DfKE OF SOMERSET.TY OF SACRILEGE IN EUILDING SOMERSET HOUSE. .

.

and there to serve as clerks of the kitchen. were forced to put themselves into gentle' ' of men's bouses. as the most popular preacher lie denounced the robhery and in Edward's time. and resigning Jiis Bishopric. Many benefices were given to servants for keeping hounds. first on the part of the Lords and great men of the Court. Then lie came into the light again. After oljjertiug Six Artitde. being kept to some sorry pittances.i Ander- son says tliat the young King stood like an apple tree among the trees of the wood.\NU STAIRS THEY APPEARED BEFORE THEV WERE PLXLED DOWN IN 17/6). in Ileniy's reign. spoliation that went on. surveyors. also spoke out strongly. to the Latimer (." Very toxicliing is the account of the young King's FTospital for the Ohrist's last act in establishing education of poor children. and then the nobility and inferior gentry. . and the poor ('lergy. he was silent for eight years. Tliomas's and St. receivers. hawks. &c.-.CLOSE 110 OF THE TOO SHORT REIGX all. if not as lily among thorns. and horses. St.\S SUMEKSET HOUSE . and for making of gardens. Bartholemew's for the relief of the sick and Bridewell . 29 one gave liim fredit for having auy at .

. The work was zealously undertaken.S IIOSI'ITAI. liim. Certainly both ('liiist's Hospital and the revenues foi' its support came from his predecessor. condition of tlie poor. or were ." and would not let him depart till he had written to the L(H(I ]\layor. and tJie young King took tjie deepest interest in it.30 THE PURITAN BIBLE for the correction and auientlment of the vagabond and Ividley had preached before liim on the pitiable lewd. declared that he was most willing " to travail SUPPKR AT CHRIST . tliat «ay. and promised to deliver the letter himself. and the duty of tliose in authority The King sent foi to provide means for their relief.

OlilGlNAL OF HOLBEIN. FHOM THE .JOHiX DLDI. DUKE OF NORTHL'MliKRI.KV.ANl).

.

this Grammar . and when. and most people would think tliat when Christopher Tye. Mncii was due to the young King himself. I yield Thee most hearty thanks that Thou . only a few days before his death. old saying that a cobbler should stick to his last. Perhaps a few words may be devoted to the Metrical There is an Versions which belong to this period. No less than Ki reign.CLOSE raised OF THI': TO'O SHORF REKIX 33 by the bounty of the citizens themselves. c ." work to the THE IMTHEMiTICAL SCHOOL. however. : — hast given me life thus long to finish this glory of Thy name. the scheme was placed before him he exclaimed " Lord.Schools were founded in and let it never be forgotten that not a single Romanist died for his faith. CHKIST'S HOSPITAL.

as Marot had produced oO. turned to rhyming." real poetry of the Psalms into Versifialways been difficult. They were dedicated to Edward VI. to turn them from the little god Cupid and his belongings. and Hopkins joined him. and addressed liis verses to the ladies. joined in . Clement Marot made the attempt at this time. but beciune a strong Lutheran. he had better lie turned the Acts of the liave kept to liis music. being " one of the Gentylmen of J:Iys Grace's most honourable Chappell. He had been a troubadour poet. William Whittingham. Apostles into metre. — " In ih© former Treatj-'se to thee Dere frend The o phi lus I have written the Verite Of the Lord Christ Jesus.. Tliis infectious frenzy of sacred song reached England.." 1")5'! is the date of this performance. and his French verses certainly became popular botli with Catholics and Protestants." There are notes to each Chapter for singing and playing on the lute." " Considering well. and produced 58 more.34 THE PURITAN BIBLE — Doctor of Music. Sternhold had been Groom of the Eobes to Henry VIII. however." musical skill can also find profit " to read the good and godlye storys of the lyves of Christ Ilys Appostles. except in the case of individual Psalms. and probably the Iiiti'oduction will be sufficient for our readers in these days when really beautiful poetry is found in almost Ilei'e it is: every magazine and news])aper. most godly Kyng The zeale and perfecte love Your Grace doth beare to eche good thyng That given is from above. and iSternhold rhymed 51 of the Psalms. and no one has ever succeeded. whilst Hopkins was a Clergyman. Which he to do and eke to teache Began until the daye In whiche the Si3rite ttp hym did feache To dwell above for aye. and Tve recommends his musical IJut those that have no friends to " file their wits. the Trans( To turn the lias ations lator aftei'wards of the Genevan Bible. and dedicated his work to the young' King'.

i" THE WESTERN QUADRANGLE OK 01.the Decalogue.S<m. Jlere also " is a sample of Hopkins: — Why dost withdraw thy hand abaclt." The entile Psalter was not published till lo62. God th« . Archbishop Parker also tilled up part of his voluntary banishment a little later on by versifying the Psiilter. And hide it in thy lap? pluck it out.- CLOSE OF THE TOO SHORT REIGN it 35 Kiiox's frieud ami ('. in all. but did not publish .S HOSPITAL ABOUT 1780.]) CHRIST'.^bnt totik more tliau such friendship to make a poet. the Creed.ilviu's. Imagine him rhyming.niy Pioyiil approbation or Parliamentary sanction. and be not slack To give thy foes a rap. : God Holy Ghost also. thouo'li it uever leceived . and the Lord's Prayer! Warton gives liiis choice sample "The Father G-od is. Yet there are not three Gods But one G:)d and ruj m. and was then attached to tlie ]5ook of T'ommon Prayer. Tie finished it in looT.

" said the Priest. if you will. he was committed to the Fleet Prison. " you may know what learning I have now. and had as much learning as the goslings on the Green. "Well." The story of this blockhead is amusing. Are you not wont to read the Bible 2 On the Priest saying he did it daily. but altogether in English. though absurdly rude and crude to tended to popularize the Bible. sitting amongst his friends at an alehouse. " I pray you tell me then who was David's father"? said Cranmer." said in these genealogies. I will oppose you. or at least a reasonable man." The Archbishop answered. " Xo. " however." Grace to pardon me. and afterwards came before Cranmer. but let it not be thought that all were as ignorant. No answer. But the great thing was the rapid multiplication of the Bibles themselves. the printer. Information of this being given. God amend you. by defaming me amongst your neighbours?" The Prie-it replied tliat he was in drink." said Cranmer. There was ." answered the Priest." Cranmer. said that Cranmer was but an ostler formerly. who asked him if he ever saw him before. with which we may close this Clnipter. or else in philosophy. I can now bear witness that you have none at all. you have reported of me that I had little learning. though belonging to a rather earlier time. for" What meant you then sooth. produced it a few years afterwards. and from henceforth learn to be an honest us. Get you home to your cure. " I have no manner of learning in the Latin tongue. " I beseech your or other sciences. secretary and friend of Cranmer. or Divinity. no doubt.36 it. these versifications ' ' And man. Begin in grammar. "Yet declare unto me who was Solomon's father"? The poor examinee protested "he was nothing at all seen " Then I perceive. He tells us that some ignorant priest near Scarborough. THE PURITAN BIBLE though Day. under which the crass ignorance An amusing of former times began to melt away. " Well then. if you will not oppose me. illustration of this is recorded by Ralph Morice.

!iiiiri"Mi

SI.

I'ALL S

CKOSS.

FROM

PAINTED IN l6l6, SHOWING A I UEACIIEE DELIVERING A SERMON TO A CONCOURSE OF CITIZENS, WHILST THE KING AND THE LORD MAYOR ARE SEATED IN \ GALLERY BUILT AGAINST THE CATHEDRAL.
A

riCTUKE


38

THE PURITAN BIBLE

good preacliiug loug before tlie Eeforuiation. Dr. Lichfield, liector of All Saints, Thomas St., who died in 1447, left behind him 3083 sermons, written with his own hand, and preached. Dr. CoUingwood, Dean
of Lichfield, preached in that Cathedral every Sunday for many years together. Colet, of course, constantly preached either in his own or some other City Church.

John de Thoresby, Archbishop of York, commands all the parochial Clergy to preach frequently to their people, and explain the Articles of the Faith in the English tongue. This was in 1360, and the people are exhorted to hear Grod's law every Sunday in their mother tongue, " for that is better than to hear many
Masses." So says Anthony ITarmer, who reviewed and corrected Burnet's History of the Eeformation in his " Specimen of some errors," in which, however, he
says
:

"The Reformation of our Church was beg;in and carried on with so much piety, wisdom, and fulness of due autliority, that a faithful and exact account is the best vindication and defence of it; nor should I
have taken so much pains to I'ectify the history, had not been fully persuaded of the justice of it."
if I

THE FORBIDDEN BOOK.

FROM

A

PAINTING BY CHARLES OOMS IN THE ROYAL MUSEUM^ BRUSSELS.

CHAPTER IV
QUEEN MARY
SI g-ravis,
'

brevis est.

Mowbray.— Well, by my will, we shall admit no parley, Westmoreland.— Tihat argues but the shame of your offence: A rotten case abides no handling." (KING HENRY IV.).
;

Too soon, Edward's course was run and into his place came the obnoxious (jiieen Mary; the most equally devoted resolute liomanist succeeding an Protestant; and the two short reigns running on for memorable conabout the same length of time.

A

trast.

It is hard to speak of a woman in terms at all commensurate with such deeds as her name recalls. But,

who died in the flames, including about three hundred men, women, and even children, besides multitudes who pined away in prison, will for ever justify her being called " bloody "; together with the system which she thus tried to support, and which accepted and instigated such support. Strype says, that three hundred and eighteen perished, and on some bigot saying that the Papists displayed great moderation after all, he was answered: "You should say murderation." Many foreigners, who'had hitherto enjoyed freedom in England, secured their safety by flight. Germans and Frenchmen, Italians and »Spaniards, Poles and Scots, escaped before the storm came on it being a year and a half after the commencement of the Reign, before any active persecution began though Mary issued her "inhibition" against preaching, reading, or teaching any Scriptures in the Churches, at the very
surely, the long list of those

;

;

QUEEN

MARV.

FROM THE ORIGINAL OF HOLBEIN,

IN THE COLLECTION OF THE MARQUIS OF EXETER.

QUEL.\
Richmond.
;

MAKY

43

begiuuing, on leaving the Tower for the Piihice at Romanism came in again at once. The great bell at the Christ Church, Oxford, had just been recast and the first use of it was to call the people to Mass. "That bell then rung," says Fuller, "the knell of the gospel truth in (Jxford; afterwards filled with Protestant tears." After the early departures, went nearly a thousand English, of all conditions, including many of the most learned of the land, with six Knights, three Ladies
of title, and a few men of property. They were received by the Eing of Denmark, the Duke of Wurtemburg, the Duke of Bipont, and others. And settlement.-; of them were soon found in Frankfort, Geneva, Zurich, Berne, Basil, Strasbourg, Emden, Wesel, and other friendly towns though some of the Lutherans behaved very shabbily. There were great rejoicings at Rome for three successive days and the Pope himself officiated at Mass, and distributed a profusion of Indulgences. Many had fled the country, when the Six Articles were passed by tienry VIII, in l-j-'J'.) and so a number of the best men of the land were forced out of it, in one reign after another; though, when the tables were turned, famous foreigners came here and stayed. In fact, there was a constant movement in these days. In Edward's reign, strangers had come flocking- here; and England was looked on, by the Romanists, as the
;

;

;

" harbour of infidelity." Germans, like Bucer and Fagius Tews, like Tremellius Italians, like Jolm-a-Lasco Spaniards, like Dryander; Flemings, like LTitenhove and Frenchmen, like Veron and Pullain here they all came, and back they most of
; ;

;

;

;

them now went,

t
;

Soon the storm began to blow and fitter agents, than Gardiner and Bonner, could scarcely have been found however much some may have recently tried The martyrs wei-e, without exto whitewash them. ception, Bible lovers and defenders, who frequently
;

t " Political

History,"

A. F. POI/LAED,

ESQ.

and wolves and worms be fed. translated by Udal. phrase. It was the very first day of the notorious Paul IV. Byron's words especially of horror : though the Transubwhich most of them apply to this reign — " Eeligion. vengeance— wtoat you will— enough. Gardiner thought proper to suppress the paraphrase of Erasmus. instead of the Bible.plete was the business of the first Consistory after his inauguration. in company with the Bible. manded be — — . . It had been com- placed in all Chundies. was represented with a Bible in his hand. and partly by Queen Mary to herself." way the Bible was to be was given.s freedom. on which was inscribed ^'erbuin Dei. after their Marriage. This did not suit Gardiner at all. Cox. had followed him. The Conduit in Gracechurch Street was painted with devices of the Xine Worthies amongst Henry tJiem being Henry VIII.! 44 THE PURITAN BIBLE . and Marcellus. not lon^ before. in company with the translations of her fellow-labourers When the solemn Embassy from Mary reached Home. who called the innocent painter before him. and made him paint in a new Significant sign of the ti A sated. reign. threatened him with the Fleet Prison. and the submission of England made very com. who succeeded liira for a brief period. and Edward \I. Pope Julius was dead. to rou&e mankind to kill. This was of a piece with what occurred about the same time. A word'. Some cunning That guilt may by faction caught and spread. in connection with the entry of Philip and Mary into London. shb condemned her own work to the flames. At the request of her Lord Chancellor. in 1554. spoke strongly on the subject stantiation test was that under died. 's Papacy when the three ambassadors came to Rome. and painted out a piece of the king's hand. and thus one of the Queen's acts was the destruction of her own learned labours. abused him roundly as a traitor. pair of gloves. The poor fellow lost his nerve.

FRO-M THE ORIGINAL BV TITIAN IN THE ROVAI. .PHILir THE SECOND. MUSEUM AT MADRID.

.

and played with him. in this dark reign. He jireached plainly against Romanist errors at Sit. . as a scliolar. and a martyr. It was given him what he should say in thut hour. where " the thousandth man could not get in." Hiime speaks of him. . Paul's Cross. indeed. the proto-martyr. as a man eminent both for learning and virtue. crowd. Eogers. Paul's. "When I have them (the so-called heretics) in my clutches. But Giirdiner objected. and greatly respected adding that it was Gardiner's plan to attack men of that character. . vSaviour's. Under Edward. let God do so and more to Bonner. and said. and was summoned before the Council.. Rogers saw them. he had been Prebendary of St. early in the new reign. seeing that Mary ought to ascend the throne and it was simply for hiti indictment of Romanism that Gardiner was he was brought before the Council. QUEEN MARY Mary 47 Both Pole and the Emperor. a saint. was. Southwark. and Bouner weut further. so great was the . when the Queen had left the Tower. Called a second time. a man of whom we may be proud. if they scape his fingers. but ordered not to leave his house. however.. where. he was again dismissed. and he led his murderers on to protest that the instigation of the whole business was with the (iueen herself. so that their recantation or punishment might jiroduce Rogers did not favour Lady Tane a powerful effect. maddened at the way in which Rogers foiled him. at his final examination and he woTild not suffer him to have one parting interview with his wife and children. He was the first that dared to go to the stake. the persecutors were often notably foiled especially in that of JRogers. Grey. as he passed to his execution but the sight did not daunt . however." In the trials of their victims. the Translator of Matthew's Bible. Charles V. rather thaii renounce the truth. and Reader of tlie Divinity Lecture. he defended himself so well that he was dismissed. This trial was in the Lady Cliapel at St. advised at first not actively to persecute.

noGKES at: the stakk lu his day. one indelible stain on Eogers' memory. the place. Old Holinshed said of it. joined the noble army of martyrs with hin\. lie said that it was a gentle punishment . trusted. U>')0. when in power at St. during the Grreat J5iriniiigham. that it was full of smiths. near Smithfield. and should do full honour to one of its greatest citizens. Taylor. and Dr.48 liis THE PURITAN BIBLE resolution. and lie suffered on the 4tli February. and edge-tool forgers. to prevent loan Bocher. his bust was unveiled by the do him honour. Hooper. the Maid of Kent. Paul's. of -n-liich Eogers was the Yiiiii'. has been slow to Fire. to such a man. In lood. in the heart of ifuyor. In 1883. bit-makers. was burned to the ground. St. Saunders. he declined to use his influence. from being burned There is if Foxe can be for heresy. nailers. ]]ut there should he a statue. It has grown a little since then. his native town. cutlers. ubout the same time. Sepulchre's.

APEL AT END OF ST. 49 . ST. SAVIOUR'S. CH. SAVIOUR'S CHURCH. INTERIOR OF CHAPEL. MONTAGUE CLOSE. PART OF PKIOEY OF ST. ST. 2. 3. EAST END OF ST./ ^^y. LADY CHAPEL. SAVIOUR'S. SAVIOUE S CHUKCH. SOUTHWAEK. 6. in% it'v VIEWS OF I. SAVIOUR'S. 4. 5.

omitted it from hi^ Also. That knowing readers' did admire the sa. And justly did extol his lasting fame. both to us and him. sung sweetest in a ca<je. BIBLE a blasplienier and was nnswerod. When firsi the Bible. not so. but.50 f(ir THE such PL'RTTA. Who did contemn tihe fury of all those Who. bird. it. refnses to acceid Jiiight ^jsq^^-gn/gr THE rUCF.\T1KIF. rnnst leave it doiihtful. like a.1). Ue. who lias written his Life at lengtji.V .me. He into English did translate so fair. •! Leranel riicstci'. who tells us this. later English Edition. after full investigation. however. with great pains "and care. that he find his own hands full of this gentle fire. (|uaint (juarles's tribute to him: ' We — prison conld his courage swage. Mr. Foxe. or JIIRMNG )K." !i 'Twu^ not . wei^ mortal foes.

though still to experience further vicissitudes. possibly." in which it is plain that he looked upon martyrdom as his probable end. fxxU examination tiie Eiio'lisli Then came what would appear to have been a farce. but even the true Word of God. under inflicting death on heretics. when he answered them. that will go before you. the costei-mongers were ordered to put out tlieir lights. i)rea(died before the Court. afierwards. but pious householders appeared with candles. . we preached no lies. Coverdale. in the spirit of meekness. and such a candle was lighted as. he wrote an " Exhortation to the Cross. Spanish Professor. we will not leave you. instruct those that opposed. in lis. '' Pray for us. has never gone out. just the same after a little iime." and shows how "a mouth and wisdom" were eminently given him. on the very Sabbath following ibe executions. This Alphonso Friar was a hypocrite. and. Popular indignation was becoming dangerously rcnised and. When he was sent to jNTewgate by niglit. they had nothing to say. nor tales of tubs." he cries. by the grace of God. that tlie Uisliops should. under a more liberal Reign. " for. and wliiJst six more were A senten. for which we. three times Translator. his adversaries had tlieir fling at his being a married man hut. in Spain. in company with many others like-minded. belonging to King Pliilip's retinue. Philip wished to show that he was not responsible.i/e of death. for at the very same time. and The burnings went on We . The substance of his sermon was. You shall see. during his imprisonment. against persecution. on both sides of (he streets. was saved. by God's grace. being sent to the Court of Denmark. There is no absolute proof that he was tliough he acted still more cruelly. named Alplionso a Castro. God willing. QUEEN MARY Jlis 51 is given in the " Fatliers of Clnirch. Of conrse. he was preparing a new Edition of a work in which he very strongly maintains the propriety of . and not Inirn them for their conscientious opiniojis. He was imprisoned. however..

before he was allowed to leave the country. ''Is not the Scripture. named TIawkes." said he. however. later on. " it is sufficient for Popery . the famous lawyer Plowden. ( 'cilaiuly. Avho interfered in his behalf. amongst them. will williugiy and joyfully give our blood to be shed. to Bonner's chaplain. to the Cliaplain of the King of Denmark.52 THE PURTTAN BIBLE help of your prayers. refused to pass the l?ill wliicli made the martyrdoms possible. when they saw how every thing was going. though there jiad to be a good deal of rorrespoudence. in the Tommons." He had become related. for the coufirnuition of the same. Paul's. thcie was o]ipositiou to Dr. And." said one of the martyrs. thirty-seven Members left the House. doings. " sufficient for my salvation?" " Yes. Bourne was nearly killed all the liorrible when preaching The House of Peers absolutely at St. SlllTHFIEln IN 1555. when it was first sent up from the ('ommons.

BOriiNE PEF.ACHIX(. ."->>. I < In DK. AT PAUL'S CROSS.

he was only elected. but it was a good deal moie than a spot. without book. I trust. I think. the profit thereof. than to be promoted to the three Sees whifdi he held. Lord Dacre offered the (iueen ien thousand pounds. a great part did de]Kirt from me. in time. generous sjiirit. with Mary. One more reference. superior Honourable birth. in the cause of Christ. almost all Paul's ]'4)istle.— . "Farewell! Pemliroke Hall I" exclaimed Eidley. " in thy ondiard." It would be out of place.are his life but she refused." So says J. even by ilie confession of his enemies. and all sanctified by an ndrc devotedness to the lionour of God. although. if she would sp. gave to Ilidley a degree of personal influence possessed liy no other. Baxter. Lonilon.'ranmer.-to the last of whicdi Let us leave him. and Durham. I Inn'e felt in all my lifetime evci.-i. and you the instruction. yet the sweet smell thereof. by extracting . I shall carry with me into Heaven. probal)ly not even by (. and their love of the truth." ILawkes leplied. however. He called his martyrdom a greater honour. ( a star of tlie first magnitude. sound judgment. " Goil seud me tlie salvation. adding. a spot of giease and blood. Of wliitdi study. a a commanding form. He was homing. --(the walls and tre. that Eidley was irreproacdiable in every relation of life. A. but not for our iustructiou. that this zeal and love for that part of God's A\^ord. united \\ itli unremitting industry. or would have held liochestei'. sball suffice to show the spirit of the martyrs. not to be misinteipieled. finly. we may lioije. 54 TH]': PURITAN BIBLE our salvation. which is a key and commentaiy to all the Holy Scriptures.'s would bear me witness. may ever abide in tliat College I" How dare the wretches tr)ucli a man like Eidley! . for. in his C'hur(di History. in any age. The Lord grant. if they could speak) 1 learned. to enter more minutely into the awful scenes of this miserable reigii never to be torg'otten and.after. Dickens called the reign of Mary's father.

NICHOLAS EIllLEV. I5S5- . BISHOP OF LONDON^ OB.

.

In spite of Rome." TEJIDKOKE COLLEGE. stood between those who read their English Bibles in secret. Rome's siren song.QUREN MARY anotlier 57 quotation from getting forgotten now. under its Roman The Bishops. they charmed. Rome whispered death. who is in the progress of this blessed ston'. tliat tliese vile persecutions. for about four years. but Ridley's careless ear Was deaf. in the flames. many cases. the calm and deliberate exposition of the principles by . and the bigotry that would . ' Read. were not sharp and passionate outbursts of ecclesiastical power. and Ridley's glory. Rome sung yreferment. in Catholic Church and Sovereigns. Rome's cursed cruelty. but brave Ridley's tongue Condemned that false preferment which Rome sung. and . hurried along by dread of rebellion.soorned death standing by. which England was to be governed. but Ridley would not hear. exasperated by popular fury or of regal tyranny. continued. he sealed it with his blood. but Ridley's dauntless eye Stared in death's face. And. quaint old Quaiies. with little intermission. They were. it must never be forgotten. as Charles Knight says. lor England's faith he stood. And.

and tlien inily at the urgent request of her ]3iit.l iced at a liberal table of Christ Cliurch. spite of his recantations. was taken from the old liocardo prison. lie had.was deceived hy tlie lying wret(dies.58 THE draf^Ki'cI PURITAN BIBLE to sign Aiticles iigaiust their cuu- have them then hounded ou hy the seciikr powers. to prepare the sermon. in iLenry ^'III. most likely. I'licy ^vere ly entertained by the Dean lie was p. : PEIIBKOKE COLI. and that his great learning niigdit be of service to the Church. . allowed to play bowls . He Cianinej. saved Mary's life. Cole. secret orders were given by the Queen to Dr. that persecuted. that his eyes were 0]jened. and been the last to yield. Peace told that version. and had protested against her fdaim to the throne being set aside. in dying brother. in lier father's days." and not the liisliops. the Kins. And it was not till just before his burning.^s time. and handsomesiieiices. perhaps even the very morning of it.EGEj IVY COURT. at (Jsford. it was to tJie very last. lliough some Dioceses were free of persecution So. Pliilip and [Mary greatly desired his eonthat the Council was well-disposed towards him. ])revious to his death.

sii(ii' iiMXMi:].'i'\ kiMiM iiK 1)Y Al-:iiii!i. U. PAIXTEIJ R.iiiio M ii. SMIEKE. .A.

Transubstaution about which. ]5axter says. A few recanted." credit. to fortify his courage. sent to the <^ne light. making such an absurd mistake that there was general laughter. Wliat he really said in Latin. But. Cranmer deserved the way Meh'iucthon used to address him: ''Your lleverend Fatliership. in his brief his Insuirection. Cranmer. " If you are but sure you know bread and wine." And it is well that one of the great English Bibles should constantly be associated with his name. Of coiirse. \\'eston. by name. on the whole. WJieu Wyatt. married Catherine Jaquemaine. of Orleans. besides Cranmer. even at such a time. was that they were assembled to confound tliat detestable heresy of the verity of the Body of Clirist in the Sacrament Heylin says it was through the Eed Sea that the martyrs passed to tlie land of promise. and smell. but at all events they went sober. as Calvin had in the death of the other Arian. had a cup of wine standing by him. urged by his companions to undertake the work of however. black as There was a the revision. and taste them. and feel. Servetus. visually. William Whittingham. 6o THE PURITAN BIBLE ! be to liis ashes lie sliould not have had a hand in the death of the Arian ^'ou Paris. and ask these Confessors to join him. then yo\i are at an end of controversy. and Ridley were first tried. AVhen the famous trio. even in these days. new translation of the Xew Testament saw the it was. and they would not leave tlie prison until they were discharged in like manner. the ''neck question" was. He brought out a New Testament there. the Prolocutor of the (Jonvocatiou. to set the gates open. in the main. and stumbled at the very threshold. the chaiacter and courage of the Protestant ('onfessors do them infinite — I hour of success. in 1557. their answer was that they had been committed there by order. when you see. One of Genevan exiles. in such dreadful times.. in Marshalsea Prison. J3ut. with the Papists. But he applied to it too often. Latimer. silver lining to the cloud. the .

30. " Jesus. This Testament was not jnst the same as the one in the tjeiievan Bible. 23. It was first in this Testament that verses were found for the is time. "And. But Stephens is an anglicizing that quite unnecessary.QUKEN MARY 6i sister of Calvin's wife. Stephens. prefixed 1o the Testament. in not sparing the body. and. ye are of no value.]) IN MODKRN TIMES. is Calvin's Epistle. but apperteine to those things wheirewith the flesh is —Luke man descended from x. showing that Christ is the end of the L:i\v. 23. because I liave made a man every whit whole on the Sabbath day?"— John vii. I am indebted to Lord Peckover. Here are some quaint rendering's from it. crammed. so (liock Testament."— Col. called. for his They were made by E. of 1551. which came out soon afterwards. SMITHKIKI. for whicli. ii. 'taking his woord. in addition to an Aildress of his own. sayde." Disdayne ye at me. a certayn J^ru'Salem " lio Jerioho. We should .

that the most violent persecution is over-ruled. Hexapla. Le Fevre also divided the Psalms into verses. but of William Whittingham alone. published only five months before Clary's death.)uce more an exile on foreig'n ground. f'ranmer. when left alone. amongst whom were Tyndale. ordered "wicked and seditious " books to be given \l]^ without delay. and Latimer. the "Word of God wins its own way. as it had been under Henry VIII. These sections are called Ainmonian. and conference of translations in other ton^'ues. And a third. the Codex Sinaiticus. thouR'h doubtless he would confer with his Genevan com]»atriots as to any difficult ])assai^'es. a critic of the Third Century. there were numerous In divisions of the Sacred Books. Here. instead of twentyfive. The public reading of the Scriptures. A liibited second issued on the 1-^th . like Tyndale thirty years earlier. This loT)? Testament represents the Genevan Bible .62 THE PURITAN BIBLE write. dated the 18th August. after Ammonius. St. three hundred and fifty-four. in 150!J. Estieuiie. . in English. not of " many of the principal Eng-lish Ceformers.Tune. very beautiful little book. which is. who may be responsible for them. was doing' the work. printed with silver type on the best pajjer. was pi-ohibited by a Proclamation. lo-")"). in connection with the Genevan Bible. R. that. L35-T." as is often said. a quarter of a century before. however. Pagiiiims had made divisions of a somewliat similar kind in liis Latin Bible. the first chapter of St. Matthew has forty-nine verses. (. And. of Paris. As we shall meet with it again. we would now only point out the lesson of the two Reigns. The Bible itself was not assailed. and Avas the best review of the sacred text yet made. on pain of death by martial law. in ancient times. iMatthew has tliice hundred and fifty-five sections and." It was the work. f'overdale. as at present. " dilig'ently revised by in Basster's It was a the most approved Greek examples. and. prothe importation of the works of twenty-five authors. in the Alexandrian.

R's I'rr. .estmixstkk aiihev.rrr. v.CRANMf.

for those whose faith has never been seriously tested. 64 THE PURITAN BIBLE though it was publicly burned more than once.." They although were a noble army in these dreadful times religious liberty was only just beginning to be underAnd they had their faults diieiiy those of the stood. in 155-1. so the translators were attacked and. keep yourselves from images. in the Service lie composed. period to wliidi they belonged. . But no one can rise from a perusal of the two large volumes Strype has written al)out him. when she was a Princess. Bonner ordered that even the texts recently put up in the churches should be erased again. There had been nearly a hundred editions. his translations had the rare merit of improving on the originals." his own expression. And Mary herself had translated a portion of the Paraphrase of Erasmus on St. to jibe at r'ranmer's "unworthy hand. in the nave of Westminster Abbey. of either the New Testament or the entire Bible. without a high admiration both of his character and deeds. It would not do to attack the Bible." "The noble army of martyrs praise Thee. His enemies might burn him: but his beautiful words are heard every Sa]>bath even as the wooden pulpit he used at the (Coronation of Edward YI is preached from still. John. . It was certainly awkward when a favourite one was " Babes. — . Pollard says that. It is easy. .

Some had their legs in the stocks. and buffeted with fists. stood in Skevington's gyves." FULLER.CMAPTEK V QUEEN MARY We would not willingly be accounted like those called the Momos Koroi amongst the Jews. twenty-one divines eight gentlemen eighty-four artificers a liundred husbandmen. loaded with so many irons that they could scarcely stir. servants. in sacrifices. and labourers twentysix wives twenty widows nine unmanned women two boys. Coverdale says: " Some were thrown into dungeons. and stinking corners. with their bodies doubled. by imprisonment. Many Bomanists hated the whole " You have lost the hearts of twenty business. And the number who died is only part of the miserable record. Si'EEn classifies the sufferers iu this short. with their heels upwards. which were most painful engines of iron. beaten with rods. entitled " The execution of injustice in England. Lord Burleigh wrote a Tract. . to have been near four hundred." in which he estimated the number that died. ugsome holes. . Others lay in fetters and chains. Some were tied in the stocks." ran a letter to Bonner. bodies. with gorgets of iron having neither stool nor Others stone to sit upon. and fire. dark. loathsome. whose office it wajs only ti> take notice of the blots or blemishes. and two infants. . And some were miserably famished and . within these twelve months. thousand. but terrible. reign as follows: Five bishops. Some were whipped and scourged. Some had their hands burned with a candle. . . torments. that were rank Papists. and their necks chained to the wall. to ease their wearied. the defects and deformities. E 65 . . — .

which he wo\ild not wear. they wonder whence dissension rose. . had manifested the staimchest loyalty to her. the Apostles. how sonls so like could e'er be foes?" Everything infamous characterized this Eeign. if they weie compelled to fight with dragons. " that we are now-a-days so vehement in rel)ukes. when brought before the Star Chamber. Bishop of Gloucester. Eight remained there for many months and.Jane Grey was proclaimed. But. the starved. when Lady . then. or other odible monsters and how gentle if a ravenous wolf come upon them. ITe says :—" When Maiy's fortunes were at the worst." Hooper. Surely. what modesty they would use. to serve her in great danger as Sir John Talbot and William Lygon. Their genernus discord with the battle ends.. howe'er at war. Erasmus boldly said. In peace. Stephen. A jury that brought in a verdict unacceptable to the Court was committed to prison. there is a time to speak. one of Mary's victims. the idolaters. to win and stay the people to her party. " Brave minds. . a service people could understand." says Bale. can testify. And ask. of this latter age. the -Tews. And. . 'Solomon saith. about the garments. . I know of no kind of charity to he showed to the devil. how mightily Moses resisted Pharaoh Elijah. 1 rode myself from place to place. they were "all heretics!" . if he loved the Bible." But what did that matter." . were sentenced to the payment of enormous fines. that Grod. and simple garments! He and Pidley fell out a little. 66 THE PURITAN BIBLE Actually melted pitch was poured upon the head of one. Mark. But I would know. for the evils had provided sharp physicians. are secret friends. that Bale. King Ahab Daniel. Esquire. and a time to hate. But they became fast friends in these dark days for Priests. the Pharisees and ITerod. complaint is made. hydras. used strong language! and soft wits are oft times offended. I sent horses. and other "Gentle Protestant writers. John the Baptist. as is well known. in Gloucestershire and Worcester.

67 .^^F^W7 ' . DOORWAY ENTRANCE PALACE. 4. 3.^.. CRYPT UNDER THE CHAPEL. TO CLOISTERS. GARDEN FRONT OF' LAMBETH I.ACE. LEADING FROM CHAPEL. THE CLOISTERS. 5. 6. 2. LAMBETH PALACE. ENTKANCE TO LAMBETH PAL.

I. in a hist speech. recanted his rrotestautism. laud had I'here had been the heartiest just before his execution. The vei-y priuciides of Romanism.MHETH I'. in the reconciliawith Konie.. nave way. . no doubt it was expected that others would.M. he was. Tunstall called him a beast. (rood men were spoilt by the Romanist system.OLI. Fine men. Avoiiu'ii THK CHAMBKK l-\ H. And. And some look upon l\install as mild and beuig'n as. . Mary luul f^ot it into her head. cspceially. when compared with many otliers. ac(|iiipsced. like Sir Tohn Cheke. At Idoopei's trial. simply because he was married. almost unaniuKuisly. weh'ome o-iveu to Mary: thou^^h her adlierence to J5oth J louses of Parliament Itoniauism was notorious. indeed. had tion .\CE IN WHICH THf. to lide and tame flip people of Enf^daiid and she did not look for much real opposition.68 THE PURITAN BIBLE Xo doubt ilie was a peiioct stedfastuess astonishiiieut ol' . that she was a \'iro'in sent by Clod. VEIJK WKRE CnNFlNEn. liuuilreds of martyrs to lueu and Xmtlmmbernot over blessed with loiiscieiicc.

LA \l lll'.I.AKJ].S TliWER.THE LlJ].Tl [ I'M. 69 .MK.

were responBy the oath which the sible for what happened. they were bound So. addressed to tlie Parliament of England. of late. wolf.70 THE PURITAN BIBLE working' ou sour and revengeful tempers. sixtyeight years old. Cambridge. with such open robbery and cruelty as was never used in Tuikey. in the name of the exiles for religion: "Illustrious Lords. spoke out about the same time. to persecute "heretics. why then bring in the Trojan Horse. agreed upon by all your consents." There were three highly intelligent expostulations. "You have sent to Parliament. a little This was before the fires were lighted in Smithfield. if you rate so low the blood of your countrymeii. ]3isliops took at their consecration. yea who whole forest of wild beasts. a lad eight years old. or else. not witliout the willing consent of the in whole Realm so that there was not a Parish England. in an Expostulation. Let the trial be l)y writing. and Oxford." with all their might. if charity. and in it he said: consented. )ue was probably drawn up by Bradford. the Church of Englisli tongue. Xow. the three preachers liave been removed and punished. your country. and possess the city in desolation ? But. that desired to have again the Romish superstitions and vain service. tiger. a cripple. ' ( — : We a Declaration concerning King Edward's Reformation. to the unplacing of many godly laws touching religion. and wrote from Basle. patriotism. not without great consultations. And Foxe. also. our prayers. bear. at Windsor. and so little regard the former slaughter caused by these laws (the Heresy Laws). by the most learned men of the Realm." This was called — . the lion. by disputation in the plain ! : ' . whom he caused to be burned. met in Bonner whose fury killed two hundred in three years reached from John Fetty. by him scourged to death. a as Fuller says. to Hugh Laverock. if the murdering party could have listened to reason. The thrice famous Historian of the martyrs was one of the expelled Oxford Fellows. desire that we may be called before you.

For what have your fellow countrymen given you authority. not them is heretical. . Why COURTYARD IN THE FLEET PRISON. Both Convocation and Parliament must share the responsibility they cannot escape it. however wide of the mark it may be to truth. but Convocation. if you return not tranquility? But there are those who are preposterous Whatever pleases in religion.OUEEN MARY . " The Laymen's Supplication " was presented to the . in its Lower House." Not only did this reasonable and wise expostulation fail. And nothing can please them that is not straight by their rule. petitioned for the revival of wicked and stupid old Heresy Laws so that they must take their full share of blame for all the terrible things that happened. and savage by nature. however. . can move you. 71 Christ. but that you may give them security? is reverence paid to you. be eutreatecl let the public safety prevail over the solicitations of a few.

not learned in Latin. and pity." cry the suppliants. who will show themselves obedient to all superior powers.. the Lord's We . our h\imble suit. not one man in the Realm. Before the blessed Beformation. and finished by that holy and innocent King her brother. the Crown. against God. in all things not THE MARSHALSEA PRISON TN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. in English. have weighed the commandment concerning the restitution of the late abolished Latin Service. It bids us dissent and disagree from God's Word. Right IFonourable Counnissioners. could say. begun by the Queen's father. " the suit of poor men. 72 THE PURITAN BIBLE Commissioners sent to visit Norfolk and Suffolk counties wliici had first supported Maiy's claims to " Tender.

QUEEN ELIZABETH WHEN PRINCESS. .

.

being away himself. who denied having sent it. knowledge. He was a Fellow of Magdalen. should be taken from us. But her rough keeper. that the Word of God. . there were several attempts to privately murder her and once. And. on any pretence. and to talk of Christ were to be schismatic as though none could be true to the Queen that were not false to God and none could be the Queen's friends who railed not on her father and brother none could favour her but such as hated godly . But Mr. long before Mary's five years and five months were completed. and had been a fierce opponent of the " new learning." in Edward's time but these horrible cruelties turned him right round.) . Sir H. averted a general revolt. where twenty armed men met him secretly. that no one was to speak No doubt. At Woodstock. made haste to the Queen. . Another time. and rated Gardiner. or one of the Ten Commandments.. with some others. they were with her. The persecutors were to fill up the measure of their iniquities once for " all. was Gardiner's doing. Benningfield. alone. and Prayer in our English tongue. than in all the processions we shall ever go in. and a burst of enthusiastic joy hailed the accession of . that an order came It for her execution. Bridges. In What a mercy and marvel that she escaped! the Harleian Miscellany. no doubt. raging cruelty! tyranny tragical!" cried •Julius Palmer. a great favourite of Gardiner. . We cannot consent. (. QUEEN MARY 75 Prayer." But such things had no effect. Elizabeth. the Articles of his Belief. As if to love God's Word were heresy. whilst she was in the Tower. had left strict instructions. a deep indignation had settled on the nation. younger brother of Lord Chandos. on witnessing the deaths of Ridley and Latimer. better in one Sermon. We have learned to follow Christ. They wished to speak to the Princess. Basset. who had befriended her at first. Green says that the death of the Queen. she was burned in her bed. for a Latin Service. came within a mile. it is said.

" Both Elizabeth and Lady Jane Grey weri. in doing so. Charles the Fifth's Representative who became one of Mary's cliief advisers. lie. and could not choose. " This is the voice of an ox. he ex(dainied. thine. or a nobleman.highly accomplished. Elizabeth) excdaiiu : — " Reader. a wrong. and a convinced Protestant. And. was a great Bible lover. was the putting of such a beautiful and amiable girl to death. for su(di a as Edward. England'3 Jleywood. thing. Whilst in tbe Tower. Biit so weak as to yield to Mary Think nothing.: 76 . witli what feelings canst thou this peruse? Since. I wept. . certainly. But. wise. ! . She corresponded with Jiullinger. did comprise Fair. all sweets. holy. all virtues. and not of a man." of the mischief was owiug to the evil counsel Keuard. the latter having a good knowledge of four languages and of . iu Latin as good as his own." Tlie very men who had exiiediencv placed her on the Throne urged llie have been them. Perhaps the greatest Jiorror. with their wicked hearts and subtle Lady Jane tongues. Liidy Jane wrote on the wall :-sliould not " of her execution. oh the indelible shame of murdering such a young King. the Zurich Reformer. This day my lot is drawn — to-morrow. in favour of Lady Jane Grey. of all this horrible reign. Queen of Scots. aud one or t^^o others. Wlieu some King of Castile heard a courtier say. accomplished the death of the lovely Lady Jane Grey. nuiy the Clironicler ( T. when tlie danger from A\'yatt was at an end. but Elizabeth just escaped them. writing it. strange tlijat doth on man incline. accomplished. kind. that learning was not seemly for a Prince." It was. he also passed over Mary. ihe lineal descendant of the chlcst sister of TTenry YIII. to set aside Mary and Elizabeth. THE PURITAN BIBLE Well jnurderers but they liad to take themselves off. witty. Much " Her mind. aud very bold.

. FKOII THE CULLECllON OF THE EAKL OF STAMFORD.LADY JANE GREY.

.

he dared not remain in a country where his safety could not be ensured. and the treatment meted out to them. that equalled such a bud. Mary died in the prime of life the most miserable . Dionysius. when they were unwilling Gardiner himself often declining." to persecute She iirged on the Bishops. sine fructu. She could trust neither her Cabinet nor her Court. to love and honour. " At seventeen. but she . when the tables were turned once more. I will repay. without dwelling a little on the persecutors. to rival such a rose. whom her subjects had been disposed." Only JTist before Mary died. the land. as revealing the defection of those on whom she most relied and her spirits never recovered the mortifying discovery. reign. Eose never blew. " Yeiigeance is mine. we cannot close this chapter. than this misguided Queen. It would be found upon her heart. saith the Lord." And. that. Defloruit. But. and steer Uphill ward. An 1 the persecutions were carried on to the very end of her . . But. she said. and Elizabeth came to the Throne. were more striking examples of the wretchedness of the tyrant. n&ver breathefd. mainly. a rose of grace. faithful souls could continue to say: — " We bate no jot Of heart or hope: but still bear on. under the pretence of law." Girl It is to the eternal honour of Prote. harvest men were insufficient to gather in the produce of the soil a nniltitude of the people were sick and a general blight seemed to have settled on Neither Tiberius. And.stnntism. . nor Damocles.- QUEEN MARY sweet creature. as for Philip. Parliament had stopped supplies. The loss of Calais Mary looked upon. cruel fools ! 79 Fearsome. "Floruit. . there was no retaliation. at first. sine luctu. woman in Europe. for all that the martyrs had suffered.

and it is almost certain that ^lary would leave no stone unturned to circumvent him. that religion should not be interfered with. but the (JTieeu checked them for their " insolence. Foxe and Burnet aie authorities for it. to get Calais again." Mary would not hear truth and she deliberately suppressed it. under the circumstances. in her brotlier's time. t If 1 ventnre to differ from Canon Dixon. I thank God. and had his ears cut off. she said. But for that. on this point. She refused. but neither she. to hear Ridley preacli. who first supported her claim to the Throne. later on.t Northumberland had gone most warily and impudently to work. if this bit of a Town were regained from the English. it would Certainly the French were glad have been better. Dixon thinks it unlikely that such a promise :-hould have been asked for. as for your books. ueed not have been so afflicted about that if she had been sorrier for all her miserable persecutions. . They sent a deputation to Court. A nobleman of Louis Xl. added greatly to the roll of martyrs and such a request was most natural.8o THE PURITAN BIBLE . after its Englishing had been an eye-sore for two hiindred years. I never read any of them. he was put in the Pillory for three days. I never did. when one of their number mentioned her promise. The door of the Parish Church would be open to liim. acknowledge the very great assistance his mo. And how could ilary expect faithful service." And. nor any of hers.) ." Eidley was sorry lie had accepted refresh: ment there. Gang aft agley.«t able history of the Chiirch of England has been. (Routled"«.th's time said he would be content to lie seven years in Hell. at the same tim«. when he came into her neighbourliood. Avould Jiear him. nor ever will do. 13ut it seems almost to require genius to see the due proi)ortion of things. "And. But Suffolk. he would probably have succeeded but " Tbe best laid schemes o' mice and men . 1891. I would. when she had been so unfaithful herself? She gave her promise to the men of Siitfolk.

) .\ l)l'. (k.l>ilXl. R.Ul. SMIKKK.I.AD'i ]\XK (.li. TIIK CHOW A.\.

in his " History of the World " And. Certainly. Bonuer . all that was against the monks particularly. And there had been a fairly complete removing of the things that were shaken. to Mary ordered take out of the public records. "You have the word. on any sort of rock. how Mary was treated by her father and how natural it was for her temper to be soured. but her answer was of . controversy in this reign ended. What a frightful thing for a father to do." Let it never be forgotten. Christ never said that he would build a Monastery. ' fanaticism!" Something was. that she was always ill in the autumn. She was compelled to write to him. One thing may surprise us she never attempted. as of things that were made. probably. renouncing the Pope's authority in England.ny did not want to be the Head of the Englisli Church. but Gardiner opposed her. the accounts of the Visitation of the Monasteries. the Pope wanted the Abbeys restored. originally adding. . in consequence. When a Princess. in her father's reign. that the things which could not be shaken might remain. tbey might all again be painted to the life out of the «tory of this King. Of course. but it was impossible.82 THE PURITAN BIBLE as to tlie suppression of truth. on any large scale. and it was many such things that led iSir Walter Raleigh to say of him. and acknowledging her mother's marriage to have been incestuous and unlawful." " If all Tytler says that Mary had an amiable disposition. And she only reached her forty-second year. however. hut we have the sword. but how feeble a barrier is the best natural disposition against the dreadful influence ' . due to physical causes. with the Romanist prolocutor saying. He was extremely earnest that Mary should retain lier title and authority. to re-establish the Conventual system which her father had thrown down. ! : : — the pictures and patterns of a merciless Prinoe were lost in tlie world. she wrote from Beaulieu. One Alas when prejudice and ignorance go together. Strickland tells us that ^l.

One of them represented Mary. a it heavy crown. than to force religion. as a Jezebel. People rejoiced in the many failures of the Glovernment and there were dreadful lampoons. are forbidden to speak in the Church. Queen of Scots. so that Mary.. as the hateful persecutions went on. with which she had gratified Philip. There can be little doubt that she died of a broken She wanted the Act heart. . and her subjects' alienation from her. the loss of Calais. the wholesale forcing of Queen Mary's reign wa» an unmitigated failure. that nothing could be more against religion. and the last will of Henry VIII. that the six scarlet letters attached to the name of Mary will not be . Is it then fitting that your Church should have a dumb lieadP" Chilling-worth has said. and an ungodly serpent. could reign after She grieved her. it was . for the weight of her crown. and jewels. but was told this was impossible. Any early popularity of the (iiieen disappeared. of Succession put aside. obliterated by any historic solvent though it was going too far. Charles Knight may well say. to attack her in insolent ballads and ])amphlets.QUEEN MARY " 83 Women. certainly. So. And. I have read in Scripture. rings. there were no less than nine of her Bishops who were a sort of death guard for her. . dying either a little before her decease or a little after." but she made so. as Fuller says. constantly over her absent husband. At her coronation she had to hold up her head sometimes. with a number of Spaniards sucking her to skin and bone and a specification was added. . of the money. The Queen suspected that some of her own Council had invented this as they alone were privy to some of the transactions. being in the prime of life. and an "uneasy head. Yes. And.

sbould be forced to bite tbeir own nails. and. bring. Thy thorn-crowned brow now wears the crown of po^wer. B. till be bad received tbe news from (. eyes an incli witbin ])is bead. bis successor in tbe See of Wincbester. be ^^'as seized witb tbe distemper wbicb put an end to He bad boasted. It was four o'clock.it about that tbe Protestant exiles. I Tollege n)an.' CHAPTER WHAT ]!EFEL VI THE PERSECUTING WEETCHES Thy pierced hand guides the mysteriaus wheels. on tbe cbapter exclaimed: ''Yes I bave denied witb Peter: I bave gone out witb Peter: bnt I bave not.it]ierine unlawful." Poynet. and illegitimate. ejected from every retreat. a book in Henry's reign. a nose booked like a buzzard. before be sat down to it.read." H. refined 84 . tben. migbt be the piit We will over against tbis. " Watch with me one hour.is . shortly before being. witb an expostulating laugbter upon it. and a of bim banking look. moutb . declaring tbe marriage witb ('. nostrils like a borse ever snuffing in tbe wind and a sparrow : - : . frowning brows." Carry away tbis frenzy fool to prison. learned to weep bitterly witb Peter." would not eat bis dinner. tliat be would jiis life witbiu a moutb. bis answer w. of tbe burning of Ridley and Latimer. Canon description : -His curious face. one of tbe martyrs. and perisb wilb buriger. an Eton and King's Gaedixee. at bis trial. STOWE. He bad written. The patient voice says. Wben Laurence Saunders.)xford. He as yet. bis deatb. ' Dixon's but wbinisical. says -" Tbis Doctor batb a swart colour. reminded liim of tbis. And w-hen the dark enigma presseth sore. and printed.

tlie ruin of the monasteries. Enjoyed the show." . after living for some time in the Marshalsea Prison. about to his friends to supply him with puddings and pears. The popular rhymes. may be seen in the iirst volume of the llarleian MS'S. Then Bonner. 85 . " Indoctior Philonide. blythe as ehepheird at a Wake. in Mary's Court. as the safest place to secure him from the fury of the people. He is likened to a toad. But Cowper's lines are likely to stand though not literally true who used to boast that manage the high and singular A^III. : — " When persecuting zeal made Eoyal sport." One of these rhymes closes with a lineal pedigree. a cut-purse. that the Pope exercised in England an atrocious and bitter tyranny. and danced about the Stake-. doubtless. to avoid disturbance. He had declared. so foolish and imlearned. as Burnet tells us. general hatred against him was. . intensified his also being a renegade. he was buried at midnight. in Edward's time. whilst calling himself a servant of servants." In his former imprisonment he behaved more like He sent a glutton than a Divine. and gave them to the devil if they did not supply Such curses came straight from a him liberally.WHAT BEFEL PERSF. lately. he was but a rapacious wolf in sheep's clothing. He had quietly witnessed the ousting of the Pope. in which liis descent is pietended to be traced down from a juggler. that it became a proverb. and that. The in 'Southwark churchyard. Some have told us.CUIING WRETCHES face of a courtier or an ascetic quisitor of a martyr perliaps. With Royal innocence. and there is no doubt he was unjustly used. that he Imd his good points. to Cyclops. and to Philonides of iielita. percliauce of an inliotli he and Cramuer made an idol of Henry none but himself could Winchester. Very Mo-tt men have. and a Tom o'Bedlam. But when there was an outbreak of mobbish violence at Portsmouth. As for Bouner. he revolted. circulated after his death. and even the destiaiction of the shrines and images superstitiously used. by — . likely.

I warrant you. he was very nearly made Pope himself. . on his hands for nearly a twelvemonth.86 THE PURITAN BIBLE were mild compared witli those he indulged in when restored to his See. But. but 1 will break it. came nearer to election than Wolsey ever did. the law by which he could effectually dispatch him did not come into operation till nineteen days before its efficacy was tried on him. as Charles Knight has pointed out. Then this was his language. the Bishops took no action. was to be a fresh translation of the New leijieutly. You think we are afraid to put one of you to death yes. probably. it was owing to him that. Tie left it to their discretion and they were discreet. and unblemished morals. He began but was unable to resist the pressure of the party of violence. The call never came." and would put forth no sort of effort. Hawkes. with his royal descent. before he woild proceed against him. As for Cardinal Pole. for designing great measures of leformation in his own Church. Hui. who died at the same time as Queen Mary. in the majority of cases. Maitland says that he had one of the martyrs. througliout these miserable persecuting years. there is a brotherhood of vou. Still. " We will rid you away. . in 1555 amongst which. lie. . he " waited to he called. yes." liisbop. Let Pole also have credit. bvit they . and then we shall have one heretic less.

BISHOP bonnek's house in 1780.ihrarv). (fko. 87 .m an original drawing in thk guildhall i.

and interposed. and nobody daring to appear as their advocate. at Canterbuiy. sent down commissioners to Cambridge. almost under He the shadow of his own Cathedral. So they were all set at liberty. Bucer and Fagius. lie shrank. guarded with men well armed and weaponed." Their bodies were taken iip. But Testament. from Colwho chester. from the horrors perpetrated. chained to posts as if still alive. he was a man of wide and sympathetic nature.88 THK rURlTAN' BIBLE .OOO at his . it is not much use trying to whitewash any of ihese pei'secnting. lie wrote to Pole for instructions employed some one to get them to sign a paper in general terms. ]3ibles weie himted out and heaped around. two were sent to this natiiral brute beast. and to their lawful superiors. after chiding Bonner for his cruelty. more than Twentyonce. and burned in Cambridge marketplace. What follies these persecuting wretches perpetrated The Commissioners summoned Bucer and Fagius to appear before them! But. And some of the most fearful scenes were witnessed. who had bceu buried there with all honour. and Pole was not exposed to the fury of the Pope. was not the only time Bibles were burned. wretches. and declaring that they would be subject to the Church of Christ. "the dead bones not being able to come. for fear they might escape. to disinter the bodies of the eminent Reformers. and there were o. Bucer had expired in the midst of an uiifinlshed sentence. a foreign author. unless they were carried. . I funeral. murdering. as Heylin says. acknowledging that Christ's body was in the Sacrament. Anderson quotes Cabrera. fiud all burnr together. of whicli some begiuuiug was made. Pole gave the first Edict for the Episcopal Inquisition. and all such ]ie grew weary. upon mature deliberation they were condemned. was Ihree years after ]Mary had been on the thione. before lie liad well beguu measures slept a long sleep. sometimes. as a " favourer of heretics " which he was in danger of being called But. Tliis Ihe first .

POLE. i.K<. . roi'K s ARI'MDISIIOP OK CiXTKKllL'KV.f.t^ARDlXAI. THI-.\re.

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This was the third knowai time. when the nniversities of Cambridge and Oxford were visited bv Orinaneto. which gave complete liberty of conscience to Protestants in Grer many. and in it he said: " The observation of ceremonies. One good thing he did. he gave directions for the guidance of the Council to Cardinal Pole. however. At Oxfor<l. were declared enemies of the public peace. are as absolute. wei'e 91 " muiiy of the Bibles cliaiued to desks in burnt about this time. the most terrible year of the martyrdoms. and certainly Bucer and the Bible had always gone together. who soon put all right again. ing. Gluirclies. when he carL'. Like Diocletian. When he left. was the best thing he ever did. though it soon produced a House of Commons devoted to the Court. on the ground of religion. Datary of the Poutiff. never had treasure to be paid for so heavily. the body of the wife of the famous Peter Martyr was consigned to the common cesspool. was the very year of the Diet of Augsburg.e here to wed. And Philip had to leave Mary." He had actually said that the passing of the abominable Six Articles. The next year. or Chief Officer of Home. as there were no such person.WHAT BEFEL PERSECUTING WRETCHES siijiuy. also. Their ministers were permitted to enjoy their Livings and those who attempted to attack them. before the Court. and two cart londs of gold and silver coin. )ne of Pole's last sermons was at Whitehall. every chest a yard long. These ( — . he had had enough of it. to try and manage the vastest dominions of the age. with the contempt of ceremonies. He would have been a fine autocrat. in using his influence to save the life of Elizabeth. directions." Ag'aiii early in J557. will give more light than all the reading of 'Scriptures can do. by Henry VIII. Charles V abdicated. a furious Italian. but. He had brought with him twenty-seven chests of bullion. 1555. . for obedience sake. which remain and in the Cardinal's hand writ- as void of reference to if any option of the Queen's. if he had stayed in England.

and my Lord Cardinal too. iu the loss of the Spanish Aruiada. was so struck by the hand of God tliat. Bishop of St. soon afterwards went mad. sometimes out of his mouth. In Machyn's Diary. wlien only a week out of his office. after cruelties in his own country greater than any here. The comI is too terrible. and went to his death bed. David's. perluips. ever sutt'ered sucli a. Nu lie hixiuiliation as lie did. "Lady Jane! Lady Jane I" Thornton. Peter fulniinatiug his anathemas against the plete list . who condemned Lady Jane Grey. Aud died a miserable death. the Suft'ragan of Dover. " the principles of that religion being such as no man can receive. Well may Dante. and so died. sometimes out of liis nose. and he will not be surprised. that in it we have a genuine picture of the IJomauism of the day. find St. " Yes so I do. iu liis Paradiso. and so he continued till his death. he was not able to move himself iu his bed. after S])eaking of this reign as a continued scene of calamity. And tliejr soon had reason. who sentenced Ferrar. The English not only dreaded his coming. was so stricken that his meat would lise up. til] he has abjured his senses. tlie cruel Sheriff of London. continually crying. lie shoiild lemind the reader. he said. that. Morgan. being exhorted to remember God. We forbear. — Judge Morgan." Mr." The last glimpse we get of the Pojie is an almost incredible one. imder the year 1554 we find: "Some Spaniards killed an Englishman basely. Let every one read Js'eal's History of the Puritaus. renounced his reason. Another ptrspcutor hanged himself iu the Tower.92 THE PURITAN BIBLE sovereign. was suddenly struck with palsy. two h(dd him while one thrust him through. while watching a game at bowls." Fuller gives a terrible list of what most people could not but look upon as judgements from Heaven. but that of his countrymen. and put off all the tender compassions of human nature. foi' seven years. uuht to be described. till his dying day. where. his own predecessor. A\'oodrott'e.

^ the Emperor was the man who had demanded. and that iniquitous father of his. he announced that all kingxloms were subject to him that he would suffer no Prince to be too familiar with hiui and that he would set the world on fire. remonstrated with him. offering to make himself Universal Any one that dared to differ with him. and who spent The an hour or two every day with (^ueen Mary.WHAT BEFEL PERSECUTING WRETCHES blood-st. he called heretic. . and was responsible for the Interim. " Tiiat accursed young fool." To political prisoners. In 1556. he said. that the Decrees of the Council of Trent should be accepted by Protestants. A\'hen pressed to call a Council. when one of the Cardinals dared to remonstrate with him. . rather than be driven to do anything below his dignity. And. the chief upholders of the Papacy. and forty Divines. without any water to drink. he applied the rack and the strappado. such as Charles V. and a perfidious. who on earth place my place! My place!" At least. schismatic.iiiied 93 usurp and avaricious Pontiffs. not the most learned. "You also are a schismatic. head-strong Pope. to send about sixty weak Bishops. tlie raged against. simpleton. for he himself was above all. and his son Philip "My I . least abusive word that he applied to Charles Y was In fact. retiring to a monastery. how little use it was. to Trent. and heretic. and to Philip. let all the world see what sort of a creature he was. this one. eiglity years of age. who had done so much for Rome. would God. when only fifty years old. whom the Queen brought tlie nation under once more. So Europe saw the interesting spectacle of an Emperor. . they had never been born!" Will it be believed. that he said this of the Emperor Charles V. the whole Spanish nation. And This was the last view England had of the Papacy. very man to whom so much was owing. or the torture of a diet of salted meat. The world had already seen. Cardinal Pole was superseded. he said that he needed none. he Dictator. twice. (jueen Mary herself.

confesses that. like that great pjtst behind. .ifter exclaimiiig that he did not see how anyone could be saved who sat in tlie Pope's chair. and yet conferring orders upon their several Clergy! Scotland took the Bible and the Reformation to its heart and the motto of its most populous city raiglit soon have applied to the others: "Let Glasgow flourish by the preaching of the "Word!" There is nothing to report from Ireland. from which it had been scarcely awakened. let the last thought. suspicious. as we turn with relief from this dreadfxil reign. inflexibly severe. and revengeful. The whole nation seemed to have s\mk into the stupid composure of ignorance and superstition. iiud Leland dismisses the subject with contempt. be the heroism of the martyrs. and at other limes two or three at once. indiscreet. that there had been no Popes for some years together. Where courage. that tliere were more tlian twenty schisms. One mighty cord of honour twined?" . choleric. Certainly to be in such a " Succession " is about the last thing to be desired. foolThe hardy.94 THE PURITAN BIBLE Soames says. but found it impossible. just before slie fluugof evils is more than could be contained in any one character but Ca>sar Borgia leaves him far behind." But. . and the same writer admits. ostentatious. Baronius. in a succession of fifty Popes not one pious or virtuous man sat in the Chair. self-opiniouated. the Popes of Rome and Avignon excommunicating each other. Marcellus. " So sai're'd! I3 there ought siirrounding Our lives. tenacious. " No warm adversaries of Popery stood forth. His predecessor. lofty. according to Neal. that such a menagerie wickedness. faith fubounding. it away for ever. impetuous. . that the Pope Paul lY was " vaiu. eager to advance his own kindred. a Romanist Historian. one of which continued fifty years. to provoke jiersecution. tried to reform matters. and died in a very short time. freedom." Venetian Calendar is full of his absurdities and And Dixon says. however.

1530. tiiat the rod they take so calm. that burned thy father's bones to dust. to whom England owes an imperishable debt. And canonizes him who sheds the most?" The lie ' Tacitus declaims against the folly of extolling the . the blood of the martyrs was the seed of the Church. rather than act or speak what to hem was a lie. with blind-fond trust.and.sent Their souls to Heaven. owns no friend. But. we have felt a pleasure in attempting to give their work its true proportions. once ensconced in Apostolic chair. bav ng spilt much blood. And execrates above all other lies? The lie that clasps a lock on mercy's plan." Let US acknowledge it heartily. has a short note on Numbers xxiii." But the curse has been turned into a blessing . And gives the key to yon infirm old man." Who. Tyndale's Marburg TSTew Testament. and the worst of all lies.WHAT BEFEL PFRSECUTING WRETCHES They were . But. amongst were the foremost Trauslator. so in this miserable reign. Is Deified. makes that a boast. and sits omniscient there? The lie that knows no kindred. whom God hath not cursed ?" The note is. as of old. Keble has said : — " Meek souls there a/re who little dTeam Their daily strife an angel's theme. and His most precious gift to men. That first adjudged them heretics. Shall prove in Heaven a martyr's palm. I can tell you how. let us also never cease to do honour to those who actually died for an open Bible and a pure doctrine. and cursed them as they went? The lie that Scripture strips of its disguise. " Wouldst thou We and then admit again. pass on to pleasanter themes. that which misrepresented God. may slightly alter Cowper's words. all great Bible lovers and. Their glory can never fade. as there have often been attempts to be-little them. then . when a few words would have saved them who died in the fearful agonies of burning. But him that makes its progress his chief end. the religion of Jesus Christ. 8: " IIow shall I curse. " The Pope . Or.s. 95 tliem. That.

155S. ERECTED TO THE MEMORY OF THE 41 PROTESTANT VICTIMS OF MARL\N PERSECUTIONS IN CANTERBURY. MEMORIAL. and compare her with THK MAKTNl..96 THE PURITAN BIBLE is former times. Cliarles V.. he . and certainly there think of England's abundant justification for it when we first Queen. and contemuing the present. ^'i^•toria l)etter liave But when he settled down in his retreat at Cuacos. CAXTERBl'RY. THE LAST FIVE OF WHOM AYERE BURNT ON THE lOTH OF NOVEMBER.'. the lovely peerless haps Mary had Perthe Grood. as her august relative. SL'RMOUNTEH EV THE CANTERBURY CROSS. the last. abdicated. UX THE SITE OF THE STAKE IN THE MARTYE'S FIELD. had done a little before her death.

where they could not be openly. He was several times molested and imprisoned. but outlived Queen Mary. who were nearly all "favourers of the Grospel. or held down their heads." they lurked behind the pillars of the Churches. Cheapside. They poached his trout. drove away his cows." His name was Underbill. So the Shasters of India were forbidden by the Brahmins to be looked upon. and pelted his son.— LEWIS.. and taken care of with the hope of better days. Instead of seeing and worshipping the " breaden god.WHAT BEFEL PEKSECUTIXG WRETCHES 97 was unable to keep even his few neighbours in order. At one time '' diligent search being made for all suspicious books. and he lived in Wood St." lie sent for a bricklayer.s of the Bishop of Gloucester. G . Anderson tells us of one of the gentlemen ushers of the Queen. or even heard by the common people. the future hero of Lepanto. t And the Bibles were read secretly. ' ! ! t Injunction. and built xvp a wall in his chamber. And his clocks would not go right tenipora mores Certainly a multitude of the people were quite ready for the change brought at once by Elizabeth. where they could not see it. and continued to receive his pension. and enclosed his books in security.

and shield of our defence. Then be not like the hogge that hath a peaa'le And takes more pleasure Reade his desire. in the trough and wallowing in the mli-e. is to is when men'a Here is devices faile the bread that feedes the life. to understand thereby.he faith of the i^enple. Pray still in faith with this respect to fructifie therein. a^t Eeade not but but with a single eye: first desire God's grace. and such is t. not this book in any case. double happie shalt thou be wheii God by death thee calles. in all thy life. that death cannot ossaile The tidings of salvation deare. So say the Chronicles old. That knowledge Then happie thou mia. to lead© our lives therein Here is the judge thfut stints the strife.y bring this effect to moptifie thy sinne. quench our heate of sinne the 'tree where trueth doeth growe. Then had sifted the wheat as the living seed of a nation. The Pilgrim Fathers of later days will remain the most interesting group of exiles to all Englishmen." . comes to our eares from hence IThe fortresse of our faith is here." This is the place for a little further description of the exile homes and Churches which were to be found in many parts of the Clontinent durinp' Queen Mary's Reign.. whatso to thee befallen Tea. : :: : : : {'IIAPTEE VII THE GENEVAN BIBLE Of the incomparable treasure of the " H oly Scriptures : Here Here the Spring where waters flowe. because of the immense results of their settlement in America " God had sifted three kingdoms to find the wheat for this planting.

and it was resolved that Homilies should be nuide and pul)lished. as seen. on which indeed Elizabethan England. so that tliey might be able to give an account to their Ordinary yearly. a somewhat detailed account of them will not be out broug'lit out of place. and which it took the Authorized Version a long time to supersede. was brought up. . to be read when there was no sermon. like the Yicar of Bray. All who had the gift of preaching also ( !) were required diligently to the (Jlergy were enjoined in we have occupy themselves in it. when we consider that they an I'higlish Bible which became a househokl book.THE GKNEA^\N BIBLE N(i such 99 romance Mary's reig'n. including Shakespeare. And belong's to the wanderers in (^ueen yet. Tbere were a great many indeed who stuck to their livings through all changes. to employ themselves in studying the Scriptures. which passed througli more than a hundred Editions. And so far had Reformation principles prevailed that Queen Maiy's reign.

but he did not approve of his violence. and use him. but Knox absolutely refused to read the reformed English Liturgy of Edward VI. though Gardiner had tried to stop the sending of all supplies to them from England. The Refugees were in one way or another fairly well maintained. and tlien feed on their fingers' ends. so it was Knox versus Cox. 1")59. for ever associated with the name of Calvin. and he wrote to Cecil in -lanuarv. and were looked upon Melancthon as heretics by many of the Lutherans. Frankfort. Calvin could appieciate Knox. there should have arisen a violent conflict amongst those whom persecution had driven together. was no less an enemy to Christ Ihan the Emperor Nero. the Protestant Eefugees settled in Basle. and other places in the neighbourhood. he was expelled. D'Anbigne. staying at Geneva for a time. but they escaped by the help of the fishermen at Leigh. to his honour. regretting his . and it was at this lovely City. found trouble abroad. Cox was equally determined it should be read. They in Essex. Zurich. however. and in modern times with Dr. and Cos reigned supreme. interposed on their behalf. at such a time. the historian of the Reformation. the persecutor had gone to his account. and at Zurich they were offered sufficient bread and wine to support tliem. and before they came near such a fate." But tlireatened folk often live long. It seems sad that. and then becoming the Minister of the Church at Frankfort.100 THE PURITAN BIBLE As we have seen. and when it was found that he had saicl that the Em])eror Charles T. be(/oming overseers and correctors of the press at the numerous printing establishments there. indeed. which. Many of them settled at Basle. and other towns. they refused. John Knox was amongst the Refugees. that " for very hunger they should eat their own nails. that one of the largest Exile Churches was found. Prohibitions had been issued against their departure. But Knox was always violent. however. partly at the wisli of Calvin. Strasburg. Knox returned to Geneva.

.JOHN KNOX.

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news at such a time. He distinguished himself at (Jxford. He had the less reluctance to do so. and calling lum an arrogant and rasb person.ENEVAN bible 103 book against women being permitted to reign. Duke of Deux Ponts. Strong language Avas tbe order of tbe day. " Mine host. their host told them they must all go before the Mayor to be examined before they This was very unwelcome could be allowed to sail." "rude ass. when Henry VIII. indicative of the When they came." "drunken dotel. W .THE ('. After officiating for some time to the refugees at Wezel. and was elected Fellow of All Souls in 1545. 's reign in different Foreign Universities. he resolved to go and render what assistance he could. being well able to preach in German. and in Pilkington's Works sucb expressions are found as "loud lie. hearing of the new Translation at Greneva. however." Miles Cover-dale spent a portion of (dueen Mary's reign bere. says his recent biographer. William hiitinghain was unquestionably the chief of the company thus hojiourably employing their exile. (Jxford he was under a tutor so careful to further him in learning "as he hath been often heard to bemoan that he lived not till he was able to requite him for his Hindered from going to love and care towards him. returning before the accession of Queen Mary. since the Congregation at Geneva was tbe best ordered of any that had assembled abroad." Italy. he spent the greater part of Edward VI. We have already referred to him as the Translator of the Genevan Testament. to Dover. but whilst they were debating what to do. A curious story is told of his departure. himself and party. you have . jnan. to cross the Channel. and having some difficulty in escaping to Frankfort. wished to replenish At it with the choicest scholars in the University. where he settled in the first instance. Here. lie was offered bis former benefice at Bergzabern by Wolfgang. he remained for some months but. Whittingham said. being afterwards chosen one of the Senior Students in Christ's Church. as his intention was.

" said ti " and is of tlie Uneeu's kind." so that. whilst a few others were prominently associated with him. "what mean you by that what good subject can endure to hear such words of his Sovereign to have lier Majesty compared in kind with the kind of a dog !" lie so alarmed his host. and in his New Testament address to the reader speaks of the store of Heavenly learning and judgmeat which so aboundeth in the City of Geneva. taking up some of the coffins of the Priors. he narrowly escaped himself. and indeed the Genevan Bible is a manifesto of tliat party. he was promoted to the Deanery here ]je. and when any alarm came. 80. and turning them into horse troughs. In 1571. we may easily conceive that this new Translation would be a solicitude to many whose )iames are now unknown. though he had interceded earnestly and effectually for the release of Peter Martyr. Cn 19th July. Here Jiis zeal against Popery was so great that he destroyed even some of the monuments of the of and Cathedral." " Uueeu's kind. and got safely across. Of course. through the influence of Lord Leicester. 15Go. his reluctance to do so being overcome by Calvin. I-' ' ' Durham. Whittingham was amongst those who sought more congenial society at Greueva. in fact. A French Translation was proceeding ai the same tijue. He succeeded Ivuox as Minister of the English (Jluirch at Greueva. in consequence of the " troubles of Frankfort. when the war broke out betAveen France and England. he would be likely thus to imbibe Calvin's ideas." exclaimed WJiittingliam. After returning to England.I04 THE PURITAN BIBLli very fair yreylioiind. he . by working upon this that they heard nothingmore of going before the Magistrates. AMiittingham became C!haplain at Xewhaven. to whom lie had acted as Chaplain. He always preached in his armour." "It is indeed. tlie Earl of Warwick. would be amongst the first on the walls." Jle became connected with Calvin by marriage.

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but for the sake very poor polity. and to show that there was much to be said for the Puritan contention. to wear the old Popish apparel. can doubt The only thing that makes of the better of these two ? a show for maintaining the apparel is the opinion of Bnt in religion a thing indifferent mdifferency. Canon Dixon gives the letter he wrote to the Earl of Leicester on the vexed question of the enforced Clerical habits. Altered confession. and got the best Anthems from the Queen's Chapel. but was usually victorious. advertize me of a decree to compel us. against our conscience.THE GENEVAN BIBLE uud Gilby 107 weix. the report of all. considering the strait accounts we have to make to the Almighty for the right use and dispensation of His mysteries. Whittingham. howat the advice of Calvin. The letters of many. A though he conformed. becomes hurtful." vigorous in promoting what he did believe however. popuhir baUad said : strong Puritan views to the end. had two services a day. He could not defend either himself or his Genevan orders when he was dead. being the heatls of those who opposed the Commiiuion Book in Queen Mary's days. changed the Hymns For old Jack Hopkins' pithy rhymes. of the conservation of polity. A . the weak brother brought in doubt of They religion. He retained liis ever. No third choice.cited before tlie Archbishop of York for uou-couformiiy. and we reprint it as a sample of his style. the wicked Papist confirmed in error ? say that it is not to set forth Popery. But what Christian. or be deposed from our ministry. if it lack the circumstances of edification. Williiuns. " Fear and despair discourage me. and Sutton Valued the prayer book not a button. — " Wood. He was a good musician. however. He was and the Scots came and destroyed his tomb in 1G40. What edification is there. He had many troubles. where the Spirit of God is grieved. and gave much time to his Grammar School and Song School. in.

io8 THE PURITAN BIBLE I tJiiuk of Jeroboam uud Lis calves." Even Cartwrig-ht. and whilst sitting in his surplice had to listen to a violent invective '' against the order taken by the Queen and Council for the apparel of ministers. in Pood Lane." This was in 15lj(i. compulsion be used to us. X-'uHed out of tlie pulpit. though no doubt with dift'erent motives. "Is it likely. his surplice rent. the Head of his large Puritan party. changed greatly." But three monthn afterwards this warm Scot conformed himself. and appeared in a surplice at St. and lenity to the Papists r How many Papists enjoy liberty aud livings. witli very bitter and vehement words against the C^ueen. "that He Who appointed. A ilagnus. who have neither sworn obedience to the (-iueen. whereupon he was stoned. Thames Street. I tremble to Popisli garmeuts set fortli under the vizard aud coiuiteiiauce of jjolity. palms and beads. and that to introduce an office unknown in Scripture was only to be compared to the effrontery of Uzzah. and also against such ministers as received the same. For a long time lie maintained that every thing was laid down in the Xew Testament with regard to the constitution of the Christian Church. zealous Scot who was the ornament of C'overdale's Church of St. and his face scratched But there were plenty that were inconsistent with " spacious days of themselves in these (iueen Elizabeth. images and candles. not only the Tabernacle and the Temple. claimi should place again by virtue of this polity. nor yet do an. see Wheu the Why . Margaret Pattens. and at least men had to be careful not to show inconsistency too openly." he exclaimed. If polity may cloak Popery and suijerstition. then may crowns and crosses. . greatly favored by many noblemen. preached one day at All Hallow's. who touched the ark and I died.) jHirt of duty to their miserable flocks ? They triumpli over us they brag that they trust that the rest of their tilings will follow. The Vicar here conformed. oil and cream.

would not only neglect the ornaments of the Church. Shall we conclude that He Who lemembered the bars there.THE GENEVAN BIBLE log but their ornaments. but that without which it warwick^ leicester hospital. cartwkight's final retreat. QUADRANGLE. hath forgotten the pillars here ? Or He Who remembered the pins here forgot cannot long stand? .

and in this opinion. but later on he sorely lamented the unnecessary troubles he had caused." Not without eloquence. and wished he was to beg-in his life again that he might testify to the world the dislike he had of his former ways. . he died. lioweyer overstrained. and here forget archbishops. says Sir Henry Yelverton. and here pass by the lights themselves.no THE PURITAN BIBLE the master builders P iShoiilcI lie there remember tire besoms. to purge the lights. if any had been needful ? Could He there make mention of the sniiffers.

He was born in Suffolk. if pondered fittingly. and he is said to have been very troublesome . and the means of the conversion of Bradford. With the wild world I dwell in. is a thing Which wai-ns one with its stillness. Sampson became a dean. Still on thy shoi^es. There he associated a good deal with Tremellius. Whilst there he became converted. as many others did. I'homas Sampson was a noted London preacher. nor pass by CleEur. in order that such a matter may not be looked on as the merest trifle. Together they received holy orders from Ridley in 1549. Much that may give us pause. to forsake Earth's troubled wat-ers for a purer spring. and one of those who rendered the most important service. dislike to the ceremonies Beza was told by BuUinger that he was of an exceedalways having some disposition. his Deanery being Chichester. and it must be remembered. to which he was appointed After the death of Edward VI he concealed in 1552. he and Craumer allowing them to be ordained without ass\iming the customary sacerdotal habits. himself in London. and after a university training. became a student of the Inner Temple. They made a conscience of this. may find i-oom Ahd food for meditation. and thus I.CHAPTER VIII SAMPSON AND GILBY placid Leman! tihy contrasted lake. that these were what they had been in the days of Popery. and afterwards tied to Strasburg. BYEON. We may resume The march of our existence. the martyr. after Whittingham. fair Leoian. like Whittingham. and developed a Puritan of the English Church. but removed to Geneva in 1556. restless ingly o-rievance.

112

THE PURITAX BIBLE

'" Peter to Martyr, ol blessed memory." But according' to Cariitliers, it was doubtful whether there was living " a better man, a greater linguist, a more complete scholar, or a more profound Divine." His preaching at All Hallows, Bread Street, where for a time he was Eector, certainly gained him great fame. He was offered the Bishopric of Norwich in 15U0, but, instead of that, accepted a Cauonry at Durham, becoming Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, in the following year. Hook says that this i>laced him at the head of Society there, and that the Puritan party was largely dii'ected by him and Dr. ITumplireys, who

Divinity (.'ollege and he had been busily engaged in burning "superstitious utensils," and his strong Pui'itanism led to his being cited before Archbishop Parker in 15li5. He was deprived by order of the (iueen, and was confined for a short time, but released at the Archbishop's request. Humphreys also resigned, neither he nor Sampson being able to conform. Parker sliowed his kindness, however, in securing a Prebend at vSt. Paul's for Sampson. Humphreys was ])ersuaded by (.'ecil to wear the habits, and became the Dean of Gloui^ester, and afterwards of Winchester. It would scarcely be expected tluit so strong a Puritan would furnish such an illustration of "love's labour lost," as the following, which, however, is perfectly authentic, being found in Sir H. Sidney's memorials. Sampson had to preach before Queen Elizabeth, at St. Paul's, on New Year's Day (1562). He had got from a Foreigner several fine cuts and pictures representing the saints and martyrs, and placed them against the Epistles and Gospels of their
President
of

was

Magdalen

Professor,

-fust before,

Festivals in a

Common Prayer Book, and

this

book

he had caused to be richly bound and laid on the cushion for the Queen's use, where she commonly sat. Innocent man; no doubt he expected something very nice and sweet. But wlien the Queen came and opened tlie book, she frowned and Idnshed, and then shiit it up, and calling th.e verger, told him to bring her the

SAMPSON AND GILBY

113

old book, wliicli she liad commouly u^ied. After sermon, instead of mounting- her horse, as she usually

did at once, she went straight to the Vestry, and the following colloquy ensued Queen. Mr. Dean, how came it to pass that a new Service-hook was placed on my cushion ? Srinipsn7i. May it please your Majesty, I caused it to be placed there. Queen. Wherefore did you do so? Sampson. To present your Majesty with a New Year's Gift. (It was usual for her majesty to receive such gifts, of which a register was kept). Queen. You could never present me with a worse.
:

Samp»on.

Why

so,

madam?

Queen. You know I have an aversion to idolatry, to images, and pictiires of this kind. Sampson. Wherein is the idolatry, may it please
the saints and angels nay, grosser absurdities, pictures resembling the blessed Trinity. Samp.son. I meant no harm, nor did I think it would offend your Majesty, when I intended it for a
;

your majesty? Queen. In the cuts representing

Year's gift. Have Queen. You must needs be ignorant then. you forgot our proclamation against images, pictures, and Roman relics in the Churches? Was it not read

New

your Deanery ? Sampson. It was read. But be your Majesty assured I meant no harm when I caused the cuts to be bound with the Service-book. Queen. You must needs be very ignorant, to do
in
this after our prohibition of

them. being my ignorance, your Majesty may the better pardon me. Queen. I am sorry for it yet glad to hear it was your ignorance rather than your opinion. Sampson. Be your Majesty assured it ivas my ignorance ?

Snmpbon.

It

;

B

114
Qiieen.
!incl

THE PURITAN BIBLE
If so,

Mr. Dean, God grant you His

Spirit,

more wisdom

Savipson. Queen. I pray, Mr. Dean,
pictures
?

for the future. Amen. I pray God.

how came you by
;

the

Who

Sampson.
them.
Queen.

engraved them ? I know not who engraved them I bought

Sampson.

From whom bought you them ? Prom a German.

It is well it was from a stranger; had it Queen. been any of our subjects, we should have questioned the matter. Pray let no more of these mistakes, or of this kind, be committed within the Churches of our Eealm in future. Sampson. There shall not. The Rev. W. H. Stowell, who recounts this in his History of the Puritans, says that the incident is scarcely in harmony with the Queen's persisting in having an altar and an image in her own Chapel, but the truth is that her Majesty was sensitively alive to any apparent disobedience to her injunctions, whilst she would allow no interference with her personal freedom. She would not allow herself to be called "Supreme Head," and gave an admonition on the subject to " simple men deceived by the malicious." But she was very supreme indeed, as witness her treatment of Grindal. Mr. Frere says that she claimed no more than the Crown had claimed in the times of Justinian and Charlemagne, and no less than in the days of >Saxon Edward or Norman William. This secured that the Church's laws, administered by the Church's officers, should be in good working order, and so the crisis of 15i9 was surmounted with very little loss or disturbance, though the Eoman Bishops stood firm, and were superseded'. But this will

scarcely hold, in the light of many autocratic proceedings afterwards. 'Sampson became Lecturer in Whittington College,

London,

Prebendary

of St.

Paul's, and

Brightlingsea,

but retired eventually to

Eector of Wigston'a

SAMPSON AND GILBY

115

Hospital at Leicester, of whicli he had been appointed Master. Here he remained, in comparative comfort, till his death in 1589. Canon Dixon says he has the distinction of being the first man deprived in England for Nonconformity. In his later years he had an interesting- coirespondence with his former companion in exile, Grrindal, then Archbishop of York, and one of these reveals the man. Referring to some kind expressions of Grrindal' s with regard to his palsy and comparative poverty, he says " I do not remember that I ever complained of either the one or the other; if I did of the latter, I was to blame, for I must have complained before I suffered want. Touching my lameness, I am so far from com:

plaining, that I humbly thank God for it. It is the Lord's hand that hath touched me. He might have smitten or destroyed me but of His most rich favour and mercy through Jesus Christ, as a loving Father, He hath dealt thus tenderly with me. I bless and praise His name for it. If He see that my poor labors will be of any further service in His Church, He will heal me but if He have determined by this lameness to lead me to my grave, the Lord give me grace to say with Eli, It is the Lord let Him do what seemeth Him good.' I shall labour as well as I am able, till Though I am in bonds, those I drop into the grave. bonds are from the Lord, and if it were put to my choice, I would rather carry them to my grave than be freed from them, and be cumbered with a Bishopric." Anthony Gilhy was another "dear disciple" of Calvin, and was both a good Classical scholar and He is not even mentioned in the Imperial Hebraist. Dictionary of Universal Biography, but surely the men that gave Shakespeare and Spenser their Bible should not be entirely forgotten by Englishmen. He was born in Lincolnshire, and was M.A. of Christ's College, Cambridge. During Queen Mary's reign he was at Frankfort part of the time, with his wife and children, He where he entertained Foxe, the Martyrologist. filled Knox's place as pastor whilst he was absent in
; ;

'

;

ii6

THE PURITAN BIBLE
The "Troubles
of

France.

Frankfort" began

early,

perhaps unreasonable to wonder that things did not settle down at ouce, after such an upheaval. Some liked the new Liturgy, and some preferred extemporaneous prayer, and the probability is that both will always have plenty of representatives. The absurdity is to imagine that people will all think alike. But at all events Gilby sought peace and pursued it, and kneeling down before them, he besought them with tears to reform their judgments, solemnly protesting that they sought not themselves but only the glory of God; "wishing, farther, that that hand, which he then held up, were stricken off, if by that a Godly peace and unity might ensue." It was quite natural for such men to feel very bitterly, whilst they themselves were exiles, and their companions in Eugdand were being burnt to death, and they certainly used language too strong and vulgar. Here is a sample which Fuller gives, speaking against the Romanist ceremonies and garments: " They are known liveries of Anti-Christ, accursed leaven of the blasphemous Popish priesthood, cursed patches of Popery and idolatry. Tliey are worse than lousie, for they are sibbe to the sarke (akin to the shirt) of Hercules, that made him tear his own bowels asunder." Some of the identical garments were retained in the English Chundi, not without fierce controversy, many being unable to accept Fuller's view of the matter: "As careful motliers and nurses, on condition that they can get their children to part with knives, are contented to let them play with rattles so the Reformers permitted ignorant people still to retain some of their fond and foolish customs, that they might remove from them the most dangerous and destructive
it is

and

;

superstitions." When the Puritans were brought before the Lord Mayor and others in 156S, he said, " The Queen hath not established these habits for any holiness sake, but only for civil order and comeliness as aldermen are
;

THEODORE

YW.7.\.

" till his death in 1585." But they went to Bridewell." " Even so. and Elizabeth constantly showed her displeasure at the ' ' ' . also did. The Pope of Rome forbiddeth marriage and meats. so by this apparel." He lived at Ashby. for Parker was a married man. my Lord. though it is to be acknowledged that for some time in this reign the Clergy had to have their sweethearts approved. In his " 100 points of Popery yet remaining. ' . " as the alderman is known by his gown and tippet. Fuller says he was " a fast and furious stickler against Church discipline. this period. Mr. were the papist mass priests known from other men. Here he had troubles. which St. but was greatly respected for his godly life and learning. and judges by their gowns. beth writeth Reverend Father Matthew. ." but a good scholar. ! Grilby published where they lay for a year two works during marriage of Bishops. his laws and ceremonies in our English Church unreformed. Gilby. as his master. Dispensations with the rich men for all things but not with poor men that have no money. and undertook publicly to defend his position." published in 1581.! SAMPSON AND GILBY iig known by their tippets. of Canterbury." answered Nicksou. he gave an English form to Beza's Paraphrase of the Psalms. " as great as a Bishop. justifying civil rebellion. In addition to his labours as a Translator of the Genevan Bible. lie objected to the English Liturgy. On his return to England. and head of the Church. His bitterest work was his " View of Anti-Christ. The Pope of Lambeth doth the same." Very foolish. idle swingebreeches. through his strong Puritan tendencies. the Earl of Huntingdon presented him to the Living of Ashby-de-la-Zouch. Calvin. which deform the English Reformation." and he drew out a parallel between the Popes of Rome and Lambeth " The Pope of Rome writeth himself father of The Pope of Lamfathers. that these men do now wear. one of these points is the Bishops' " j)ompous train of proud. Paul calleth the doctrine of devils. in the stead of preachers and scholars and another.

whose " Contemplations still read every day.120 THE PURITAN BIBLE "' The famous Bishop Hall. owed a great debt to Gilby. Never any lips have read to me such feeling lectures of piety. where she lived. neither have I known any soul that more accurately practised them than her own." — "How . His m.other was strongly attached to his ministry at Ashby-de-la-Zouch. in his "-Specialities": often have I blessed the memory of those divine passages which I have heard from her mouth. and the Bishop are exclaims.

and in after years he would often repeat the grave wise speeches he heard then from the old man eloquent. and . Christopher Goodman. Oxford." ANDEESON These the chief three. and then died. as England owes tx) the son for the magnificent Library that bears 'his name (The Bodleian. At different periods he was both Member of Parliament and De-jii of Chichester. Geneva. which he afterwards published as a book against the English Arians. Richard Tracy. though less acknowledged debt to the father for his zeal in the cause of Divine truth. He certainly had a greatly troubled career. of Toddington. Whittingliam. he gave up keeping the Royal Library. He became senior student at Christ Church. For a short time he was in Thomas Cromwell's service. who was extremely kind to him. He was a Cornishman. see him here. but Bartholemew Traheron lived long enough to render considerable assistance. at Oxford). and went to Frankfort. John's Gospel. she is under a deeper. He also printed an exhortation to his brother Thomas to embrace the Reformed Faith. and died in peace at Chester. collecting books for. being brought up by Mr. and Gilby. and afterwards became Royal Librarian to Edward YI. and was early left an orphan. had much light at eventide after a stormy day. where he Archbishop Usher came to spent many happy years. He travelled a good deal. 'Sampson. had hand in the Grenevan Version.CHAPTER IX BODLEY AND THE OTHER HELPERS " Much. lived to be a very old man. where he died in 1558. He wrote some readings on St. and Wessel. on the other hand. and was with Calvin at Geneva for some time. his Dublin Library. On Mary's accession.

after . by whom he was heartily welcomed. with Whittinghani. afterwards accompanying Sir Henry Sidney as Chaplain in his : — ! expedition against the rebels in Ireland. he justified it. and in 1505 he returned to it.? successor. writing a book " How Superior Powers ought to be obeyed of their subjects." Geneva. and wherein they may lawfully be by God'a AVord disobeyed and resisted. though not aimed at her at all. he went to Frankfort. and those worthy that died in that happy enterprise. Wyat's rebellion came. Knox's " First Blast of the Trumpet against the monstrous Regiment of women. he withdrew to Geneva. 1558." a vehement defence of the Salique law. but an Englishman loves his own country.t 122 in 15-1:8 THE PURITAN BIBLE Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity. Even men of their own party disapproved of the violence of both that and Knox's. tilyou art now with God. and he was " beaten with three rods. were offensive. Siich men could not but feel deeply. complained of his perversity to the Lord Treasurer. and Goodman was coldly received on his return to England. however. and sent to preach at Ayr. Andrews. came out at the same time. After Mary's accession. In 15G0 he was appointed the first Protestant Minister of St. and they became life-long friends. His peace was not made. But he still refused to subscribe to the Articles and the Service Book and Parker'. and what a contrast Nevertheless Queen Elizabeth felt that such books. which allows no female to reign." . " men Goodman said that all wto did not assist Wyat were O noble Wyat. and joined his friend Knox and his colleagues. Knox and he were chosen Pastors When there. and on the troubles wliicli arose there. t In this traitors. Accordingly he withdrew to Scotland in 1559." and forbidden to preach. But one woman followed another. lie then made a recantation and a protest in writing of his dutiful obedience to Queen Elizabeth. In 1571 he was cited before Aichbishop Parker to answer for his obnoxious book. Archbishop AYhitgift.

* Afterwards he finished his education at Magdalen College. Esq. and at a most opportune time. John Bodley was the father of tlie founder of the Bodleian Library at Oxford. of Bervaldus in Greek. and his famous son who founded the Library known throughout the world.000 volumes. He was descended from the ancient family of the Bodleys. It was a notable service that the son thus rendered to Oxford and England. the first public Library ill Europe. and founding the Library " would have suited the character of a crowned head. on 2ud March. In 1584 he retired to his native County of Chester. 1602. he determined to make himself useful to his country in a private station. and of this Bodley. He died in 1602.. After some diplomatic successes. he was proposed Secretary of 'State. of Dunscomb. Camden says his task of gathering 2. daughter and heiress of Robert Home. who had shortly before been knighted. though he did not live to see its completion. It was founded 8th November. so that he was able to profit to some extent by the teaching and influence of the men of light and leading in Geneva whilst his father was exiled there. and attended the lectures of Chevallier in Hebrew. Queen of Hades. where he lived in peace into his 84th year.BODLEY AND THE OTHER HELPERS all 123 tliey and their companions had suffered. and became Fellow of Merton." and -a solemn procession of members of the University was ordered. of Ottery St. and in Calvin's " Commentary on Amos. A larger building was soon needed. to mark so important an epoch in its history. often preaching. near Crediton. He said. but on its coming to nothing. and it is said that she exceeded in her cruelties all the devils in Hell. was born at Exeter. Oxford. laid the foundation stone. Mary. He married Johanna. 1544. . the second being opened in Rome two years later. after being English resident at the Hague for a time : — * He read Homer. and of Calvin and Beza in Divinity." Queen Mary is likened to Proserpine.

D. and probably saved his life by obeying the command " If they persecute you in one City flee to another. but was deprived for his Evangelical preaching in 1555. a learned Divine.D." Brook calls him " a truly pious man. and died in 1600. How much the father contributed to the Genevan Version cannot be told." On Queen Mary's death he returned to his native land. but William Cole. and about the latter end of the year was made Archdeacon of Colchester. but was soon imprisoned for preaching contrary to Queen Elizabeth's prohibition. Oxford. .. The others who assisted in the Translation were John PuJlain and William Cole. the death of Queen Mary he returned to England." There has been some confusion as to Cole. and ediicated at Oxford. which then in every part lay ruined and waste. my at Oxen being to the public use of the students. dying in 15G5. staff at tlie Library door persuaded tliat I could not busy myself to better purpose than by reducing that place. but it is probable that the Translator was not Thomas. and an admired Latin and English poet. He became Rector of St. Erasmus died in 1536. Cornhill. he became Rector of Capford. a constant preacher. for Erasmus said he could scarcely refrain from tears when he saw the scanty remains of this library.1) Pullain was born in Yorkshire in 1517. however. In 1559." dividing the time between Wessel. Peter's. first Library dated from 1409. and both father and son were true to the Protestant faith throughout their lives. who became President of Corpus Christi College. T) . a thorough Puritan. 124 ' ' THE PURITAN BIBLE I concluded to set up tliorouglily .. and in Leland's day The there was scarcely a single volume surviving. but it is probable that he bore After a good deal of the expense of the undertaking. and Geneva. Tlie whole family were abroad throughout the " bloody reign. In his "Lives of the Puritans. in Essex. Frankfort." This disastrous state was not the effect of the Reformation. in 1552.

IN THE BOULEIN LIBRARY. . FROM THE ORlGIN^r.SIR THOIIAS BODI/EY. OK CORNELIUS JANSEN.

.

Proschover evidently did his best to soften their exile. gave a portrait of this hospitable friend of learned men in onr last volume. Debt accumulated." Pilkington and Home were there. and Cole was made President by force. He was not without learning himself. and was made President of his own Collesje. who were Ponishly Cole. however. where he was handsomely received with 11 others. but Cole remained President for 30 years. and at last Home told him he and the College must part. Cole must have gone on to Geneva." Elizabeth was auite eaual to the situation. Laurence Humphrey was another. who had ])reviouslv left the College " on Popish grounds. the printer. The Pellows dared to close the College Gates against the new Head. and the Protestants encouraged.BODLEY AND THE OTHER HELPERS 127 He was a native of Lincoln. and Parkhurst. Oxford. in 1568. and sworn in 19th July. 1560. and was considered an excellent governor of youth. The twelve only paid for their board. and Home. however. he first took np his ahode at Zurich." Thev elected one Harrison. was commanded to admit Cole. inclined. but he returned to England immediately on the death of Queen Mary. Corpus Christi. having been at Oxford in 1550 and 1551. who became Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford. afterwards Bishops We of Durham and Winchester. but they were broken in. afterwards in part repaid to his son." It was a violent beginning. and Zurichian discipline brought there. and was not the Queen to have her nominee set aside. " having no mind to have and children. " dwelling together like brothers with great glee. and Piidolph Gaulter also loaded them with kindness. by the Queen. Strype tells us that the apnointmeni was resisted by the Pellows. studying under Peter Martyr. whilst others who were Popishly inclined "were curbed. afterwards Bishop of Norwich. now Bishop of Winchester and Visitor of the College. She annulled the election. Some of the Pellows were expelled. his wife . into the house of Proschover. and when lie fled to the Continent.

Worship firmly he withstood. Cole. and deal honestly with — He left it for the Deanery of Lincoln.128 THE PURITAN BIBLE His answer shows that in spite of Froschover's hospitality. He was Vice-Chancellor of the University in 1577. then shall glow. to whom an Academic life was more congenial. who exhorted him to be at rest. my Lord. they had some memorable experiences in Queen Mary's reign: "What. in 1598. John Reynolds. however. changing with Dr." . and his daughter Abigail erected a monument to him in his Cathedral. " He sought Idle Idol When God's glofry and the Church's good. poetical taste of the time. must I then eat mice at Zurich again!" This touched the Visitor. somewhat spoilt by the barbarous the College. now raked in ashes. the latter trump of Heaven shall blow.

the key of the Kingdom of Heaven. our shield and sword against Satan. when the time was dangerous. in addition to abundant learning. in which they call God's "Word the light to our path. our comfort in affliction. The Translation was begun. the comfort of His Church. That the Translators possessed. in the Preface: " God knoweth with what fear and trembling we have been. January 1558. the whole being printed in quarto by Rowland Hall. and the food and nourishment of our souls. but &s sent from God to the people of GTod. occupied herein. 1560. and on Elizabeth's accession." The last sheet was put to the press on the 10th April. as brethren that are partakers of the same hope ajid salTation with ug." Address *o the Oheistian Eeadeb. many of the exiles returned once more to England. we b€iseech you that this rich pearl and inestimable treasure may not be offered in v. with perhaps Bodley in constant communication. and Gilby. There then remained to complete the work AVhittingham. for the increase of His Kingdom. Sampson. the glass wherein we behold God's face. may be inferred from this address to the Christian reader. day and night. the rough wind was stayed in the day of the East Wind. that you may now appear indeed to be the people of God. as the Preface says. so you would willingly receive the Word of God. the higher qualifications for their work. for the space of two years and more. the school of all wisdom. and the persecution But in England sharp and furious. whom it hath pleased Him to raise up for this purpose. before it was half done. and discharge of our conscience. and in lall your life practise it." Accordingly they say. I 129 .CHAPTER X THE ITS GENEVAN BIBLE CHARACTERISTICS " Therefore. The brethren who left exhorted these not to spare anything " for the furtherance of such a benefit and favor of God to His Church. earnestly study it.ain.

'AT GENEVA. . He would have had justification in Scripture. ^j t" 11 £ AN ^\ * L . RES '. (size or ORIGINAL gj BY 6^ INCHES). S t> C R I. As I walked on shores of this beautiful Lake Leman. VK ^^ \ t « ••* r « ' e ~ "--^ ». I could not help wishing Cranmer had been amongst them. towering above it. but he had been almost a King.130 It THE PURITAN BIBLE was a lovely spot for an exile. 1560. FIRST TITLE PAGE GENEVA BIBLE. P I't TV £. some years the ago.- 1I : i :1 -1 -•^ OP i Nfx« J^SXe f . with Mont Blanc :e bible: "^1 I mo L Y T H . and went to Calvin's Church.

quent omission of the second vowel of a diphthong." for the help of the memory. Strype says that the following were amongst the rules governing this notable and popular Translation. R. Pocock says it has not been commonly noticed that the There is the frespelling of this Version is peculiar.ITS and felt lie CHARACTERISTICS flee. there is." Exodus xiv. and two profitahle tables. hut Rev. the one giving an interpretation of Hebrew names. When the necessity of the sentence required anything to be added. set over the head of every page " some notable word They added or sentence. they put it in the test in another kind of They letter. fifty Editions of which were printed in thirty years. but the Lord de- — livereth them out of all. wel. and behold the salvation of Great the Lord. No." have modernized the spelling. and the very Archbishop himself was to have his unworthy hand hurnt by those which were vastly unworthier. 131 could not tliougli lie exhorted others to do so. shal. therefore hold you your peace. On the sides of the woodcut: " Eear ye not. are the troubles of the righteous. and the other containing all the principal matters of the whole Bible. making a marginal note of the literal words. " The Lord shall fight for you. as full of contractions. We It is in fact at and words awkwardly divided was no doubt great. and the whole end of the law " is prefixed. This . After the dreadful times through which the nation had been passing. 14. Calvin's influence of his " Christ is the in ful. which He will show to you this day. maps of cosmography. as in our Authorized Version of to-day. thoght. the end of lines. ants frequently. stand still. the Papists of that time were to fill up the measure of their iniquities. When the Hehrew was hard to make sense of. Under a woodcut of the Israelites passing through the Eed Sea. as Also it avoids duplication of consonin beleve. they used the most intelligible rendering of it they could frame. no wonder such texts were chosen for the Title-page.

Xo doubt the Hebrew and Greek originals were used.. Somerset bebut there are others. the cliief aim being to make the Translation as readable as possible. ^22nd Jan. though the new Latin Versions were a help. as corrected in Matthew's last text. the servant of God. from being a Dominican Monk. what is that to the purpose. such as they then had. The whole of the work was carefully done. and the dates are chiefly Biblical ones. Fulke says.g. There is a Calendar. Martin Luther. and the Text followed was sometimes faulty. but gave him an opportunity of returning. The present division into (Chapters was made in the 13th Century by Cardinal Hugo de Sancto Claro. being published in Geneva. and a short account of this important change will perhaps be acceptable. died 1546.an objection that the famous Beza was not always followed " The Genevan Bibles do not profess to translate out of Beza's Latin Translation. e. saying that God hated man after the Fall. was advanced to the . In the New the basis was Tyndale's. in the main.132 THE PURITAN BIBLE is translated from the Preface to the French Bible. not only Beza's. and many of the corrections made were adopted in the Authorized Version. 19th Feb. but out of the Hebrew and Greek and if they agree not always with Beza. answering. and most of the alterations were due to Beza. by repentance. almost word for word. were Greek criticism. 1552. A revised Italian Version was also proceedincn at the same time. if they agree with the original text ?" — : — . unknown. of the principles of still Many In the Old Testament the Great Bible (Cromwell's) was made the basis. Dr.. but those by Leo Juda and rastfilio. What is altogether special about it is that Verses were introduced for the first time. The 1562 Edition has no printer's name. 1562.: headed. however. and the alterations were not numerous. who.

and Stephen Langton. all who bought it divided their Bibles in the same way. which were not adopted by Hugo. the recent Paragraph Bible being far from an advance on it. Christians borrowed that of Chapters t Anthony of Padua. to divide the different books into sections for easy reference. in making a Hebrew ConC. adopted the scheme of Chapters.ITS CHARACTERISTICS 133 dignity of Cardinal. EOBEET STEPHENS. On publishing the Concordance. and Robert Stephens made a division of the New Testament into So that. B. t He found it necessary. verses. the Psalms also being thus divided. retaining the Hebrew Verses. who used instead sub-divisions lettered A. Rabbi Nathan. cordance. &c. as the Jews borrowed the divisions into Chapters from the Christians. The Jews. an improvement might be suggested. Not that he by any means cut the Bible up into mere Concordance sections a regard to the sense ruled the division and tliough. D. who died 1231. for the sake of a Greek Concordance. 1438. . about A. and thus at last what the Jews had never done for the Old Testament was done for the whole Latin Bible. the work reflects great credit on his judgment. . on this account. in some cases.D. is aleo mentionod. however. had some sort of divisions. He was the first to make a Concordance of the whole Bible. setting a great number of the Monks of his Order to collect works. .

had introduced some verses. The note that specially irritated the High and Mighty Prince -James was that on the midwives." Perhaps also the author of the Book of -Sports might not have liked the heading " The inconvenience of over the story of Herodias dancing. dividing St. Part I. Doctors. a critic of the 3rd Century. And thus they have helped each other to make the present Editions of the Bible more convenient for common use." Most of the notes. There were sections and ohaptens. Matthiew into 350 sections. 10. and the fierce temper of the time has some very plain indications. having two copies of his earlieir work in 1556. and joined the Genevan Reformers. is. being admitted as a citizen there in 1556. A quarter of a century earlier. Bishops. Matthew having 49 verses instead of 25. however. verted to the Protestant faith in the course of his Biblical researches. and his work is Quiie different from Stephens'. Michaelis supposes that Stephens was incited to his work simply by Pagninus. in Exodus. are said to be "worldly Prelates." though this is omitted in later Editions. " Their disobedience herein was lawful. for instance. Book 6.sacred literature. . 3. Arcdibishops. In 2 Chron. The Grenevan Bible was the first thus divided into verses. The locusts that come out of the smoke in Eev. Pa-gninus. t Those who wish to pursue th« subject will flnid a long account of the whole matter in Prideaux's Connection. were able and expository. the first Chapter of St. but their dissembling evil. who is understood to have introduced them. King Asa is brought to task for only deposing his mother. and was illustrious for his skill in Oriental and . and it was probably an improvement on his work that has become common. He was conwhilst on a journey fromParis to Lyons. and the second only 12 instead of 23. Dominic. as we have seen. the Codex Sinaiticus and the Alexandrian.134 into verses THE PURITAN BIBLE from the Jews. instead of killing her.t The notes make the Genevan a strong Puritan Bible. These were called AmmoniaJi. very early. Masters and Bachelors of Arts. and the first in which the Eoman Iv. 15. no doubt. He thinks he made his verse divisions when resting at the Inns on his way. He published a Hebrew Lexicon. Stephens did his work. and ending his days in the lovely Swiss City. as an idolater. an Italian of the order of St. Pagninus was born at Lucca in 1466. according to his son. after Ammonins. letter was used.

. the brethren of The address was happily made to England. ITS CHYmACTERlSTtCS 135 and in 1649 an Edition of the Autliorized Version was brought out with these Genevan notes. to consent unto the Word. which may serve as a specimen How may I be assured that it is the Word of God which this book containeth?" Answer. . instancing Psalms 37. Scotland and Ireland. . and still found in the dedication thereof affirmed . and the dedication was to Queen Elizabeth.. 4. and reverently to embrace it. and 139 Isaiah 53 John 17 Eom. . : — ' ' by the certainty of everything therein by the success of all things according to it by perpetual consent. uprightness. which is to be seen in every part thereof by the excellence of the matters uttered but especially by the testimony of God's Spirit whereby it was written. 51." The Translators advise constant reading of two Chapters a day. . . and the committing to memory of portions. and holiness . Who moveth the hearts of those in whom it resteth. by the pureness. but freed from the fulsome adulation too common. . 8 1 Tim. A number of Questions and Answers on the use of God's Word are prefixed to the New Testament. amongst which there is the following. ' ' of our present Authorized Version. "By the Majesty of God appearing in that plain and simple doctrine. .

" . the House of God. which by one means or other.CHAPTER XI A PURITAN PllODUCTION " In oujr island there arose a Puritanism which came forth as a real business of the heart. a true heant-oommunion with Heaven. 136 . some are worldlings. In some senses one may say it is the only phasis of Protestantism that ever got to the rank of being a Faith. and has produced in the world very notable fmit. who as Amaziah and Diotrephes can abide none but themselves and as Demetrius many practice sedition to maintain their errors). so labour to hinder the course of this building (whereof some are Papists. how many enemies there are. the Church of Christ. as the adversaries of . CAELYIE. who under pretence of favouring God's Word. we persuaded ourselves that there was no way so expedient and necessary for the preservation of the one and destruction of the other. therefore. Tlie address to tlie Queen was quite in order. whereof the Son of God is the head and perfection. after It begins by showthe spirit she had already shown.Judah and Benjamin went about to stay the buildings of that Temple. who as Demas have forsaken Christ for the love of this world others are ambitious prelates. and of exhibiting itself in history as such and history will have something to say about this Puritanism for some time to come. as to present unto your Majesty the Holy Scriptures faithfully and plainly translated according to the languages wherein thej' were first written by the Holy Ghost." It continues: " Considering. . ing how hard it is " to enterprise any worthy act. For the "Word of God is an evident — . and that nothing is more difficult than " the building of the Lord's Temple. traitorously seek to erect idolatry and to destroy your Majesty.

even above strength you must show yourself strong and bold in God's matters. Yea. wheresoever it is obediently received it is the trial of the spirits. and that without faith in Christ.- : A PURITAN PRODUCTION : 137 token of God's love and our assurance of this defence. according whereunto the good stones of this building must be framed. the hope of all men is so increased that they cannot but look that God should bring to pass some wonderful work by your grace to the universal comfort of His Church. and to discover whatsoever lieth under hypocrisy. it is sharper than any two-edged sword to examine the very thoughts and to judge the affections of the heart. and though Satan lay all his power and craft together to hurt and hinder the Lord's building: yet be you assured that God will fight from heaven against this great dragon. Persians. : and the — . that some time shall be everlastingly. as the Prophet saith. Therefore. the ancient serpent which is called the devil and Satan. Grecians. who hath pulled you out of the mouth of the lions. evil tried out and rejected. till He have accomplished the whole worke. and good works as the result of faith." After pointing out that impediments must be removed. the address concludes " For considering God's wonderful mercies toward you at all seasons. the building cannot proceed. It is as a fire and hammer to break the stony hearts of them that resist God's mercies offered by the preaching of the same. So that this must be the first foundation and groundwork. the necessary zeal and diligence. as the Babylonians. For albeit all other kingdoms and monarchies. the kind oFwisdom needful to the work. and Romans have fallen and taken end yet the Church of Christ even under the Cross hath from the beginning of the world been victorious. and how that from your youth jou have been brought up in the Holy Scriptures. and would be secret from the face of God and iiis Church. that reliance upon God is essential. and made His Church glorious to Himself without spot or wrinkle. and Truth it is.

A. comfort and preserve your Majesty. This Lord of lords and King of kings. In the address " To our Beloved. the discharge of your conscience. 1560. or driven with a stormy persecution. as we have chiefly observed the sense. If for a time it lie covered with ashes. and laboured always to restore it to all integrity. had only been on the throne about a year and a half. however. who hath defended His. or parched and pined in the wilderness. rather constrained them to the lively phrase of the Hebrew. faithfully rendered the text. for He punished the enemies and delivereth His. The translators assert " This we may with good conscience protest. that we have in every point and word. and in all hard places most sincerely expounded the same. that you may be able to build up the ruins of God's house to Llis glory. 10 April. who spake and wrote to the Gentiles in the Greek tongue. than enterprised far by mollifying their language to speak as the Gentiles did." t The Queen. and still preserveth them under His wings. and to the comfort of all them that love the coming of Christ Jesus Our Lord. and in some respects was still feeling her way." From Geneva. Though it seem drowned in the sea. the Suu of justice. When presented with an elegant t Bov. considering that the Apostles. yet God giveth ever good success." the method followed in the translation is described. nourisheth them.—THE PRINTED BIBLE. iVow. strengthen. M. Lovett. shine and bring it to light' and liberty. so have we most reverently kept the propriety of the words.— 138 — THE PURITAN BIBLE it seemeth to be sliadowed witli a cloud. E. yet suddenly the beams of Christ. according to the measure of that knowledge which it pleased Almighty God to give us. yet it is quickly kindled again by the wind of God's Spirit. For God is our witness tliat we have by all means endeavoured to set forth the purity of the word and light sense of the Holy Ghost for the edifying of the brethren in faith and charity. .

and practising. her father. and lay them up in the high seat of — inemory. " if Answer. on the part of the new Queen. the Device for the alteration of religion was brought up. This presentation was a beautiful pageant. " The Bishop of Rome will this be done " ? be incensed. that may life. representing time. Answer." Then come references to the relations of the kingdom with Prance.. dressed in white silk." so. when there was to be a Prisonopening. and said she would often read it. "What remedy"? is asked. There was no want of courage. and will interdict the Realm. however." it is asked. an old man." It will not surprise us then that in the January of when . she replied that it were better first "(0 enquire of themselves whether they would be released or no.A PURITAN PRODUCTION 139 Bible on her first progress through London. who represented truth. having tried and condemned Thomas Becket when he had been in his shrine for centuries. and other countries. I the less perceive the bitterness of this miserable But at her Coronation. Henry VIII. At the upper end of Gheapside. meaning the Evangelists and St. cursing. In her first year. for we find her saying: "I walk many many times in the pleasant fields of the Holy Scriptures. ajjpeared leading a young girl. She presented tlie volume. she kissed it. No doubt she did often read it. where I pluck up the goodliest herbs of sentences. and Strype well remarks that this incident showed as much how the citizens stood affected to religion as what hopes the kingdom entertained of the Queen's favour towards it. and someone prayed her to set free four or five others who had long been shut up. with wings and a scythe. This kind of wit seems to have run in the blood. for there is nothing to be feared from him but evil will. " What will happen. Paul. especially considering what kind of a lleign had just closed. " There is a short way for the Pope. having tasted their sweetness. and things were looked at in the most cool and matter-of-fact way.

endeared as it was through use. have the days to which the Psalms belong. Sir William Cecil. with Priest always changed into j\fmidcr. This was too much for liodley and his friends. for a renewal of the patent. The loTM Edition lias the Book of Common Prayer at tJie beginning. Tlie work came from abroad. Every book. Many copies of this Genevan Bible. he indeed graciously recommended the renewal. Archbishop Parker had commei'. in the handwriting of the period. and Royal orders were to be found once more for every Church to be provided with a copy of God's Word. Two Editions written for nearly another century. and the Genevan Bible was printed over and over again without troubling about the extension of the License.140 THE PURITAN BIBLE the foUowiug year." afterwards somewhat modified. and omitting the Offices both for Baptism aiid Confirmation. however. Anderson says that it may have been on the strength of his expiring Patent that Bodley edged the book into England and Scotland. or advice. and failed. consent." and on Elizabeth's Secretary. in any language. and a thinl being in course of preparation. The first Edition published on English soil did not appear till 157G. consulting him about it. was required to be licensed either by Her Majesty or sis Areopagitica was not of her Privy Councillors. though no Edition was printed on English soil during Parker's life. and Cranmer were also republislied. to be set up where the people . a fine of forty shillings to be paid by anyone who should infringe his right. that from the Great Bible keeping its place. but coupled with it that no Edition should pass but by his "direction. The Versions of Tyndale. Coverdale. Bodley applied. a patent was given to Toliu Bodley to ^irint the Grenevan Bible for seven years. were accordingly printed.ced what has ah\ays been called the "Bishops' Bible. the "' Bishops' Bible " having come out eight years earlier. as Tv'iidale's had done long before. tried to get their Version of the Psalms accepted. in 1565. Both parties of Translators. But before tliis. the Bisliops and the Genevan.

Homilies were read. is for most just cause abolished. for she discouraged the preaching of sermons. T.t A PURITAN PRODUCTION i+i could come and read it. Cromwell's Injunctions. and for more diligent preaching and catechizing. and to hear a Sermon. and learning. and the Sermon was neither preached nor heard. They were rebiiked by Her very much Majesty for their presumption. the great Council of the City examined the results.— DOMESTIC . set forth that all usurped and Foreign power. however. and adopting no remedy when some petitioners represented that half of the City Churches were without Ministers. this Inscription being put up in the Town Hall: ! — t State Papers. whether in Latin or in English. but they omitted to ask leave of the Queen. and she and many others preferred them for the " present distress. it being then made a rule that every licensed Preacher was to preach yearly at least twelve Sermons. had included that a Sermon be preached once a quarter But the Queen issued an order that all having the care of souls should " to the uttermost of their wit. The Magistrates of Geneva ordered public Disputations to be held during the whole month of June." good preaching being so rare. having no Establishment or ground by the law of God. in the previous Eeign. The Queen may be said indeed to have come to believe rather too much in the Bible. four times a year. In 1580. After this. It seems natural for a strong Protestant Version like this Genevan Bible to have emanated from such a city. gave up their intention. Inquiry was also to be made whether any Vicars discouraged any person from reading the Bible. saying once that three or four preachers were enough for a County. 1535." The House of Commons once proposed to meet for prayer. we find orders for the better increase of learning in the inferior Ministers. knowledge. to which they invited Catholics and Protestants of all Countries. and condemned the Romish Faith.

and it must be acknowledged that Browne's career was a very unsatisfactory one. it was only to turn all society into a Convent. I have no exquisite reason for it. and to recover liberty. say to Sir Toby Belch Tell us something of him. speaking of IMalvolio. when he makes Sir Andrew Ague Cheek. S/r Andrew. So slowly is the mean of wisdom and religion reached between the wild extremes. sometimes he is a kind of Puritan. In the same play this zealous Anti-Puritan exclaims " An't be any way. For \ipwards of two hundred years there was not a single musical instrument allowed in the City of Geneva." ! which would ! : — The Brownists were specially disliked by all loose livers. Many. which hath enabled us to shake off the yoke of anti-christ. I'd beat him like a dog. dear Knight? f>ir Andrew." Calvin had nothing to do with this.142 THE PURITAN BIBLE " lu remembrance of the Divine goodness. Sir Toby. The Convents were converted to the use of the public. as he came later. it must be with valour. Oli if I thought that. for policy I hate. I had as lief be a Brownist as a Politician. when they burnt Servetus for heresy. 'Shakespeare illustrates it in Tivelfth Night. however. but I have reason good enough. Jllirrin." Certainly when we think of these things. we cannot b^ suirrised at the odium which attached to the name of Puritan on the part of many. and " the injustice of a day became productive of a benefit last for ages. sir. and this new fierce spirit of liberty gendered to another kind of bondage. however. What for being a Puritan ? Thy exquisite reason. so that it has been said that if they set open the gates of the Convents. . He was consenting and watching twenty years afterwards.

published at Geneva earlier in the same year. Orci eai'd of (JOHN KNOX. ooeli fulmen ab aroe tonans. were Calvinistic.CHAPTEE XII LAUHENCE TOMSON Cura D©i. It was well printed and had the verse-divisions for the first time. Perhaps the woodcuts were partly from the French Bible of A. Eomee pestis. Hoare says there were 160 Editions between 1560 and the outbreak of the Civil War." As for this earlier Wew Testament of Whittingham's. and convenient Maps and Tables. as we have The Editor is said. but were generally free from the asperity found in Whittingham's earlier New Testament of 1577. Mr. careful to inform the reader that it is not a new Transbut a Revision of the others. and is to be found in Bagster's Hexapla. lation. but the apocrypha was very slenderly furnished with them. ©t Pernicles. though it scarcely should be. . and the use of italics for words not found in the original . nnuidi lionor. though not always The notes division of Chapters into Verses was liked. The Genevan Bible had an enormous and it .) and sale was not easily superseded even by the Authorized Version. it was published by Conrad Badius in 1557. It had a number of woodcuts. French and English Bibles being produced together. at Geneva. The size was convenient it was usually printed and the in the Roman letter. no doubt there was an "entente cordiale. influence. Davodeau. It had similar notes in the Old Testament.

Friars.144 THE PURITAN BIBLE tongues. or pocks. and in his anxiety to express the force of the Greek article. On 1 Cor. the suavity and eloquence of his discoiirse. According to his tablet in Chertsey Church. Priests. which was sores and boils.Title. Beza's influence was very great at this time. Summaries. Nuns. and such filthy vermin which bear the mark of the Beast. Italy. Russia. however. though exprf/ssly mentioned in the. and was of a ^Northamptonshire family. 2 the note is: " This was like the Sixth Plague of Egypt. as affording a contrast to many prolixities of later days. and Tomson's work represents its fullest measure. which sometimes becomes absurd. 11. and France. his skill in controversy." This was certainly too strong. in Eev. with Theology. and witli Civil and jMuuicipal Law. as in 1 John 5. 16. Secretary to Queen Elizabeth. and he that hath not that Son of God hath not that life. ]Mouks. as the Also representative of the Beast which had two horns. bein<* acquainted with many languages. it is missing. and the exercise of all virtue and piety." It is a popular error that Tomson published a revised Genevan Translation. Expositions. It specified Pope Boniface VIII. where he lies buried. The arguments preceding the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles are omitted. and Marginal references. and afterwards travelled in Sweden. — Germany. Oxford. Denmark. He was much employed by Walsingham. The Text of his Bible is usually the 1560 Edition. He made his own mark on the Version." One brave little note may be mentioned. and this reigneth commonly among Canons. and in Laurence Tomson's Version. but what he did was to add a Translation of the notes by Beza and Camerarius. though his influence Tomson was Professor of is still more Calvinistic. he was distinguished for " the sharpness of his wit. he often renders it tlutt or this. He was at Magdalen College. Hebrew at Geneva. 10: "Therefore ought the woman to have — . 12: " He that hath that Son hath that life.

" the note is "What this meaneth I do not understand. to Alexander VI. But in 1592 Francis Junius. the Passion of the Saviour. At first Tomson prefaced the Revelation with an apology for the absence of notes. the object was to conciliate the Romanists and waverers. down to Gregory IX. which are snares to catch souls withal. because of the angels. D. — 3 .LAURENCE TOMSON i45 jiower on her head.. who made Rodolph. and in the following Century. and till 1598 there were scarcely any. and are a perfect contrast to the few and slight ones for which an apology had been made. the Swede. resulting in . instead of Henry IV. In this section again we have the awkward magnifying of the Greek article. of the 11th Century.. and the marginal notes were often on this principle both in Tomson's and the Bishops' Bibles. and much of it came to be afterwards incorporated in Tomson's Bibles.D. are counted from Gregory VII. The thousandth year falls precisely on the times of Hildebrand. "that monstrous necromancer." The 1260 days . Here was what would suit the hottest of the Puritans. when the Jewish Church was overthrown. of the 15th. 5. in 1596. John a remarkable change took place in these Versions. From the 9th Chapter to the end they are a sustained invective against the Popes of Rome from Gregory VII.. are counted from the 36th year. years during which Satan is kept bound in Chapter 20. The notes occupy by far the largest portion of nearly every page.. Gregory VII. Emperor. In the early years of Elizabeth's Reign. who was the author of the Decretals.of Chapter 11 are made to fit exactly into the period from the Crucifixion to the commencement of the Popedom of Boniface VIII.. which was reprinted in 1594. this Pope being the In the 6th object of the writer's special abomination. published his Commentary on this mystical book." With regard to the Revelation of St. Thus the five months or 150 days of Chapter 9. verse of the 14th Chapter the angel represents the The thousand faithful from Cassiodorus to Wyclif.

The Title is " The Bible and Holy Scriptures conteined in the Olde and ISTewe Testament. published in 1561. and many of these Scotch Editions are more ambitious of sculpture and other ornaments than one would expect. an Act was passed. and at a much cheaper price. it was issued in 1579 under the sanction of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. the second Edition. 4d. six months.974 years. Alexander Arbuthnot. Commenced in 1576. In 1576 the Genevan Version was printed It copied at Thomas Bassandyne's reprobated Press. Kirk of Field. Romanism had little chance. 1579. which he has allowed me to examine. and ten days Multitudes of others were issued later on. and was sold at £4 13s. 1542.: 46 THE PURITAN BIBLE " I am tliat roote and tliat offspring of David. during the Government of the Regent Arran. new England's. ! Lord Peckover has a copy of this early Scotch Bible. There. who was then Chancellor of Scotland. which was taken over by Alexander Arbuthnot." In his Hero-Worship. The fervour and courage of Knox swept all before them. making it lawful to read the Scriptures in the Vulgar tongue. Oliver Cromwell's ^that is of Puritanism. Edinburgh." In Scotland the Genevan Bible came to have immense influence.. and when once the Bible became a familiar book in Scotland. with a Dedication to Tames VI. and Carlyle claims for him that he was the " chief priest and founder of the Faith that became Scotland's. and that bright and morning star. the printing office being nearly opposite John Knox's house. Of course the Genevan was the first Bible printed in Scotland. Carlyle contrasts the Protestantism of Luther's own country with the mighty — ." There is much that is noteworthy in the preliminary matter. but Bassandyne died before the completion of the work. as early as 19th March. In this the reader is informed that from the Creation of Adam to the Birth of Christ is said to have been 3. notwithstanding the protest of the Bishop of Glasgow.

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Dr. in its place." Perhaps. in St. . (H." Nevertheless it was a beautiful text from them that Queen Victoria put on Prince Albert's Memorial at Balmoral: " He being made perfect in a short time fulfilled a long time for his soul pleased the Lord therefore hasted He to take him away from among the wicked. Lightfoot. King. and it was one of the fatal mistakes of the Romanists to include them in Scripture." Coverdale's Version waa ihe first printed in English. has cunning in its ten fingers. America. fell forests. 148 THE PURITAN BIBLE and wliicli it became in iScotland. war-navies it force . In this there is. preaching before the House of Commons. laughable. equally with tradition. a patchery of human in^entions which divorced the end of the law from the beginning of the Gospel. strength in its right arm it can steer ships. The . 1875. Westminster.." In Matthew's JBible also there is a protest against their being looked on as Canonical. S. spoke of it as " the wretched Apocrypha. Lorimer has vindicated him from the charge of unnecessary harshness in his monograph. before closing this Chapter. " Puritanism was despicable. The same year. — . but he said "these books are not judged among the doctors to be of like reputation with the other Scripture. . and Dr. Puritanism has got weapons and sinews it has fire arms. Margaret's. remove mountains it is one of the strongest things under this sun at present.Jews never admitted these books into the Canon. a few words . only when the Pilgrim Fathers clubbed their small means together to hire the little ship Mayflower. England." Certainly Knox did a mighty work for both parts of this Island. an address from the Synod of Dort ordering its omission. . In 104-'] the Westminster Divines had also excluded it. anathematizing all who did not receive these " entire books with all their parts as sacred and canonical. but nobodycan manage to laugh at it now.) The Apocrypha kept its position until the last folio Edition issued in IG-ti.

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7. imagine that all human affairs f>re carried backward and forward by the will of chance!" Buchanan went into Portugal in 1547. after Here a year and a half. as a penance. All the engravings at first were taken . from the rendering in Genesis 3. he was appointed tutor to the young king. but her conduct afterwards produced Then a complete alienation between Tutor and pupil." &c. He was a severe one. had the honour of being burnt in 1084. the head of the establishment dying. before he was allowed to depart. and became Classical Tutor to Queen Mary. especially in those printed abroad. whence. The Genevan Bible has often been called the Breeches Bible. whilst they desire to hold a veil before their madness. he was put into the Inquisition. James professed his terror at the sight of one of his courtiers because he reminded him of his former pedagogue." There were abundant mistakes in these early Bibles. though in this it follows Wyclif's. " Ye mad dogs. 5. in common with Milton's political Tracts. from Matt.. A Tract in which he — down the principles of Constitutional government. He returned to Scotland. as Classical Master in the new University of Coimbra. polluted in their minds with a poison of opinions. and extraordinary for its freeness. and in their bodies with the dregs of wickedness. It was also called the Whig-Bible. he was sent to a Monastery. comes style. 9 being mistranslated "Blessed are the place-makers. why do ye attack me in vain !" is its " The fool hath said in his heart. In 1548. Buchanan was a great laid OS Latin scholar. when he was only four years old. by the University of Oxford. he was ordered to translate the Psalms into Latin Verse. now generally accepted. out " The filthy crowd. however. and his satires on the monastic life accomplished for 'Scotland much the same services as Erasmus had rendered Germany. of England. published in 1564.150 THE PURITAN BIBLE should be given to George Buchanan's Psalter. and long after he had ascended the throne of England. afterwards •Tames I.

POIIEDUS) 131 .GEORGE BUCHANAN. (IN THE POSSESSION OF THE EOVAL SOCIETY^ PAINTED IIV F.

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the Index having been in existence then This Bible-prohibitor died in about sixteen years. and established a terrible new The people cursed his manner of the Inquisition. A BtT OF KILLEAEN WITH BIJCHANAN'S MONUMENT. name. and to — a certain extent they succeeded. French words creeping in.LAURENCE TOMSON 153 from the PrencL. The Genevan Bible came out ." He had been so severe. and the notes were virtually re-published as late as 1810. and the first two in Ezekiel show their French origin. His " Index " of such includes all Bibles in modern languages. The Authorized Version had a difiicult task to supersede these popular and often-printed volumes. Translation published contemporaneously. first list of at the same time as the prohibited books put forth by the dying hand of Paul IV. This was in 1559. Elizabeth's second year. smashed his statue in the Capitol. and " Hell was let loose. enumerating 48 Editions. and then flung it into the Tiber. such as midi. dragged the head of it through the filthiest places for three days. The design of those who promoted the Genevan Tomson's was to heat the pure Genevans out of the field.

Then." : . Foxe's Book of Martyrs. come out together as the Genevan Bible. to have diversity of translations and readings. Arber sums it up ably in his Introduction to the Martiu-Mar-Prelate Tracts. translations. of which he says that there was neither blasphemy nor treason to be found in them. and Jewel's Apology? They all saw the light in the first years of Elizabeth's reign. ?s"ot only three great books. of such importance. in drama and allegory. abridgments. reaching forward in its breadth and strength to all the questions of which the nature of man can have any cognizance. with some checks. compilations. it became a Classic at once against the pretensions of the Church of Rome. but rathei do much good. Genevan Bible was approved by Parker. " It should nothing hinder. and so remains to this day.— 154 THE PURITAN BIBLE Did ever three books. But it has been a people's book still The more. As for Jewel's Apology for the Church of England. Tyndale's Translation of the New Testament in 1526 was the beginning of all this. and shortly afterwards the Book of Martyrs was ordered by Convocation as a hand-book for the Archbishops. . though he soon set to work on his " Bishops' Bible. and Archdeacons. but a mighty literature was coming fast. in madrigal and sonnet. came mental adolescence the dawn and glow of imagination revelling in fancy and love. however. from the roots of human society to the heights of Heavenly contemplation. now that the homely and inexpensive Genevan Bibles got into the homes of the people." he said." to which we now turn. Bishops. the largest and fullest ever written. Then the dry light of an intellectual manhood. and they helped to save England from a perpetual tyranny " After the Reformation came the first labors of a literary infancy.

^ i< M :"?- ec ^ o 5i c ./. kj «/ 3^^«3 I 155 . &. » Jt ^ * X « ^ » tr c> :^ 2 j: £ '—•I*..-.? » a t ^ hO " <-. _'«S i-t-!:* Pass ' ^ t- jj a o "S -a £-5 c " * ."' :2 "^ -^ o'Aii ^ -5 ~ if - g . -^ o* ^J ~ 5 K ? •£ H^a 2^. " I' <:^" i rt « !? :^ . t/irt 2"? S 2 o " " 2« " " S '0 2^.5^ Hi "^ " O " oj : — "3 « Ofi . £ •£ X^ ^ ^ -6 To C ?! S -^S r * <= « if « m . !-=•-. o 1- c yH— „'-^ 6 S = o'r S «« •-- tv *-! ^ — ' r IP a ^f a -* -^ i^^l V ^ 2 i T " s S *=.0 o u ^^ ~ 0-0-= -C — vt I.^. '5 K s § '^ i^ n -c O "?.tz..-S4i j^ dH "^ "H y c c « c c r^ Hr- - "I "2 >2 "2 c.

And grsiat hostility from Spain and France. and respected by Europe. Most of her difficulties were more or less nearly connected with her decided attachment to a But that broad and enlightened Protestantism. and long before her death. bravely did advance Christ's glorious ensign. 10. Lady DIANA PRIMEOSE. Yet she. and that this should happen. her services to the cause of true religion will be more and more appreciated as the history of her turbulent times is examined. hardly falls within the bounds of probability. maugre all the fears Of dangers which appeared. T©t though she found the Realm infected much With superstition and abuses. W^HATEVER prejudice may arise against the name of Elizabeth. chapter of Pearle. An old historian has said " The situation of England in Elizabeth's time resembled that of a Town powerfully besieged without.CHAPTER Xlll THE bishops' bible Sed sat " cito. in such circumstances. But and exposed to treachery and sedition within. as Creighton has lately shown. should defend itself. and for ten years Slie swayed the sceptre with a lady's hand. undaunted. Harleian MSS. that a Town. she saw it firmly established throughout the liealm. and force the enemy to raise the siege. and some portions of her private conduct. attachment was sincere. on account both of some acts of her reign. si sat bene. and that the inhabitants should feel : — 136 . Not urging any Romist in the land By sharp edicts the Temple to frequent Or to partake the holy Sacrament. such As in all human judgment oould not be Reformed without domestic mutiny." A Composed by the noble Vol..

OF ZUCCHERO IN THE COLLECTION OF THE SIAKQUIS OF SALISBURY. . QUEEN ELIilABETH THE ORIGINS!..

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the Bishop' Bible. as in Deuteronomy 6. used to say it was vain to strike at the branches whilst the root of all heretics remained. Let Philip have full credit for having stood by her also. and no doubt many would suggest such a Revision. but the This is plain Genevan note 1751. " Here He tXTniversal Magazine. ." t Yet this contains a true image Lord Bacon partly explains this when he says that she was wise enough to know that the supreme Head of such a government owes a supreme service to the whole. and There its Calvinism was much too strong for Parker. as it came to be commonher suggestion. nay. What a mercy that she was spared through all the vile plottings. and that Mary was not succeeded by another Romanist. seems an adventure of some extravagant romance. It was awkward to have so many versions of the same thing. and again on 3rd May. But. in a letter to Cecil. 1562. Bishop Cox did. 18. however great a debt true religion may owe to Elizabeth. He as bitter and murderous as herProbably only the death of Gardiner saved her. January 19th. was not likely to be much in favor with Bishops. and find themselves at last better able to offend the enemy than they were at first to defend the walls. he needs it. self." ordinary reader. of this reign. a revision of the Word of Grod by a good number of the most competent scholars of the time. that they should grow opulent during the continuance of it. he urged that one uniform The Genevan especially translation should be used. was not undertaken at Archbishop Parker was the man who commenced and carried out what Cranmer had attempted in vain. " and thou shall do that which is right and good in the sight of the Lord. 1564. is Antinomian teaching also. ly called. Fuller says she was going to be brought to the shambles when the seasonable death of the butcher saved the sheep alive. enough to the is.THE BISHOPS' BIBLE 159 none of the inconveniences of a long and obstinate siege.

he said: places — t Althoujj^h the Bishops merit praise for their oomsistency. 1549. He had been Chaplain to Queen Anne Boleyn. however. Cambridge. and who commended Elizabeth to his care. In the same way. by men who had narrowly escaped the Marian persecutions. but the Genevan condenineth Bible paid too little respect to those in authority. and Vice-Chancellor of the University. subsequently to wliich he was elected Master of Corpus Christi College. and most of the Bishops were in sympathy with it. he was obliged to live concealed. which he continued to be for about ten years. a comparatively few resigned their preferments. on Protestantism being once more established. he saw much in Luther that " gave him pause.t Their were filled in many cases." and maintained an independent judgment. but there were Those of the plenty of good scholars amongst them. when they returned to England. but losing everything under Queen Mary. he disliked the intolerance of many of the Marian exiles. and a linsey wolsey Bishop. late Reign. Birt has lately shown. He had joined the party of the Reformers at Cambridge. So some called him Mntthcw meal nwiith. The Bishops were mostly new men. When he was despoiled of all his preferments.i6o THE PURITAN BIBLE Zwinglian all man's good intentions. After her death. and the appointment well accorded with his character. all resigned their Sees. made him one of his own Chaplains. changing his residence frequently. of whom he always spoke with respect. that there is little . and the change must have been great. except Kitchin. 's Reign he was nominated 1o the Deanery of Lincoln. much to the honor of their consistency. ." and Calvinistic opinions had been largely fused in the Consensus Tigurinus of August. of Llandaff. out of nearly ten thousand beneficed Clergy. though still a Reformer. but at the same time gave himself up to a close reading of the Fathers. Amongst these Parker was chosen to occupy the highest place.reliance to be placed on Sonthey's statement that there were only 177. In consequence. Henry YIII. In Edward VI.

ARCHBISHOP OF CANTKR15URY. IIAITHF.W TAEKEE.DR. .

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at the risk of his life. ductions are not inconsiderable. he pleaded many excuses. and wished a humbler sphere. The Saxon Manuscripts there are priceless. He regarded Mary. we can imagine him in seclusion there a good deal. he rescued many noble monuments of antiquity from destruction. 1572.THE BISHOPS' BIBLE 163 " After this I lived as a private individual. wife he was deeply attached. Bartholomew August. and as Inett says. he preached to the rebels on the madness of their His literary proproceedings. When the Primacy was mentioned to him. The most valuable of these are still to be found in his Corpus Christi. and — openly counselled her execution. religion in the Country was practically identical with — Protestantism. according to his He collected them so as to prove that the old will. Queen of 'Scots. He had sided with Lady Jane Grey. from which he was only roused by the massacre of St. and fell from his horse. yielded me much greater and more solid enjoyments than my former busy and dangerous life had ever afforded me. and was one of a small party who supped with Northumberland as he passed through Cambridge. and so far from being ashamed or dejected. that the delightful literary leisure to which the good Providence of Glod recalled me. and during Ket's Norfolk Rebellion. But he prayed that the choice might not light on either an . there followed a long period of depression. near Cambridge. and are kept with the greatest care. So he was obnoxious in Mary's Reign." He had been Vicar of Landbeach. sustaining serious injury. and his marriage would have been quite sufficient to thrust him out of To his bis preferments under the new Papal Regime. as at the bottom of this horror. or old College Library at Cambridge Benet. and when he lost her in 1570. so liappy before Grod in my conscience. On one occasion he was compelled to flee by night. He united bravery with modesty. and that the typical Romanist doctrines were modern heresies. and as he was so fond of the latter. if he did not write the Antiquitates Britannicse.

the Queen resolve to admit of no excuse frotn him. It was not invented until long after the event was contradicted at once by the old Earl of Nottingham. many of the Reformers scouting the theory of Episcopal Succession. and discourage others the second would be too weak to commune with the adversaries. drawn up by himself. who was present. said. . says that in this . would sit in his own light. Hook will scarcely condescend to deal with it. or send representatives to the Council of Trent. Brett. Browne. and published by the Parker Society. No doubt Parker was honest in his refusal of the Archbishopric. it is quite true that the three Bishops originally appointed refused to act 'Tunstall.. and the Romanists feeling that the breach could not be repaired." long time a stupid and malicious tale of his having been consecrated at the Nag's Head in Cheapside was believed." However false the Nag's Head fabrication was. Alas. Elizabeth would not receive any Papal Nuncio.D. and would be the stouter on his pusillanimity and the Wisely then did third would not be worth his bread. and is completely disposed of in a littlcj volume by T. four Bishops assisting who had been consecrated in either Henry VIII's or Edward VI's time.i64 THE PURITAN BIBLE lie arrogant man. and twenty nobles a year. in his valuable recent Life. he says. for what times hast Thou kept me. Tlie first. . 17th December. alas Lord God. the falsehood." 1718. saying that all he wanted was his own beloved Benet College. Now have I come into deep waters. Great difficulties were inevitable at such a time. who were many. nor a covetous one. — Kennedy. In the brief account of his life. "the Fable of the Nag's Head refuted. 1559 " I was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury. It reflects disgrace on some modern Romanists that they have persevered in propagating . but does so in an Appendix. and the flood : ! hath overwhelmed me. and amongst those who assisted at his Consecration we For a find once more "good Father C'overdale. The Ceremony was at Bow Church. and Poole. nor a fainthearted. LL.

and in the year 1563 it was begun." No complete Bible had been published in England since the Summer of 1553. Each one was to subscribe his initials at the end. The arrangement was for each reviser to work at his own portion at home. Perhaps these notes were written. Now therefore especially those printed in Holland. and probably destroyed. at least With their strong Protestant half representing it. The notes. and see to the printing and publishing." and there seems to have been little difficulty in securing the co-operation of those who were in high . and they were abundant in all the old Bibles. The Archbishop gives as the chief reason for commencing this new Translation the mistakes that were continually being discovered in the earlier ones.. the whole was to be sent to Parker. that Parker could carry out his wishes. as " The copies of the well as their general scarcity. There was only one Edition in a portable form. of course printing was still a new art." he says. adding short marginal notes for Then the illustration and correction of the Text. This was the Matthews' Bible. that of E. They were certainly removed. they had greatly aided the Reformation. " are so wasted that very many Churches want Bibles. but they never appeared. mostly in Tyndale's Version. and they are so faultily printed. Eedman in 1540. Probably few of the Cranmer Bibles in the Churches survived Queen Mary's Reign. Great Bible and Cranmer's had no notes. though numerous " hands " referring to such. and was in five parts or volumes. and he was to add a final review. But all through Edward VI's Eeign the Country had been deluged with small Editions of the New Testament. As to the printer's errors. and had around him many scholars and ripe ones. he divided the work amongst them. Isaiah. More than 30 Editions had been printed before the end of his Reign. that they might be more diligent " as answerable for their doings.THE BISHOPS' BIBLE refusal he 165 may reverently be placed with Moses. and Jeremiah. former Translation.

i66 places. . THE PURITAN BIBLE though at such a time there would be aby^ndant occupation for them in other ways. Paul's Epistles from 2 Corinthians to Hebrews. and St. Matthew and Mark. his portion being Genesis and Exodus. Parker worked with the workmen.

.-. ^ R. DAVIES. ^ [Andrew Pierson. 167 . 3.'J . „ . Perne. preserved in the State Paper Oifice The The The The The The Sum of the Scripture. [bp. Paralipomenon. Parker. prebend?] '- „ ) [ . CantabrigiJE.i(' [bp Parkhurst. i tm 1 Ecclesiasticus usanna. Davies. dated Oct.J Numerus. ) Genesis.] Preface into the Psalter. AND.j. ^. j^Q^. .] Regum. \ Table of Christ's Argument first of the Scriptures. Preface to the whole Bible.] ' Maccabeorum. [ J CantuariiE. . Cant. Deuteronium. Wigorn. line.] Josuae. I ) r [abp. 2 1 ^'^7' . ot Ely.. Exodus.: J CHAPTEE XIV ALLEY. Ecclesiastes. prebend . Exon. Baruc. M. The following list of the revisers of the difFerent books of the Bible is enclosed in a letter to Cecil.] j. he recognized God in his and acted. . [bp.] ) „ Proverbia. [Andrew Pierson. .Cant.^. Sandys.4i. 1. Alley. 2 Ed. 5. BECON "The Puritan soul. did not stop to think. Meneven. canon [Andrew t> r . [bp. [abp. J W. . Preface into the New Testament. Judicum. 15G8.-.. Parker. Cantuanae." Wendeh Phillips. Leviticus.

") Cicestren. t-i- ru [bp. and Covent. . bp. Marcus. Ad Thessalon. Exon. Johannes. [bp. were placed at the ends of tlie books. of Worcester. j [bp.] ) j Lich. minores.Lincoln. . Ezechiel. L r Barlow.] Apocalipsis. Psalms. Hieremias. Richard Davies. dean. J THE PURITAN BIBLE \ „ Tobias.] 2 Epistola Corin. Sapientia. [Gabriel Goodman. y W." do not agree with this list. of Exeter. Eondon. ) ^ [abp.— i68 Esdras. C. Ad Timotheum. Ad Phillippenses. Peterb. [bp. . |M. i Epistola Corin. B. bp. 1 . 2 Chronicles. Cant. bp. 1 . „ .. | Scambler. W. | Propheta. St. Judith. Wigornen. N. Mattha?us. . [abp. Westmon. Parker. M. of David's. W. /-„„ Cox. Ed. Winton. R.] Bentham. / Epistolae Canonicse.] Grindal. W. Ed. that the revisers " might be the more diligent as answerable for their doings.] • Ad Romanos. J I Esaias. A. Canterbury . The initials occur as follows At the end of : The Pentateuch. Samuel. Andrew Pearson. . R.] [bp. E. [bp. Ad Collossenses. ) I R. canon Thomas Becon [?]. . Ad Titum. 1 [ J n Eliensis R.. Acta Apostolorum. T nCfis 1 M.] Tlie initials. Meneven. Edwyn of Sandys. Daniel. Ad Hebrasos. Lamentationes. \ D. P. Ad Philemon. Home. whicli. 2 E. Cant. Parker. T. [bp. Job. . William Alley. Ad Galatas Ad Ephesios. Bullingham. at tlie arclibisliop's suggestion. . E.

and sometimes by teaching of scholars. of them took a leading part in shaping its events. L. but then removed to Oxford. G. married and had a benefice. C.log of the Bishops of Exeter. G. of Norwich. R. bp. E. bp. E." but these were men who rendered an imperishable service. the nation was becoming predominantly Protestant. for Protestants who dared to stay. J. 1584. E.D. Paul's Cathedral. E. but travelled from place to place in the North of England. and scholarship went well with public action. R- Andrew Pearson. was born at Wycombe about 1510. Acts. Malachi. Corinthians. of Lichfield and Coventry. Edmund Grindal. t was hard times at home therefore. we Many realize the life and complexion of the period.ALLEY. Winchester. and he was also a Prebendary of St. Gabriel Goodman. bp. R. and " sometimes by practising of physic. DAVILS AND BECON 169 The Song o£ Solomon. being not known to have been a priest. in that momentous period when. 2 Maccabees. Proverbs. canon of Ely. D. no doubt. E. William Alley. N. bp. as Queen Mary's Reign was called. Daniel. Andrew Perne. L. he did not go abroad. P.. of Thomas Cole. and as we briefly review their histories. of Ely. Romans.T. In the Marian days. Robert Home. /. Lamentations. and admirably performed the — •fOaita. Richard Cox. A. unknown." iSo John Yowell tells It us. for the first time. W. Norvic. He graduated there Afterwards he in 1533. Paul's. Richard Cox.P. R. of London. Londin. Bishop of Exeter. of Ely. Winton. and dangerous. Elien. dean of Westminster. Early in the reign of Elizabeth he became Divinity reader at iSt. and so continued. he picked up a poore living for himfeelf and his wife. Surely it is well tliat English people should know something of the men who gave Uueen Elizabeth her Bible. R. P. C. canon of Canterbury. bp. bp. Elien. Horace speaks of many who could not expect anything else " In endless night they sleep. . S. during all Queen Mary's time. John Parkhurst. whose narrative is our principal authority. T. unwept. A.. Cambridge. I R. and went to Eton and King's College.

who knew the Bishop well. puns. though possibly it has been untouched These printers were fond of their little and Day's motto was the sunrise.. which would not be very likely to appeal to them. . in 1565. which did abate much of his wonted exercises. and promoted to the See of Exeter in the following. and I have spent part of an afternoon on it profitably. and was buried in the Choir of his for centuries. full of love. aged 60. and singular learning. liberal to the poore. for it is day. Vowell says he was " loth to offend. Onely he was somewhat credulous. so that he was made Prebendary in 1559. which most gladly he would impart and make open to every good scholar and student whose company and conference he did most desire and embrace. a collection of sermons.D. In his latter time. he published. full of all sorts a good and general information. and very indefatigable.170 THE PURITAN BIBLE duties of his office. sending him yearly a silver cup for lie was a "preaching prelate. readie to forgive. 1570. As it was so poor. commends his affability of manners. such as a Hebrew grammar. succeeding the deprived Tiirberville. bountiful in hospitalitie." He was Bishop nearly ten years. void of malice. however." a new year's gift. he had the royal assent Oxto hold other preferments for a limited period. besides other works. inscribed "Arise. he waxed somewhat grosse. regularity of life." to his freeud. Hooker. ford gave him the D. adding that " his library was replenished with all the best sort of writers. Before this abatement." Alley diminished the number of Canons at Exeter from 24 to 9. and his bodie full of humors. Day. however. dying on 15 April. and the Queen had a great respect for him. faithful and courteous to all men. and is a large folio volume which would It is cost the poor of Biblical man deal. which he did oftimes blame in himselfe. which he called "The poor man's library. owing to the impoverished state of the finances.year." though its first title is a Greek word. It was printed by J.

however. a short account of this may not be unacceptable. a native: of Denbighshire. Precentor of St. and it was to be furnished by 1st March. and on his return had a great deal to do with the publication of the Welsh Bible. 1566. and a small work. It was not done. iSalesbury. Eichard Davies. and suggests that it may possibly have been the work of Tyndale. as given by Dr.. Afterwards Llanrhaidr. Detached portions were also printed for tbe Welsh Service-book in Edward YI. the whole Bible.. David's and St. already referred to and one or . . But there was a rather important omission it was not said who was to pay. M.'s reign. David's. Richard Davies. D. The four Welsh Bishops and the Bishop of Hereford were to be fined £200. This was the total effect of the Reformation till Elizabeth came to the Throne. containing the Epistles and Oospels for the Communion. and very eminent for his learning and piety. in the " Lives of the Gr. published li.D. Thomas Hewet. but not appointed because he was a Welshman William Salesbury. where there him may be found Bishops of Exeter. When we remember that Wales originated the British and Foreign Bible Society. Vicar assisted of by whose names he gives. were Dr. Asaph. two others. translated William Morgan. Dr. He was one of the Refugees in Queen Mary'a leign. Oliver. in 1551. ALLEY. lie tells us in his "Historical account of the Welsh Bible" that a manuscript translation of the New Testament into Welsh existed in the middle of the leign of Henry VIII. In her 5th year an Act was passed for translating the Bible and Service-book into Welsh. nominated for the Bishopric of Bangor. by W. successively Bishop of St. for 20 years." by Further a suitable epitaph. stands for Richard Menevensis. Llewellyn. if it was not done. but meantime the New Testament was completed by Those who prepared it private zeal and liberality. including the Bishops . uotices of in 18G1. DAVIES AND is BECON 171 Cathedral. several Dr.

172 THE PURITAN BIBLE of St. So the Protestant party was held together. by C. as a reward for his services. Asaph and Bangor. NEWCOME. Whether T.D. and R. in 1513. Yorkshire. B. E. but was recalled to London. 1546. name of Morgan be the disgrace and calamity of the British Church. for whom some people of distinction had pleaded. at the end of the Psalms is Bentham or Becon is doubtful. He went to Zurich and Basle at first. A revision of the whole was accomplished in 1620. D. with whom he lived for a year. ' ' t " Memoir of Gabriel Goodman. and was admitted perpetual Fellow of Magdalen College. he was turned out of his Fellowship on the accession of Queen Mary for what they were pleased to call his forward and malapert zeal against Ithe Catholic religion. the Dean of Westminster. this more modern Pelagius is its honour and blessing. which is much the same as that now in use. Newcome. and waited. and preached in secret for the rest of Queen Mary's reign. Asaph. but he stood firmly to his confession of Christ. by EET." Certainly he shook the censer out of the Priest's hand in the Chapel Choir.A. M. In spite of its being perpetual. in which last " Thus. however. by Bishop Richard Parry." says Mr." t The translation of the New Testament in Morgan's Bible is only a corrected Edition of that published twenty years earlier by Davies and his friends. Morgan's Bible was published in the memorable year of the Spanish Armada. was Dr. who became Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. Barker. being specially known for his knowledge of Hebrew. however. Bentham being their Superintendent. Gabriel Ooodmau. " if the station he died. was advanced euccessively to the Sees of LlandafE and St. Anderson inclines to Bentham. His chief helper. He was born at Sherburn.. The translator. Oxford. At the last of the Smithfield Martyrdoms it was ordered that none should speak to or encourage the sufierers. and they were both notable men. Amongst them was Roger Holland. .

DAVIES AND BECON 173 and Bonner would not remit the sentence. a number embraced their brethren before they were made fast to the stake. turned to the vast crowd. and say 'God strengthen them. in spite of edicts and at the peril of his life. like the sound of many waters. After this. Bentham. and rushing forward. and became Bishop of Lichfield soon after Elizabeth's accession. When he and six others appeared. and therefore we cannot but choose to wish well to them. He was sure to be promoted.' " A : — loud response.ALLEY. and exclaimed " We know that they are the people of God. He was . there was no fire lit again in Smithfield during Queen Mary's reign. came from the multitude.

then was Cambridge blessed. daily prayers were offered for him by his household. and for a time lectured on Divinity at Oxford. and went to St. and made to recant at Paul's Cross. His pen was busy during " " — — — this fugitive period. He was born in Norfolk in 1512. If the Psalms found a translator in Becon. Somerset. being in great repute for learning. afterwards Bishop of London. 1553. meaning to support himself by pupils. He found valuable friends in the Marquis of Dorset. and Aylmer. however. boisterous. and also to the Protector Somerset.174 THE PURITAN BIBLE then in his 46th year. died 6th July. His offence was writing against the Roman" images. and Master a proverb: Latimer preached. and one of the six preachers at Canterbury Cathedral. burning time. and Becon was at once committed to the Tower as a " seditious preacher" when soul's health. and burn his books." He had a pseiidonym Theodore " Basil but this did not hinder his being " presented in 1541. speaking once of " mine so grievous and troublous sickness. was his being Chaplain to the Protector. was written in the governance of virtue and his " bloody. During the Duke's imprisonment in 1549. He died in 1579. as he had been Chaplain to Cranmer..D. Cambridge. Walbrook. along with Robert "Wisdom. He then went to the Peak of Derbyshire. revoke his doctrine. where he became a diligent hearer of Latimer. . and a very favoxirite one. and in 1565 he became D. the Word of our was forbidden the poor lay people. and quotes a saying which had passed into " When Master iStaiford read." Edward VI." In 1538 he was ordained. chastity. but he injured his health by over study. it was perfectly natural. in 1543. the reading of the Holy Bible. This was the time also when he became Chaplain to Cranmer. Stephen's." With Edward VI. however. He became Rector of St. a form of thanksgiving was " gathered and set forth by Thomas Becon. John's College. better fortune came. Minister there." Once ist's more he abjiired. and when he was liberated. What was most notable. and satisfactions.

Then he Pleasant Nosehas "The Christmas Banquet. However. experiences in Derbyshire and Warwickshire during Queen Mary's Reign. It closed with a humble supplication to God for the lestoring of His Holy Word unto the Church of England. and said it was dishonourable in priests. DAVIES AND BECON 175 He was kept there till the following March. after seven months of prison life. and went at once to Strasburg. however. I cannot profess to have read them all. not " The jewel of joy " records his without profit. and wrote a considerable number of able works. he was released." The persecuting Papists of the day flatly contradicted the Apostle. read." "The Flower and of Prayer. having been ejected from his Church as a married man. and on Elizabeth's accession. whence he wrote an Epistle to those who held together in England. but I have spent many days in their company." "The Pomander Castle of Comfort. His works were remarkable for the quaintness of their titles. and with wide popular acceptance. or keep any of the books of Theodore Basil." "The Solace of the Soul. he returned at once to England. published by the Parker Society. as well as their intrinsic merit. ' ' — objections to certain " regulations and ritualisms. but there are 1814 pages in the 3 large volumes they have brought out." . He preached again also at Canterbury. The Bible says as plainly as words can speak: "Marriage is honourable in all. The Parker Society has not published the whole of them. for they numbered 41. He preached at St. and was restored to a London benefice. That did not break any bones. "Whilst abroad he wrote his Displaying of the Mass." but acquiesced after a time. otherwise called Thomas Becon.ALLEY." and a proclamation in 1555 against "heretical books " denounced a severe punishment against any who should sell. Paul's Cross and elsewhere on special occasions. —16th August." He had "A gay. He was hopeful of deliverance. and is full of interest. and it soon came.

. were so popiilar in his own time that Day the printer. Paul.\76 THE PURITAN BIBLE "David's Harp ISTewly Stringed. in 1549. and garnishing of the Temples. some a boot. decking. but the greater part are on general Christian themes. A and highly commended by Archbishop Parker. some a dog. and though all the reformers were "mighty in the Scriptures. some a key. Of course many of them touch the Eomish controversy. some a butcher's knife. and manifest a thorough knowledge of the subject. and though few may read them to-day." "The Sick Man's Salve. some a pig. which was granted. some a gridiron. yet for the adorning. uniform and corrected edition was printed in 1564. to see a sort of puppet standing in every corner. where so many idols are seen. are more like : — barns than Churches. some a spear. some a lamb. and say that images are to be placed ill Churches. some unbearded. trimming." He had a wider range of subjects perhaps than any writer of the day. if for notliing else." he abounded therein. applied for a license authorizing him to reprint them. some an horn. some a spit. some an ox. They were printed as separate tracts. some ' . some a cup. contrary to the commandment of God ? Can God be worshipped there in spirit and in truth. some holding in their hands a sword." and a " Potation for Lent. some an anchor of a ship. some a sceptre. which have neither spirit nor truth? What garnishing is this. some a shepherd's hook. beautifying. they say. some a shoemaker's cutting knife. some a book. some a pair of pincers. Here is the way he speaks about the endless images which were so superstitiously used " These image mongers have yet another defence for their idols. I answer with -St. some an arrow. some an hawk some bearded. which otherwise. He died about three years afterwards in Canterbury. where so many mawmets stand. How What agreeth the Temple of God with images?' concord is there between God's service and idol service? Can God be worthily called upon in that place. some a basket of flowers.

but pollute not deck. lepers. from the bonds of death. forgive us our debts through the merits of Thomas. through Thomas's wounds. A. but deform not polite. some weeping some gilded. DAVIP:S AND BECON some 177 capped 6ome uncapped. some cloked. pestilences. Possibly. diseases." and both these opinions have great weight. some coated. however. All things give place and obey Thomas. Dr. some naked. earth. painted. He looseneth them that are bound. ing. afterwards Bishop of Chichester. in his " Records of the English Bible. some perfumed." These prayers are from the Romish Service for the day on which Thomas Becket is commemorated.. some with flowers and garlands garnished But why do I tarry in reciting these vain trifles and trifling "vanities. but infect the Temples of the Christians. and death. ! ALLEY. extracted from the same . a kind writer's " new year's gift. He maketh clean. Mr. (with of stocking or boot) some rotten. Aldis Wright assigns them to Thomas Bickley. air. laughhoused. some with holy water sprinkled. and the seas. some worm-eaten. and raise us up from the threefold death. W. Pollard agrees with this. Thomas filled the world full of glory. some or without housings. good Jesu. one of Parker's chaplains. Here is a sample of the prayers offered to Becket. some some unhoused. These vain idols do not adorn. and devils fire." And let not anyone imagine that such things were not superstitiously used. . some censed. wherewith the Churches of the Papists are stuffed ? I think verily that in the Temples of the old Pagans there was never found so much vanity and so many childish sights as there be at this present day in those Churches which are under the yoke and tyranny of the bloody Bishop of Rome. " . release us of our sins which bind us." good Jesu. neither Bentham nor Becon was the Translator of the Psalms.

course men could conscientiously cliange their opinions in these days of ceaseless argument. Early in 1554 he was appointed Master of Peterhouse. and became Fellow of St. his old pupil. Ihen Fellow of Queen's. POPE. He preached the sermon when the dead bodies of Bucer and Fagius were condemned as heretics in 1556 • 178 . and his complacence was soon rewarded. In 1552 he became Canon of Windsor. and moderated the zeal of the visitors against them. but he had no intention of resisting ihe new authorities. He was born about 1519 at East Bilney. but he had respect for the consciences of his former friends. in Norfolk. and when Whitgift. and next year formally subscribed the ' Roman Catholic articles.CHAPTER XV bishops' bible perne and paekhuest " But eometimee virtue starves while vice is Wliat then? Is the rewaid of virtue bread?" fed. it was in vain. Of a sort of Yicar of Bray. After Queen Mary's accession he argued against transubstantiation. and was one of those Divines who were directed by Edward VI to promulgate the doctrines of the Reformation in the remote parts of the Country. recommended him for a Bishopric. As Vice-Chaucellor he received in 1556 the Delegates appointed by Cardinal Pole to visit the University. and afterwards Dean and Yice-President. Andrew Pekne was and then Archbishop of Canterbury. He was also Chancellor of the University. Cambridge. Perne changed his again and again. but they might do it too often for their good fame. John's College.

when conform A John ParJchurst was a good Classical scholar. and preached a Latin sermon before her. and witty. Fuller says he was a master of witty retort." But his many changes led to his being looked upon as the very type of fickleness. and won some fame as an adept at Latin Epigrams. long controversy followed his death in 1589. and he was generally reputed to be " very facetious. or Andrew Perne. and left many volumes to it. He took part in the Queen's reception. a Protestant.. A." The scholars translated perno " I turn. At Peterhouse he built the Library. P. Feckenham being then in prison at Wisbech." On the weathercock of St. In 1580 he tried to convert Feckenham. and to the University Library. I rat. and in 1562 he subscribed to the 39 Articles. But how far this follower of Martial succeeded the reader will not be informed. when she visited Cambridge in 1564. and his name was removed from the list of Court preachers. in which he denounced the Pope. learned. a Puritan. or Andrew Perne. ?fash vindicated his memory as that of a " careful father of the University. Elizabeth briefly comLplimented him. for on one of his journeys he . to Elizabeth came." It became proverbial to say of a coat that had been turned that " perned." and his benefactions were indisputable. and the satirists said they might be interpreted Andrew Perne. I change often. a Papist. and excellent at blunt sharp jest. were the letters A. it had been Peter's. hospitable. to Protestantism. and he was nicknamed " Old Andrew Turncoat.BISHO'PS' BIBLE 179 and then presided over the Senate in 1560 when a grace was passed for their restoration to their earlier honours. but resented his emphatic defence of the Church's power of excommunication a little later. Cambridge. Easy man In 1557 he became Dean ! of Ely. P. He wa. he showed a feverish anxiety to the new order of things.5 an enthusiastic book collector. formerlj' Abbot of Westminster. and had the finest private library in England. and he had defenders.

and all his money. that he has often been a wonder to me. and went to Zurich. He recalls the pleasant time he had spent in England. entered Magdalen College School at Oxford. man pre-eminent for his erudition. Parkhurst went from Grloucestershiie to hear Ihem. and the stedfastness of liis faith. ijxford. to Lord Francis Russel. and in one of his Epigrams said the tutor had become the pupil. when I was residing in Oxford. To live five years with anyone is to become known. when almost a boy. He became Chaplain to Queen Catherine Parr. amidst the sore troubles of a lengthened exile. commencing: — " n&w erected tomb contains The mortal but revered remains This Of 'her who shone through omiament and all her days Her B&x's praise. and they became fast friends. and I have A rejoiced in having such a man for my guest. and who has firmly retained that pure faith in Christ which two and twenty yeors ago he began to profess.Jewel gave Humanity Lectures at Corpus Christi. where he first came. He was a Guildford man. urging Parkhurst's promotion. but it illustrates the dangers of the time. and then became Fellow of Merton. Jewel was one of his pupils. whom he calls his most gentle mistress. when a huge piece of the was sunk in the Irish Channel. Gaulter wrote both to the Queen. So much so that when . in Id'H. says that amongst them he " easily holds the first place. whei'c he was liospitably received by Gaulter and otiier Cah'inistic Divines. on tlie accession of Mary he left the country. and has so confirmed the same. and referring to Parkhurst as one of his special friends.i8o THE PURITAN BIBLE was robbed of the " fair copy " of tbem. and also to the Queen's physician. and whose epitaph he wrote." However. lil<e so many others of its best men. in whom . the second Earl of Bedford. and it is very touching to read tlie character given of him by his Zurich friends when the tyranny was overpassed. Probably it was not such a grevious loss as " "' Fairy Queen Spenser's.

.BISHOP JEWEL.

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" t All this pointed to a Bishopric. but acting well." exclaims It was so. It was a very good t Zurich Letters. and been some time at Zurich. in a letter to Gaulter. as for Ids sound learning. but tbe exactly round. Queen Elizabeth's : — physician. and doubtless Parkhurst had far more comfort as Rector of Cleeve than as Bishop of Norwich in such uneasy times. And he is indeed worthy to be loved. Parkhurst did not in the least degree want. the lovers of which aie scarcely ever of any use in the Church. which. who became notoi'ious for their dissensions. . and his Jewel. who had left England during Mary's reign. Gaulter says " I should very fully commend Master John Parkhurst. To llichard Masters. to his people at Cleeve. and looks down upon all Bishops. and when he was restored to he wanted nothing more. as he has a remarkable knowledge of Scriptures. as well for the singular godliness which he gave proof of in his exile. praise *hey merit whio excel Not in wide spheres.BISHOPS' i of BIBLE 183 might have constantly before me a lively pattern Christian faith and doctrine. Gaulter also touches on this last point. Such. " I doubt not he will do the reviving Church good service. and has a thorough abhorrence of controversy. and took a leading part in many of the movements which followed. were I not aware that he is much loved and valued by you. He had been Rector of Cleeve. in which Parkhurst certainly differed from some of the exiles. " Circles are praised not thajt abound In lojgeness. so opposed to any fondness for contention. and is most devoted to the truth. reluctance to take any Bishopric whatsoever was not it. as I easily discovered when you so affectionately came to visit him at my house. " Parkhurst is gone where he now reigns like a king. only real but perfectly natural." The Earl of Bedford was created a Privy Councillor on Elizabeth's accession." So sings "Waller. however." To the Earl of Bedford also.

He held the position for fifteen years. and though I could not effect this with my prayers and entreaties.i84 THE PURITAN BIBLE my Liying. Cleeve is enough Let others have their Bishoprics . This was before he lost them altogether. and my intimate friends. when everything had been taken away. by their assistance. 1st Sept. in spite of " the care of the Churches. that my name should be erased from the list which the Queen has in her possession. He had been asked to publish his epigrams before they were pirated. and was so much in earnest for the improvement of the Diocese that he absolutely declined at first to stop the " prophesyings " which were for the profit of the Clergy. and thoroughly repaired the Bishop's Palace. 1560. yet I have hitherto. But a single harvest will set everything to rights. and the "pseudo-bishops" of Queen Mary's Reign had objections availed. Eectory and lie says of it: "I was restored to after harvest. and that they were contending in some corner of his study with the moths and beetles. Many of the Parishes were without Incumbents. kept my neck out of that halter. but his It was full of labor and anxiety. he set to work. However. and they never crept out into public places unless compelled to do so. In a letter to Conrad Gresner. for everything was disorganized in the See. my but I implored some of our leading men. lest a tumult should arise among the people. and he certainly would never find time for them now. I was to be enrolled among their number. in a lovely piece of country near Cheltenham.. and he was consecrated Bishop of Norwich. All might have been well with him." but for a rogue who threw a dark shadow over his last . for me. Thomas Sampson had been thought of for it first. and had replied that he could not publish frivolous trifles of that sort." Certainly he that desired Cleeve in preference to a Bishopric desired a good thing in such days. Parkhurst says many called them butchers to their faces. He was hospitable and genial. but in a very little time his objections were overcome. brought their order into contempt.

But no Bill can abolish all swindlers. "t Parkhurst was made D. and the whole Congregation was nearly broken up. which was accepted by the Government. to the Bishops of Norwich. and was given by Henry VIII. so did these in Norwich. And as the refugees at Frankfort and elsewhere differed seriously. The Bishop was a highly honourable man. only more so. and in order to refund the amount. Benet at the Holme. Parkhurst introduced a Bill into Parliament. as his income was comparatively small. As he and many others had been exiled to Switzerland. Three ambitious and aspiring men occasioned and continued all the disturbance. being relieved from the royal pomp and courtly bustle. and died February. who appropriated considerable sums of money to his own use. and removed to a small house at Ludham. BIBLE 185 This was George Thymelthorp. 1575. . in " There has been an implacable quarrel here 1571: among the foreigners. in a letter to a friend about this time " The wealth of the Bishops is now reduced to a reasonable amount. Jewel said. to say nothing of expense.BISHOPS' years. and we have lived to see the late Baron Amherst's magnificent collection of Bibles sold under somewhat similar circumstances. so in turn a number of Protestants fled from Flanders to Norwich. he gave up the use of his repaired Palace. being buried in Norwich Cathedral. where a Church was allowed them in the City. at Zurich. in 1566. It was the more difficult for Parkhurst to meet his obligations. The manor here belonged to the Abbey of St. To prevent the recurrence of such frauds.D. they may with greater ease and diligence employ their leisure in attending to the flock of Christ. You would scarce believe what labor I have undergone. What days of bigotry and stupidity they were. : — — and yet these refractory people will not give up a single point. eleven miles away. to the end that. instead of paying them into the Exchequer. Parkhurst writes to Bullinger. their number t Zurich Letters.

as I hear.1 86 THE PURITAN BIBLE being about 4. which.000. The English. they were quietness itself. but. not only from their office." writing to BuUinger in . Then there was the greatest (juiet and unanimity prevailing in this Dutch Church. both at Sandwich. were somewhat troublesome in Germany." spirit Parkhurst was naturally apprehensive that such a might spread to the newly established Protestantism of England. I do not in the least exaggerate. are n-)t yet coniposed. Parkhurst said of the Marian Bishops " that they were worthy of being suspended. but from an halter. if you compare them with these. And there have been great dissensions among their countrymen." However. I allow. in Kent. and two others appointed in their stead. " When the next house hegins to bum Tis like to prove your own eonoem. he was able to report the next year that the three troublesome men were silenced. and likewise in London.

Thy quivering limbs may angry Furies rend.BISHOPS' 1559. and concerning which he composed the following Reformation Grorham's in Epigram. preserved Gleanings : — " Dear gout. and never entered willingly into any methods of severity against them. and make their footsteps slow. tbou ceaseless torment of my friend. thinking the order and discipline of his beloved It He was an open favourer Church at Zurich an almost perfect model." . It BIBLE of 187 was natural. however. ing. that he no doubt laid the foundation of the gout that troubled him in after was years. after their three years murder- of the Puritans. Cripple their hands. O why injeot thine agonizing darts In kindly bosoms warmed by noble hearts? Must thou afflict? (to ruthless tyrants go. there.

And lived in lowlye leas." SPENSEE's Shephebd's Kalendae. And all the rest forgot for which he toiled. which he did keepe. Napoleon lost Waterloo. Their good ia with them goe. speaking of Grindal. And nowe they bene to Heaven forewent. Not for themsel^e. Simple as simple isheepe. Shepherds they weren of the best.CHAPTER XVI GKINDAL " The hills Wh^TQ dwelled the holy saints I reverence and adore. famoused in fight. But what is especially remembered about him is that he suffered sequestration at the bauds of Queen first Edmund Grindal was of York. Elizabeth. That whilome was the first shepherd. though it does not seem fair that it should be. but for the sayncts Which <han be dead of yore. and that is likely to be remembered more than all his victories. Archbishop Bishop of London. And lived with little igayne. once foiled. " The valiant warrioj'. Humble and The llocke like in each degree. Shakspeare says what is often found to be true. Why done we them decease? Such one he was. And eith theyr soules bene now at rest. And Grindal suffered the Queen's high displeasure for years. But he that strives^ to touch a starre. then Archbishop of Canterbury. Oft stumbles at a straw. as meeke moug-ht be. Is from the roll of honour rased quite. After a hundred victories. And meeke he was. as I have heard Old Algrind often sayne. and last. Their sample only to us lent." Yes. That als we moug-ht do soe. never .

.ARCHBISHOP GEIKDAL. FROM AN ORIGINAL PICTURE IN LAMUETH PALACE.

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Whether she was right as to these exercises or prophesyings is still an open question. It had been a time of great ignorance. a "moderator" was to be appointed. In came to these exercises men who talked wildly and sometimes insolently. her Bishops with greater respect than she almost any of her favourites or Ministers. and sent peremptory orders herself. and to exercise their gifts in preaching. So the Queen ordered Grrindal in a very headstrong way to put them down. saying she would have " neither presumption nor newfangledness. Two laudable things doubtless. who was his lifelong friend.GRINDAL entirely recovered 191 it. but she stood firm." and ending " by Grod. Creighton says that she had a higher conception of the Church than the Bishops. and none but the Clergy were to speak. however. treated showed to . Elizabeth was determined to stop them altogether. and that the letter to the Bishop of Ely beginning " Proud Prelate. resigned his office. The Archbishop was sequestrated. There were plenty of complaints. but this just gave them their opportunity." Grindal belonged to the same part of Cumberland as Archbishop Sandys. He. wanted to free them from abuse. . and Grindal wanted the Ministers to be thorough students of the Bible. He continued to discharge many of his duties and let it not be thought that the Queen often failed in the respect due to men holding office in the Church. and several of the Bishops said these " prophesy ings " did more harm than good. They could not manage to climb into pulpits. It would not do. I will unfrock you. went blind and died when he was only 63. though what the sequestration amounted to is not clear. but every good thing is liable to abuse. as she did afterwards when things were more critical still." has long been known As a matter of fact she to be an amusing forgery. and drew up most wise and cautious rules for their better carrying the Bishop was to sanction them in every case. . an unknown thing for one holding the second place in the kingdom.

They were boys together. 's Eeign.' Thereof arose the heresy of them that denied three distinct persons. and he published a number of arguments thus used in his " Fruitful dialogue between Custom and Verity. What is plainer than these words ' My Father is greater than I. were just about to culminate Going to in a Bishopric when the young king died. ' They are now not two but one his : — : : ' ' . in which he succeeded Bonner. which denied Christ to be equal with His Father. and Parker made choice of him early for the Bishopric of London. Strasburg. What is more evident than this saying I and my Father are both one." When actually Luther joined the Romanists in harping upon " This is my body. They all had one soul and one heart. Hear what Grindal says in the Volume of his Works published by the Parker Society " If you follow the bare words you will soon shake down and overthrow the greatest part of the Christian faith. as he was odious to the people One of Grindal's distinctions." but was not long in returning to his native country when Elizabeth came to the Throne. and fellow exiles in Switzerland. . and "they buried him darkly at dead of night. He greatly helped Foxe also in " Acts and Monuments. leading to his advancement. His many distinctions at Cambridge. and more than once he tried to throw oil on the troubled waters at Frankfort. was the management of controversies. By and bye it became his duty to bury this monster." it was necessary to show how absurd literal meanings could be. Then his employment in high matters was inevitable. and afterwards in Edward VI.' was spoken by the Apostles yet had each of them a soul and heart peculiar to himself." which he justified to Sir "W Cecil. he attended the Lectures of Peter Martyr. saying it was done to prevent quarrelling and tumult.192 THE PURITAN BIBLE and succeeded liim both as Bishop of London and Archbishop of York. though Sandys outlived him a few years.' Of these sprang up the heresy of the Arians.

' saith Paul. and called the Mighty it. set up an altar. I am bread. which notwithstanding was not their real flesh.GRINDAL flesh. the Lamb of God. whereas it was but a token of the covenant. Behold. FROM A VIEW BY HOLLAS.' Moses. God of Israel. 'Christ was the stone. nor mother ' ' ' . yet hath both the man and his wife his several body.' 'We of God. being made but of lime and stone. He is our very flesh. Circumcision was called the covenant. The lamb was named the passover and yet was it eaten only in remembrance of the passover. Jacob raised up an altar.' saith John Baptist by Christ. when he had conquered the Amalekites.' said Reuben of Joseph his brother. 'Jehovah' and . PAUL'S. and called it by the names Tetragrammatum. and not a lamb. ' OLD ST. ' ' . and was indeed Melchizedec had neither father no material stone. notwithstanding Christ was a man. yet was He flesh and no bread.' is ' 193 spoken of the man and his wife. and yet indeed he had both.' said Christ.

'and yet the Cup You see is not indeed the very New Testament.' he not her son. 1561. a great favourer of the Puritans. hanging upon the Cross. however.194 THE PURITAN BIBLE are all one loaf of bread. St. when he was made Archbishop of York. and hinder your own cause. there is thy son So many as be baptized into Christ. saying he was " not resolute and severe enough for the government of London. and incited others.' saith Paul. you make for me. agree in the same. and Parker was glad to have him promoted to the Archbishopric of York. and Paul nameth it so five times in one place. is the New Testament.' therefore that it is not strange. Almost as soon as he became Archbishop of Canterbury the trouble about the " prophesyings " began. yet were." On the 4th of Tune. congenial work in rooting out superstitions in the North. and Cecil. Grindal gave a large sum himself towards the rebuilding. The The EvangeScripture calleth the Sacrament bread. ' are baptized into Christ are notwithstanding of Christ ' . Whatever may . but the laity were not very open handed. He enforced uniformity. in 1570." He was in fact at heart a Puritan. saith Paul. 'have put on Christ'. He found more Eomish but generally with good will and tact. appointed St. He had plenty of troubles with the new order of things in London. not thereby turned into a loaf of bread. Paul's Cathedral was struck by lightning. and he had very little more peace and comfort. Notwithstanding if you will needs cleave to the letter. nor a thing unwont in the 'Scriptures to call one thing by another's name.ttey Cbrist. and burnt. and 'so many as ' ' . and his sympathies with Geneva had been strengthened lists by his exile.' saith Paul. washed with the blood no man took the font' The Cup water to be the natural blood of Christ. Parker died in 1575. saying Lo. urged upon Elizabeth the appointment of Grindal as his successor. John to his and yet was mother.

— OLD ST. THE INTEKIOK LIJUKINI. EAST. m . PAUL'S.

. was after Episcopacy was introduced into Scotland." but says that. For we see orators have their declarations lawyers have their moots logicians their sophisms and every practise of science hath an exercise of erudition and only preaching. it was the best way to train up preachers. and learnecl." and with whom he was more than friendly.196 THE PURITAN BIBLE be the trutli about them." and three or four preachers were certainly not enough for any connty. Strype does not leave the subject without telling us that in the neighbouring kingdom of Scotland King James established them This only a few years after the trouble in England. ' ' . initiation before it come to the life which is the worthiest. and in one we have a pastoral dialogue commending meek and lowly pastors. Amongst these was Spenser. whatever view may be taken about his long struggle with the Queen. .ost oppressed of covetous landlords of any one part of this realm. . who speaks of their having been put down " against the advice and opinion of the greatest and gravest Prelate of this land. in his opinion. Strype also mentions the support given to them by Lord Bacon. somewhat difficult to read now. There are four references to him in this quaint old poem. wanteth an introduction. Grrindalwas " sensible." Certainly good preaching and teaching were very much needed. . and wherein it is most in danger to be amiss. as Elizabeth said when she was determined to stop the " prophesyings. and he did not put them down because of the ill use made of them by a few." Creighton says that. who brings him into the " Shepherd's Kalendar. with much personal charm. judicious. but followed Grindal in doing away with all reasonable ground of ofEence." He was fond of music and gardening. Grindal said of the Cumberland to which he and Sandys belonged that " it was the ignorantest part in religion and m. and his private virtues were greatly admired by those intimate with him.

. FROM THE ORIGINAL OF MARK GERARD IN THE COLLECTION OF THE MARQUIS OF SALISBURY. LORD BURGHLEY.WILLIAM CECIL.

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t " Oareat sucoessibus. Magnus. then Professor of Divinity in the University. we can do more deserve it. what is Algrind.." Grindal himself in the only sermon which has come down to us. Grindal's course certainly could not be called a success. now astonied with the stroke. That weening his white head A So shellfish downe let flye. as one good turn deserves another. at Cambridge. at the instance of the Vice-Chancellor." HEEOIDES. London Bridge. 'Tis not in mortals to command success. Dean Hook is no doubt right in saying that he was desirous of '' them. 1564. opto.D. She weened the shellfish to have broke. GRINDAL : 199 Grindal is thinly disguised as Algriud. it was through him that Miles Coverdale was appointed to the living of St. making concessions wherever it was possible to make and thus became involved in inconsistencies. An eagle soared hye. by Algrind's ill. But hath b«en long ypent: One day he sat upon a hill. W'as chalke. the — instrument being dated 10 April. by Miles Coverdale. By and bye. To love the lowe degree: For sitting so with bared soalp. As now thou wouldest mu But I am taught. and though he rose from one high position to another." Of course the eagle is Queen Elizabeth. He lyes in linking payne. . 85. hee That is so oft bynempt?" To whom " He. 2. Ed. quotes Ovid. wishing that a man should never have good success who measures doings by success.8 the following reply is is given : — a shepheand great in 'gru. though it was a very inadequate recognition of life-long labor. Quisquis ab eventu facta uotanda putat. t He was admitted to his D. and one of the shepherds inquires who Algrind is — " But say mu. But therewith bruzd his brayne.

" they said. about John Cox. his fate was better than to lose his head _ Though having large at the word of a dancing girl. he and Cox had some Popish prisoners before them. which they never intended to perform." The next year. " that if this priest Havard might be put to some kind of torment. for example. as being ashamed. He cannot be cleared of some tendency to act as the Popish Bishops had done before him. who would have had the English Translation of the Bible called in." But he should not have imitated them in any degree." 20 December. 1561. and he will hate thee. revenues a long time Grindal died honourably poor. ings. for marrying another man's wife. as evil translated. early on "It is commonly supposed that almost all the Bishops will renounce their Bishoprics. " iSome think. after so much tyranny and cruelty. to be again brought to a recantation. He wrote to Cecil in April. and Fuller says this bitter but wholesome pill he was not He incensed the Earl of Leicester able to digest. and the new translating thereof to have been committed to themselves. and convicted of a manifest perjury. 1576. much having been bestowed in pious uses at Cambridge and Oxford." Surely there had been enough of that. against the Archbishop. Italian the reproved Julio.200 THE PURITAN BIBLE find a significant sentence in Grindal's letter to : We the " Queen about the prophesyings — Much like to the Popish Bishops in your father's time. with regard to "Mass matters": Surely for this magic and conjuration your Honours of the Council must appoint some extraordinary punishment. sharply Grindal physician. but could extract nothing from them. He was a wiser man when he closed his pro' ' — ' ' ." scorner. he might gain the Queen's Majesty a good mass of money. It was natural for him to say. prophesyBut what happened was put down to the " Correct a This is most likely the truth. however slight. and he the Queen's Majesty." However.

MAGNUS ABOUT iSoo.THE MONUMENT AND THE CHURCH OF 201 ST. .

in his view. resting upon the laws of God." — of Great Missenden. the improvement of the pulpit. B. and Elizabeth's successor had very much her views. Marsden. and the victory that the headstrong Elizabeth gained was a disastrous one for the Church of England. And what should I win. A Rev. and lose my own soul?" t One thing is quite certain he was not the weak man many have made him out.202 THE PURITAN BIBLE Queen's interfering with the Prophesyings: "I consider that he who acts against his conscience. and with it religion.— H.A. and then shaken the Papacy in its strongest holds. Vicar sums up the disastrous result in : Early Puritans " Eloquence. if I gained I will not say a Bishopric but the whole world. But from any participation in the guilt of this long series of calamities the sacred memory of Grindal at least is free. So low had fallen that ordinance of Christ which had once overthrown the vast empire of idolatry. Blair) complains that a minister of the Church of England would not raise his eye or lift his hand to set oif the finest composition in the world.. his History of the t Elizabethan Religious Settlement. . unfettered Ministry. J. builds for Hell. The Puritans cultivated what the other party neglected. powerful at the Senate and the Bar. It was a very bold stand he took for what was more needed perhaps than It anything else. M. but for the right of Christian Bishops to send forth a free. few indiscreet men were no sufficient argument against this. and at length the profound lethargy of the 18th Century. Then followed the drowsy audience and the deserted pew. The test against the — — — . BIET. A popular teacher of rhetoric (Dr. was banished from the pulpit. Preaching fell into decay. was not for the prophesyings only that he contended. N.

ARCHBISHOP SANDYS. . BY KINIJ PERMISSION OF LORD SANDYS^ OMBERSLEY COURT.

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" But before anything more could be done. Lancashire. and went to St. and that he looked for a general pardon. and Northumberland himself gave way. — "My . but he was a notable man in many ways. " casting up his cap with the others." He was immediately asked to put it in print. and the Duke of Northumberland came down with a body of men. and " Master Leaver was ready booted to receive it at his hands. died. the foulest whelp of sin. and became one of Bucer's friends. " the world being unworthy of him. Sandys again. Edwyn Sandys. having commission to proclaim Lady Jane Queen. He was acting in that capacity when Edward VI. and afterwards Vice-Chancellor of the University. John's College. He was born in 1519 at Hawkshead. afterwards Archbisliop of York. Sandys was a truer prophet. Slander. however. William Sandys. He sent for 'Sandys to preach on the occasion. in 1533. which he did. Just after the death of his father. is for tlie stand he took in favour of Lady Jane Grey. a descendant of the ancient Barons of Kendal." says Foxe. he was elected Master of Catherine Hall. best known and carry it to London. in his reply: life is not dear unto me. Furness Fells." POLLOK. Esq." He told Sandys that Queen Mary was merciful.. In 1549 he was made Prebendary of Peterborough. and the sermon "pulled many tears out of the eyes of the biggest of them. Cambridge.CHAPTER XVII AKCHBISHOP SANDYS "'Twos sla-nder filled her mouth with lying words. called for Dr. Queen Mary gathered strength. and proclaimed her in the market place.

and to favor the Gospel. yet by often persuading of him." hitting him on the breast so violently that he nearly fell off his horse. and during that time his keeper." tells . Twenty-nine weeks they were in durance vile together." He could easily have escaped on the day of Queen Mary's Coronation. God forgive it thee. : THE TOWER IN THE i5TH CENTURY. you shall of me what God will. was converted. Sandys was taken to the Tower. " Woman. and by gentle using of him. and Foxe us that. when he came to Bishopsgate " one like a milkwife hurled a stone at him. come But be you assured. sixteen counsellors neither yet have I spoken further than the Word of God and the laws of the realm doth warrant me. and had the martyr John Bradford for his companion. John Bowler." . I conscience. those that now shall rule will kill you. at length he began to mislike Popery. however. He had been "a very perverse Papist.2o6 THE PURITAN BIBLE neither have I done or said anything that urgeth my For that which I spake of the State. but would not. have instructions warranted by the subscription of neither can speech be treason. never escape death for if she would save you. All he said was.

he sent two gentlemen to tell him that the prison gates were going to be set open. that shall be done. hut when he found he was true to them. without any such surebut almost as soon as he was free Doctor Watson and Master Christopherson coming to Gardiner. if this his rising be of God. then Knight : — : Marshal. For my part. A price was put upon him." He had one or two hairbreadth escapes. forth. As I cannot benefit my friends." ties. This Sandys I'efused. and got safely to Antwerp. I will not tarry — six days in this realm. I came a free man into prison. to which his answer was "Nothing can be amiss. In consequence of this. room being wanted for Cranmer. Ridley. or I will never depart hence. Sir Thomas sued earnestly to Gardiner for and both the Queen and he at length agreed to it." In nine weeks more. it will take place. I will also deal plainly with you. If therefore I may not go free Marshalsea again. but Sandys replied "Tell Master Wyatt. though in vain. His keeper tested his principles very sorely. AVhen Wyatt came into Southwark with his army. it will fall. but he was carefully secreted in Mark Lane and Cornhill. he was set at liberty by the mediation of Sir Thomas Holcroft. so will I not hurt them.ARCHBISHOP SANDYS 207 Sandys was then sent to the Marshalsea. if not. and others. . and I will not go forth a bond man. His hostess told him once not to be afraid. but eventually sailed from Milton. His near Southend. and there ye Thereupon he was released. But it was only to be on condition that two gentlemen were bound in five hundred pounds as sureties that he would not leave the kingdom. and one that had most corrupted the University of Cambridge. I M'as committed hither by order I will be discharged by like order. what God wills. however. he befriended him greatly. his release. And if I be set at liberty. every effort was made to take him again before he sailed. saying: "As you have dealt friendly with me. send me to the shall be sure of me. told him that he had set at liberty the greatest heretic in England.

and was first of all made Bishop of Worcester. even there. In 1570 the See of London was vacant by the promotion of Grindal to the Archbishopric of York. but when the business was pushed too far. Stapleton. and Sandys completely cleared though it was not till after a long confinement in the Tower . and as a sample of the plots to which even men of some eminence coiild stoop." There was a serious dispute with Sir John Bourne. and was strongly opposed to the Popish vestments being still used. he was at once marked out for preferment. feeling might await him.2o8 THE PURITAN BIBLE dangers were not over. in which. for Sir John was committed to the Marshalsea. . had a woman introduced into his bedroom. . where for a short time he lived with Peter Martyr. in these times. and then went on to Strasburg. and compelled to make his subjoicing. that great responsibilities mission to his Bishop. though he gave way. but he lost both her and his child. with that view. and Parker complained that his zeal showed itself when he was "scarce warm in his seat. and at first yielded to them. and there was great re- Sandys did not join. however. Sandys was chosen to succeed him in each case. Sandys was asleep. when he was on a visitation at Doncaster. disclosed the whole thing to the Council those concerned were punished. in order to get advantageous leases of lands from him. Here his wife came to him. Word suddenly came as they sat at dinner that Queen Mary was dead. and left the place for Zurich. Tie became Archbishop of York on Parker's death in 1575. Pie had always been triie to his Puritan principles. and he left his dinner table for Augsburgh. This fellow. look at Sir R. in May. The husband then rushed in. but it appears that Sandys was right. however. No doubt he was not one to easily give way. both positions being full of difficulty at such a time. and Stapleton appeared as a friend who wished to avoid a scandal. with the connivance of her husband. On his return to England. 1581. however.

which Ihing be far from me. rather to suffer all torments. Neither speak I this in flattery. not of guess. and wrote a Preface to an English Translation of Luther's Commentary on the Galatians. that she hath constantly determined. and it is preceded by a Life. but in an upright conscience. lie finished ihe portion which he undertook to translate (2 Chronicles) in about seven weeks. she had revolted long ere this so fiercely by great potentates her constancy hath been assaulted. he speaks in the highest terms of Queen Elizabeth. peaceful. wise. or their allurements enticed her. uncorrupt. and endowed it." It was certainly wonderful the blessing was continued so long in spite of Armadas and plots. or any crafty persuasions have prevailed. 209 and the Fleet that Stapleton showed himself really Sandys strongly advocated the new translation. and from reading In the 3rd a few. he did much to help on the publication of safe books. He founded a Grammar School at Hawkshead." In fact. A A . and make us thankful for it. the Lord continue it. merciful. The Sermons are able productions. should he again " diligently surveyed by some well-learned before it be put into print. and recommended that the whole Bible. but the glory of God. great blessing. than one jot to relent in matter of religion.ARCHBISHOP SANDYS penitent. this vineyard His Church with a learned. mild. just. religious. when complete. and zealous prince to govern it. not seekHe hath blessed ing myself. I have gone on to read the whole. chiefly extracted from Foxe's Acts and Monuments. the fear of God hath put to flight the fear of man. He spoke somewhat disparagingly of the existing ones. is a volume of his Sermons in the Parker Society's publications. and oftentimes vowed. Prince so zealous for God's house. and says that if the threatenings of men could have terrified her. but of knowledge. But God hath strengthened his royal handmaid. so firmly settled in his truth. That of Babington and Ballard in 1585 called forth another There ' ' .

hurting none. Hook thinks he " played to the gallery " somewhat. He scarcely expressed himself with the decorum and respect due from a Diocesan to his superior. examine their own hearts. hast done hitlierto. Give grace. . according to Thy merciful wont. that they may enter into themselves. see their sin. repent them of their wickedness. and defend her still. and abstain from further proceeding. and could speak out justly and strongly. — . that she hath not deserved this treachery at their hands." Clearly in Sandys the Reformation had one who feared not the face of man. Lord. so deliver. in which he breaks out into prayer " Thou knowest. that Thou in Thy mercy mayest show them grace and favor in the end. doing good unto all. protect. Lord. finish that which Thou hast most graciously Lord. Paul's Cross. and was rather troublesome to Parker. as Thou fore. know their madness open their eyes. . . Lord. PAUL'S CROSS. OLD ST. being most mild and Theremerciful. and cause them plainly to see that they cannot prevail against Thy chosen servant. her enemies and ours let them begun bridle. preached at St.2IO THE PURITAN BIBLE : sermon.

the Romanists at Trent boasted of their Abana and Pharpar. Hook says naturally." Sandys was buried in Southwell. They would not say Amen to the prayer for the Queen. in the spirit of Gehazi. if they had not wilfully torn it themselves. In order to wash it. which was the cause of so much trouble. when he came into her neighbourhood. from his standpoint: " The Church had been leprous.ARCHBISHOP SANDYS But 211 of course it was such men through whom thorough Protestant principles so rapidly prevailed in the earlypart of the reign of Elizabeth. in spite of the horrors they had just perpetrated. and "it is hard to say whether he was more eminent in his own virtues." ' ' — " and so might have continued. "A more stiffnecked. and preferred prison to conference with the Archbishop. The Pope felt that all would be lost. and arrayed a new creature of their own fabrication in the splendid garments with which. beginning with a few of the aristocracy. would have destroyed the man. him. In ten years there was a large Puritan party saying that the Reformation was not carried far enough. they would have decorated — . wilful. . or * more happy in his flourishing posterity. though then ^ Bishop. No wonder the Queen had to proceed with some rigour in the latter part of her reign. they gloried in their ignorance of the Bible. but his name was kept famous by his descendants. as Fuller says. so or obstinate people did I never know or hear of said Sandys of the 150 recusants in his northern Diocese. though they preferred the waters of Jordan. * For all the first twelve years of her reign. our English Reformers would cleanse it by the waters of Jordan the foreign Reformers. and sent his murderous Jesuit Mission." t Life of Archbishop Parker. So Queen Mary would not even hear Ridley. " They slept in a whole skin. after the Pope's excommunication had made it almost impossible for Romanists to be loyal. Elizabeth left the Romanists alone." t It was a sad account of the Romish recusants that Sandys gave when such returns were asked for in 1577.

212 THE PURITAN BIBLE has been charged with looking He "uncommonly well after his family out of the revenues of his See. But this was no matter of creed. and yet in the time of our exile we were not so bare as we are now brought. he wrote to Parker in 1559 : — They never ask us in what state we stand. that he would have Dutch Anabaptists banished and if they returned." SANDYS' TOME IN SOUTHWELL MINSTEE. from " exile. The outrageous murders and horrors of the Anabaptists of Munster. lose their lives. for righteousness sake. and ever have been persuaded. but tha/t in the Ohuroh r«tormed. tihat some of their rites and ceremonies are not expedient for this Church now. neither consider what we want. than more and more urged. and in all this time of the Gospel." . But he had known the stings of poverty in his early Even after his return life. in 1575. led him to say. and Testament : — " I am now. they may better be disused by little and little. His moderation was carried right into his last Will . Another charge that he had something of the persecuting spirit is not worth much.

He gradiiated at St. easy. However. Nicholas Church. <ind he was summoned before the Lords of the Council. however. and tore down the '' superstitious ornaments " in ths Cathedral and St.CHAPTER XVIII HOllNE AND COX " Charity. kind. and rears tie abject mind Knows with just reins and gentle hand to guide Betwixt vile shame and arbitrary pride. And opens in each heart a little heaven. as she much believes.." and there was a somewhat heated controversy. Being a powerful and learned preaclier. he was received with ill-concealed dislike by a Chapter wedded to the old ritual and learning." Without delay he began reforming oa the strictest Puritan lines. he " cared not to take it over Tunstall's head.. Cambridge. Not soon provoked. belonged to an old Cumberland family.D. and then Dean of Durham. with some evil speaking on the part of bis patron. which does not appear to have been justified. Being nominated for the Bishopric of Durham by Northumberland. and charged with having " polluted the Church of Durham by introducing his wife. John's. Soft peace she brings wherever she arrives. So Cecil wrote to them to conform to his orders. ni'Odest. RoBEiiT HoENK. Cuthbert's tomb in the Cloisters. She builds our quiet as she forms our lives. Softens the high. where. " September. and Hebrew Lecturer. and was born about 1519. decent. Lays the rough path of peevish nature even. Senior Bursar. D. and " use him well. And much she suffers. 1553. With his own hands he helped to remove St." PEIOE. she easily forgives. Now . lie became Cliaplain to Edward VI. the accession of Mary ended the matter. and became Fellow.

contributing a weighty and learned paper. and Feckenham. Rather different from the treatment Protestants had just been receiving in Queen Mary's Reign He had another prisoner he could not bear. 1559. and selected to preach on special occasions. where the usual tale of the " Troubles of Frankfort" illustrates this part of his history. And with such a sharp contrast between the Bible and the Romanists. In the most distinct and emphatic manner the Scripture says that marriage The is honourable in all. and the bed undefiled. For a time he daily discussed matters of faith with him before selected audiences. finding that it was intended to commit him to the Tower. At Zurich they. shown at once can it be as soon as the latter come into power. He was appointed chief Minister there. Romanists said it was not. but the most eager defender of their system could not deny that with them the bed was often defiled. were hospitably entertained by Froschover. where he remained till the death of Mary made it safe for him to return to England. In 1561 Archbishop Parker consecrated him of Bishop Winchester. he left the country for Zurich. All his goods were confiscated. the Protestant printer. He commenced the Disputation between the Romanists and Protestants at Westminster Abbey on 31st March. with eleven others. wondered at that such men as Bishop Home went very this sort of thing his iconoclasm far in opposing what was connected with such a manifestly anti-scriptural system? However. ! .214 THE PURITAN BIBLE is must be fully borne in. but resigned and went to Strasburg. Afterwards he went to Frankfort. Here he was at once restored to the Deanery of Durham. but the wife about whom they had dared to speak so dishonourably accompanied him. was committed to his custody.mind when reviewed. though he never did him any harm. This was the Bishop of Ross. late Abbot of Westminster. paying a visit on his way to Peter Martyr at Strasburg. and with much courtesy. however. sometimes before the Queen. for the present.

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and crooked in conditions. and purged the College of all taint of Romanism. and the wall made fiat. however. as having a devilish spirit. and greatly wished to be relieved of his custody. playing upon his name as indicative of his character. and said once he wished those cut off from the Church who troubled it about white or black garments. against the wish of the Fellows. His companion at Zurich. and to transport some recusants who would not listen to reason. his to own Cathedral. and were disloyal to the State. He and " to turn their leaden roofs into gold. No doubt he went very far in his Puritan zeal. was nominated to the Headship of Corpus Christi College. there was images. were silenced. and vestments. whitened. formerly the wily ambassador of Mary. " Hard in nature. as in the Colleges subject a good deal of destruction of pictures.D. He certainly wished obstinate Romanists dealt with more severely. of the rich Tabernacle-work covering the East End of the Chapel was shattered to pieces. and missals and old Even organs service books At New College the whole leceived scant courtesy. was conferred by Oxford. D-D. and inscribed with Scripture texts ! The Cloisters and Chapter-House of his Cathedral were pulled down to save the cost of repair. He published a number of works." labored hard to get the " Papistical habits " abolished. Cambridge. Queen He described him of Scots. amongst them being " Whether Christian faith may be kept secret.. He compelled them to receive him. In 1568.2i6 THE PURITAN BIBLE Leslie. His D. William Cole." . on 9th July. In 1580 he advised the Council to prevent the landing _ and priests in Hampshire. as they were perpetually plotting. square or round caps." may have had some reference to his slightly dwarfish and deformed of Jesuits person. and the hurt of being present at the Masse. at the English Court. as well him as Visitor. but was not prepared to break the law. So they retaliated.

and went first to Eton. and they nearly came to knocks. Then he was invited by Wolsey to Christ Church.D. had the honour having his tomb defaced after his death. as Junior Canon. Tresham. He was born at Whaddon. as was inevitable for any man of distinction who took sides in these stormy times. Dr. proving the intolerance of his adversaries. at Cambridge. He was the head of one side in the famous Frankfort troubles. He was Dean of Westminster. and D.. The mad work.HORNE AND COX DR. so it was Cox versus Knox. He was the first Dean of Christchurch. Afterwards he took his B. confiscating funds. and Morgan. Oxford. earned him the name of " Canceller of the University. becoming Headmaster of Eton. and spent a few weeks in . He had a great hand in bringing Peter Martyr and other scholars into the University. COX Bishop of Ely." and had to leave.D. In 1549 he was one of the seven Royal Visitors who swept the Colleges with destructive power. and Cranmer. as Wood calls it. in Buckinghamshire. in 1547. and doing away with valuable books and manuscripts. On the death of Edward VI. when Knox was the head of the other. He had a great many of them. He was also amongst the adverse witnesses at Gardiner's trial." At this time he' presided as moderator at a great four days disputation between Peter Martyr and the Oxford schoolmen. and under Edward VI. and then to liing's College. and was made Chaplain to Henry VIII. he was apprehended on suspicion of being concerned in Northumberland's plot iu favor of Lady Jane Grey. His reforming zeal at this time went a great deal too far. but he became known as a "Lutheran. Richard Cox. frequently interposing to help Martyr. of 217 E. became his tutor and almoner. Cambridge. altering statutes. Chedsey. and from 1547 to 1552 Chancellor of the University of Oxford.

and soon made his way to England. But in May. the general confession was changed for another. a Calvinistic order of Service had been adopted for the King Edward's Service use of the English Refugees. however. At first the Knoxians prevailed. There were some further troubles. and he had ridiculed it. and refused to minister in the Queen's Chapel. he made his way safely to Here. The English Service had been submitted to Calvin by Knox. and the magistrates had to interfere to prevent them coming to blows. relish. being deprived of all liis preferments. where he remained for twentyone years. Book was cast aside most of the morning prayers were omitted. and the surplice was not worn. Soon he was appointed to the Bishopric of Ely. however. the responses were not repeated. Those who had been prominent as Romanists in the reign were quartered upon such men as Cox. and strongly urged his countrymen to maintain the Book of Common Prayer as established in the reign of Edward YI. They were not taken to Smithfield and burnt.2i8 THE PURITAN BIBLE the Marslialsea Prison. Rival forms of worship were being used alternately when Cox arrived on the scene. He was a typical English Churchman. choosing Frankfort for his exile. the former last . in which Cox acted as a pacificator. but in one of Knox's sermons his enemies discovered treason against the Emperor. in retaliation. and was appointed Visitor of the University of Oxford. because of the crucifix and lights. by the influence of Whittingham and others. justifying himself in a letter to her Majesty which she was not likely to . and Cox had Feckenham. and the Service Book was used by those who remained. The Protestants blessed those who had cursed them. 1554. He preached frequently before the Queen. The two parties were soon called Knoxians and Coxians. the Continent. When Elizabeth came to the Throne he was at AVorms. He and his followers were then expelled from the territory of Frankfort. the famous Worms of Luther's Memorable Diet.

.WOKMS CATHKIIRAI. .

which. And there is nothing- wrong in either a well-framed liturgy or suitable ex- temporaneous prayer. but eventually yielded. which was afterwards defaced. Heaps of books from . Then Sir Christopher Hatton used the Queen's influence to get him to give up his Palace in Holborn. But the last must have been the first. and wholesome diet. He was quartered at first on the Bishop of " Tliese warm fires. Lord N^oi'th succeeded iu getting a Manor from Bishop Cox. soft beds. That is. prelates plentiful . were partly the faults of the age." Of course it was not quite always so. but died soon afterwards. There was much covetousness. and this at the cost of another. both in this reign and that of Edward YI. It is still Cox versus Knox. There were serious faults on both sides in this long struggle. What seems almost incredible is that such a man should linve had anything to do with the destruction of the Oxford Libraries.220 THE PURITAN BIBLE bis so Abbot of Westminster. and disgusted with the Court. however. witb regard to their usual manner of — bad sweet chambers. vulgar fellow. though not without some wit. Lincoln. and they seem to have been fond of accusing one another of it. and the ridiculous thing is to imagine that this many-sided human nature of ours must be forced into uniformity. he was permitted to occupy a house of his own within a prescribed circuit. but he made himself so disagreeable that he was placed within the rules of the Marshalsea prison. saving that was on their own charges. was a very elaborate one. in be was not treated quite life: "custody." Perbaps kindly as some otbers. He received a pension of £200. being restrained from passing beyond it. The love of money was a prolific root of evil. coarse. He resisted at first. each Bishop faring like an Archbishop differing nothing from their former living. resigned his See. Fuller says. Bonner was a low. His monument in Ely Cathedral. and the Palace at Doddington.

but with this parenthesis "it is Fuller says his charity would fain believe said. should deprive the University of so precious a treasure so long and justly belonging to them. he is charged with being a principal offender. The sole authority for blaming Dr. were resuined. Cox so severely in this matter. cart load of manuscript treatises from Merton. thirteen years earlier. were destroyed." fame a false report herein.) In the Life of Sir John Cheke also. and Lincoln Colleges were set on fire in the Market-Place. exceeded.HORNE AND COX 221 Baliol." . * The ravages of Henry VIII and Layton. printed at Oxford in 1G41. however. Exeter. and concludes " it is strange to me that he who was the King's Almoner to dispense his charity to others. and completed in 1549. The University Library was utterly exterminated. the ancient abode of A Wyclif. to the disgrace of the Reformation. Queen's. though it had been so large that the aiithorities found it worth while to sell the empty shelves. is Sir John Harrington. (Bishops of Ely.

by common consent. and though several times mentioned for a Bishopric. because of his character and deeds. and a few years later.CHAPTER XIX GABRIEL GOODMAN AJND OTIIEKS " All hoads must oome To the cold tomb. very much as the " good man of Ross " He became Fellow of Jesus College. D. Cambridge. was never There was plenty to make promoted to one. holding the position for 40 years. the neighbouring Dean of St. did later on. It was remarkable that Nowel. SHIELET. and blossom in their dust. This did . In 1570 he was thought of for the Bishopric of London. they held them together for this long period. grave man " by Archbishop Parker. was thought to be a " sad. conscientious men both sad and grave in these troublous times. but it is possible that " solid and grave " was He was born at Ruthin. Gabriel Goodman. but every attempt to pass from the one to the other was a failure. his father taking the surname Goodman. in the expression used. Archbishop Parker. in 1528. and especially then. with whom he was for a long time on the most intimate terms. was appointed about the same time. recommended him for Norwich. Only the actions of the just Smell sweet. In 1561 he became Dean of W Westminster. and afterwards acted as Chaplain to Sir Cecil (Lord Burleigh). Denbighshire. No doubt such a Deanery. Paul's." J. and died the same year. and that as the two entered upon their duties within a few months of one another. who had somewhat objected to him for that. and whose Executor he became. was almost equal to a Bishopric.D.

.JJKAN GOODMAN.

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Only the New Testament had been translated. grave. It may eeem strange also that he was never promoted to a Welsh Bishopric. and became Vicar of Whilst preparing the Llanrhaidr. Denbighshire. He rendered notable service in connection with the Welsh Bible. much-nominated man never governed a See. and in 1581 he was recommended for Rochester. that either Rochester or Chichester should be conferred upon him. Penmachno. which also came to nothing. we are certainly told that he that desires the o£S. William Morgan undertook the whole." Well. Archbishop Whitgift proposed. he lived a whole year at the Deanery at Westminster. the reigning favourite. because of Ooodman's exertions in the High Commission Court. One reason was that Leicester. that he greatly o .ce of a Bishop desires a good thing. Finally. that a Welsh Bishop could not do there as he would. . Version for the press.with the He was a native of assistance of a number of friends. and this sad. and Goodman " paid such attention while I read it over to him. it was found that " they banded so much together in kindred. stood in his way. for his alliance sake. but EOTHIN GRAMMAR SCHOOL. but Goodman lived an eminently useful life without it. when Dr. in Carnarvonshire.GABRIEL GOODMAN AND OTHERS 225 not come off. but this also was without result. however. in 1584.

in which Goodman had translated I Corinthians. and folly is with him. So we may well close this account of him in the words of quaint old Fuller. afterwards Bishop. and in 15!)5 he added a Grammar School to the foundation. M. however.226 assisted THE PURITAN BIBLE me by his labor and advice. Nabal is his name. who evidently thinks he declined the Bislioprics " Though fixed to the Deanery of Westminster forty : — own parts and his friend's power. he might have been what he would in the Church of England. For a whole year his countryman Morgan. for a President. and doubtless he would be more at home with a native of Ruthin. 1588. Gabriel — — Goodman. It occupies more than 8 quarto pages in the ]\Iemoir of him written by Revd. He was a constant patron of learning. In 1570 he provided for the erection at Chiswick of a Home for sick Westminster scholars. In his Will he seemed to remember every one who had any claim upon him.A. Dean Stanley says it is certain that this first Welsh Bible was largely translated in the Deanery: " The Dean at the time was the Welshman. From the foundation of Merchant Taylors' School. Abigail said of her husband. The Archbishop also offered him hospitalit. and twelve poor inmates. he constantly attended the periodical examinations of the scholars. twenty years after the Bishops' Bible. was lodged at the Deanery (in preference to an invitation which he had received from the Primate) on the ground that at Lambeth the Thames would have inconveniently divided him from the printing press. A^'arden. Richard Wewcome. his father having been a mercer. the chief translator.y' for the year. at that time meant merchant. but the Thames was between Lambeth Palace and the printers.' but it may be said of this worthy years by his ' . which." so says the Preface. and rendered great assistance to Camden. In 1590 he founded Christ's Hospital in his native Town of Ruthin." The Version was publislied in the memorable year of the Spanish Armada.

and g-oodness was his nature. J. * Br. and its " Floreat ancient motto is still fully realized Schola Ruthinensis. the number of its pupils has nearly trebled. He was the virtual founder of the Corporation of Westminster.000. M. R. from 15'39 to 1584. at a cost of about £10. after sending forth a number men. and was a native of Gloucester- — We He went to Corpus Christi.-T. by Sir William Hart Dyke. J." The School is situated on an eminence overlooking the beautiful Vale. has been superseded lately by a fine block of buildings. and became Fellow of All iSouls. the High Steward and the High Bailiff of Westminster. His High Steward was no less a person than Lord Burghley.. and the present Head Master. ' AND OTHERS 227 in Goodman was " liis name. W. and Stanley says: " Goodman was the real founder of the present establishment. and assisted him to escape shire. .A. and Professor of Greek. Mr. Lawrence is not mentioned in either list. but we find him amongst the Translators. Whittington. the then Minister of Education.1 Goodman. Oxford. The foundation stone was laid in 1891. His occupation of the Deanery was long after his death work. of which the shadow still remains in the 12 Burgesses. Lloyd Williams. EDWAEDS. Gabrie.GABRIEL GOODMAN Dean. and he was probably the Giles Lawrence mentioned in the Dictionary of find there that he lived National Biography. M. the Edwin of a second conquest. During the Head Mastership of Rev. has distinguished himself at Oswestry and elsewhere. Dean Stanley also had The first Dean — ' ' remembered by an apartment known by the name of Dean Goodman's Chamber. He was a friend of Jewel's. Under him was rehabilitated the Protestant worship after the interregnum of Queen Mary's Benedictines. P." * of distinguished The Grammar School. the last relic of the temporal power of the ancient Abbots.A.' a high opinion of Goodman's in Queen Elizabeth's reign died in a year.

He was chosen one of the speakers in the Disputation in Westminster Abbey. Hatton. Elizabeth wanting all her Bishops to be like herself in this respect. where his first official act was the installation of his patron as Archbishop. Thence he went to Eton. and amongst his numerous friends at Court were Cecil. and took his D. He remained in England throughout Queen Mary's reign.D. in 1559. and had a great influence on the Version. but it broke up. then Provost of King's. Bishop of Ely. though very few of them accommodated her. On Elizabeth's accession he entered Archbishop Parker's household as domestic Chaplain. The next year he was appointed to the See of Rochester. and Bacon. through the action of the Romanists. and attended her on her visit to Cambridge in 1564. The Queen's partiality for him would be increased by the fact that he never married. before he could take any part. in 1571. He became Fellow and Vice-Provost of his College. but when Parker wanted him soon afterwards to have the vacant See of Durham. begun March -30.228 to THE PURITAN BIBLE the Continent. afterwards preaching his funeral sermon. a Yorkshireman. In October of the same year he was made Archdeacon of Canterbury. Edmund Guest was one of Queen Elizabeth's favourites. 1559. ton. and in the natural order. He became Archdeacon of Wilts. to King's College. walking bareheaded in the procession with her old tutor. and also of St. Cox. He was also made one of the Queen's Lent Preachers. being born at Northallerand educated at the York Grammar School. and took the Protestant side firmly by a work which he dedicated to Sir John Cheke. On Jewel's death he was promoted to the See of Salisbury. Cambridge. He was her chief Almoner from 15G0 to 1572. escaping arrest through frequently changing his residence. Dr. In 1549 he He was spoke on the Protestant side in a public dispute on Transubtantiation. to each of whom he left benefactions. . Albans. Queen Elizabeth would not have him sent so far away.

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: He was of Trinity a native of Lancashire. survived to take part in this the past and the present lived in Barlow. during which he wrote his account of the famous Conference. though taking part with some ardour in the theological disputes of his time. being translated to Lincoln in 1608. which he drew up at the request of Archbishop Whitgift. and which was published in 1004. amongst them being "Arguments against using a tongue unknown to the people in Common Prayer. and became Fellow Hall." What a mystery of obstinacy that there should ever have been two opinions on the subject Guest's part in the Translation was perhaps the of Psalms. is best known for his account of the Hampton Court Conference. in 1542. AVilliam Barlow. he was made Bishop of Eochester. is buried in the Choir. i)ne Prelate who had been concerned in Cranmer's similar undertaking. He never displayed an acrimonious spirit." Cathedral Library. with his hair short. his predecessor. Cambridge. and of mild but firm character. Book They probably went under more than one his hand. for which Jewel. and He left all his hooks to the had erected a beautiful building. He only lived a short time after the publication of the Authorized Version. Eleven of his works are given by Miss Bradley. D. After being Dean of Chester for a short time. of whom was the chief.! 230 THE PURITAN BIBLE iu 1577. Guest was a man of learning. where he died and ' ' The effigy represents him moustachios on his lips.I). dying at Buckden in 1613.. Much money also was left to the poor of the City. .

its ministry. FEEEB on Archbishop Parker. that religion not only did not fear.CHAPTER XX THE BISHOPS' BIBLE ITS CHARACTERISTICS The three features of his character which stand out most clearly are his gentlenesa. even its very existence. and who shall deny a service. putting a premium upon what had been so It was saying. his firm honesty. is one of the best vindications of character and tendency. the fact of their spending four years upon it. such as throws the mantle over many mistakes. H. band of famous men taken That such a work was of its carried out successfully. but wished and needed. as soon as opportunity Let this offered." W. an open Bible. He argues that the -Scriptures were very superficially read by the Jews of our Lord's day. in th<: hour of greatest peril. yet hitherto the Church which he so faithfully served and so adroitly steered has hardly given him all the gratitude that he deserves for preserving. To him miore than to anyone else. it is due that Buoh was the line of Reformation followed. " — Here then was a large up with a famous work.. For it is not to be overlooked that the very fact of their devoting themselves to such labors would exercise an influence over the entire nation. rendered by them at two of the most critical periods of our history. work be put side by side with the noble conduct of the Bishops in the reign of James II. faults their Version might have. and his oatbolic temper.. its order of faith and worship. its Sacramenrt^ nay. on the establishment Protestantism. and that a multitude of wrong opinions . Able prefaces both to the Old and New Testaments were written by Parker. apart from the Queen. often slighted or forbidden altogether. earnestly and practically. free Whatever merits or from corruption and mistake. could not but be potent for good.

he was to draw laws out of them. and of course Cranmer's. and the New Testament. and says that he answered the Pope that. a man may gather some ears untouched after the harvestmen. but none to call for any "tragical exclamations. greatly surpasses the old. The Translation is indeed unequal. this large field of the Scriptures. not to deny their excellence but here and there to introduce the signs of a still better taste. Bishop of Rochester. all that seemed to have impaired previous Versions being revised. he was the Vicar of Christ in his own kingdom. by the grace of God. He refers to King Lucius writing to Pope Eleutherius as if Scripture were an accepted law then. but in the laws of God nothing Bede's Translation is also specially menall." " In such as the Romanists were fond of making. Version naturally influenced them largely. They came into a garden already full of beautiful flowers which other hands had sown. and their at . The Translators had scarcely any sources of knowledge unknown to the Genevan Exiles. but searched. The great difference is in the Notes. on which Lawrence's skill was displayed. reign the more frankly in our consciences. being a Christian Eing. Translators was not to produce a book for the scholarly few. was also included. but that. as he had the Scriptures. whilst no attempt to alter the general style in which Scriptural expressions were couched was made. after all the care taken. Christ commanded them not to be shut And little did they resemble up. by our ignorance. spirit that wished ignorance to reign in us Christ's that they might. and not so much as desire the Roman and Emperor's laws. where interpretations and The object of the not applications are the rule. there may be some faults. It has ." He confesses that tioned. At least he accepted it. And. as the proper remedy. as might be expected. but for the people. " in the which some default might be found.232 THE PURITAN BIBLE were entertained in consequence. how diligent soever they were " so he quoted the words of Cranmer's Prologue Fisher.

3. and as an example of it gives the 19th Psalm. 2. 9. 2. in his Old Bibles gives many interesting details with regard to the Bishops' Bibles. and the one issued in 1572 was the immediate basis of the Authorized Version. In the Old. 22. in the New Testament. Certainly there were few such criticisms as had given such offence in some of Tyndale's New Testaments. the rule was " no bitter notes upon any text. This was to the godly then an outward token of incorruption. but of Simon Magus. Lawrence's corrections were adopted." Coverdale's has "treacle. there was a double version of the Psalms. so that it is certain the Pope is not the successor of Simon The Bishop of Lincoln Peter. the Douay Bible having " rosin. For instance.. As for the notes. Dore. Is there no tryacle in Gilead" P This word seems to have puzzled translators a good deal. from the rendering in Jeremiah 8. and the new version in Roman. which by lies and flatteries sell men's souls." or setting down any determination in places of controversy. though Romanism is occasionally attacked. Here are a few examples of the ordinary notes Gen. : — : — the West coast of late found at this by Christopher Colombo fine gold. To embalm. ITS CHARACTERISTICS 233 often been called the Treacle Bible. Ophir is thought to be the island in — ' ' ' ' ' ' . One Edition succeeded another." and has also been called the Treacle Bible. some of them new. and Rev. Many of the notes were trivial. but to the ignorant a vain ceremony. Psalm 45. Pocock says Parker's were the worst. but it was sometimes departed from. They were reduced in the later Editions he was a very much occupied man. from whence day is brought most . Here. W. 60. that of the Great Bible in black letter. the note is " That is evidently seen in the Pope and his priests. on 2 Peter." copied this witticism straight from the Genevan Version. with its few notes.

tlioug'h he was a good scholar. CcELi Enarrant. Cecil to undertake some portion translation. justice. confesseth his secrete Vpon consideration hereof. which therefore ought to be of more value and commendation then all other worldly thynges. in heaven. sinnes." Perhaps Guest. yet must we walk by the way of justice unto our health. Bishops' version. and worke : ^ The heauens declare the glorie of god the firmament sheweth his handle powreth out wordes discloseth 2. but especially to his chyldren in his holy worde. is found at the end of the Book of Wisdom. A : a day occasioneth talke thereof vnto day teacheth knowledge and a nyght ' ' ' ' vnto a nyght. 12. but " a man in Parker asked Sir of the those times of great fame for his knowledge of Greek. To the cheefe musition a Psalme of Dauid. but probably only out of compliment. Bishop of Rochester. translated the Epistle to the Romans. W. The latter part of the New Testament is without initials. This Bishops' Bible was constantly overhauled. ayre. 51 Gods gloiie in The argument of the xix Psalme. Psalm xix. and yet are tliey said do run in the race of to work out their liealtli who For. so much so that the last folio copy in 1602 differed almost as much from the first in 1568 as it does from the Few copies of the first Authorized Version itself. In some early copies W. and probably this was executed by Lawrence. although we be saved freely in Clirist by faith. appeareth all sufficiently his workes. as they were . C. THE PURTTAN BIBLE Our healtli liaugetli not ou our works. and presumptuous Dauid he craueth pardon and mercie at gods handes. 2. and earth .. Editions are found in a perfect state. but it is not known to whom this refers. wherby he may be knowen.234 Pliil. who was not one of those originally selected.

The law of God is perfect. poyntes. god is sincere and endureth iudgementes of god are trueth. 1571. Moreouer. No is language. conuerting (}) to he trusted the soule : the testimony of God is [6) sure ™"' and geueth wysdome vnto the simple 7. and the medetation of my heart be acceptable in thy sight : O God my strength and my redeemer. The statutes of god are right. they are sweeter then honye. 13. 4.. and there is nothing hyd from his heate. done willingy an mso en y Kepe Thy (sinnes) I shall seruaunt also from let pre- g^mtm^^g me: all so them not raigne ouer be perfect and voyde from heynous offence. is pui'e. Let the wordes of my mouth. in the In them he hath set a tabernacle heauens which commeth forth as a brydgrome out of his chamber and rejoyceth as a f^^. yet theyr rule or lyne theyrs all sound goeth into landes and theyr sayinges vnto the endes of the worlde. Book of Martyrs to have the same distinction. the they be iuste at 9. The feare of and geueth light vnto the eyes. no wordes. jj^g ^^^^^ giaunt to run his course 5. which also ordered Fox's 3. {a) {a) that b. 6. and the honycombe Q (<r) 10. ITS CHAKACTERISTTCS 235 ordered to be placed in every Cathedral by Convocation. and his circuite vnto the vt- most part thereof. no voyce of hearde. on 3rd April. to They are more yea then muche fine be desired then golde golde. all for euer. and g re- ioyce the heart : the commaundement of God 8. . 2. The Bibles were also to be publicly exposed in the Hall or Dining Room of his house by every Archbishop. His settyng foorth is from the vtmost pai't of heauen. a great {c) well aduertised A commeditie there is by them thy seruant is and in kepyng of them rewarde : ""Ihe (i) enT* ' '• "*'^° '=^° ''°°™^ ^^ °"'°^ t'^' errours ? done by igno- Oh 1 clense thou me from' those that I am (e') not """== {e) priuie of.

and educated at Eton. Jugge. He began to print in 1548 at the sign of the Bible.236 THE PURITAN BIBLE Bishop. strongly urging that he should bring it out. There vs^as never any Royal sanction of the book. to whose Library he gave a number of books. Cambridge. Mary's printer was joined with him. and Dean. Lord. the printer. There is a large portrait of Elizabeth. ' ' . in 1531. He was unrivalled for the richness of his initial letters. and produced a beautiful Edition of Tyndale's Testament. 1561. so that printing quickly began to take its proper place. for the use of his servants and The price was then 27/8. lettest Thou visitors. was a scholar. On 10th April. Paul's.no less than 150 woodcuts. another of the Earl of Leicester. and it was called the Leda Bible. and another assumed to be that of Lord Burleigh. In 1550 he had license to print the New Testament in English. at the North Door of St." and other premises for 31 years. and " set forth by authority " must refer to the authority of Convocation. His Editions of the Bible and the New Testament are tine specimens of typography. The Bishops' may be called an illustrated Bible. and King's College. At the comnaencement of the Epistle to the Hebrews there is an illustration of the m. He was born at Waterbeach. Paul's leased to Jugge " their shop with a chymny in it.. " now. When the Bishops' Bible was finished. of which he became Warden and Master. Chapters and passages not specially for the edification of the people were marked with some stroke or note so that the reader might eschew tliem in his public reading. and the handsome disposition of the text." E. there being. and the two printed State Documents jointly. in the language of Simeon. He was one of the original members of the Stationers' Company. and Parker wrote to Cecil. A patent to print all books of Common Law for seven years was granted him in 1556. the Petty Canons of St. He brought out about 70 Works.ost unsuitable story of Jupiter and Leda. Parker cried. On the accession of Elizabeth.

it was really finished. They were united in a faith to which they clung the more tenaciously because they were There exiles from their own country on account of it. however. Bishops' Bible had many. there were a great number of alterations in the New Testament. where the death of John the Baptist is recorded. for private use. three years later. In this third Edition. actually recurred to the mistakes in the first. however. Professor of Greek at Oxford. published the next year (1569) had an immense number of changes." But the final stage had by no means been reached. and in it the Old Testament was brought much nearer to the Hebrew. It was not perhaps unsuitable. and Maps of some value. The two important Bibles of this Reign were thus produced under very different conditions. that the Queen's portrait was made to occupy the centre of the title page. many of them due to Lawrence. to be placed in Cathedral Churches. whilst the Genevan Company constantly compared notes. such as the Temple. it was the original large 1568 Volume that was ordered. but they were largely unsuitable. This was a small quarto. ignoring the great improvement which had intervened in the case of the small quarto. 35 in a single Chapter. for mine eyes have seen salvation.000 in the " The inconGospels alone. and the words " Cum privilegio regise majestatis " . Lawrence was not the Head Master of Shrewsbury School. venience of dancing " is the heading of St. and one was indelicate and absurd. 1572. The third Edition. The Bishops never once met to work. for the Second Edition. but Giles Lawrence. and when their Translation was done. The Genevan Bible had a few suitable woodcuts which instructed the reader. Mark.ITS CHARACTERISTICS 237 Thy Thy servant depart in peace. There were nearly 2. was almost a contrast also in the illustrations. its Courts The and appliances. as has been thought. Yet in spite of this improvement. very few alterations taking place in the numerous Editions which followed.

and no Edition appears later than 1509. The volume was finely executed. of the Translation allowed Archbishop Whitgift wrote : "Whereas I am . he begs her to accept a copy with the assurance that it does not much vary from that commonly used. tliougli tliere is no dedication to her. and an application was made to the Dutch Coiirt to prevent the printing of English Books there. . October 5th. and even to retain its place on the desks of some Churches. when he sent her the Bishops' Bible. Under Laud. however. in spite of the action of Convocation. and in 1587 to the Bishop of Lincoln credibly informed that divers as well Parish Churches as Chapels of Ease are not sufficiently of the furnished with Bibles translation authorized by the Synod of Bishops. closed as follows: The to — . and " draw all to one uniformity. this came to an end. 1568. and Parker's wish was that it should be the only one used in Churches.. as aforesaid. dated fi'om Lambeth. lation for such Parishes. however. from the printer's standpoint. the Genevan was the favorite. as a matter of course. several were severely fined for importing the Genevan Bibles. shews that up the time of the publication of the Authorized Version. Further measures were adopted later on to secure a wider influence for the Bishops' Bible. I have caused her Highness's printer to imprint two volumes of the said Trans. Parker's letter to the Queen.. but the Genevan continued to be widely used in the homes of the people." In this. these are therefore to require you strictly in your visitations or otherwise to see that all and every the said Churches and Chapels in your Diocese be provided of one Bible or more at yo\ir discretion." list of existing copies. one Edition following another. The Great Bible indeed was naturally superseded after a time. In his Court of High Commission. except in places where the true meaning of the Hebrew or Greek required it. In his letter to the Queen.238 THE PURITAN BIBLE are prominent. he was not successful. and increasingly at the last.

and sent it as a New Year's gift to her brother. FaC'Simllc from Elizabeth's Trauslation of a Dialogue iu Xeuopbon. andjour c6i(^re7vyour ovon So ^^' ^^c/m on rmg^tojurpafs oM //fc/i' /^ CiSercuCuj a7Kfaoo£ naturS. whilst about the same number of Spaniards were burnt to death under Philip II. and once translated an Italian sermon into Latin. No and it doubt she was glad to have the work executed. and a lover of the Bible.. . was in full harmony with her wishes. ait jhrein£s your cSiCifren . fleeing from persecution. and beautiin possession. Edward TI. ITS " CHARACTERISTICS 239 things good. and about thirty thousand Flemings are said to have settled in England in her time. yet this only necessary whereof so to believe maketh your Majesty blessed. Of course. her reputation spread everywhere. profitable." fhm£ jour ConntTy yxur notne'j tf>e'nif)a£ita'nk yoMr Timf^ouu. but it shall advance your Majesty to attain at the last the bliss ful Among many you have everlasting. as a Protestant. not only here in this your government. She was highly educated. It was also suitable for such a Queen to be connected with a scholarly work.

* Literature indeed comes henceforth to be steeped in Christian sentiment." LONGFELLOW. and there was abundant need of them all. comes again to light. And lifts us unawares Out of all meaner oares. and very hotly so. J Tales of a Wayside Inn. And no one suffers loss. A few verbal differences Only did not much prejudice their power for good. it was rapidly beor to read it. though much of it was controversial. Grod's 8AM E.. So one Version followed another. and about four hundred more expressive of sentiments probably derived from the same source. many account it new learning some judge it heresy another sort disdain to hear it Now. 240 . There are five hundred passages in Shakspear which may be reasonably referred to direct Scripture originals. however."t coming a household Book. Word and man's invention. PATTISON. or bleeds For thoughts that men call heresies. CHAPTER XXI pahkee's othee fruitful labors " The tidal wave of deeper souU Into oiM* inmost bedng rOiUa. as the literature of the period testifies."! * t Rise and Progress of Religious Life in England. as late as 1563 Becon wrote " The treasures of God's Word have been hidden in the ground a great space. when it flourished instead of them. — " And most of all thank God for tMa.— The war and wa«te of clashing creeds Now end in words and not in deeds. and men's traditions have Therefore now. The day was coming of which Longfellow sings: : — .

Parker lived several years after his notable Bible was produced." He could have found a great many such good quotations from the first Christian teachers for instance Basil says " Ancient usage is not always the standard of orthodoxy.A. and enjoyed the primacy for about The narrower fifteen years in this most critical period. have perennial fountains to repair to. JOYCE. Parker said at the Provincial Synod of Canterbury in 1572."* But the spirit of the Romanists constantly showed itself. however. P . however. and in both England and Scotland terrible things were still to be witnessed." to which they responded by calling him the Pope of Lambeth. We stamped out. If the colors are almost rubbed off. we may clear away the dirt with which our enemies. . Let the dispute between us be referred to the Holy Scriptures. and he called them " irritable precisians. If the Channel which formerly flowed plenteously happens to fail. and trace religion to its Divine Original. the way is to examine the fountain. if we are at loss in any part of belief or practise. quoting St. The rebels under Northumberland rent and tore the Bible in 1569." which money. J. Cyprian: " If we have recourse to the Oracles of Q-od. let it be received without further debate. have defiled our sources of supply. and the whole affair was soon — : — . and whatever persuasion is best able to stand this test. and then we shall know what occasions the stoppage. and thence drawing.PARKER'S OTHER FRUITFUL LABORS 241 It had not yet come. let us apply ourselves to the Evangelists. all mistakes of frailty or design will be discovered. M. spirits in the Puritan party tried him sorely. and no uncertain sound came from those in authority. . their aimiable temper leading the Pope to promise them a hundred thousand Crowns towards the maintenance of the '/holy war. never arrived. the Philistines. W. * England's Sacred Synods. It is the vindication of Protestantism that the hearing and reading of the Scriptures became a matter of common exhortation.

saying it was never his mind "to.242 THE PURITAN BIBLE But he was no Pope. His bsloved wife was his great help-meet. Bale was one of these. " ^ladam I may not call you. partly such as had been spared in the Monasteries. but yet I thank you. scrape together to leave great possessions to children. He knew the errors of Popery were not to be found in the early ages. Of course. but desired. being appointed in 1560. engrave. thus giving him time for higher pursuits. Mistress I am ashamed Let us hope. Asser. and Fuller may well call his mighty collection the sun He left much to the Library. and bind. and relieved him of much. and had agents to work for him. simply a man of fine. to edify the reader. and in four years he had secured 6. and the priceless Library at Corpus Christi." So graciously did she receive and entertain the Queen once at Canterbury that she heartily thanked her on leaving. is his lasting monument. M. He thought little of such duties. broad. /Elfric. he could He began this work soon after he lay his hand on. would often sit silent and diffident at the Council Table. charitable mind. but said. when he was also made a Prebend of Canterbury. that this is apocryphal. Parker acted as no one would now. was made Archbishop. At Lambeth he employed a complete staff of transcribers and others competent to illuminate. Cambridge. and shunning all pomp and parade. of English antiquity. During his retirement he published a " Defence of the marriage of priests. through the writings of a man of mark.700 volumes. and he rather avoided the society of the great. Batman was another. as an Author and Editor. when a humble Bible-clerk. Thus a Chapter on the so-called miracles of some wonderful saint ." and remembering the time when he had plastered the ceiling of the room below the Library. His troubles in Queen Mary's Reign had made him shy. however.. Paris. &c." however. to call you. But the service he rendered was immense. and busied liimself in collecting all the ancient MSS. 'So we have 'still the earliest Editions of Gildas.

amendments were required much greater than had tfif^'^^'^ isL. poor students at the University. and she was quite willing to hear from him that. whose Chaplain he had been. in Ecclesiastical affairs. . letter to her husband in her last days. feelings. though he had been her tutor God. saying parenthetically in one of his felicity that he had no doubt her soul was in blessed been with Buchanan was compelled to speak of Mary. He may have written that accomplished. with kindly letters. Parker had no faith in them. Queen Scots. and would not perpetuate the delusion.^ and affecting always referred to her. He never joined in the vulgar condemnation of Anne Boleyn. and whose extreme readiness to do kind actions he had experiIt was at his advice that she supported several enced. PLACENTIA^ 1560. in after life. How different from the way George of He and did his best to be kind to the Eomanists.! PARKER'S OTHER FRUITFUL LABORS 243 is entirely left out. QUEEN ELIZABETH'S GREENWICH PALACE.

Provocative language was used by all parties.. with regard to the of these boons. and succeeding conciliation." though neither side had learnt the principles of freedom. We cannot take leave of Elizabeth without putting something pleasanter into the reader's mind. . whose recent portraiture of lier no one should miss who wants to understand this moving and fruitful epoch. and actually Knox addressed the Queen in such language as this : — " If you humble yourself." And. but if you . England owes an immense debt to her. and had very little deep religious feeling herself. Thus the Romanists were " subdued by past severity. But that is quite disposed of by Greighton." he said. if it was ever made at all. : — " Let her noble actions recommend her to the praise and admiration of posterity religion reformed peace established our naval glory restored England for forty years most prudently governed. exhorting them not to propose the oath a second time. So the law and then nothing further was done. summed up by Camden . enriched. but to leave the contumacious party to " Leave it to me. It has first It was to insist that the only — on her part that led her Clergy of her own Church the Clergy should subscribe to her Royal supremacy. the at least conviction — . became nearly a dead letter. so much depends on the manner in which such an apparently offensive speech was made. though the oath was oifered to Bonner. be dealt with by himself. . 244 THE PURITAN BIBLE in 1562 he wrote to his brother Prelates. . so will I justify your authority and regimen. and strengthened Scotland rescued from the French France itself relieved the Netherlands supported Spain awed Ireland quieted the whole world sailed . . yoiTr felicity shall be short. flatter you who so list." been common to say that. . . with regard to the rude speech just cjuoted.shall begin to brag of your birth. a weak instrument. round. Elizabeth only acted as a politician. the Queen consenting'. as Creightou says.

but from papers found in his house." She advisers wanted her to yield. at the very time when the Armada was threatening England. denounced the worship of the Church of England as '"'flat idolatry. In 1593 an Act was passed "to Some restrain the Queen's subjects in obedience. In 15S5 the House of Commons took the side of the Puritans. Martin Mar Prelate Tracts. Creighton properly says " these executions were Many fled to Holland. ' . for it was a critical time. the chief author the stirring up of rebellion." of the Martin Mar Prelate Tracts. Barrow and Greenwood were found guilty ' defaming the Queen with malicious intent to of Penry. deplorable and unnecessary. and it must have been conviction on her part. saw that the earnestness of even good men passed into followers his Eobert Browne and fanaticism. but she said: " No prince can be surer tied or faster bound than I am with the link of your goodwill yet one matter toucheth me so near as I may not overskip. All Europe seemed against her. But Elizabeth stood firm. and Burghley himself objected to it. not from published writings. though there were no proceedings on directly religious grounds. and sent to prison. and being corrupted may mar all the tree. was indicted for writing slanders with the intent to stir up rebellion. and wanted to restrict the authority of the Bishops. but she would not. when she had nothing to trust to but the goodwill of her people. the ground on which all other matters ought to take Her root. and wrote Whitg-ift. and the 39 articles.PARKER'S OTHER FRUITFUL LABORS 245 lawfulness of the Book of Common Prayer. and fell under the laws aimed at the Romanist recusants. and the evidence was taken." and they were tried before the High Then came the Commission." and the result was the body of independents who were — . The Separatists were then abandoned by the old Puritan party. religion. and they were full of abuse of the very Church of which she was Head. There was an outcry that this was the Inquisition." of the Nonconformist leaders were executed.

TJie strong ground she took against the prophesyings was because she saw that another form of worship of the Genevan type was growing up by the side of the Authorized Church Services. and TTerodians ! Papists. of that had a Continental origin. Zuri(di. . in a letter to Beza. Sadducees. Certainly the Queen only acted from motives of policy. 1556. July. speaks of the Lutherans. and she was not broadminded enough to see that both might be good. English Eeformeis as wolves. cannot be borne out by facts. idea that the and had no genuine religious feeling.246 so THE PURITAN BIBLE powerful in tlie great Civil War. And she had good reason for distrusting much Actually Gaulter.

He dared to affirm that the kingdomi of England was held in fee of the Apostolic See that Elizabeth. Carne. and showing how much is owing to their authors. and the active instruments of the people's repression. revive. obliterate this distinction. being that illegitimate. coarse. was instructed to wait on the Pontiff. with all their Patristic learning and general culture. were constantly plotting Sir E. English Ambassador at Rome.CHAPTER XXII THE ULTEA PUKITANS AND EOMANISTS " The generous spark extinct. land to forgive. his answer was insolent. It is a large volume. " being desirous to show fatherly affection." GRAY. Exact my own What deiEects to scan. and announce Elizabeth's accession. were the supporters of arbitrary power. they were undoubtedly the founders of our present freedoju while the Bishops and their entourage. " and yet. a man. they When . But strong language was inevitable in such a time of ferment. published by CJonstable in 1908. WiUiam Pierce has lately published an Historical Introduction to the Miar Prelate Tracts. if she would against the Throne. could not succeed to the Throne assuming the Government without his sanction was an impertinence on her part. No amount of historical research can : — ." he added. In this he makes it clear that no one could fail to see how Rome had come to be bated and abandoned long before the close of the Queen's reign. . and know myself. and offensive in a high degree. others are to feel. . and what Arber says in his Introduction to Martin Marprelate will be accepted by most to-day '' Whatever frenzies or narrow-mindedness may be chargeable to the Puritans. t Mr. Teach m© to love. ably vindicating them."! As for the Romanists.

he would do whatever might be done without damage to the Holy See. but he did not show much of the spirit of his great namesake.248 THE PURITAN BIBLE renounce her pretensions. and Stapleton not only — — . for political reasons. which were found of the Armada." wrote tracts in furtherance of the Spanish invasion of his own Counfor he in the ships try. and refer herself wholly to his free disposition. Dorman. Through most of her reign the Jesuits were plotting against her. And as there was so much that was unfatherly connected with his fatherly offer. Elizabeth left him severely alone. Saunders. ready for distribution." This was Paul IV. was an Englishman. CARDINAL ALLEN. she had earnestly desired reconciliation. though. Harding. Allen. the "Cardinal.

.

there were only twelve Priests executed. as the beast. After the Armada and the Pope's excommunication. and fifty-five banished but as soon as the danger was over. It wis concocted in 1592 by Ilacket. Xeal gives a correct summary of Elizabeth's treatment of the Romanists in his History of the Puritans ' In the first eleven years of her Reign. and the miscreant who put up the notice was called Felton. fifty Priests being executed. and fastening the discredit of it on the Nonconformists. and bury them in a dung hill. . I do not feel called upon to enter into the question as to whether its spirit is still the same. when the Pope had excommunicated the Ciueen and the whole kingdom. In the ten following years.iys it was a poor crack-brained affair. Copinger. but I cannot forbear to notice that this miscreant Felton was " beatified " by Leo XIII in 1886. without in the least speaking of modern Romanism. I have been careful in these volumes to describe what actually took place. and Arthington. did Elizabeth was excommunicated in 1570. "What could be done with men who could dig up the remains of Peter ilartyr's wife at Oxford. and most of them for matters against the State. Richard Marshall. Frere s. were likely to suffer. in the next ten years." Alas that we should have to add that the UltraPuritans joined once in a mad conspiracy against the Queen. when swarms of priests and Jesuits came over from foreign seminaries. and there had been dangerous rebellions. the laws were relaxed. Dr. to invite the Catholics to join with the Spaniards. and they were to murder her as a preliminary to the establishment of their ideas. but the Government saw the expediency of magnifying its seriousness. and he was dealt with as he deserved. certainly disloyal and factious pieople of every hue I : — .250 THE PURITAN BIBLE attacked Jewel's apology for the Church of England. but drew people from their allegiance to the Queen. not one Roniau Catholic was prosecuted capitally for religion. the laws were girt closer upon them.

Slli FRANCIS WAI. OIJ. . 159O.SINCHAM.

.

THEULTRxV PURITANS AND ROMANISTS
iiud it

253

There were Puritans and Puritans, in modern phrase, cannot be denied that many of them were impracticable. Sir F. Walsing'ham wrote to them in the Queen's name, five years before the Armada, that, provided they woukl conform in other points, the three ceremonies of kneeling at Communion, wearing the surplice, and using the Cross in Baptism, should be
of the 13ook of Common Prayer. But ro; in the words of Moses, "they would not leave so much as a hoof behind ;" the Liturgy was to be wholly laid aside, and Walsiugham then gave them up. But he saved the Queen's life more than once with his keen sharp eye, and constant information. Yes, he befriended the Puritans often, and so did the wise Burleigh, but Elizabeth's high-handed proceedings against them must be partly put down to others of her favourites and lovers. Sir Christopher Hatton was notable amongst these, a great hater of Puritans and all pureness, distinguished through life for vanity, dissipation, and hypocrisy. Nevertheless, he fascinated and greatly influenced the Queen, as Gray, the poet, says in his " long story "

expunged out

:

"

His bushy beaml and sho« strings green, His 'high crownied hat and satin doublet, Mo'Ted the stout heart of England's Queen, Though Pope anid Spaniard could not trouble

it,"

Chancellor, and when he wanted the house and gardens of the Bishop of Ely, in Holborn, near the street which still bears his name, she called on the Bishop to give them up. He was not at all inclined, whereupon she wrote him: " Proud Prelate. Tou know what you were before I made you what you now are. If you do not immediately comply with my request, I will unfrock you, by God. Elizabeth." Hatton died of a broken heart, when he saw himself at last neglected by the fickle Queen, but for a long time he had great influence with her. What has been noticed before and what the Protestant Bible-lover may specially rejoice in as the

She made him Lord

254

THE PURITAN BIBLE
of this great

marked feature
all

Reign is the absence of hateful cruelties which had covered the previous one with eternal shame. Even
retaliation

for the

" bloody Bonner " was
to the

let alone. All who conformed new Protestant Government were not only per-

mitted to enjoy their old, but were sometimes admitted to new preferments. Thus Mr. Binsley, Chancellor of Peterborough, who condemned John Kurde, of

OLD PALACE OF GEEENWICH^

1630.

Xortliampton, yet had the Archdeaconry of Peterborough conferred on him. There was no "paying back " none whatever; and it is to the eternal credit of Protestant and Bible principles. The provocation could not have been greater, when men like Cranmer, Latimer, and Ridley, were actually burnt to death, and hundreds of others. Of course, factious people were dealt with, as they must be under any government, but there was no vengeance taken for the hideous and bloody past. "It is our turn now," was never
;

sir

christopher

i-iattox.

(viscount Dillon's collection)

255

THE ULTRA PURITANS AND ROMANISTS
all

257

heard, and we may well be thankful for it through time. Not only was there no retaliation, but some of the ejected Bishops fared very well indeed. Tonstal and Thirlby were committed to the charge of Archbishop Parker, who gave them " sweet chambers, soft beds,

warm

fires, and plentiful and wholesome diet." Some, though confined for a time, soon found the favor to live on their parole, " having no other jailor than their own promise." Thus Poole, of Peterborough, Turberville, of Exeter, and others, lived in their own TTeath, late Archbishop of or their friends' hoiises. York, lived cheerfully at Cobham, in Surrey, where the Queen courteously visited him more than once.

DUKE OF

.\I.VA,

And if Bonner was kept in the Marshalsea, it was partly because such a place was the safest to secure him from the people's fury, " every hand itching to Besides, he give a squeeze to that sponge of blood."
would
plot.

before Elizabeth died, England was Protestant. The Marian murders and the Spanish Armada only needed the Gunpowder Plot of the next Reign, to let most people see the true spirit of Romanism. But

Long

all

to

Jewel wrote that Elizabeth did was done legally. Peter Martyr in 1559 " This woman, excellent as she is, and earnest in Q
:

258

THE PURITAN BIBLE

the cause of true religion, notwithstanding she desires a thorough change as early as possible, cannot, however, be induced to effect such change without the
sanction of law." And not only did England become Protestant, but She was Elizabeth helped the Protestants of Europe. often called niggardly, but she put her money down when the Netherianders were being butchered by the Duke of Alva. Of course this cruel wretch was only the myrmidon of Philip of 'Spain, but he went a great They wanted deal farther than he need have done. Elizabeth to be their Queen, but she had quite enough
to

do at home.

was laymen who effected the The Bill for Uniformity, at the beginning of the Eeign, became law without one single Episcopal Yote in its favor, and by a majority of only three votes, in the Upper House. King Philip's Spanish Ambassador, Count Feria, did all he could in the Romish interest, and it was much,
as to the law,
it

And

change, and banished the Mass.

but it failed. Oreighton goes too far, however, in speaking of the welcome England gave to the momentous change, the parent of so much. At first, and for a long time, there was great resistance, culminating in the Rebellion of the North, in 1569. This has been clearly shown in H. N. Birt's "Elizabethan Religious Settlement." The number of Clergy resigning their Livings was probably many m.ore than has been generally stated. Nearly all have followed Camden in his figures, and ho based his upon a list of Sander's, which was only an ad ivtterim one, and incorrect. This is the Sander that, according to Sir R. Cotton, first "pinned the term Puritan to their skirts." It may be that nearly a quarter of the Clergy abandoned their livings. The matter is not of much importance now, but what needs to be reiterated again and again is that, after the foul atrocities of Queen Mary's reign, there was no retaliation on the part of the Protestant Queen, when she came to the Throne and that by the end of her Reign
;

TO.\rn

OF OriiEN ELIZABETH.
ABBEY.

HENRY VIH.'S CHAPEL^ WESTMINSTER

D . and they were restored to their final resting place. by Mr. Parker wos not left in peace. as also. Mr. de.id. Gee." needs to be correctel Birt. INTO LONDON. took a good deal of putting right. however. Archbishop Sancroft had all honour done to his bones. to some extent. especially Oxford. however.! The Universities. t H. ENTRY OF JAMES * 1. named Scot. W. even when he was His tomb in Lambeth Church was desecrated by a Roundhead soldier. Pr«re. .26o THE PURITAN BIBLE the candle lit by the noble army of Martyrs was burning freely and brightly. B. H. ia his " Elizabetlian Clergy. At the Restoration.

261 .AMBASSADORS FROII THE STATES OF HOLLAKI) IMPLORING ASSISTANCE OF QLEEN ELIZABETH TO DELIVER THEM FROM THE YOKE OF SPANISH TYRANNY.

But there is no warrant for such a statement the fact being. employed in the work. asked Grenebrard. being desirous good French transhition of the Bible. it was owing. to the differences that existed between them and the Universities. Xeither can it be said. professedly. He added. in reality. — . going further still. that he ordered one or two of the leading members of the company to see to it that a thousand marks were forthcoming. after all. If the Most High and Mighty Prince James had had any idea of such a cost attending the work. which it Is not possible to measure. Lord Mansfield has said. that the honour of suggesting the world-famoas translation belonged to the King. it is probable that the present Authorized Version would never have been attempted as the French one was not. For. 262 . and that no less than two hundred thousand pounds would defray the charges. indeed. that it would take thirty years that there should be thirty Divines. .CHAPTER XXIII TUE AUTflOiaZKD VEKSION Bon3 of our literary bone. well read in the Oriental languages. HOAEH " We of are told that a having Henry III of France. It was owing to the Puritans of the day. and flesh of our literary flesh. W. how much time such a work would take. that whatever the expenses were. he would not promise His Majesty. the Nonconformists still within the Church wall. and what would be the expense ? Geuebrard replied. a leading scholar of the day. tha Authorized Version has exercised upon English character an influence moral. and political. And. that the work should be free from imperfections. the King bore them. on the accession of King James to the throne. that. social." H. as representing the Church of the land.

There were nine Bishops. the solitary Dissenter. and a Scotch Presbyterian Minister. and one Archdeacon. by apiiearing in such gowns as were commonly worn by Turkej' merchants. asyainst four lepreseiitatives of the Puritan party." There were also present. between their leaders and certain Bishops and Deans. . on the 12th -Tanuary. And these latter — — JAMES r. Amongst the things . six Deans. The Conference commenced at Hampton Court. So that a Conference was appointed.THE AUTHORISED VERSION the Puritans pelitiijiied 263 him to the number of about one tlioiisand JVliuisters on several matteis. five ecclesiastical lawyers. " cloth gowns. trimmed with fur. 160-3-4 having been postponed on account of the Plague in London. affecting both the doctrine and discipline of the Church. showed their contempt of all clerical costume. members of the Privy Council.

where the failure of the midwifes to obey . and this would be far . It was the household Bible of most godly people. Oxford. But it eschewed ecclesiastical terms. for instance. Dr. sided decisively with the Puritans. mist. all the existing Versions. on Exodus i. there would be no end of translating. however. The King. This latter part of the King's answer would be as unpleasant to the Puritan party as the former to the Church dignitaries for. and the Genevan was the HAMPTON COURT worst. and recognizing neither " Bishops " nor " Chalices. 19. sometimes. from suiting a Stuart. whenever it could. Reynolds." The head and front of its offending. strongly urged it. they accounted the Genevan the best. would doubtless be that it was. however. President of Corpus Christi College. saying "Congregation" for "Church".264 THE PURITAN BIBLE asked by the Puritans. in King James's mind. Bishop of London. said that. The note. PALACE. if every man's humour was followed. AntiKing as well as Anti-Bishop. of. was a new Translation of the Scriptures. But it was opposed by the Church party. saying that all the existing Versions were bad. who were afraid of the " Scotch Bancroft." however it blew.

HAMPTON COURT CONFEEENCE. 265 .

He gave place to foolish pity. — HAMPTON COUKT. he showed that he lacked zeal for she ought to have died. So if the Puritans ostensibly carried the day. and by the law of God. whilst Puritanism was undoubtedly an effort after freedom. if they did not conform. "Herein. which often profanely handled things that should have been sacred. and James had had experience of that in Scotland. as it regards the main fact. to satisfy the law. the note saying. the triumph of the Puritans was somewhat equivocal. after a sort." And Asa's deposition of Maachah was "not good enough". the former Translations were . says " Their disobedience herein was lawful. So that.266 THE PURITAN BIBLE the order of Pliaroah is the subject. both by the Covenant. they did triumph. on the part of the King. if a 'New Translation had become a sort of party question. who spoke already about harrying them out of the land. but their dissembling evil. even to the fanatic. Stubbs says that. it was not without much that was offensive to them. Still. it was also a grinding social tyranny." . and would also seem. as verse 13.

Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. And. when once fairly taken up. Earl of Salisbury. they should. commonly called the * Ba-gster'a ' in the Church. Indeed.. mentioning the appointment made by the King and saying that. if they could remember any fit men to join with those already appointed. James entered into the whole matter thoroughly. to translate the Bible into English. And the King commanded Bancroft to see to it. was to be authorized for centuries. he should be informed. it was now an honourable thing to be engaged in such a work as cost its original promoter his life. add such to those who had been previously selected for the work. in order that one of the Translators might be presented.' to receive as Introduotion. then or just afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury. . saying that 'he had appointed certain learned men. 267 " diligently compared and revised " and a new one. The instructions given were and evinced much judgment 1. and Westminster being divided again. being approved by the King. on the part of the Translators. when any benefice of twenty pounds or upwards became void. THE AUTHORISED VERSION to be . probably. so that there were six companies in : all. 1604. Hexapla. the King wrote to Bancroft. that. wrote to the ViceChancellor and the Heads of Colleges. to the number of fifty-four. The times were changed and . Cambridge. by the general consent of the people in whose language it was written. there was no hesitation or delay. . . been chosen by the two Universities and. Some of these men had little or no preferment. the work was urged on. places. who had the opportunity of revising the whole. Cecil. " The Bible ordinarily read — — fourteen in number. at each of these . They had.* They met at Oxford. The list of Translators actually employed in the work numbers only forty-seven the remaining seven being probably Bishops. in the King's name. On the 22nd July. the crown of the whole. Bishops' Bible.

xxxv. throughout. again.'!7 Edition says. what ecclesiastii/al words were and. — . So also Gen. being agreeable to the piopriety of the place. with other names in the Text. "The old ecclesiastical words to be kept. and the analogy of faith. &c. 14. Gen. the translation has been a little more liberal. both Hebrew and Greek. Bancroft replied to the Yicef'hancellor. all unless the original plainly calls for an amendment. '' the oak of lamentation." It would have been better. Also. writers. our present Yersion says. rather than that the work should begin de novo. according as they are vulgarly used. saying that it was the King's pleasure that three or four of the most eminent Divines of the University should be overseers of the translations. if the Translators had and not always given the same person one name tioubled the ordinary reader with both Elijah and Eliiis." Beerlahairoi. And to pass. the 8. to improve upon. to be kept. for the better observance of this and the next rule. was surely better in the Bibles of 1572-5. as near as may be. in what sense words were used by the most eminent Fathers and when such a sense should be regarded as agreeable to the propriety of the place. "When any word hath divers significations. gave rise to a great deal of discussion. . and the analogy of faith. as it regards proper names. as iJie word Church not to be rendered Conf/regation. " the name of it was called AUon-bachuth " 15. This was a rule which.268 THE PURITAN BIBLE as few alterations may be." ']. " the well of him that liveth and seeth me. 4. — . The question was." Thus. — . naturally. that to be kept whicdi Jiath been most commonly used by the most eminent Fathers. existing Translations was not allowed to have more and the standard consideration than it was worth Bible of tlie day was taken. the question was. "The names of the Prophets and of the holy 2. ihan the previous ones which is no improvement. . the difficulty being raised first of all at Cambridge. . King James's sweeping condemnation of . here and there." Here. xvi.

^"'Such quotations of places to be marginally " alterations. who wo\ild prefer the recent Paragraph Bible." the Chapter divisions of the Bible. doubtless. . he would have the first three verses of the second Chapter of Genesis added to the first Chapter. wholesale changes would be likely to get into the same category as Dr. then. coxiple of pages are given to the subject. but only for the explanation of the Hebrew or Greek words. as Bancroft had objected. if necessity much criticism of so require.* Por instance. in explanation of the Text. as in most thing's mundane. one of the very few attempts to show a more excellent way? Indeed. 1864. Doubtless. it being usual with the Puritans to depreciate the Fathers. also." 6. x\. " The division of the Chapters to be altered not — at all. theie is room for improvement. from time to time. 5." This. by the proposed changes. is it not evident that there is about as much to say on one side as on the other? The first Chapter is complete. And. every man's humour would be in danger of being followed. by a Licentiate of the Church of Scotland but. If notes were to be added at all. though at first sight it may not appear. . But. here and there. improveBut any ments could be made. however. there is some good reason for each Chapter Division and it is easier to find fault than to mend.THE AUTHORISED VERSION 269 Perhaps." which most people would prefer to call But ! all to be affixed. 7. niore difficulty was made about this matter than there was any occasion for. which cannot. . will be acknowledged to be a wise rule. or as little as There has been may be. " N^o marginal notes at — — • A Plea for a New English Version Macmillan. in an able work on Revision. an unsatisfactory effect is produced on the mind. however. what a sublime opening of the second Which would be quite spoilt by robbing it of its first three verses. Conquest's " thirty thousand emendations. without some circumlocution. indeed. And. be so briefly and fitly expressed in the Text.

probably. " These Translations to be used. what shall stand. they shall send it to the rest. which is to be of the chief persona of each Company. and agree." 9. all to meet together to confer what they have done. being skilful in the tongues. according as it was directed before. to note the places therewithal. — — lation in hand. — . at the end of tlie work." 11. " Every particular man." 8. printed . where he thinks good. have taken pains in that kind. "As any one Company has despatched any one Book in this manner. the — Deans of Westminster and Chester. Coverdale's. when they agree better with the Text than the Bishops' Bible. for their part. Matthews's." 12. upon the review of the book so sent. Cambridge. to which. to send to any learned in the land. " If any Company. "When any place of special obscurity is doubted of. and to move and charge as many as. having take the same chapter or chapters translated or amended them severally by himself. if they consent not. in the two Universities. in the King's letter to the Archbishop. of each company. by authority. Tyndale's. shall doubt or differ upon any places and. admonishing them of this trans- — . letters to be directed. for his judgment in such a place. the difference to be compounded at the general meeting. Whitchurch's. to and. " The directors in each Company to be." 13. " Letters to be sent from every Bishop to the ]est of his Clergy." 14. — . 270 set THE PURITAN BIBLE down as shall serve for the fit reference of one Scripture to another. viz. to send them word thereof. Whitchurch's was. ." 10.. to be considered of seriously and judiciously for His Majesty is very careful on this point. the Great Bible. either at Westminster. — and Geneva. to send their particulnr observations to the Company. to send their reasons. or Oxford. for Westminster and the King's Professors in Hebrew and Greek.

comparing these revisions. lastly. in how thorough a manner the work was to be done. THE AUTHORISED VERSION in 1539. fifteen. the would go over the ground again. The Septuagint was said to have been produced in 72 days. it was the basis. the whole Company was to go through it together. It was the 1602 Edition of the Bishops' Bible which was used. we are not at all surprised at the extreme excellence of the Version. after reading such rules. noting such alterations as he thought fit. Then. seventeen. 271 by Grafton and Whitchurch. . each man was to go through the portion belonging to his Company separately.. Every several part was to be examined fourteen times. and some. Then. It will be seen. The Translators of the Authorized Version say that they spent twice seven times 72 days and to this extreme care its excellence is partly owing. in many respects. some. according to the eighth rule. the other five Companies And. and from them digesting one revised or re-translated copy of the particular portion. Though it never had a large circulation. For. And. of the Authorized Version. Committee spoken of in the tenth rule reviewed the whole. Fry has shown. as Mr. then.

he would find a master. translated to Ely. He was born in London. being. as Dean. He was also ^^armly befriended by Sir Francis Walsingof The Earl liam. During his vacations. Groodman. and Prebendary of Westminster. With what entire affection do they prize Their new-born Church labouring with earnest care To baffle all that may her strength impair. inclusive. and the . He afterwards became Master of Pembroke Hall. his funeral sermon. He . Lancelot Andrews. Secretary of iState to Queen Elizabeth. as an able preacher. before next succeeded Dr. He But. looo went to Pembroke Hall. where he was the means of converting many Catholics. by his preaching and dispirtations." ! WOEDSWOETH The PmsT (Jompany met at We&tmmsier. of Chichester. taking the Peaitateucli. to Kings. and learn some fresh language. then Dean ol Westminster. became one of the first Fellows on tliat Foundation. were such as to bring liis name prominently forward. . and eloquent as wise. Dr. Cambridge and. It has been said. ten uumber. afterwards. They were: 1. Bishop of Rochester. he was made Bishop m — — . who presided. the work of translation was begun. Buckeridge. after the erection of Jesus College. and might have been interpreter general at Babel. is responsible for Hie statement that he understood fifteen languages. His lectures at College and thence to Winchester.CHAPTER XXIV THE FIHST COMPANY " Holy and Heavenly spirits as they are. that he was " a great gulph of learning." who preached of Huntingdon took him into the North England.Historical Books. Spotless in life.

if less dignified than the Archiepiscopal See of Canterbury. published a defence of the rights of Kings. With King James The ' ' also ' ' Andrews stood in high favour. It was answered. and in February. This he did. opposition to the arrogant claims of the Popes. but Winchester is the better manger. to become Chaplain in Otdinary to Queen Elizabeth." When at Cambridge. and had had the mortification to be Royal Pedant m . He was afterwards made Lord Almoner to the King. 1618. so that it was a saying— " Canterbury is the higher rack. and his Company met there. by Cardinal Bellarmine. was then much more richly endowed. which. in a learned and spirited quarto. highly praised by Casaubon and the Cardinal never ventured on a reply. .THE FIRST COMPANY 273 gave up his Mastership of Pembroke Hall. who delighted in his preaching. It was whilst he was Dean of Westminster that the Translation was com- menced . he was applied to by a wellfed Alderman. who could not keep awake during afternoon sermon. Bishop of Winchester. most bitterly. and the King asked Andrews to refute the Cardinal.

" Fuller says. it is said that Andrews and Dr. continued in high esteem with James I who. that it used to be said. " I think it lawful for you to take my brother Neale's money. that " the world wanted learning. Neale. Andrews and was again aroused by stern rebukes. and is read to-day. were with the King at dinner. seems to have been of the opinion of the famous Dr. who once told his congregation that it was hard work preaching to two pounds of beef and a pot of porter. and made the often quoted remark that. Bishop of Durham. to know how learned this man was. on being pressed. without all Ihis formality in Parliament?" The Bishop of Durham assented but Dr. But in his time. ." I have read his Seventeen Sermons on the Nativity." Milton embalmed his memory in a Latin Elegiac Ode. In the life of Waller. Not many read them now. It is the 3rd of his youthful Odes. . but used his large means very generously. advised them to read his works. when the King said. " My Lords.274 THE PURITAN BIBLE Andrews publicly rebuked by the Parish Minister. Romaine. He . " My Lord of Winchester keeps Christmas all the year round. said." It was when at St. so he recommended him to dine sparingly. But the rotund dignitary still slumbered in his pew. in which he wrote it.. and is somewhat lengthy. in his quaint way. He never married. his manual for his private devotions has been translated from the Greek. when he preached twice he prated to church . for he offers it. usually sending his benefactions in private and being specially considerate of deserving scholars. 'So great was his hospitality. Griles's that he preached so much. . which he wrote at the age of seventeen. Andrews. in his dying advice to his children. ' Moestus eram et tacitus nullo comitante sedebam. cannot I take my subjects' money when I want it. once. then recommended him to have his nap before he came and this seems to have been effectual. though. he was called the star of preachers. commencing.

without Him in the next and if without Him there. and He from us never to be parted. and God by Him. if we have Him. as few will follow me in reading such a volume through. Here are two illustrations. if it be not Immanu-el. 12). 2. God with us. we need no more Immanuel and Immanu-all. and if without Him in this. The quoting of Latin is incessant. . WESTMINSTER ABBEY. it will be Immanu-Hell. saith the Apostle (Eph. What with Him? Why. and He to be with us and we from Him. to our share. We .THE FIRST COMPANY published in tlie 275 ancient and modern Library of Theo- logical Literature. and that and no other place Without Him. I fear me. we are. with God. we be without Grod. . this will fall. is and there THE JERUSALEM CHAMBER. then without this Child. . " If this Child be Immanuel. this Immanuel. Without Him in this world. a good deal of Greek. All that we can desire is for us to be with Him. but he usually translates as well as giving the original.

" Listen to him also in his 10th sermon. . . forlorn and floating among the flags. Dr.John Overall was born in 1559. and He no longer with us. London. all three those great magnalia from parva mapalia. he found . for so is Thy pleasure. out of thee have come mighty monarchs. The great beginner of their monarchy. and never be well till we were with when we left be back with Him again. sheep cot. Their first guide. Cambridge. once before. whence came he ? Out of a basket of bulrushes. very much against his will. out of thee four of the chief and principal Apostles. so shall we be in evil case. Cambridge. He was noted for the appropriateness of his quotations from the Fathers. and became Fellow of Trinity. Moses. He was forced. And thou. so His own of the Church from a fisher boat. — Alexander Nowell as Dean of St. and not of theirs alone but the two beginners of the two mighty monarchies of the Persians and Romans. to be Master of Catherine Hall. by the Queen's mandate. Paul's. for Overall' was a man of unblemished reputation and great scholarship. and as the kingdoms of the earth from a sheep cot. and had to preach before the Queen." It is not likely that this will happen to them anywhere else. taken up even by chance. He succeeded Dr. In 1601. Even so Lord. however. as it would cut him off from some of his beloved studies. of whom the marginal comment in the Popish translations says.- 276 THE PURITAN BIBLE Him . from the sheep cot. We may well turn to them with this apostrophe and thoii. as to Bethlehem ' : — little It hath been no unusual thing out of small beginnings to raise mighty 'States. and this was his station when he was appointed one of the Translators. being appointed Regius Professor of Divinity in 1596. Paul's. Whensoever we go from Him. Cyrus and Romulus from the shepherd's scrip. fisher boat. when he became Dean of St. Thus he was one of these able scholars. then began all our misery. and we were well and Him." 2. ' — . " they will be abhorred in the depths of Hell.

who at first would not take the oath. refused to swear allegiance to the new Government of William and Mary. and was greatly addicted to the Scholastic Theology. He was an Armiuiau. THE FIRST CO'MPANY it 277 troublesome to preach in English. tinent by the Belgian Churches. Edwin A. And. born at Hedin in Aiiois. to Guernsey and Jersey. a new Government was firmly established. were converted by reading Overall's book. as a matter of duty towards God. and Preacher at the French Church. this. could claim the obedience of the people. he was sent by Queen Elizabeth's Council. he came to England. and others. de Saravia. Here we have a Dr.! ." prevented the publication of. pondent of Grotius." to be made Bishop of Lichfield. learned Spaniard. It was natural. and his mother a Belgian. He wrote a work on the Divine Right of Government. which James I. — . because he could not understand his own book 3. and others. It taught that. as Overall was in 1G14 and of Norwich in 1618 though he died a few months after the latter promotion. In ' ' . After being a minister at Ghent. It was afterwards printed. One of the iSchoolmen wept. when. in his old age. in 1530 his father being a Spaniard. When James II. and became Master of the Grammar School in Southampton. . he became Professor of Divinity at the University of Leyden. whom the Duke of Sully called "the most learned fool in Europe. after a Revolution or Conquest. in its turn. though this has been much decried. with high attai'nHe was a corresments in theological learning. was expelled from the throne. many Bishops. In 1587. to conduct a newly-established Recalled to the Conschool. 1577. called Elizabeth College. as a sort of missionary. But Bishop Sherlock. it might help a Translator to definitions and nice shades of thought. having been accustomed to speak in Latin so long. and had the effect for which the King suppressed it.. with the Earl of Leicester. and other Continental Scholars. for a man who carried superintending in his very name.

two years after the publication of the Bible. aged eighty- four years. whilst the latter was preparing his " Ecclesiastical Polity. both for the glory of God.278 THE PURITAN BIBLE 1590. the famous Eichard Hooker was only three miles off. and Westminster. that their two wills seemed to be but one and the same. that Saravia was Hooker's confidential adviser. JERUSALEM CHAMBER. on account of his general fame as a linguist. WESTMINSTER ABBEY. and there sprang up a great friendship between them. still assisting and improvino' each — . He was appointed a Reviser. and the peace of the Church. Prebendary of Gloucester. and their designs. at Oxford. He died at Canterbury. rather than with the idea of his being able to render anything critically into English. When at Canterbury. increasing daily to so high and mutual affections. he was made a Doctor of Divinity. cemented by the agreement of their studies. he was made successively. Keble says. Being faA^oured by Arclibisliop Wliitgift. Canterbury." And old Isaac Walton gives a beautiful picture of them: "These two excellent persons began a holy friendship.

He died in Westminster in — 1617." Nevertheless. and wrote Latin treatises against Beza and others. Vicar of Minster and ' ' ' : — ' ' ' — Monkton. Rector of St. A valuable work.. THE FIRST COMPANY 279 other's virtues. Rector of All Hallows. it was pleasant to have the Vicar of the Parish which includes Ebb's Fleet and the site of Augustine's sermon before Ethelbert and Bertha. He was one of the six preachers at Canterbury Cathedral. probably."* 4. A. Dr. Clement Danes. than any other class of the British people. Robert Tighe. N«w York. which were published the same year as the Authorized Version. Cambridge. 1853. during his expedition against the West Indies. 5. in his Athense. W." • — The Translators Eevived. He was noted for his skill in architecture and his knowledge was mainly depended upon for the Layfield fabric of the Tabernacle and the Temple. McClure thinks that Sara via was a fair sample of the Oxford Divines of whom Macaulay so caustically wrote The glory of being further behind the age. and wrote the account of the voyage printed in Purchas's Pilgrims In 1610 he was created Fellow of the newly(1625). Barking. Wood. and has never lost. is one which that learned body acquired early. publislied by Soribner. in all the lists of Translators. 6. Though sentiment could not weigh in the selection of men for such a work. This name is wrongly given. and the desired comforts of a peaceable piety. gives it Tighe. Westminster. the Chaplain and Attendant of George Clifford. and Fellow of Trinity College. and Fellow of Christ's College. as Leigh. Richard Clarke. was. John Layfield. founded Chelsea College. and adds. and Archdeacon of Middlesex. . Isle of Thanet. Sara via was very stiff in his views on Episcopacy. He died in 1634. and a folio volume of his sermons was published three years afterwards. Dr. " an excellent textuary and a profound linguist. Dr. third Earl of Cumberland. Cambridge. in 1598. Mr.

8. ^Mr. Hickman calls him " the grand propagator of Arminianism. 10. for he left his son £1. 9. know nothing more. Burleigh Stretford — — . at Cambridge. He was born at Deeping. Spaulding. succeeding Mr. He died partly at Oxford. his parents were English. or accordof whom we ing to Lewis. He also supplied suggestions to his friend Casaubon. London and left many valuable manuscripts to the University of Cambridge. His Arabic translation of St.. William Bedwell. He is said to have been an admirable philologist though his studies were somewhat desultory." He was also fond of . 7. 28o THE PURltAN BIBLE . Cambridgeshire. and partly at Cambridge. he published " A Discovery of the Impostures of Mahomet and of the Koran. Lincolnshire and educated. This was. . in 1620. He became Vicar of Tottenham High Cross. for an edition of iSuetonius and Polybius. and must have been richer than most of the Translators. John's Epistles is preserved in the Bodleian Library. He became Regius Professor of Hebrew. Francis Burleigh was made Vicar of Bishop's Stortford in 1590. F.000 a year. who valued his criticisms. " Dutch ThompCambridge. Bishop Launcelot Andrewes presented him to the Rectory of Snail well. — — . and therefore employed in the Translation of the Bible. He was a friend and familiar correspondent of Scaliger. Richard Thompson. probably. Geoffrey King. Master Burgley. Fellow of Clare Hall. Burleigh. Dr. from the land of his birth. In 1615. . another of these Translators. Cambridge. ^Dr. if he was born in Holland. Mr. Thomas Farnaby tells us that Thompson lived for some time under the protection of Sir Robert Killigrew and that he was a great interpreter of Martial. He was tutor to the great Orientalist. Mr. But." He was better known abroad than in England. Fellow of King's College. son " so called. the principal Arabic scholar of his time. Pocock and spent many years in compiling an Arabic Lexicon and a Persian Dictionary. . or Mr.

and mathematical works. of a literature so rich in theological. ' ' . " Cognate " and 'Shemitic " languages were unknown. do not let it be thought that. in the elucidation of Hebrew words. 60. as exemplified in the writings of the Mediaeval Rabbins. Castell's colossal work. the Lexicon Heptaglotton. Bedwell laid stress on the practical importance of a tongue which was the only language of religion. in the days of the Authorized Version. to aid in the compilation of Dr.THE poses. He also expressed just views of the use of Arabic. for letters and science. from the Fortunate Islands to the China iSeas and on the value. inventing a ruler for geometrical pur- which went by the name of Bedwell's Ruler. medical. I'JRST COMPANY 281 mathematics. . The voluminous manuscripts of his Lexicon were loaned by the University of Cambridge. and in translations of ancient authors. and the chief language of diplomacy and business.

And that event probably retarded the commencement of the work considerably. in 1572. Eyre. his friend and he was made Fellow of Trinity College. Chancellor of the University. He received instruction in Hebrew from the famous John Drusius. says. and was Solomon. too late. next to Pococke. and good friends should provide.CHAPTER XXV THE SECOND COMPANY Cambridge. Dr.John Richardson. He was Fellow of Emanuel. having a large family but. Pusey. . . Usher. he was unanimously elected Regius Professor of Hebrew. Cambridge. It seems to have come The Second Company met at occupied with Chronicles to the Song of There were eight members of this band. however. first being 1. in connection with the Translation. he was presented by His Majesty to the Rectory of Purleigh. that Lively (whom Pococke never mentions but with great respect). amongst other works. Essex. He had great skill in the Oriental tongues and. in spite of the fact that Lord Burghley. the greatest of our Hebraists. Lively had been in pecuniary difficulties. Dr. and Grataker. speak in the same terms. Edward Lively. Archbishop Whitgift was ilr. afterwards Master of Trinity." Some think his death was hastened by his too close attention to the preliminaries connected . for he died in May. — 282 . 2. who wrote on the whole of them. In 1575. and. 1605. was the author of a Latin Exposition of five of the Minor Prophets. leaving eleven children. was probably. " destitute of necessaries for their maintenance but only such as God. in 1607. . with the Translation. the — . had recommended another appointment.

He and " Dutch Thompson " were amongst ^ CAIIBEIDGE^ EMMANUEL COLLEGE. in Cambridge. .THE SECOND COMPANY 283 was appointed Eegins Professor of Divinity.

' ' of ii^lOO 3. King James exclaimed." Richardson calmly rejoined. He was chosen Vice-Chancellor. learned. saying. familiar with the Greek . this was a great piece of insolence on the part of Ambrose. and worthy of Alexander This is cutting our knotty arguments. who excommunicated the Emperor. Lawrence Chaderton. I will not be Founder. Theodosius the Great." He was also. its founder. He left a bequest . John Davenant. one of those who dared to oppose the growing presumption of the Stuart Kings. in 1617. the famous Bishop of Milan. Mary's pulpit as a "fat-bellied Arminian. Dr. Cambridge. lie was publicly reproached in St.'s first visit to Cambridge. which resulted in the death of Charles I. being buried in Trinity College Chapel. an extraordinary Act in Divinity was kept. It said. " Yerily. . —Dr. instead of untying them. Cambridge. as " grave. and Richardson one of the opposers. John Davenant being answered. and there was great interest in them. Sir Walter Mildmay. Itichardson brought up the example of Ambrose. he desisted from further discussion. These scholastic tournaments were sure to be got up whenever there was a visit from the King. and again 1618. that the spelling at this period need scarcely be was most uncertain." And. He was born at Linton. godly. that kings might never be excommunicated. " If you will not be Master. or Chatterton. afterwards Bishop of Salisbury." He was also one of the four Puritan Divines who took part in the Hampton Court Conference which His character is given originated the Translation. He was the first Master of Emanuel College. to Peterhouse. and died in 1G21. taking his seat. had to meet all comers his contention being. And many of the names are spelt in two or three different ways sometimes by the same writer. This member of the company may be Chaderton.! 284 THE PURITAN BIBLE lent man. the discussions always being in Latin. A truly royal response. Un the occasion of James I. or some chief magnate.

he resigned in favour of one who did. And. was published in 1700. but " sent him a poke. with a liberal salary. He not only survived him. .D. you may expect all the happiness which the care of an indulgent father can secure you. by W. Cambridge.. founded Emmanuel College. Otherwise. receive his D. their bigotry defeated their own ends. he was appointed Preacher of the Middle ! . such things not being About 1578. that he never required spectacles. he adopted the Puritan opinions. with a groat in it. he was Lecturer pressed upon him. one of Queen Elizabeth's foremost statesmen. His father lived at the Lees. if you will renounce the new sect which you have joined. and when he went to Christ's College. of Norwich." These early persecutions. He did not and Bachelor of Divinity in 1584. Go and beg. 1640. and disgusted this promising son He was chosen Fellow of his as is often the case. and then it was For sixteen years. however. His life. and became Master of Arts in 1571. Mildmay. by Order of infrequent at that time. Cambridge and once held a public disputation on Arminianism. she rallied him with erecting a Puritan Foundation." He was the tutor of Bishop Joseph Hall. and great in her favour. however. Probably. after much conflict of mind. His father not only disinherited him in consequence. to go a begging." The letter ran: " Son Lawrence. however. THE SECOND COMPANY 285 and Hebrew tongues. — the occasion of them. at St. though he lived to the age of 103 being born in 1537. . ' "When Sir Walter Temple. Parliament. till 1613. but the two following Masters in addition The family was a wealthy one and they were strong Eoman Catholics. only bound him all the more to the doctrines and life which had been . fearing lest he should not have a successor at Emanuel who held the same doctrines. Clement's. College in 1567. and dying on 13th November. Oldham. In the latter part of his life. Dillingham in Latin. it is recorded of him. I enclose a shilling to buy a wallet. and the numerous writings of the Eabbis.

and rebuilt according to the " Orientation of Churches " but the . that the former. . conforming building was pulled down. and held the position for thirty-eight years. Mr. hath attentivelj. He said that he was planting an acorn and. . having addressed his audience . College has continued to supply a godly succession of men. Coleridge. that. who have kept the Founder's wishes in honour.read the Church History of the Reign of Elizabeth.285 THE PURITAN BIBLE . no one knew what would become of it. or other household cares. can show me any essential difference between ^Vhitgift and Bancroft. Holdsworth. in the One Reign of Mary I will be thankful to him. . as long as he lived. difference I see namely. were more inconsistent. practically. than the Popish persecutors. when it became an oak. Chaderton was its first Master. McClure ation of food. and making the fallibility of all churches and individuals an article of faith. like myself. told him life. that the Translation was done ordered the affairs of the College till the close of his Dr. not likely to . . . who succeeded him." this age of "Scraps" and visiting his native County of Lancaster. and therefore less excusable. he should be Master in the House. It was a plain sign of his feeling that the Chapel was built in the uncanonical direction of North and Xearly a hundred years afterwards. he was married and he never suffered any of his servants to be kept from public worship. occur in When "Tit-Bits. the NonSouth. professing the New Testament to be their rule and guide. by the preparMr. gives an illustration of his preaching. and the Conference in the days of her pedant successor. throughout During fifty-three years his unusually prolonged life." It was during Chaderton's Mastership of Emmanuel and he. in his Literary Remains. McClure quotes a very significant passage from " If any man. He was much respected in Cambridge. though he himself was forced to be Master of it. he was invited to preach and. during their rule and Bonner and Gardiner. who. There was bigotry all round in these days.

form the best criterion of the character of that age. and his contemporaries. — ' ' ! . however. and breakers of the law. that both Dillingham and Overall continued. Chaderton was a moderate man. both from Town and University. though he watched for he never detected him repeating himself in conit. he received an address from forty Clergy.nrish before King James. Fellow of Christ's College. " Go on For God's sake. . he saw him reading a Greek Testament of very small type without glasses and that. by saying.THE SECOND COMPANY 287 for two full hours. who. moral or intellectual. the matter. and the anticipated sympathies. in the mind of the many. to resign his Lectureship. Chaderton came to have great influence and he had large congregations in Cambridge. ' ' had been published. to quote it. Francis Dillingham. " I will no longer trespass on your patience. Dillingham." says Coleridge. I reflect on the crowded congregations. near the end of his life. " You may schismatics. came to their hour or two-hour-long sermons." The congregation. very late in life. his old fellow collegian and friend. begging him to reconsider his decision. But. proceeded for some time longer. and alleging that they owed their conversion to his preaching. as " authors. for years after the " Authorized . I cannot hut doubt the fact of any true progression. cried out. ! . saying that he and his party were Cartwright's scholars. know them by His biogtheir Turkie grogram. with intense interest. accordingly. Dillingham was Parson of Dean. he paused. at the Hampton Court Conference." As a preacher. and said. He denounced him to the King. in the sermons of an age. says that. versation. then Bishop of London. The tone. When he found it necessary. "after reading the biographies of Isaak Walton. go on !" He. "When. he was rudely assailed by Bancroft. their united ages exceeding a thousand years 4. Anderson illustrates the hold and a great Grecian that the Genevan Version had acquired. In this reign ten men of Herefordshire danced the m." rapher.

out of Cardinal Bellarmine's writings. He was a known Puritan. Cambridge.D..' said he. was told that one of his scholars had abused him in an ." He was buried. and entered Merchant Taylor's School in 1-570 where he is said to have been second only to Lancelot Andrews. in 1631. He died a single and a wealthy man. and Bachelor of Divinity."' a debate. 5.' " He was . to their nuitual commendation. He went to Christ's College. "My — 'Did be name me?' he replied. and beneficed at Wilden. in 1686 and was elected. Vice-Master of Trinity.. ' ' Then. Thomas Harrison. Fuller records the following instance of his meek" I remember when the Eeverend ness and charity. with some pomp. between Francis Dillingham and William This was Alabaster. taken from the Fathers and many treatises relating to the Romish controversy. Dr. Dyer ascribes to him a Lexicon. when it was returned oration. ." at Cambridge. and might well justify the name which Dillingham gained of the "great Grecian. 288 THE PURITAN BIBLE his native place. I do not believe that one of the chief Examiners in the University of those who sought to be Professors of Hebrew or Greek. Cambridge. father. Fellow and Tutor of Trinity. in Cambridge. that he did not. Afterwards be went to St. Cambridge He apparently became a and graduated in 1576. Vice-Principal of Trinity College. when a Greek Act was kept. carried on in the Greek tongue. and Dr. D. Roger Andrewes. ." says worthy old Thomas Fuller. Master of Arts. Fellow of Pembroke Hall. in favour of Protestantism. He was born of a respectable London family. — ." He collected. 'Did he name Thomas Harrison?' And. he meant me. Fellow. Bedfordshire. all the concessions made by that acute writer. 6.John's College. He published also a Manual of the Christian Faith. in the Chapel of his College. "was present in the Bachelors' School. in due course. Whitaker called him " his poet. noted for his exquisite skill in Hebrew and Greek idioms. entitled " Pente Glotton.

* He was also Fellow of St. 1651. in 1618. Dr. and educated at Peterhouse. Andrew Byng was King's Professor of Hebrew at Cambridge. to keep a Residentiary's place for him.THE SECOND COMPANY . He died during the Interregnum. Lively's successor as Regius Professor of Hebrew. Archdeacon of Norwich. 8. there is a decree of the Chapter of York. in Norfolk. Robert 'Spalding. He was born there. . and Prebendary of Chichester. He was brother to the more famous Lancelot and died . John's College. he became Sub-Dean of York and. In 1605. Cambridge. Dr. — — . 289 Cambridge and. In 1606. afterwards. and Southwell. in 1618. as he was then occupied in translation. 7. at Winterton. Master of Jesus College.

taking Isaiah to There were seven members. . though we know little about him. . as our English Bible. afterwards. Controversialist. John Harding. Mr. ^Dr.— OHAPTEE XXVI THE THIRD COMPANY The Third Company met Malachi. although Reynolds Latin . unused to weep to have united in his honour and ever-recurring praise as a scholar. and to have been selected to write the Epitaph of Sir Philip Sidney and all this without sacrificing his own marked individuality of character or intrepidity of adhesion to unpopular principles. inclusive. his occupancy of that — Chair would mark him out. . in Oxfordshire. . Here we come to one of the two most conspicuous men of the entire group. Thus. Divine. stands at the head of the Literature of England in potent and imperishable influence for good to have been regarded as a foeman worthy of his steel by Bellarmine to have been missed and mourned by Scaliger. — . at the Hampton Court Conference. Regius Professor of Hebrew. at whose suggestion. Grosart says: " To have been the originator of that revised Translation of the Scriptures which. the work was undertaken. and man. He and. Reginaldus. Alexander B. was also Rector of Halsey. 2. Dr. President being at Oxford. President of Magdalen College. He had been Professor of Hebrew for thirteen years. the Precisian of Ecclesiastical order and the Puritan in doctrine to have been the levered tutor of Richard Hooker. argues a remarkable combination of gifts and graces. form." . the 1. properly so — often in the more modern form of spelt. John Rainolds.

and Jewel. and when he was 13 he went to Oxford. in what College soever they were bred and no College in England bred three such men. There is an old story. in what County soever they were born." and DR. that he and his elder brother. Fuller says of Rainolds. possibly apocryphal. He was Merton a short time. in 1549. that no County in England bare three such men. William. hut soon afterwards was admitted scholar of Corpus Christi. all Devonshire men. President. of which he later on became " The immortals never come alone. Hooker. . so that students got into training then much earlier than now. RAINOLDS.THE THIRD COMPANY He was at 291 born at Pinlioe. and all of this College. near Exeter. mutually converted one . where his uncle was ViceOhancellor.

so that he acknowledged the John Hart was victory of his opponent a rare result. Certainly truth was earnestly and ably contested in these times. every house a Sion. the year following.292 THE PURITAN BIBLE ." appears from his own letter. avowedly intended to " overturn Popery. armine was then public reader in the English Seminary at Rome. Rainolds. Hart quitted the field in frankly acknowledged defeat. no ground unholy." In 1598 he was made Dean of Lincoln. among two or three gathered together in His name. the supreme and absolute authority of the Bible. . Later on. yea. another to Romanism and tlie Protestant faith but what is certain is that Rainolcls completely defeated a Romanist in a Disputation. as The " Conference. Rainold's position being the same as Chillingworth's. every faithful body a Temple to serve God in. and as he delivered his Lectures they were taken down and regularly sent to Dr. with his attendants. At the time of this Controversy Sir Francis Walsingham founded a Divinity Lecture at Oxford. at the suggestion probably of Sir Francis Knollys. and said. "unto us Christians no land is strange. After a number of combats. every Town Jerusalem. the Queen offered . who immediately commented on. has been published a number of times. and we hear of a number Rainolds could not abide the of public disputations. three times a week in Bellfull Term. every Coast is Jewry. for the Presidentship of Corpus Christi College. The presence of Christ. bigotry of the Romanists. as Regius Professor of Divinity. He delivered Lectures. maketh any place a Church even as the presence of a king. and had constantly a large audience. but his studies were so interfered with that he exchanged the Deanery. the Romanist. and every faithful company." and Queen Elizabeth appointed Rainolds Lecturer. Rainolds accepted — the challenge. Thus Bellarmine's books of controversy were answered before they were printed. and refuted them. subscribed by both parties. and he challenged all learned men to try the doctrine of the Church with him. maketh any place a Court.

for doing that which. It of had been hitherto maintained that the superiority ." He was tutor to E-ichard Hooker. he has taken upon him to expel out of our house both me and Mr. it certain they were all restored the same month. much I am bold to request for Corpus Christi College sake. by oath. he greatly beautified the buildings. Besides the improvement of its statutes and pecuniary resources. that I am sure we shall prevail by it. but by Dr. and directed all its operations to provide able and learned pastors for the — Church of God. full of all faculties and learning. but was called on also to defend himself against the extreme to High Church opinions of the notorious Bancroft. and Bishop Hall said of him " he alone was a well-furnished library. so it be justice our cause ia Thus so good. in 1579. I beseech your Honour that you will desire the Bishop to let us have justice though it be with rigour. We can partly imagine why this peremptory individual — exerted himself. however. or rather for Christ's sake. but Rainolds wrote at once to both Sir Francis Walsingham and Sir Francis KuoUys. whicli he declined for the same reason. devoted himself thoroughly to the advancement of his College." : — . improved the scholars. to the latter of whom he said " Against all law and reason. He had not only be defender of the Faith against Popery. by Dr. Eainolds's exertions." In company with his renowned pupil and three others he was expelled from his College. John Barfoote. which made him such a formidable controversialist. is Whatever had offended the peremptory Barfoote. THE THIRD COMPANY him 293 He a Bishopric. and three other of our Fellows.. and Brook says: " The College had been greatly impoverished. and the entire literature of the Church. the peremptory dealer with Puritans his own expression. reformed the whole College system. and it was after this that he applied himself so assiduously to his readings of the Fathers. it was brought into a state of distinguished prosperity. Hooker. Greek and Latin. we were bound to do.

a compound of " The Puritans would not king-craft and priest-craft." and Commentaries But of on Obadiah and Haggai. according to the custom servile of natures. by Eainolds. said that. " We are alternately struck with wonder at the indecent and partial behaviour of the King. Bancroft preached up the at most. and at the abject baseness of the Bishops. way Rainolds suggested and though the project waa . thtspirit was rather foul mouthed." And yet. taunted. including the " (Jverthrow of Stage Plays. mixed. " Divin. Eobert Robinson. Hallam says. at Hampton Court. as some of the Bishops affirmed. said it was a ridiculous farce.right" of the Bishops. of Cambridge. but for this Conference. a bitter opponent of the Puritans. He was the author of a number of works.294 THE PURITAN BIBLE Bishops over pastors or presbyters was of human appointment. the third Century. talked Latin. and concluded the whole affair with insulting the Puritans. and was answered. used upbraidings rather than arguments. Yet he considered it to be an incumbent duty to declare the truth without respect of persons. who said he would much rather detect and refute the errors of Papists than those of his brethren confessing the same faith in Christ. so " God moves in a mysterious His wonded's U> perform. be gulled by it. threatened. if the King spoke by the power of inspiration. but continued to dissent. the Authorized Version would perhaps never have seen the light." as Neal calls it. Even 'Sir John Harrington. though reluctantly. course his action at the "mock Conference. It was easy for a Monarch and eighteen Churchmen to claim the victory. Here the high and mighty Prince James. lately published. and they were right." it. at the very beginning of his Reign." There were only four Puritans. with insolence towards their opponents. who were brow-beaten. is that for which he will never be forgotten. and insulted. and traceable back only to the fourth or.

then Fellow of Baliol College. both as a scholar and an According to Wood. so did he almost as soon ' ' . and he was styled the phoenix of England. afterwards Rector of Exeter College." There was an absurd rumour that this "pillar of Puritanism" had recanted his Protestant principles at the last. Reynolds died soon after the work was begun. at Oxford. Thomas Holland. do to her were well bestowed. as it was finished. standing high. often failing to do justice to Puritans waxes cumbrously eloquent and even exaggerative in his praise. a most learned Divine. and when he took exception to the words in the Marriage Service. more respect than the other Puritans." The learned Scaliger lamented his death as a public loss to the Churches at home and abroad. the King took it in due time the most influential little 295 saw the light. and volume in the world Perhaps the King treated him with a — " Many a man if speaks of Robin Hood who never you had a good wife yourself. was " another ApoUos. "With my body I thee worship. Even Anthony a-Wood. 3. . and the most learned man of the time. but he set his name to a declaration quite disposing of the matter. his coadjutors met at his lodgings once a week to compare notes together. as Dr. When his friends told him he should not throw away his life for learning. he earnest Biblical student. He became distinguished for the large share which he took in the work. having worn himself to a skeleton with his labors. and Regius Professor of Divinity. mighty in the Scriptures." the King replied : up with warmth. when only 58 years of age. Incertum est fuerit doctwr an melior it is doubtful whether he were more learned or pious.—Dr." Rainolds died whilst the work was in progress." But.THE THIRD COMPANY at once opposed. Perhaps the highest praise he ever had was. he answered with a smile " Nee propter vitam vivendi perdere causas. you would think that all the honour and worship you could shot in his bow. But even during his illness.

Dr. Divinity filled not only his head but his heart. He — . 4. where there were many Romanists. as candidate for the Degree of Bachelor of Divinity. For this. R. he and Dr. Lord Jesus. I desire to be dissolved. who presided on the occasion. Holland. rebuked him sharply. one day. chiefly drawn from Rabbinical sources. Kilbye preached his funeral serm. and between the Church of England and the Reformed Churches abroad. quickened his desires for Heaven. he was constantly absorbed in Hebrew and Casaubon saw at his lodging the Lexicon Arabicum of Raphelenguis the only other copy in the country being that in the possession of the Bishop of Ely. in 1604. Thou bright and morning star. Holland stoutly resisted the Popish innovations Laud was going through of Bancroft and Laud. Oxford. The public disputations were stopped in 1598.296 THE PURITAN BIBLE When Dr. He was a friend of Isaac Walton's. as one who soiight to sow discord among brethren. Richard Kilbye. and the abhorrence of Popery. he contended that there could be no true Churches without Diocesan Episcopacy. Going to Church. and to be with Thee. in 15-W. . beingeminent as a Hebrew scholar. and recommending them to the love of God. and afterwards Regius Professor. In fact. without calling his friends together. the young preacher had no more discretion than to waste most of his time on said. He was born at Ludlow. he exclaimed.on. In the hour of departure. his exercises. because his time was so occupied by the great number of those who responded pro forma. into conformity with the Established Church." Dr. . and died in the 73rd year of his age. never to have set out on a journey from his College. who depended on him to bring the College. and his fame was not confined is to the British Universities. His election to the B-ectorship of Exeter College was secured by the influence of Queen Elizabeth. " Come. who tells us that. Rector of Lincoln College. He wrote a Commentary on Exodus. Sickness and the infirmities of age. Sanderson rode into Derbyshire together.

and also in that of the Pitt Press. along with Bilson. 5. Kilbye was a native of RadclifE. when the latter was Dean of Gloucester. 1620. and told him that he might have given his poor untutored congregation better fare as for your three reasons. he said. It made forty quarto pages. Miles 'Smith was a strong Puritan. "we considered them all. but found thirteen considerable reasons for translating as we did. sent Laud to be Dean. He became well-known for his strenuous opposition to Laud and his tenets." and. and the removal of This led to a tumult among the Communion Table. but far too long. and was buried in the Chancel of All Saints' Church. but he appears Four years after his to have carried things too far. the town's-folk. aged sixty years. Blayney's Edition of 1769. He died in 1624. and gave three reasons why a particular word should have been otherwise translated. in Leicestershire. Oxford. mainly as a reward for his services in connection with the Translation. They gave orders. without consulting the Bishop. Dr. Canon of Plereford. with instructions to bring about a reformation. Miles Smith. This was an able production. consecration. was the writer of the Preface. He died in November." Dr. Laud at once summoned the Chapter.THE THIRD COMPANY 297 exceptions against the late Translation. on the river Wreak.. and that the Communion Table was retained in the midst of the Choir. very soon. till the causes — . and the printers grumbled. for the repair of the Cathedral. . edited the whole. It was printed in Dr. Smith had Hebrew " at his fingers' ends. printed for William IV. where he was born about He became Prebendary of Lincoln Cathedral. which was aggravated by the Bishop. 1561. Dr. iSo James I. it was found that the Cathedral was in a state of decay. Dr. and the Clergy of the Diocese. The See of Gloucester was conferred on him in 1612. in 1837. Kilbye sent for him. who declared that he would not enter the Cathedral again. and laid the King's commands before them.

and Ethiopic tongues. It is pleasant to find that. with all their iniquities and absurdities. and he says that the name was originally Faireclough. Mombert quotes a saying about him. foeek." He was very popular as a preacher. with all his scholastic attainments. that he was " skilled and versed to a criticism in the Latin. He published a full account of John of Leyden. Oxford.—Dr. that he was a most vigilant pastor. and the Anabaptists of Munster. Eichard Brett. he disputed with the Baptists in another volume. It .298 THE PURITAN BIBLE Laud. Daniel — then to Featley!" He was at Corpus Christi. 1637. and delivered his funeral oration when he died. however. " Dippers dipped. Smith wrote a number of works now forgotten. he kept to the one Parish of Featley. D. the name varied from Faireclough to Fairecley. Eainolds was President. Fellow of Lincoln College. Then for a short time he became Rector of Northhill in Cornwall. near Aylesbury. a faithful friend. preacher. and so contended with the Sorbonists for Protestant truth. it is also recorded of him. Arabic.D. 7. graceful countenance. stedfast. by the mistakes of people. and Quainton. a liberal benefactor to the ' ' For poor. His life was published by his nephew. that even his opponents admired him. and was buried in the Chancel of his Church. but was soon made domestic Chaplain to Archbishop Abbot. And. and a good neighbour. when Dr. and is said by his nephew to have had " a lovely. and Rector of Quainton. " But even in the days of my good father. was a controversialist." His "ancilla pietatis " was a devotional book famous for a long time." He died 15th April. 6. and the Puritans had to relinquish a hopeless contest. remained of offence were removed. He went to Paris. and author of considerable influence in his time. sure of tlie countenance of the King. and Rector of Lambeth. as all these began with the denial of Infant Baptism. and by that name he was ordained." three and forty years. Chaldee.

and was a witness against Laud in 1634. . He was a defender of the Church of England against both Romanists and extreme Puritans. hymns. and was a great favourite with Charles I. and prayers.THE THIRD COMPANY 299 consisted of instructions.

tfor want of what he had. of eight members. before others have doublets." To this. His Lordship at the Hampton Court Conference. Ravis.. Dr. He declared. he became Dean of Christchurch and. Bancroft replied." Ravis succeeded Bancroft in the Bishopric of London. : — "Here Wlio lies dlc-d His Grace. then. " By the help of Jesus. or one living." said he. bred at "Westminster School. in 1575. In oold clay clad. the Acts of the It consisted Apostles. who in exchange for two shillings a week. born at Maiden. resisted. so that the wags of the day made this epitaph over him — — ." This Prelate was a fierce persecutor of the Puritans but was reputed to be very penurious. . justified the complaint of Lord Chancellor EUesmere. In due course. as occasioning many learned men at the Universities to pine for want of places. and the Revelation of St. therefore. John. "I wish. 1. he compelled the Members of the College to forego their allovs^ance of Commons. held This was one of the cases that a plurality of livings. or pluralities. . he imprisoned. and entered Christ Church. at one time. " But a doublet is necessary in cold weather. he sent before the Council and others. Thomas Ravis. CHAPTER XXVII THE FOUETH COMPANY The Foceth Company for their portion the also met at Oxford. having Four Gospels. whilst others had more than they could fill. Some. I will not leave one preacher in my Diocese who doth not . and succeeded him also in his attitude to the godly Puritans. he expelled others. complained of this practice. the President being. Oxford. "that some may have single coats.

ARCHBISHOP OF CANTEKDUEY.CEOEGE ABBOT. 3°I .

.

Dr. the year the Translation was finished. His Bishoprics were very short but he remained Archbishop more than twenty years being then succeeded by the famous. . 1611. . His several donations to the University of Oxford. he only remained a year. Of his brother Robert. when he died at Croydon. He also left of conscience. . He always loved his native Guildford and. He died 4th August. Dr. THE FOURTH COMPANY subscribe 303 and conform.. aged 71 . in the times of Popish cruelty and he was one of Laud's . and liberty in He founded an Hospital at Guildford. George Abbot had a brother who was Bishop of and another who was Lord Mayor of London. chief opponents. It was to him that Ravis said. he was made Bishop of Lichfield and. for nearly fifty years a faithful minister. 1633. his body was brought there." Among others. 2. the following year. it was said. years Abbot was the son of a Cloth-worker at Guildford. . also. it was Salisbury. . God honoiired none more in the conversion of souls. — . Dean of Winchester. " Subscribe and Conform." Ravis died. and vigorously defended the rights of the subject. on December 14th. however. he cited Richard Rogers before him. His parents had been sufferers for the truth. before the Version was published. George Abbot. Laud who was a striking contrast to him. for the employment and maintenance of indigent persons. at the time of his appointment. 1562. October 29th. and Master of University College. than whoiui. and endowed it with £300 a year. and infamous. Surrey. being made Archbishop of Canterbury on April 9th. 1609. He became a popular preacher at Oxford. where he was born. besides several large sums for charitable purposes. his History of publications were chiefly in divinity the Massacre in the Valteline being printed in Fox's Acts and Monuments. the Bishop. was translated to the See of London where. . In 1609. and buried in Holy Trinity Church. and was buiied in the North Aisle of St. Paul's Cathedral.

Abbot refused to have it read in the Church at Croydon. and they made a strong handle of this accidental homicide. Soon afterwards. however. he had recourse Jerome notices. His health being impaired. on Sundays. But if he was severe in his proceedings against Clerical delinquents. and that he was somewhat wanting in sympathy with the troubles and infirmities of ministers. the Book of Jonah. an arrow from his cross-bow. and. aimed at a deer. he protested that he acted so as to shield them from the greater He published Lectures on severity of the Lay Judges. though he opposed the growing tyranny of the king. near Heme Bay. before he had been a shepherd of sheep. "but we nowhere read of a holy hunter. Wlien James couraging I. the day of the mishap. glanced from a tree. for a short time. leaping. he observed a monthly fast on Tuesday. It was insisted." But George liad a good deal to make him in frown. Whitsun ales. 304 said. there were worthy fishermen who followed the sacred calling. by medical advice. He also settled But he had many a liberal annuity on the widow. where he then was. a quiet country house He was suspended of which Cranmer had been fond. during the rest of his life. and a number of treatises relating to the political and religious occurrences of the times. at Ford. And Laud. after service. never having had a parish. refused to receive consecration from him. But the fickle James soon saw fit to alter his course and Abbot continued in honour for another five years. . he was required to live in retirement. and smile Eobert. that he was made a Shepherd of shepherds. en- promiscuous dancing. amongst others." Whilst hunting one day. archery. May games. the way. vaulting. who had been cautioned to keep out of This was a great aiHiction to Abbot. enemies. that to hunting.. and killed a game-keeper. issued his foolish Book of Sports. that THE PURITAN BIBLE " gravity did frown in George. that the Canon Law allows no man of blood to be a builder of the Spiritual Temple. It was said of him. and Morrice dancers. Laud being very active in the matter.

He died at I. and grace to the pulpit. succeeded to the throne. And his fair friends. not yet set down to cards. and was sent to Westin Bedfordshire. held in great admiration at Court. and took his two Degrees in Arts also two more in Divinity. if the new King had only listened to him. both life in the soul and grace on the neck. Here was a Nathan at hand. He was a man of a " very fatherly presence. instead of resenting his action." He published a number of discourses. evidently. T ." f Cra&D evidently did not find the species extinct in his time. 3. Oxford. . soon after his appointment as a Translator. not only for his preaching. but no one. John f "At Uni€<j He altered sermons. like some other fashionable clergyBut. t years. THE FOURTH COMPANY When 305 Charles I. to writing poetry and plays. about 1555 minster School. and was much admired at Court. he rose to eminence. In 1596. Dr. he was " a pious and grave Divine. that. have saved his head. knows anything more about them than about his early poetry. and. now. days. — . Edes had. 1604. to his death. and before the work was well begun. perhaps. and he was also Chaplain to James . November 19th." says Anthony Wood. when he was Chaplain to the Queen. As a preacher.. in 1571. he Worcester. but most excellent and polite discourse. Oft he amused with riddles and charades. he became Dean of Worcester. and Chaplain to Queen Elizabeth. Richard Edes (or E'edes) was born at Lewell. as soon as he came to the throne but Abbot's words had little effect. the Antiquarian of Oxford says." Anderson says that Edes was succeeded by Dr. and was made Prebendary. and be aimed at rhymes. he was " then and ever after. Dr. In his younger was given. Canon. Abhot crowned and anointed him. would. Wood says. in riper man. He became a Student of Christ's College.. an ornament to his profession." and unimpeachable in his character an excellent preacher. and full of learning "all of the old stamp.

of wbicb be became a He travelled a great deal and tben was made Fellow. he devoted his time and fortune to the encouragement of learning. He has left no publication but is said to have been " accomplished in learning. became one of bis Chaplains. folio. before the Translation was finished. He was also Rector of Islip. He was knighted by James I. Dean of Windsor.. he was ill most of the time." Perhaps. Southey says. Greek Tutor to the Princess Elizabeth. Savile was tutor in both Greek and Mathematics to the Princess — . — 5. of whom it is recorded. which is said to have cost him £8. and Registrar of the Most N'oble Order of the Garter. besides Greek type and matrices to the Oxford Press. . He made valuable contributions of rare books and manuscripts to the Bodleian Library. "to the great grief of all who knew the piety and learning of the man. he was made Bishop of Gloucester.000. at the early age of 43. He was descended from a respectable family in Cumberland. when he was abroad and took his Degree of Doctor in Divinity in 1600. Sir Henry Savile. at the age of 59. and an . but died on the 14th June. and Provost of Eton. in eight volumes. exact linguist.3o6 THE PURITAN BIBLE Aglionby. In the year of its publication. Chaplain to Queen Elizabetb. He was cbosen Principal of 'St. losing his son about the same time. aged 73. he brought out a fine edition of Chrysostom's Works in Greek. that Henry VIII. on the accession of James I. the year the Translation was agreed upon. He was Chaplain to Queen Elizabeth. just a year after his consecration. that he took a great deal of pains over the Translation. He died at Eton in 1622. Oxford. He made the acquaintance of Bellarmine. In 1583. be became a Student in Queen's College. Giles Tomson. set the example of giving his daughters a learned education." 4. Dr. Together with John Bois. . and. 1610. Edmund's Hall in 1601. and. as it is recorded that he never visited Gloucester after his election to the See. He died February 6th.

" If I would look for wits. Bois said." number of other works. John Peryn was of St. 1615. therefore. afterwards he was Canon of He died May 9th. who was found to keep up her studious habits twenty years after she had been on the throne. when her husband lay sick. she threatened to burn Chrysostom. — . female education had not gone far. He was King's Professor of Greek. at the same time. not excelled by any lady's. in Sussex. and an orchard of grown trees. "Why. at Oxford. " I would that I were a book. both flourishing under his careful inspection. Christ Church. Dr.THE FOURTH COMPANY 307 Elizabeth. His Chrysostom was the first work of learning on a Its price was £9 great scale published in England. and published a the wits. that he was one of the sweetest preachers. " this skilful gardener had. with his fine complexion. I would go to Newgate there be He translated Tacitus. Mr. . . since the Apostles' time. Whereupon. knighted Savile. There are portraits of him at Eton and Oxford. Savile was Warden of Merton College at the same time that he was Provost of Eton. and said she " would not burn him for all the world. he was Vicar of Watling." Once. he is said to have declined offers of further preferment in either State or Church. as Fuller says. and thus. the lady was appeased. where he was elected Fellow in 1575. John's College. Though James I." Chrysostom?" The enthusiastic Bois replied. for nearly killing him. He was also profane literature of Elizabeth's reign. translate the Bible. ." Whatever Queen Elizabeth's Scholarship was. an unusually handsome man. and became Doctor of When placed in the Commission to Divinity in 1596. who was pity. a nursery of young plants. that. " so to do were great To him." He preferred diligence to wit and used to say. the lady said. and he had plenty of difficulty in disposing of the Savile was the most learned Englishman in edition. besides Chrysostom whom he She once petulantly said. loved too much for his wife. and then you would a little more respect me. Anderson says. Oxford. 6. .

for some reason. Cambridge. and died in 1632. visited his College. 8. Dr. He did not die but. Harington incited him to repair it. He was born at Newbury. and Sir John 'J1. John Harmer.3o8 THE PURITAN BIBLE 7. in consequence of the failure of two of the members of this party. . taking him into the roofless building when it was raining. he was made Prebendary of Christ Church Cathedral where he was also Sub-Dean. Oxford. in 1605. New College. was apHe pointed at the beginning. . Dr. was admitted Doctor of Divinity in 1600. was made Doctor of Divinity in 1595. In 1616. He also repaired the Episcopal Palace at Wells. He contributed to the verses made when James I. Archbishop of Canterbury. About the same time. after other Degrees. and vigorously took in hand the restoration of the nave of the Abbey Church. in 1555. and well read in the Fathers and Schoolmen. — Montague. Dr.000 on it. In 1608. he appears to have till 1616 been superseded. Dr." Hutton was born about 1557. a noted Greek and Latin scholar. and beautified the interior of hia College Chapel. and became Perpetual Fellow of His parentage was humble. Thence. and educated on the Foundation. at Bath. in 1574. but the Earl of Leicester became his patron and friend. dedicated to Bancroft. he became Bishop of Bath and Wells. — . being Rector of Eyston. He was "an excellent Grecian. Ralph Ravens. Northamptonshire. spending The Abbey was roofless. Sub-Dean of Wells. whose Chaplain he was. He was first Master of Sidney Sussex College. he went to Christ Church. he published a learned work. and the Manor House at Banwell. Hutton left a number of works. in his 76th year. and. and. in the same year. and an author of repute. at Westminster School. he was translated to the See of Winchester but he died in less than two years. He was the fifth son of Sir Edward . . being Vicar of Flower.James Montague is also mentioned as assisting. Oxford. Leonard Hutton was chosen in his place. being only fifty years of age.

Oxford. October 11th. and. . Prebendary of Winchester and. Mary's College holding that office till his death. He published Latin translations from Chrysostom. and a translation of Beza's sermons. were those of Chief Master and Warden of Winchester School. He was reckoned " a subtle Aristotelian " and he held disputations at . Paris. . He was. at Oxford. became Warden of St. 1613. in 1596. in English also a translation of Calvin's Sermons on the Ten Commandments. with the Doctors of the I'omish party. also. Wykeham's . . in 1585.THE FOURTH COMPANY Amongst 309 the offices he held. He was both of a considerable benefactor to the Libraries of Colleges. Regius Professor of Greek.

in 1605. who much admired his sermons. naturally. AND THAT FOE THE APOCRYPHA The Fifth Company met at Westminster. 1. and was buried at his Palace. and they were brow -beaten and hectored by the Monarch and his minions. but his talk might teach all in the Court. and when the King for hours the practice of Prelates " wonderfully played the Puritan. 1604. at Buckden. on the plough. a member of the Hampton Court Conference. He died in 161-3. when comparing his reign with the preceding. " his text might seem taken from the cart. in December. against the corruptions of the Church. the charges brought by the King. and his But James thought himpredecessor King Elizabeth. in 1608. He was made Dean of Chester. He took the usual . Dr.CHAPTER XXVIII THE FIFTH COMPANY. onesided. and of Lincoln. his flatterers said he was." In James's time. Barlow may have belonged to the family settled at Barlow Moor. and his account of the Hampton Court Conference is. Of one sermon. He suppressed. and its historian. near Manchester. their portion being the whole of the Epistles of the New Testament. as. The plan of the King was an English Popery in place of a — . indeed. self an adept in the sciences of theology and " King craft". also. William Barlow." He was Chaplain to Queen Elizabeth. Romish. Only four of the Puritan party were summoned to the Hampton Court Conference. Barlow was a strong Anti-Puritan. Bishop of Rochester. It consisted of seven members. the Queen said. he was often called Queen James.

Jolin's College. Archbishop Whitgift made him his Chaplain. and afterwards President. have only one Puritanism as much as Popery. He was born in London. He was the intimate friend of Hooker. which he enlarged. he had the reputation. and became Fellow of Pembroke Hall. 4. and became Chaplain to the King. publication directly from his own pen. Hooker himself had died some time before the Translation was begun. 311 Degrees at St. making known to the people the Earl's acknowledgement of his guilt. Dr. also. He died April 3rd. CamHe was one of the most popular preachers bridge. Oxford. no doubt. Paul's Cross. 1614. Oxford. preached at St. He took several Degrees. John's College. Dr. . of Corpus Christi College. He was a native of Suffolk. and educated at Merchant Taylors' School. where there is a stone eifigy to ap- and the his memory.THE FIFTH COMPANY . being pointed one of the Translators in June. the usual time. We — . and was appointed to preach on the following Sunday. Eellow. and afterwards of Charlbury. —Dr.reek Reader in his College holding He was. John Spencer. Ralph Hutchinson was President of St. of being one of the youngest in age. of all that 2. and Chaplain to James I. according to Harrington. soon after the commencement of the work. and was Vicar of Cropthorne. Cambridge. 1606. an eloquent sermon. but one of the ripest in learn- had occupied the See. and writing a graceful address to the reader. He is buried in College Chapel. 'Spencer was G-. in ]565. one of the Fellows of Chelsea College. He completed the publication of Hooker's Works. and Trinity Hall and was. Roger Fenton was born in Lancashire. 3. He was the Queen's Chaplain when Essex fell. dying 16th January. When Barlow was made Bishop of Rochester. giving very great attention to the matter. the office for ten years. well qualified as a Translator. and attached himself to the party in his College which dreaded . 1604. and repentance for his treasonable designs. He died ing.

but he recovered. Felton was thought to be dying at one time. . " Whose hearts bled through their eyes when they saw him dead." When mentioning the grief at his death. ^Michael Rabbett. Nicholas Felton. was also one of those who did not live to see the completion of the work. Cambridge and became Greek Lecturer. whoever died first. to erecting a monument to him. but survived him more than ten years. Utie speaks of " that judgment which was admired on every side". Fenton was. as he died in 1607. was Professor of Divinity. was minister of St. 7. '"Oh No!" he answered. and. in 1606. Anderson says that he belonged to Baliol College. in his letter to the Mayor and Aldermen of London." But. Dr. and died Bishop of Ely. Utie says. Fenton. London. called him "an ancient Divine. afterwards. and held that post till his death. Fenton suffered much. Stephen's. Bachelor of Divinity. He was made Junior Dean in 1606. have been very much beloved. like a master bee without a sting." Fenton's most intimate friend was Dr. many of his sermons being published. but corrections. indeed. They agreed that. Vedast. London. having great skill in the ancient languages.312 THE PURITAN BIBLE He of tlie day. Dr. of those in Grray's Inn. in consequence of his continuous study and sedentary habits. where he was buried under the Communion Table the parishioners He seems. William Dakius. He was a Fellow of Trinity College. Foster Lane. and the natural majesty of the style. ^Dr. the survivor should preach his funeral sermon. in Gresham College. . and not only performed that service for Dr. " they are not trials. also. 6. Walbrook. ^Mr. In the time of his sickness. recommending Dakins for this post. The King. Bachelor of Divinity. this was in allusion I — — — . . Oxford and was Archdeacon of Rochester. and "the naked innocency without affectation." 5. another London Minister. Thomas Sanderson. Preacher to the Readers at Gray's Inn. from an early date. was Rector of 'St. Felton told him that his weakness and disease were trials of his faith and patience.

. . being than forty years of age. in placing these Greek writings. they have been omitted from all the Bibles published by the British and Foreign Bible Society. unfortunately. Cambridge and amongst other distinctions. and consisted of seven members. The appointment was a sort of remuneration for his work as a Translator.THE FIFTH COMPANY 313 to his character rather than his age. This they did at the Council of Trent. John Duport. This had equal attention given to it in 1611. in this matter. It was felt that. . 1. howoA^er. made another of its great mistakes. though Protestants constantly spoke of it as being simply profitable to read. to some extent. having bequeathed to it the — . His family came into Dr. who. With us. He died. since 1826. in the Reign He was four times V ice-Chancellor. they should be placed in no such dangerous association with the Word of God but that 'Scripture should stand alone in its sacredness before the world. less THE APOCRYPHA COMPANY These arrangements would seem to complete what needed to be done for the Old and New Testaments. at of Henry IV. and by no means part of the Canon. The Company for the Apocrypha met at Cambridge. But there was another Company. a few months afterwards. Leicestershire from Caen. He was also Prebendary of Ely. The Church of Rome has. the Apocryphal Books have been more and more discredited so that. on a level with the Word of God itself. and not to be defended even as literary productions. never alluded to by our Lord or His Apostles. They were never acknowledged as Sacred Scriptures by the Jewish Church. whatever benefits may be derived from their study. on this subject was disqualified by want of Jewish learning from being a safe guide. meeting at Cambridge. who were employed on the Apocrypha. He is ranked amongst the Benefactors of his College. following. as the word of man. in 1590. the doctrine of Augustine. in Normandy. was made Master of Jesus College.

Holland.314 THE PURITAN BIBLE perpetual advowson of the Church at Harleton. He was made a Doctor of Divinity both at Cambridge and Oxford. four new Fellowships being founded. the . and exerted a happy influence in the Synod. Norfolk family.D. and a Chapel. He was Vice-Master of his College. as a nursery of Puritanism. Rector of Orwell. was one of the leaders of the University. 3. Chancellorship of the University." His father was a gentleman. Cambridge. as the four to represent the Church of England. leaving his books He and considerable property. Fellow of Emanuel 2. under him.A. then of Emanuel College. till his death. who sent him. Hesse. in 1609. with Bishops Carleton. They were absent six or eight months. afterwards. Dr. Master of He was a member of an ancient Gronville and Caius. Dr. Davenant. a man of mark. Ward became Master of Sidney Sussex College. 4. Dr. Cambridge. and D. in 1618.A. Jeremiah Radcliife.D. He then proceeded to the Degrees of He died during his ViceM. Ward became Chaplain to Bishop Montague. College. iSamuel Ward. and Hall. and. Camhs. and occupied the position for thirty-four years. also. to the 'Synod of Dort. and Prebendary of Wells. Scotland. at Clare Hall. ^A'illiam Branthwaite. and took his B. Senior Fellow of Trinity — — College. and " a vast scholar... all the Scholarships augmented. in the gallery of which there is a portrait of him. with a new range of buildings. He was also Chaplain to the King. he was made Vicar of Evesham. This was the College complained of by Laud. by whom he was made Archdeacon of Taunton. It nursed Oliver Cromwell who matriculated there in The College flourished 1616. in 1597. In 1588. Cambridge. was. being erected in his time. " of more ancientry than estate. and. B. when Ward was Master." Dr. to Caius College. — . in 1628. two years later. a Benefactor to Emanuel College. were treated with the highest consideration.

and the perseverance of the Saints. When the civil war broke out. Not many years afterwards. and confiscated his goods. of whom Macaulay says. The points in dispute were. John's College for a short time. but also on principle and of whom Coleridge exclaims. General of Holland. he was imprisoned in St. not only from constitution and habit. Bremen. was an angel. were represented." believed." and sent the College plate to be coined for his use. by the States .THE FIFTH COMPANY 315 Palatinate. James I. The sixty Canons drawn up. chiefly. the reply was. . conversion. but died in six weeks. the nature and extent of the Atonement. Ajminianism continued to spread. The object was..£10 a day. ' . are an exact and careful statement of the Calvinistic belief. the corruption of human nature. that he was perfidious. 1643. however. in the "Divine right of Kings. and Switzerland. September 7th. Soon after his return. " Almost all the best Bishoprics and Deaneries in England. and confirmed by the unanimous consent of the Synod. when the question was raised as to what the Arminians held. with others. Ward was made ViceChancellor of the University the ability he displayed in the discussions at Dort having led Episcopius to pronounce him the most learned member of the whole body. in very straitened circumstances. . whilst the Synod lasted. in my honest judgment. the doctrines of Divine predestination. Afterwards. He was liberated because of illness. however. and the Presbyterian forms were followed. Ward compared with his son and grandsons. Ward was a partizan of the King. to settle the doctrinal disputes disturbing the Church of the Netherlands. and was buried in Sidney Sussex Chapel. Authorities Parliamentary In consequence. before returning and they were paid . the deprived him of his Professorship and Mastership. and King James's attitude to it was soon altered." The Delegates made a tour through some of the principal cities in 'Holland.

for the Stationers' Company. He died in 1625. AVard was a Moses. — "None thy quick sight. Selden described him as a man " composed of Greek and industry. they came to London. that attending Downes 's Lectures . Meek. Andrew Downes. at that time. work. and. are not inferior to those of the great Foreign Scholar. for full forty years. and the close of Dr. in his history of Cambridge University. which all brawlings doth decline. Cambridge and Regius Greek Professor. at least seventy years When . both for his slowness of speech." valued correspondent of Archbishop Usher. fessorship. repaired daily to Stationers' Hall. . Fellow of St. he found him " big and tall. Evidently. I took old.3i6 THE PURITAN BIBLE other offices. He was a generous patron of learning and took part in the controversies of the time. 5. Downes corresponded in Greek and his letters. Selden being said by Milton to be Casaubon and the chief of learned men in England. John's College. grave judgment. of " self-rewarding ingenious industry. so sinewy in style. of Oriental and Biblical criticism. " skilled in tongues though slow of speech. During this time.." him to be. 'Good's eulogium says: Among Margaret have been lie was a on points . For this purpose. Add to all these. though they had received nothing for their previous — . and his eyes very lively although he was compelled to give up the Prothe usual stipend was continued by the University. Cambridge." at D'Ewes writes." He was thus praised by a much praised man. Downes. they were duly paid thirty shillings a week each. completed their task. modest. Bois. were charged with the duty of reviewing the Version. long-faced and ruddy-coloured. he stood amongst the highest in the University. the King's Printer. Ward was the Lady He is reported to Professor of Divinity. So skilled in tongue. Dr. in point of style. and four others." Fuller. can beguile. in his day. says. in three-quarters of a year. that peaceful soul of thine. by John Barker. and his meekness of nature.

. through not.m. but this " goes one better. — to be eighty. Medicine was his intended pursuit at this time. Cambridge. his indefatigable labour did not cut him off early for he lived . When John was six years old. when most of the Fellows attended. He then went to Hadleigh Grammar School and thence to St." Like Wesley. John's. Both events came off in due course but his wife proved such a bad economist that Perhaps. and he was taught by his father. he could both read the Hebrew Bible and write the characters elegantly. When elected Fellow. This man's life is full of the most surprising scholastic feats and we read that it was his custom to give extra lectures in his room at 4 a. Bois could write letters in Greek. is not to be confused with John Boys. in the same era. John was the only child that grew up. 1560. Jolin Bois. and was born at Nettlestead. being not nearly of age. and was Rector of Elmset. he recovered himself partly. Suffolk.January 3rd. In his fifteenth year. and he followed him about from one College to another. one of the most able men of the whole body.THE FIFTH COMPANY 317 6. Henry Copinger was his tutor. five miles from Cambridge. but was carried in blankets to be admitted. and expressed a wish that he should marry his daughter. however. . . the Yicar of Boxworth. who had become a Protestant under Bucer's influence. left a will. and he is said to have worked in the University Library from four in the morning till eight at night. it was Bois had to sell his fine library. . in 1580. by which he nominated Bois as his successor. partly its purchase that crippled him history deponeth However.three. he was ill with the smallpox. He was ordained Deacon in 1583. Dean of Canterbury. We have heard of Wesley's constant preaching at 5 a. and afterwards of West Stow. on . Our translator was a notable and precocious scholar. His marriage was as remarkable as all the rest. Holt. .m.. until he took to fancying himself affected with every disease he read of.. and appointed Greek Lecturer the next year.

He was fond of walking. he became Prebendary of Ely. and studied standing. but assisted another Company. carefully thought out. Downes also taught him. and reading the hardest Greek authors with him that he could find. Dr. of the INTERIOR OF STATIONER'S HALL. and. but quite extemporaneously. . at Cambridge. one of the final Revisers. house. John Bois and Andrew Downes were the two who were delegated from Cambridge to the Committee of final revision which met in London. treating him with great familiarity. In 1615. the one engaged on the 'Section from Chronicles to He was. also. which he learned from Whitaker. Bois not only took his own part in the translation Apocrypha. John's.3i8 THE PURITAN BIBLE and teacliing scholars in his own taking boarders. Master of St. taking great delight in such a pupil. Canticles. often taking him to his Chambers. it is recorded of him that he preached plain sermons. though such a great scholar.

Fellow bendary of 319 Waltham. a great deal of feeling being excited. which were no doubt used by the different companies. he received his education at Wykeham School. and was a scholar of un- Hugh Broughton his character . he published a iSurvey of Christ's Sufferings and Descent into Hell. . had charge. Oxford. related to the Duke of Bavaria. Among other works. attacked him for this. He offered his help. but to wrest the Keys of Hell out of the Devil's hands. He violently attacked the Bishops' Bible. and. PreRector of Bishop's Hampshire. THE FIFTH COMPANY 7. it was not to suffer. with other Puritans. though not one of the original Translators. Ward. of in Chichester.. He was reputed to be "well skilled in languages". In 1565. of the final revision and prepared the summary of contents at the head of each chapter. Miles Smith. ADDITIONAL NAMES Dr. and King's College. neither to desert the doctrine. and sketched a plan for the New Yersion afterwards publishing independent translations of Daniel. . He died June 18th. he was admitted Perpetual Fellow of New College. his native place. often called the Father of Modern Congregationalism. Lamentations. Queen Elizabeth warmly took his side and commanded him. and Job. which occasioned much debate. 1616. first Bishop of Worcester. in Westminster Abbey.—Dr. together with Dr. " nor let the calling which he bore in the Church of God be trampled underfoot by such unquiet refusers of truth and authority. Henry Jacob. Ecclesiastes. entitled. He was descended from a German family. Thomas Bilson. He asserted that." Bilson wrote one of the ablest books on behalf of Episcopacy. Born in Winchester. and was buried . " The Perpetual Government of Christ's Church." He wrote other works. is not found in any of these lists being so impracticable. somewhat over-scholarly one of which was much used against Charles I. and then of Winchester. when Christ descended into Hell.

call me so before we begin. which were marked by majesty of expression. . that your discourse and mine attention be Broughton accepted this. ahd certainly there was plenty of reason for it. Hugh Brougliton. per. Morton. Perhaps it was a pity to leave him out and it was He was such an able natural for him to be aggrieved. and he was of " a sweet." amongst his friends. for rare skill in Salem's and in Athen's Tongues. It was. . an insult not to include him in such a large number of Translators. once said. certainly. He wrote this to the He predicted that Bancroft would be found in King the place of woe. and loving carriage. His pupils adored him. that Lightfoot collected and published his works. he was a dangerous man to cross. In the Translators' Preface. He lamented. man. affable. Mr. " I pray you. and Lightfoot considers his exclusion He published some versions of the Prophets. with the King looking down from In fifteen verses (Luke 3) he said Abraham's bosom the Translators had a score of idle words to account for ! ! in the Day of Judgment. " The "Works of the great Albionean under this title Divine. Dr. : — . not interrupted thereby. Eichard Bancroft. to do the work in conjunction with five others but the means were not forthcoming. deniable ability but his temper caused bim to be left out in the cold and he did not fail to resent it. His was the famous sentence that he would rather be torn in pieces with wild horses than that the Authorized Version should be imposed on poor Churches. afterwards Bishop of Durham. Broughton was a preacher of Puritan sentiments and he had very strong views as to the uncorruptness of the Text of both Testaments. His own plan for a Xew Translation was. but. and familiar acquaintance with all Eabbinical Learning." 1662. whatsoever dolts and dullards I am to be called. but. unjust. on his death bed. Thomas haps. the infirmities of his temper. fifty-four. evidently he had not learned to suffer fools gladly. fol.320 THE PURITAN BIBLE . who was with him in Germany." with perfect good humour. . renowned in many nations.

His general oversight had much importance. " Cast it. a gentleman. " to a hundred more which He was equally lie here on a heap in my chamber. there is no contradicting him. imprisoned. such was his " zeal " in pressing conformity. xix. i. under whom he became Bishop of London." This was Dr. Dr. at the Hampton Court Conference. adding.ueen Elizabeth. and to Paul for learning The Bible is by no means sectarian." . But Bancroft's fourteen alterations were signs how he would have made it such.! THE FIFTH COMPANY 321 there is an allusion to one who was " the chief overseer and taskmaster. "but he is so potent. (Acts." said Bancroft. In one year after this. a sort of British Inquisition. Cambridge. . Bancroft became Archbishop of Canterbury. He was the ruling spirit in that infamous tribunal. under His Majesty. in 1604 just about when the work was commenced. which he found pasted on his door. As it was. but also our whole Church." Bancroft died in 1610. the High Commission Court. he likened King James to Solomon for wisdom. much hound. out of place. and of Diocesan Bishops and. coming to visit him. and educated at Jesus College. he was abundantly attacked. and once. and "Churches. to Hezekiah for piety. excommunicated. not less than three hundred ministers were suspended. or forced to leave the country. 37)." strenuous for the Divine Rights of Kings. to whom were not only we. Bancroft. On the death of Whitgift." He dragged in " bishoprick. sixty-six. 20). Miles -Smith complained of them. Of course. He was Chaplain to Q. both at the age of u . (Acts. He was born near Manchester. deprived. on whom devolved the duty of seeing the King's wishes carried into effect. presented him with a libel. in 1597. though he had little to do with the Translation itself.

and to the principles on which th^eir work was done. Christians had . Often. with tlie same wish. From very early times. The worst of it is. the matter was still worse. rather than disfigure the paper by blot or erasure. The Jews had never let the Old Testament die out amongst them. at the end of lines. And it will be seen that. there was every probability of the Version being successful..* They also. . of making a separate little line of a word at the bottom of a page. through his use of comparatively modern Greek Texts and this mistake was not rectified. without authority. they wrote a part of a word at the end of a line which would not admit the whole and then. they would place the entire word at the beginning of the following line. also. that no better Greek Text was made the basis Erasmus had of their work in the Xew Testament. to begin with. however. to preserve their evenness. have led to Dhe absurd custom. They would. when they made mistakes in transcribing.. ' This may. and. common in old books. but had preserved it with immense pains and care. more than the correctness of the text. both with regard to the men. led all wrong. the same word being repeated on the next page. perhaps. CHAPTER XXIX THE AUTHORISED VERSION ITS CHARACTERISTICS have taken a delight in giving much fuller particulars of the Translators of our Authorized Bible than have ever been given before. omit or add letters. With regard to the Old Testament. We depended upon such Translations as the Septuagint and the Vulgate. that they valued the appearance of their MSS. Still. there was this very serious defect. in addition. sometimes. their copyists would leave them uncorrected. far more than upon the original Hebrew which had been considered too much the property of the Tews. 32? .

has the same vowels as the Masoretic Text. at the revival of letters. let us hear Bishop Lowth. however. which may be called the only Edition . "The Masoretic punctuation. have made a much better use of it. there was an idolatry paid to the Masoretic pointing. an interpretation of the Hebrew Text. that this Masoretic pointing is older than Bishop Lowth thinks and a simple vowel system may have preceded the very ample one which now obtains in Hebrew. Isaiah Preliminary Dissertation- . that only the collation of a large number of Manuscripts. It is manifest. the Jews. from its merit. On this. And this was a work that does not appear to have been even thought of. and dating back to the first century. therefore. 1788. to detract It is. without absolutely submitting to its authority they considered it as an assistant. brought marginal notes into the Text. our Translators would of the Ancient Versions. now famous for its correctness. The Version of Aquila. is.ITS CHARACTERISTICS 323 occasionally. have determined them to one meaning and the sense which they give of a passage is merely their sense. further. * Cambridge University Press. probably not earlier than the eighth century and may be considered as their translation of the Old Testament. and therefore coeval with them. not as an infallible . notion was too hastily taken up. t Reasons tor ' E-evising. upon ^vholej setting it in this light. in effect. A We . made by the Jews of late ages.t Then. by which the pronunciation is given. guide. who has done much to lead to a better understanding of the Scriptures. do not deny the usefulness of this interpretation nor would be thought . . had they consulted had it. preferable to any one But."* It is as likely as not. by their pointing. the by "perhaps. that the vowel points were necessary appendages of the Hebrew letters. would be likely to produce a good Text. which has since been shown to be productive of many errors. Where the unpointed words are capable of various readings.

two members were chosen from each of three companies representing Cambridge. At length. has been regarded. Then. being assisted by Beza and Groulart. as we have seen. and lastly. . J. in 1607 and. on the equally inspired with the sacred test other. The six men thus selected assembled daily. and for this service. Smith also wrote the Preface. and the second. C. 324 of the THE PURITAN BIBLE Jewish Text extant. and Westminster. Bishop of Winchester. and almost every change was an improvement. again revised the whole. B. Reyna. . based on this. Barker. London. . a Professor of Hebrew. printed an Italian translation. on the one hand maintaining that it was and. by C. and completed their work in nine months. AVestcott goes so far as to say. Diodati. who is not qualified to revise and reverse the decisions of the wise men of Tiberias. in 1611 and it was said to be . that no kind of emendation was neglected. in Stationers' Hall. and Italian to consulting "the Spanish. in 1569. prefixing arguments to the several books. at Amsterdam.. that " his critical judgment must be weak indeed. thirdly. (really." revision of the French Bible was published. The whole work was done with the greatest care. this is of considerable merit. based upon the examination of tfie Original Texts. the revised version was issued from the press of B. It was in 1587. Myles Smith. that they had given much pains French. In the same city. * Preface to Hosea. Dr. Bilson."* The Translators say. It is curious to notice differently this pointing. by C. Buxtorf. by the Genevan Pastors. For the final revision. and Dr. that an authoritative translators. Oxford. Bertram had the chief hand in it. though somewhat free. . in 1602. the vowels as how distinguished from the consonants). de Yalera. As for Spanish two translations had recently appeared the first at Basle. they received thirty shillings a week from the Company of Stationers. Bishop Horsley saying.

imagine that he was safe in making such a statement. finally." No evidence has been found. as far as possible. Since then. especially in religion. The Authorized Version was the heir of the Bishops' Bible. ." It then pays a tribute. Parliament. which was ordered. against beggarly rudiments. or the King himself. probably well deserved. to King James's interest in the work and desire for its completion. it has taken its position by its intrinsic merits the Bishops' Bible being thus superseded. and the Genevan also.. . springing up unto everlasting life. a fountain of most pure water. . meat. against rebellious spirits a treasury of most costly jewels. perhaps. and put the enemy to flight. The very instructive " Translators to the Reader. and the leaves for medicine. to show that it was ever publicly sanctioned by Convocation. however. Basil callethit). It next pays a long and beautifully expressed tribute to the unapproachable excellency of Holy "It is not only an armour. though it died hard. in all Churches. it is a granary of wholesome food. both offensive and defensive whereby we may save ourselves. or rather a whole paradise of trees of life. when the influence of the King's name was given to it. against fenowed (mouldy) traditions. which bring forth fruit every month and the fruit thereof is for In a word. . begins with an admission. and in danger to be condemned. the Privy Council. It is not an herb. a pandect of profitable laws. but also a Scripture. and the work was the joint 'production of the ablest scholars of the day. that anything new. ITS CHARACTERISTICS 325 "appointed to be read in Churches. before it can be useful and hence the . The printer would. . of preservatives against poisoned heresies.." But the Word of Grod must be in a language men can understand. whole armoury of weapons. and not until the middle of the century. . by the Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastical of 1571." in the 1611 Bible. a physician's shop (as St. to be placed in all Cathedrals and. but a tree. "is sure to be misconstrued.

I pray thee. " I cannot. by which means the flocks of Laban were watered. and of posterity. or King Edward's (if there were any translation. the unlearned are but like children at Jacob's well (which was deep). xsix. . to whom. . need for translation. out of many good ones. Indeed. from the beginning.' After a somewhat lengthy. for its unwillingness to sanction the reading of tlie Bible Dr. good Christian reader.' he was fain to make this answer. 326 THE PURITAN BIBLE . . when a sealed book was delivered with this motion. or Queen Elizabeth's. without translation into the vulgar tongue. and states " are so far off from condemning any of their labours that travailed before us in this kind. in everlasting remembrance. Smith deals with those who held that there was no need for a new English version. . — . as that person mentioned by Esay (Isaiah. . . and that the undertaking cast a slight upon the earlier English Bibles. for it is sealed.. but most interesting. we never thought. to let in the light that breaketh the shell. To that purpose. ' ' : that we may curtain. sketch of ancient versions. that were greater in other men's eyes than in eat . that we should need to make a new translation nor yet to make of a bad one a good one but to make a good one better or. for the building and furnishing of His Church and that they deserve to be had of us. the kernel that putteth aside the we may look into the most holy place the cover of the well. not justly to be excepted against. 11). either in this land or beyond sea. or correction of a translation." The object of the revisers is finally thus stated: " Truly. one principal good one. and an assault upon the Ilomish Church. " Translation it is that openeth the window. that we may come even as Jacob rolled away the stone from the well. That hath been our endeavour. were many chosen. either in King Henry's time. of ever renowned memory that we acknowledge them to have been raised up of God. in his time). that our work. without a bucket or something to draw with or. that that removeth by the water the mouth of — We . Read tills. .

ITS
their own,

CHARACTERISTICS

327

and that sought the truth rather than their praise." These learned men " not too many, lest one should trouble another; and yet many, lest many things might haply escape them" assembled, relying upon (iod's help, with the Hebrew and the Grreek texts " Neither did we rim over the work before them. with that posting haste that the did, if that be true which is reported of them, that they finished it in seventy-two days. The work hath cost the workmen, light as it seemeth, the pains of twice seven times seventy-two days and more. Matters of such weight and consequence are to be speeded with maturity for in a business of moment, a man feareth not the blame of convenient slackness. Neither did we disdain to revise that which we had done, and to bring back to the anvil that which we had hammered. But, having and using as great helps as were needed, and fearing no reproach for slowness, nor coveting praise for expedition, we have at length, through the good hand of the Lord upon us, brought the work to that pass you see." After a defence of the insertion of explanatory notes, and of the practice of translating the same Hebrew and Greek word by two or more English words, the preface closes with a fervent appeal to the reader, "It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God. But, a blessed thing it is, and will bring us into everlasting blessedness in the end, when God speaketh unto when He setteth His Word before ^B, to hearken us, to read it; when He stretcheth out His hand, and calleth, to answer Here am I, here we are, to do Thy

own

LXX

.

.

.

;

;

'

will,

revising of this revised edition from which the Apocryphal Books are omitted is that of 1629. In the same year, and in 1638, the Text was examined with Bishop care, and accurately printed, at Cambridge. Lloyd's Bible, in 1701, was the first to contain the mostly derived from Archbishop marginal dates

" God.' There has been further

Translation.

The

earliest

;

328

THE PURITAN BIBLE

Usher. In the Cambridge Bible of 1762, edited by Dr. Paris, aud the Oxford Edition of 1769, by Dr. Blayney, afterwardss Professor of Hebrew, further

These editors applied, made. with greater consistency, the principle of denoting additions to the Original Text by Italic type a special They also substifeature of the Authorized Version. tuted more modern words, for such as had become obsolete; and added greatly to the marginal references there being, probably, seven times as many of these as there were at first. There were numerous printer's mistakes at first, and for a long time. The "Vinegar Bible" is so called from a misprint in the heading of the page containing Luke xx; vinegar being printed for vineyard. This Bible was printed by J. Baskett (Oxford, 1717), and was called " a basket full of printer's errors." The "Pearl Bible," of 1653, and other

improvements were

;

;

editions of the same date, some from abroad, and some from the privileged printers at home, are notorious for

scandalous blunders

such as righteousness for unrighteousness (Rom. vi. 13). In 1632, Laud inflicted a fine of £300 on the King's printers, for an edition of the Bible in which not was omitted from the seventh
;

commandment.

This has

Bible"; and the edition was called

been called the "Wicked in. There were,
;

also, the Bible," saying, "he went into the city," instead of "she," (Ruth iii. 15) the "Standing Fishes Bible," the "Murderers," and the "Ears

"He

to

Ear Bible." Captain Thornton lives ingloriously^ maker of a "Knave Bible," Rom. i. 1 being turned into "Paul, a knave of Jesus Christ." The volume was palmed off on the Duke of Lauderdale for
as the

seventeen guineas. Dr. Blayney's Edition, published at Oxford, in 1769, became the standard one. In fact, it is only within the last half century that our Bibles have been really accurate; the Classic Edition of this famous Version being the Cambridge Bible, edited by Dr. Scrivener, 1873. The fulsome dedication to the high

:

ITS

CHARACTERISTICS

329

and mighty Prince James, however, has kept its place, through all changes; the one disfigurement of the
whole. Imperfection
the constant note of all things the llevision was being earnestly advocated, according to the wider and more accurate scholarship of the 19th century. Bishop Ellicott said There are errors in the Authorized Version and that man, who permits himself to lean to the counsels of a tiinid or popular obstructiveness, will have to sustain the tremendous charge of having dealt deceitfully with the inviolable Word. No timid apprehension of unsettling belief, must prevent us faithfully bringing out of the treasures vouchsafed to us every item that will aid in putting before us in their truest form the true sayings of the Holy Ghost." The Authorized Version was published in the "Tudor Translations," vols. 33—38 (Nutt). There is a valuable Preface by Mr. William E. Henley, in which he praises the Original Preface to the Authorized Version, saying that it contains passages not unworthy of Bacon or Hooker. He is thankful that such a Bible still holds its pride of place here, and says the educated Russian looks on our praise of it as part The Frenchman, unof our unconscious hypocrisy. The less a Protestant, never looks at the Bible. German treats the Lutheran Bible too much as a document in philological study. He rather thinks that the second translation, going under Wyclif's name, was made by John of Trevisa, who belonged Tyndale was born near there, and to Berkeley. settled there again later on, and may have been partly, incited to his work by the traditions of Trevisa. Dr. Carleton has shown, that the Rhemish New Testament helped the Authorized Version, in the unexpected direction of substituting English for Latin " Appointed to be read in Churches," apWords. peared on the title-page at first but this was frequently the Puritans and Presbyterians omitted afterwards
is

human
'

;

so that,

when

'

;

;

;

not requiring this appointment; and

it

never having

330

THE PURITAN BIBLE

properly "authorized," except by a bigber authority than any king, viz., the law of superiority, and the people's own choice. Mr. H. Stevens exclaims against the modern retention of the line, " It being the Bible of all Churches, Denominations, and Congregations, in Great Britain, and English-speaking America, Australia, and India, except the Eoman Catholics, as much as of the Church of England. Why, by this misused word appointed, should our common Bible any longer be even nominally limited to the Church of England, since there never was any It never was any more exclusive right in the claim? See the Bible of the Church than of the Puritans." " Again, it was not a New Dr. Smith's Introduction. Translation, but about the twelfth revision of a work that belonged to the public at once the repository of the English language, and the birthright of EnglishThis 1611 men and the English-speaking people. Bible has thus become a marvel of perfection, in the simplicity and beauty of its language, considering that, at the time of the revision, there was neither an English Grammar nor an English Dictionary in the English

been

:

language."

As to the two editions published in 1611, there are other discrepancies. The wood-cut initials are frequently different. In Gen. x. 16, one copy reads "the Emorite," and the other "the Amorite." In " Exod. xiv. 10, also, the copy that has " Emorite has a line repeated, but the printing was, at all events, a vast improvement on what had gone before. The praises of the Authorized Version have been loudly sung and it is very touching to read the high compliment paid to it, in his Grammar of Assent, by Dr. Newman, after he had left the English Church. It was a London book, at first no English Bible issuing from Cambridge till the Authorized Version was printed there in 1629. Oxford did not follow till 1673. The first edition in Scotland was issued from Edinburgh in 16-33 in Ireland, 1714 in America,
;
;

;

;

ITS
1752.

CHARACTERISTICS

331

Usher's dates in the margin were usually added

after 1701.

The Apocrypha had still held its ground, but with It was printed in Coverdale's Bible, and in others but objections were continually made to its being bound up with the Sacred Volume. In 1615, however. Archbishop Abbot prohibited the printing
difficulty.
;

of Bibles

without

it,

under pain

of a year's imprison;

But -public opinion did not agree and, in 1643, Dr. John Lightfoot, preaching before the House of Commons, said that the Apocrypha did not connect the Old and New Testaments, but separated them.
!

ment

" Thus, sweetly and nearly, should the two Testaments and thus, divinely would they kiss each other; but that the wretched Apocrypha doth thrust in between." There is much in the same strain. " Like the two Cherubims in the Temple oracle, the Law and the Gospel would touch each other, did not this patchery of human invention divorce them asunder." What a mercy this Authorized Yersion was not too scholastic. Out of 6,000 words used 93 per cent, are native English. Huxley has said it is the Magna Coleridge Charta of the poor and the oppressed. affirms that intense study of the Bible will keep any And where writer from being vulgar in point of style. scores of such tributes could be collected, we will be content to close with the beautiful one recently paid in the Cambridge History of Literature " The influence of the Bible can be traced through the whole course of English literature and civilization, and, more than anything else, it tends to give unity and perpetuity to both." James's two royal grandsons thought and acted diiferently, but listen to what Pepys said of Charles II. " Here is a prince come in with all the love and prayers and good liking of his people, and he hath lost it so soon that it is a miracle what way a man could devise to lose so much in so little time." As for James II., the presentation of a richly bound
join together;
:

332

THE PURITAN BIBLE

copy of the English Bible at his Coronation was omittHe said the ritual was too long, and must be ed.
abridged. But his reign was still more abridged, and They the Stuarts were driven forth, never to return. t would have restored Popery, if they could; and but for the open Bible, and its immense influence, they Just before the Authorized might have done so.

Version came out, an agent wrote to Burleigh: "This accursed crew of Jesuits is like Cerberus, the three-headed dog of Hell, the heads being at Douay, Rome, and in Spain, but the heart in England. I send a book on the Schism of England, with many
fresh
little,
lies.

The author, a Florentine,

is

like a spider,

but full of vile poison." The Romanists at last published an English Bible But of their own, commonly called the Douay Bible. the New Testament did not appear until fifty-seven years after Tyndale's immortal work, and the Old Testament did not follow it until twenty-seven years later. And when it came it was from the Latin Vulgate, and was full of Latinisms. Contris trati, impudicity, prefinition, exinanited, odihle, agnition, dominical conculcation, dominator exprohating, libaments, recordation, sup er edified commesations coinquinaiions and many such words are found, and a fair sample of the whole is that " pass the time of your sojourning " is given " converse ye the time of your peregrination." Nevertheless, the Version was not without its use for some faithful renderings, and the Translators of the Authorised Version had it before them.
,

,

,

,

,

t

Our grand

old Bible.

W.

MUIB,, B.D.

CHAPTER XXX
ENGLISH BIBLICAL VERSIFICATIONS
only indicate the large literature which belongs to this subject, and which does not come under the heading of Translation. Of course, a great deal of it is no more poetry than " And Jacob made for his son Josey, little coat to keep him cozy." This is in an Old Testament Metrical Version in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, and some parts of the Scotch Version of the Psalms are little better " Lord, Thou- hast been our dwelling place In generations all, Before Thou ever didst bring forth The mountains great or small." ^ Yet the success of Milton, Young, Addison, Scott, Byron, and others show that, though the task ia The difficult, it can be accomplished with honour. Muse of Heaven well deserves our cultivation. She We is the best of the nine, and worth all the rest. may join with Milton " Descend from Heaven, Urania, by that name. If rightly thou art called. "t The whole Bible was versified by John Fellowes, author of "Grace Triumphant," in four volumes, 1777 and by Rev. Samuel Wesley, Rector of Epworth, and father of the Founder of Methodism. When you open the volumes of the latter, you find not poetry but elaborate praise from one and another of the poetry But it is worth coming that you come to eventually. to, and I have spent a profitable hour or two in turning over the folio illustrated pages.

AVe can

A

:

:

;

t

Notes and Queries,
333

1865.

Blackmore. . Wither. The Bartas. Quarles again. may all be turned to either for pleasure. — PRINTING OFFICE. Sandys. Milton in Samson Agonistes. Job. THE PURITAN BIBLE —Milton's Paradise Lost. Prior has also written a poem on Solomon. Kings and Chronicles ^Cowley takes the portions that relate to David in his Davideis. Quarles also has a long poem. or as representatives of their era. of whom we can only give a few names. Merrick. Tate. Blackmore. G. OXFORD. Young. as was natural. 334 Genesis. Keble. with his quaint conceits. THEATRE AND MUSEUM. by Sylvester's Translation of Du Barham's Version of Grotius's Adamus Exel. Musgrave (in blank verse) and ilontague. Esther. Judges. Sandys' Version of Grotiiis's Sophomponeas. Scott. The Psalms have employed a host. Book stories 7. Sternhold. who is always well worth reading. Quarles. Watts. Milton.. — — — and Blackmore have also been attracted to this extraordinary book.

is given by Thomson. 1785. in Parfit's Harmony of the Four Gospels in Improved Monotessaron.ENGLISH BIBLICAL VERSIFICATIONS 335 Thomas Moore has given some Hebrew melodies Milton makes us wish we had more. Tye has given a quaint versification of this. Isaiah completely by J. 1587. of — Thomas Grinfield in the " Visions Then G. and portions of Genesis and Deuteronomy. Matthew 6. Wesley's Poetic Life Francis Barham has also written a complete of Christ. — the 4th Chapter. 1691 also in blank verse by J. 1750. Fleming. the Four Gospels are found in a quarto volume of some Ecclesiastes. Sandys. Quarles. Lloyd. Chapel Master to Queen Elizabeth. of Patmos. 1681 H. . and a contemporary of Christopher Tye. and the Olney Hymns of Cowper and Newton as also the Appendix to the Version of the Psalms of David used Those wishing to pursue in the Church of Scotland. When we come to the New Testament. versified a number of the Psalms. G. 'G. and an old anonymous poet. New. D. and an account of him may be seen in Warton's History — English Poetry. and Dr. Eevelation. Jonah. Bland. J. being a tempting subject for a poet. Genevan Bible may be consulted with advantage. . Sandys. Proverbs. and Quarles. Quarles. Butt. and S. Fenner. ^Eev. Johnson full of exquisite lyrical delicacy. employed a considerable number. and Addison. ^Prior has attempted this. Acts. It is he that has written the article in Notes and Queries from which much of versification of the his the information here given is gathered. Sandys has given us a poetic paraphrase on the Songs collected out of both Old Testament and such. The the Churches. 1642. William Hunnis. by Darling. rarity. as The Moravian Hymn Book contains many all do the Hymn Books of . — — rhymed couplets. — The Canticles have . Then there is Gospel Harmony. Sandys. G. Jeremiah (Lamentations)." 1827.

subjects.336 the THE PURITAN BIBLE subject. -Tames Montgomery's Christian Poet and Cattermole's Sacred Poetry of the 17th Century. which is a highly interesting one. . 1825 . may turn to Belcher's Poetic Sketches of Biblical . but demands a separate volume.

Eadie. J.D. Hoare. J. Blunt. Ecclesiastical History. Cambridge History of English Literature. M. Anglo Saxon History. Browne. Bagster. Townley's Biblical Literature. W. English Bible. Gorham. Anderson. History of the Puritans. Society. Green. J. History of the Puritans. Works 10 Vols. Roger. Maitland. Cotton. Pattison. History of English People. Tyndale. Alexander. Bridgett.A. Sharon Turner. Ladies of the Reformation. H. B. of Scripture. R. Bates. Life by Pollard. M.T. English Bible. Two Vols.S. J. William of Malmesbury's Chronicle. Three Vols. Baber. Cranmer Cranmer . Annals. T^ewis. Neal. Lorimer. Book of the Church. The Venerable Bede. Little. D. Bibles in Caxton Exhibition. of the British Reformers. Southey. Anglo Saxon and Early English Psalter. Soames. Two Vols. Marsden.WORKS CONSULTED Palgrave's History of the Anglo Saxons. Blunders and Forgeries. Wiclif's Evolution of Bible. Historical Lights. New Testament. H. Richards. R. Burnet's Reformation. L. English Bible. Our Bible and MSS. Anderson. Annals. English Bible. W. English Bible. Mombert. Alfred the Great. Editions of the Bible. C. Reformation in England. Kenyon.A. Westcott. W. Bede's Ecclesiastical History and Anglo Saxon Chronicle. Wall. England's Light Bringer. Reformation Gleanings. English Hexapla. Annals. Ancient British Church. . Moulton. . Edgar. Surtees' Anglo Saxon Church. John Knox. Collation of Trans. by Demaus. English Bible. Life by Mason. i6 and 19.

. Lives. The Papacy and the Bible. Pratt. B. Chillingworth's Religion of Protestants. Church History. Rev. Diary of Henry Machyn. Bohn. O. H. English Church in the Middle Ages.S. Eight Vols. Smith. Parker Society's Publications. L. Gairdner. Tvfo Vols. G. S. Archer. III. Baxter. Heylyn's Ref. W. Gardiner. L. Lane's Notes on Church History. Old Bibles. J.S. P. Hensley Henson. Dore. Obligations of the World to the Bible. by Strype. M. L. D. Gee. Vaughan and Urwick. Value of the Bible. Gee. Pollard. B. J. A. Hook. W. by Creightou. Archbishops of Canterbury. John Rogers. R. Nelson's Puritans in England. Birt. Croake James.. Harmer. Royal Portraits. Eight Vols. Gasquet. J. Life of Ridley. T. Curiosities of Christian History. William Tyndale.R. Roger of Hoveden. Friars. O. Elizabethan Prayer Book. Fuller's Church History of Britain. G. Errors in Burnet's History. English Poetry. Two Vols. 50 Vols. History of English Church. VI.338 THE PURITAX BIBLE Select British Divines. R. Hunt and Poole. and Prayer Book. How we got our Bible. Secret History of Romanism. Society. Chester. VI. II.A. Warton. Hunt. Ecclesiastical Historical Society. Society O. Kagster's Myles Coverdale.S. Church of England in the Reigns of the Tudors. Lodge's Portraits. Student's History of England.. Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Pollard. and IV. I'rancis Fry's Numerous Works. J. Walton. Nelson's Puritan Divines in the Reign of Elizabeth. Massy. Maunder's Treasury of History. H. Origines Britannica. Muir. Hook's Ecclesiastical Biography. Barnett Smith. Dixon. Queen Grey Jane. Bibliotheca Sussexiana.D. Vols. Camden Camden Society. Spring. Camden Edward Our Grand Old Bible. Records oi English Bible. 53. 25 Vols.X. 48. Book and its Story. Political History. Elizabethan Clergy. 42. Illustrations of English Religion. Valpy. Queen Elizabeth. Skeat's Works. M. Annals. Stittingfleet. Rev. Church of England.D. Foxe's Acts and Monuments.A. Grindal. Morley. Horn..

9. 128. Bishops' Bible. 241. m. iii. i. 90. i. 152. Aquila.. 96. it. i.. 11. in. Basil. 11. 11.. Aristotle.. 60. 48.. 93. Andrews. n. I. Alexander vi. Ariosto. Austin. Baptist College. in.. 138. 82.. Dr.. Bede. 3. 184. 319. Black Book. Anderson. 60. 241. in.. i. A. 11. 25. 224. i. 48. 139. 300. Adalbert. 71. 145. 11. 306. 258. 85. 88. Beza. iii. 132.. iii. 11.. Bale.. 114. Batfield.. III.. 259. Ammonius. 65.. 94. i...... T. 11. Becke. R. I.. III. 303... "!•> I54. 66. Bishop. i . iig. III. Alexandrian Codex. Dr... 32. R. Aglionby.. Bodley. Berthold... 91. Askew. Bernard.. Alfred. 62.. 27.... 169. Lord... 11... I. 154. 241. Our Own English Bible. Augsburg. 258. . Aldhelm. I. 1. 323.. 173. 238.... n. 78. 54. i. iii. 99. 94. 164... i. Joan. III. Basiliensis Codex. B. E.. I. 180. Bilson. iig. 97.... C. Ball. 95. II. 230. 13.. i.. iii. Saynt... Dr.. II. Bertha. Baronius. 77. 135 . ir. in. Baber.. Becon.. 11. Barnes. iii.. Barlow. i. J.. 3ro.INDEX TO THE THREE VOLUMES REFERENCES :— I. in. Arthur... 25. Birt. 11. Augustine. III.. i. iii. 199 and Preface. R. 243. J Bedwell. 164. 172. Alcuin. I. Bacon. Abbot.. Dr. 60. 320. 288.. 11. igi. Bancroft. 11. 272. Blunt.. 123. if. The Puritan Bible.lElfric I. Allen.. Bentham.. . 13. Anne. I2r. 280. Asser. Sir H. 62. 11.. Dr.. Aidan. 163. II. N. G. 91.. Alley. Dr. H. 88... Angus. III. i. I. rsg. 75. 198.. ni. in... iii.. 135. 121. Dr. Alban. Benningfield. 44. King. ill.. 92... iii. 11. Bocher. 240. I. Bacon. 237..... W. 147 247. 48. I... Baxter. 8. 185. n. Biscop. 258. 130. Bible Burnings. i. 177. iii.. The Bible of the Reformation. I.. 67 Aldred. Biblia Pauperum. Bristol. J. 287. 11. 11. 18. Bibliotheca Spenceriana.. Adrian vi. Bainham... 132. in... Grant. Bishop. 8. 151. Andrews. 257... i.. in. Antwerp. 11. Amherst. 118. Alva. 44. Astle. 229. III.. Asse. iii. i. Arundel. Baxter.. 204. Arber. 235. Blickling Hall. III.. 61. 298. 117. Dr.

n. in. 124. Christian Brothers. 1. 171. Bradford. i. 11.. 116... 120. n. 129. Calvin. in. Boleyn. Dr.. 13L. Bosanquet. 37. in. III... Chaucer. 100. Danish Bible. 139. 85. .. 70. 293. 11. 273 in... 36. 300. Broughton. 130.. 111. Lord. Calais.. 111. Dantiscus. 243. in. 11. 218. F.. in. 6. 287.. in.. Cheapside Cross.. iii. iii. 57.. Columbanus. Hoe.. in. 17. R.. Burke. II. Canterbury. 37. 154. 239. Dillingham.. . 11.)3.. Books. Christian Soldier. 83. 20.. 11. 70.. Caedmon. 1. Dr. III... in... Boxley Crucifix. 11. R. 11. Cox. II. in. 76. Cotton MS. J. III. 175. 11. 11.. 256.. i... 58. Carlyle. III. . 44. 93.. 37.. i. 196. in.. W... .. i. 44. 217.. 231 .. 127 Chapuys. 46... 14.. 224.. in.. lo in. 107. 64.. 244. 241. 12. Bucer. T. 108. in. 14. 22... 115- Dominicans... 11.. II. H. 244.. 11. 11. Cranmer. 99. Chillingworth. 11. W.. L.. Paul's.. 221. 88. Bishop. 91. H. Cyprian. 11. n.. 62. 180. in. 317. Camden. Cambridge ature. in... Cole. 11. 262 ... 210. 191. Buckle... in. iii. Dr. 20. ill.. Cole. 18. Cartwright. 129. in. Bois. Dibdin. 319. 47.. Cochlaeus. i.. Caxton Kxhibition. gg... 11. 159. n.. Coleridge. Cromwell... I.. 134. 4.. 11. II. Bristol. i. R. Dr. in.. 111. Dent.. Sir J. 312. 4.... Constantine. 15... 146.. Clarke. i. Brewer.. Branthwaite Dr. 51.. i. 199. 72. in... . INDEX III. History 20. 284. in. 216.. 17.. Cambridge. 234. 11. ni. 258. in. 10. i. Chr3'sostom. 103. 259. i.. 80. 254. 96. Dakins. 108. 103. i.. 94... Buchanan. K. 11. Cheke. 226. 175. Burns. J. I. Castro. i. 167. 65.. in. of LiterIII. Cobham. W. 7. III. 8. in. Brett.. n. John. Burleigh. 273.. 51. Cotton. Cologne. 307... Colet.. 65. 25. Demaus. 54. Dr. in. 42. 58... 58. Cathcart. III. 150.. Cyrus. Canon. 170. Cliff's Boniface. 156. Chester. 264. Bosworth and Waring...... Collier n.. St.. i. 230.. 29. 2S0. in. in. 11. 241. in. n. Crichton. Byng. Bonner.. Bullinger.. Chaderton. i. I. Catholic Martyrs. 252.. i. 67. in. Charlemagne.. 50. i. 26. Davies.. Dacre. Conybeare. Dickens. 124.. 11. 15. 208.. 151 .. 148.. Christ's Hospital. in 54. 29. 298. 11. Day. Creighton. S. in. cheap. Charles v. 198. Bridgett. 47... Byron. Coverdale... Cuthbert. 242. 286.. in. 190. 170... 17.. iii.. 3/4. 11. 146. Dixon.331II. 85. Dante. 43. 3. 12. 3. 210. in.. Cross. Constantinople. 111. i. 19S. Columba. Anne. 125.34° Boethius. 164. 196.. 258 156. 171. 1. i. 11. 10. 3. 92. 164. Brook. 225. 242. 132. 184. L. 279. 80. ..

ill.. ig7. 20X. in. 83. 71. 76. S. Enchiridion..... in. Garnet.. 111. 278. i.. 307. 47. 128. Hall.. 92. Francis. 224. Saint. Gibbon. i. i. I. 106. II. Du Moulin. ii. 93. 259.. 220. 25. ro3. Fryth. . 204. W. i. loi Greenstead.. Filmer. 4. Goodman.. 46. 11. B... i.. 11. 84. Gildas. Fry. II. in. Dr. . 250.. 269. Fagius. 46. loi. 21X. 3. Gregory. Downes. X53. 60. 259. III.. I... 73. 186. 250 1. vi. 112. i. 291 rog. 322. Geddes. xo.. 172. 11. Gilby.. 237. 76. 11. Gorham. 234. 14. 233 . iii.. i. 316.. Endoven. 3. 94. . 295 II. X24. 54. i.. 169.. 11.... 1. in... 2. 1x5..... 159. 288. 162. 65.. 230. Feckenham. 280 83. First Printers.. 242 Glasgow. Dr. 341 Douay Dover. Forshall and Madden.. ill. 27X. 41. 84. Gairdner... 228. 68. 1x9.. XX4. Frankfort. Durham. . 49. in.. Gaulter in. 76. Facsimiles. r2. III... 25. 233. 257. Great Bible.... Dr.. X2. 22. 46. Froude. 11. ibj. H. 12.. 11. Featley. 1^2. III. 11. 172. II. 11. iii. Edmund. iir. 239. i.. 246. X38.. 298. r6i. Grossteste. D. iii.. 88. i. 117. 3x2. 11. 228. John of. 98. i.. n. Grafton. . 120. 11. Fysche. Gladstone.. 24X. Fulke. 267. 2. ig$. 274. 100. 6.. 3. 11. 164. HI. 13X.. Exeter Book. 6. 274. 313. Frere. 39.. 249. A.. I. III. 200. 121.. 84. 253.. 120. 5. Farmer. Bible. 1x5.. . Duport. in. 114. r3. Foxe. X3g.. i.. 254.. X47. 103. ig.. i. 289. Erasmus. x8. I. 201. III. i3o> 155. 155. 164. roc. B. Gardiner. 252. . 332. x8g. 11. III. 75.. Druids. r7 . 292. III. 209. J. Forbidden Book. i. Gall. Elstob. iii.. Durham Book. 29X... 2. C. 173. Lady Jane. 11. 249. ii. 2. 43. Edes. Elizabeth. 18. Fenton.. n. 94. Bishop. Dr. 180.. 165.. Franciscans. r56. iii. r87. 36.. Faust. 4..INDEX Dore. xsx. 32.. ri6.. Eusebius. 180.. Fuller. 185.. xs6. iii.. Green. r73.. 54. 252 8x. iii. 11.. II. in. Froschover. r38. Guttenberg.. Ellicott. X7. Gasquet.. 243.. 31. i.. 125.. Forret.. i. III. 53. Fisher. 3X. Bible. . 47. Grosart. xgx in. Fitz-James.. 104.. Glastonbury. 105. ng. 2x7.. Gerson. ii.. 231. 15. Edgar. in. Guthlac. Ethelbert. 214. in. 11. Fleet Prison. 44. III... 235. 159. i. 11. 46. ri4. 206. 70. Dr.. m. Ebbs Fleet. 75. 209. Hadrian. Edward Edward ill. 250.. 214.. III.. iii. 329. in. i. i. Guest. Froben. Genevan r88. 11. 205. i... 305... Queen. Felton.. 21. 9.. 11... i. 222. 68. II. X32. R... II.... 22. in.. Grey. in. 3x1. 159. 239. Gaunt. 11. 3. XX4. R.. 290.. Goodman. 27. A. 246. 70. 11. G. 44.. 1x6 159. 307. 75. I. 22g Greenfield. Dryden.. i.

180. 137. n. Le Fevre. n. Hume. Harmer. 273. 26. i. 236. G. 238.. 48... R. 227.. iii.. 11. Dr. ni. Lowth. Dr. ni. 220. Kilian i. Hudibras.. Harrison. "Richard. Harding. 311... Knight. Book 22. Hook..... 54. 143. iii. Hooker. 17S.... in. 210... 264 . Earl of. Lightfoot. i.. J.. 146. Keble. Hans... iii. i. Macaulay. Longfellow. 138. McClure. III.. Jugge. i. i. Lindisfarne. 69. Sir J. in. in.. Lambeth Palace. 181. 116. 43. i... lona.. 60. Hooper. 34. A. in. i.. Lollards... 59. 280. 11. J. Luther... Layfield. in. in. Jerome of Prague. 296. in. II. i. 320.. 139. 2. 279. 218 in. 176. Lappenburg. 254.. Lardner. 158. Indulgences. ill. 93. 216.. Rev. . 11.. Harmer. 284. in. J. i. Joseph of Arimathea.. 192. Rev... Hewald. A. iii. 57. 12. 67. Patrick. W. 71. i. 244. III. Hampton Court... 11. I. 253.. Hatton Heath.. Dr. i.. Dr. 138. Hall. 236. 11... 148.. 257. 143..... 290. 11. 95. i. F. 47. I.. 277- King. 279.. Laud. Machyn's Diary. 282. 255.. 244.. Holkham Holt. 147.. Kells. 240. II. i.. 295. Legend.. Maintz. i. 11. 207. 234. in. Isocrates. Hare. iii. . in.. n. Dr. Hosius. i. 68.. n. 11. i. in. Herbert. . 7. in. 193. 100. 68. 181.. Dr. 11. 7. Hare.. G.. 308. 258. 164. III. I. Sir A. Bishop. in. Dr. Hilda.. Knox. in.. of.. 82. n. 29. Lytton.. M Kilbye. 10. Innocent viii... Lebuin... Ralph. Hereford.. Jarrow. Jerome. T. Knevet. 43. Ket ni. 288. L. 11.. E.. 92. 28 Mackintosh. Hamilton. 76. Hampole. II. W. Llewellj'n.. II. 145.. 165. 38. Sir C.. 45. joye.. Henry viii. Lovett. 43. Luft. Kemble.. Lollards' Tower. R.. 47.342 .. 11. Latimer. 11. 308..... 297.. Anthony. ii. 11. Golden. 209. 245... iii.. 207. 92.. 86. 11. John. Lawrence.. 11. 275.. 12.. iii. I. 288. 170. Junius. i... in... 159.. Rev.. 263. Leonard. 180. 4. II... Holbein. 6. HI. H. Knighton. 158. Ina. in. 33r.. S. Charles. Hoare. Lewis. 62. J. in... Huss. III.. Home. I. Leicester.. 296. 31. in.. n. in. 17. 11.. Jerusalem Chamber. 262.. 83.. 202. Hutton... i.. Heylin. Liveley.. HalTs Chronicle^ II. 88. 171. 7. 11. 213.. Dr. INDEX Johnson. igi. 11. ni. Ireland. Hallam. III. 11. 11. 129.... Johnson. 256. 25. Jewel III. R. i.. in. 12. 147. 69. 133. 278. 8. 234. I. III... i... 112. 71. 323. 199. 121. Holland. Junius. 181. Harman. 4 Hopkins. Hatton. 44. Hutchinson. 11.. 11. i8r. Dr. 280. 66.

2og.. Owun. III. ri6.. Matthew's Bible.. 35. Dr. 43. i. Oxford. Ralph... W. 11. 306. 224. 164. Morley. Cardinal. 207. n.. 91. 308. 38. Moulton. n. Marshalsea. in. 68. Marsden. 45. 160.. 11. 7r.. 213. Peckover.. in. . 11. 140 : 227 . Quentel. 243. Newcome. 147.. 11. 139. More. 183. i. Packington. Morice. 198. Malary.. 11.. 11. Ximenes. Man^ Quarles.. gi. 86. Saint. 202. Suppression 256. 281 ... 40. 250 Pecock. North Nibley.X Maitland. Lord. 60.. Polyglott. 47. Mant. [. 93. n. 183.. m.. C. 307.. Malmesbur)'. 43. Montalembert.. n. II. 75.. Mazarin Milton. in. 1. Monmouth. 11... n. 80. 11. 226. Mammon. in. Montague. 174. 58. 245. 199 in. I. Nag's Head. Paraclesis. Pfefferkorn. Dr.. 179. ni.. Julius. in. Munster. 259.. 139. r24. Marler. 93. Great Bible. 156. Prior. i. 217.. 1. ii. 234. it... I. Parker.. 11. Pykas. 129. 81. 298. Oiedience of a n. 78. 173. 57. Marbury. 3or. Oxford MS. 61. Necton. Sir T. 86. 177. Humphrey. 71. Nazianzen. n. Queen... 141. Practice of Prelates.. 11. iii.. 250. 225. Oswald.. Catherine. 205. in.. Peter. in. I. 247. 197. in. III... J. 195. Parkhurst. 76. Paul IV. 38. 34. Pullain. 209.. in. of. Pelagius. Mathesius. Pollard. n. 229.... 247. i. 11. I. Philip II.. 214. n. Gregory. John. .. 11. 85.. n.. 135. Newman. 131. 64. i. i.. III.. . 3. Plumptre. Pearson. 62. i. Perne. 138. Peryn.... Origen.... John.. 11. 166. ^ Meteren. Orosius. Patrick. 91. 36. 20. 214. n.. 64.. Peter.. in. Preaching. 22. Plutarch.. Ormulum. 146. i8o. 206. Marbeck. 11. r77..... 94. Pagninus. 88. Rev. 11. 11. Dr. Anthony. 11. 276.. i. Purvey. 11. Neal. in. Mary. 50. i8i. Orme. 12. i. 68.. Psalter. 233. 178. in. 126.. III. 75. ig. 81. n. in. 60.. 31. n.. ii. ii. Phillips II. Bible. Pratt. 112. 339. 285. i. Morris.. r39.. 273. Parr. 11. Marot... 57. 144. Jacob van.. Wicked. n.. in..... II. I. 153. John... 192. in. 252. 11.... Neot. 116. Pole. in. Praise of Folly... 68. Earl of. iii. in. Moens.. 81. J.. 93. Dr. 164. Prohibition..INDi. Paulinus.. Anthony. R. Porter. in. 343 i. 201. Palgrave. III... T.. Pembroke College... of. 13. Northampton. go . I. I. Overall.... J. III.. in. 171. 93. Pocock.. J.. 68. W. iii. in. i. Christian 68.. Monasteries. Martyr. 203. 26. 42. Morgan. Dr. 72. 11. 53. Patmore. 100. 154.. 11. 240. 25. n.. 230.. 92. n.. 114.. 233. Oxford. Palmer.. in. Mombert.. Marquis Northumberland.

.. Earl of. 66.... Russell. 193. 42.. i. 129. II.. I.. 243.. in. 26D. II... in. Miles. Giles.. in. 11.. i. in. 46. 43.. Canon.. 12.. 234. 114. 183 in. i.. Stowell. 249. in. Smith.. 142. ni. Saxons. 178... Spenser. 193. Relics. 279. Taverner. i. 179. 54. Lord.... Sinaiticus. Seebohm.. n.. Sir P. 11... H. 84. Scorham. 33. 43. 117. in. Dr. 308. 172. Royal MS. in. Tertullian. 306. 181. 41. 164. in.. 196. 32. Catherine. Southey... in... Sampson. i. J. in. Sternhold. in. Dr. Rawnsley. n. 78. Sinclair. 28. Smithfield. i. G. in. 12. Dr. 38.. 22. 11. 141. n. 206.. J. M. Dr.... Romola. 311.. iii. Little. Tacitus. Reculver. 306. Savile. Somerset. Stowe. 11. i.. in.. I. n.. 189. Richrath. 45. Sydney.. 174. m. 249.. in. 11. Radcliffe... Tower. Regnault. T. Sharon. 61. Stevenson. in. W. B. Dr. Strickland. Stonehenge. 136. n. 11. Stevens. 27. in.. Dr. Dr... in.. 142.. Dr.... 221.. in.. Sweet. Christopher.. in. H. 76. 95.. Theodoret. 240.. 4. 53. iii. in. Spencer. II.. 15. 153.. Dr. Turner. in. Sandys. 164. Sandys.. John. 245. Ravens. 11. 314. Treacle Bible.... 4. Reuchlin. 238. Rich. .. 11. 1.. 226.. 18. in. I. 312. INDEX 312. tii.. 11. 2. J. in. Council of Tunstall. John. 278.. 277.. 45. 62. n. 80. T. II. 41. 82. II.. Earl. Thorpe. 81. 142... Schoeffer. Archbishop. 11. 281 III. 82... Saravia. Dr. 242. i. Sherborne. 254- 306. 25. 1. Dr. Soames. 18.. 220. 68. 172.. Stubbs. n. . i. 226. 7. it. Roye.. 222. Spencer. ni... Traheron. Rome. Raleigh. Schoolmen. 224. in. ni.. 218. 32.. 208. in. Six Articles.. 10. n. 11. 289.... Spalding. Strype.. 282. 259. Sanderson. 230.. 71.. 280. Tevi^kesbury.. 245. Shaxton. 11. 115.. in. Tyndale... Thompson. HI. Rogers.344 Rabbett. Tytler. 81. Sowlehele. n. i. 26.... Trench. i. Stephens.... 226. 11. n. 286. 94. in. 131. i. I. in. 123. i. I. 238... RoUe.. 12. in. 11. 290.. n.. 2. Tjmdale. 84. Sodbury.. T. 176. 94.. Ridley... 1. Dutch. 297. . B.... i. 66 Spelman. 188. in.. iii. 76. 7. 172. Spalatin. 11. 95. R. Shaftesbury. Tennyson. 8. 71. 63. n. R.. n. 135. 231. H. 330. 121. Rushworth Gloss. R. Sir H. 300.. 81. Toulouse. Ravis. F. T3'e. II. 245 . 205. Townsend.206. 147. 47. Skeat. 34. 11. 52. Reynolds... Stanley.. in. Saunders. Stokesley. Tomson. Richardson. 226... Tregelles. 133. Shakespeare. 93.. n. 14. Theodore... 82. in. in. Smith. 234. Renard. in. Dean. in. Trent. codex. Tighe.. John. i. 22. I.

Home & Co.. 11. Wunibald. 119. 134.. MS. 78... Wessel. 11. 42. Whitby. Warham. i. I.. 63. 220.. II. 131. 36. Wilbrord.. 117. 213. 238. Waagan. Vaughan. 169.. 137. Westminster Abbey. i. 60. iii.. Wolsey. III. II. 195. 31. 128. 85.INDEX Ulfilas...... Wright. 1. i. 256. S. 252. 224. 133. 246. 1... i. 292. Utopia. II.. Warburton.. Wyclif.. White Horse. II. 83. 11. "•> 129.. 233. 119. 151. . I. Salop. 224... 20... 11. 11.. iii. Whitchurch. Walsingham. m. i.. 214. Newport. 152. Ward. 56. 251.. i. I. Wittenberg. 104. 100. Vernon. n. in. 93. Walsh. 111. 281. 177. 11.. 71. Wilfrid. 240. Bennion. 93... II. 22. i. 132- 11. 307. Young.. Sir J. I. 314. 59. Wyatt. 60. 35. ii. 207. 10.. Whitgift. I.. 136. 49. 45. Ximenes. Willebad. III. 215.. 345 Cambridge. 67. 272. Willibald. 187. 174. i. Warton. Isaac.. 11. 66. 217.. 56. I. Worms. 189. Stephen.. 40. Westcott.... 225. White.. 201 .. 11. 179. II. 208. 10. 137. 103. 41.. 222. 53.. Zurich.. 160. I.. Ltd. 59. i. Wordsworth.. 134. Vih'orde. 225. iii. III. 217. Whittingham. 278. 197- Usher. Wriothesley.. Dr. Watson. ili.. Walton. John. 238.

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" Spectator. Bible. years. Christian " Of the utmost literary and historical interest. Strand. "An immense amount done in the preparation " of good and careful work of this history. and one hitherto greatly needed. — " Where we looked for dry lists. which it is the only full account. of This Volume covers the Manuscript Period." Erith Times." difficult British " Mr. all lovers of the "A ating book. Crown 8vo. Our own ITS With 56 FACSIMILES. whom the Second "A Weekly." Advocate (New York). and more full of interest than many a novel. to the first 1500 It was ordered by Queen Alexandra.Elfric. TRANSLATORS & THEIR WORK PORTRAITS with and n«lit ILLUSTRATIONS. . Gilt Top. Heaton has dealt skilfully with a and produced a book which should be valued by subject. on ." Examiner. W. London : Francis Griffiths. but the subject popular language.C." very valuable and instructive. jnsh 5/- Net. English Bible." Blackburn Telegrafh.BY THE SAME AUTHOR. "The work is treated in bears traces of profound research. THIRD EDIT ION. Volume was then presented. besides an entirely fascinChristian Covimonwealth." —Record. noble work. we have found a story more pleasant to read. 34 Maiden Lane. has been He gives us what has to be told in an attractive way.

" is The Earl Spencer. who you extremely for your book. The Bible of the Reformation SECOND EDITION. the -possessor of some priceless MSS. says : " Your second book is very interesting. through Mr. Fry.L. and cannot fail to be of great interest to all lovers of the history of the English Bible. who assisted her father. and I can strongly recommend it as an excellent account of the Bibles of the Reformation. West." Walter W.: "A most delightful volume. Gilt Top. says." Mr. says: interest developes into zest as I My read your volume. Wright: late is now in " I am desired by Lord Spencer. enjoyed reading it very much. says: "I have read your book through. E^q-. in his magnificent collection of Bibles and Biblical literature.D. his library of the British and Foreign Bible Society.A. PORTRAITS of " ILLUSTRATIONS. I have so very well selected. I am advising all my friends to read it. and of one of the most valuable collections of Bibles in Europe j says: " I have carefully gone through your new book.. and should have an extensive sale. to whose father all students are so deeply indebted. to thank rhe Rev. in fact I couldn't put it down until finished. and the illustrations. D. Wm. add another charm to the volume. Esq^..." Lady William Cecil. I found it both interesting and instructive. Lord Peckover.. says : " Both v^^orks are beautifully got up..'' Francis of /. T. Grown and 8vo. S- Geden. BIBLE/' Being the Second Volume OUR OWN ENGLISH The Right Hon. SI- Net. whose fine collection of Bibles Manchester. and think it is a book that should be read by everybody. ].D. With 6b FACSIMILES. LL.BY THE SAME AUTHOR. Ruthin. Roberts." very unwell. " J. this fascinating subject being now at the House D. A." .P. It is beautifully illustrated. the late Baron Amherst. High Sheriff of Cambs and Hunts.. M.

The volume is much more original in style than might be imagined. It certainly is. Yet the Book and the Church God hath joined. a valuable feature of a really able and fascinating volume." many volumes on The Record (July " This is 15th. Heaton's book is a not failed to try to put them asunder.. &c. especially facsimiles of original texts. and valuable. and we have little doubt that Mr. in a popular form. and the whole of the book is written with combined energy of diction and mastery of historical details. forming. Heaton's Bible of the Rejorraised some hope of this. W. B. Heaton's previous volume has received a very cordial welcome from readers of every class. the story of the Book rather than the Church. M. Heaton's trilogy upon our English Bible. igio) says : the same subject. Seft. Church history as interesting to the average reader as John Richard Green has made English history? A couple of books which have fallen into my hands lately have Rev. The subject has been so often treated that we wondered whether this new attempt would be characterized by freshness. no apology is needed for this volume.A. and admirable. in addition to facsimiles of parts The work is peculiarly acceptable of Tyndale's Bible and others. collected as they are brightly written." Baftist Times (August 2Sth. curious. but here is to a wide circle he writes as a specialist in relation to what perhaps the most momentous period in the whole history of Christendom." : Western Morning News (August 12th. drawn from sources often inaccessible to the general reader. They are at once numerous. E. and productions of famous portraits which are of real interest.The Homiletic Review (July. new. which contains much information. igio. igio). igio) " This is the second volume in Mr. 8th. Its facts are as carefully reality that is a romance throughout. diversified. and touches of interest abound.. it is true. at this juncture.). Heaton this sequel to it will be received with equal warmth. Several excellently reproduced illustrations add to the merit of the work. and we cordially recommend it." The Manchester Guardian (June " Despite 24th. Chapter after chapter in this delightful work will charm many a reader. with portraits. enriched by many its and It is the best account of the English Bible illustrations. though man has Mr. remarkably well illustrated. and many illustrations. Heaton is already favourably known of readers. and it will be through no fault of the author if so fascinating an account of so fascinating 1 subject does not obtain the appreciation it deserves." . mation is. says: " Mr.D. says: " Is it possible to make S. has taken endless pains in his illustrations. vicissitudes in the Reformation period before the public. igio): " Mr. Waterhouse. J. igio) : a very useful and interesting work. in fact. It is a scholarly work." The Methodist Times (Rev.

Heaton's first volume was a veritable mine of wealth. and with much freshness of detail. Plentifully and appropriately illustrated by reproductions of contemporary porThe book forms a traits and facsimiles of early printed texts. but tells it vividly. This one shows a masterly power of condensing the knowledge he has gained.^' London : Francis Griffiths. "Able. igio) " Mr. W." Publishers' Circular. The present volume tells a more familiar story." Montrose Standard (Sth July." Should not the Revised Version be further revised? A POPULAR TRACT." (The " late) I Right Hon." London Quarterly Review. thorough. and supports his case with a host of quotations. Net. Heaton has given us the story in a most readable form. igio) : " In his earlier work the author achieved a distinct success. 6d.Scotsman (20th June. and convincing. and giving it to the reader in a fascinating literary : Btyle. igio) : " Mr. Heaton has written a forcible Tract. Dealing with the manuscript era before the age of printing.^iden Lane." "We "Rev. and cannot but attract general readers interested in the transmission of the printed Bible. The author has read widely. W. commend this Treatise to our readers as deserving Westminster Review. Lord Avebury have read both j'our books with interest and advantage. 34 M. igio) : " Nearly forty years of literary toil are embodied in this undertaking. attention. ." Nottingham Guardian ( 2Sth June. Strand." The Christian (yth July.C. worthy supplement to its writer's prior work. igio) " An account at once learned and popular." Methodist Recorder (14th July. J. marked only by such a degree of discursiveness as enables the reader to appreciate its relation to the current of English history. and has added independent research to the information obtainable from the recognised authorities. he broke new ground. Tenth Edition. The illustrations and facsimiles are not only numerous but excellent.

net. The capital illustrations enhance the value of the book. Heatli tells the story of Ford Abbey in a pleasant manner. "The West of England is rich in beauty-spots. £i IS. Thomas Ford. Mr. or on an afternoon's lounge in the Place des Vogues.. net by post. Bede-houses. Photographs. speciallydesit^ned Initials and Headpieces. To-day F^ord Abbey. near Chard Junction Station. they begin with the Palais Royal. Inside. From illustrations. net. The subjects selected for their illustration have been chosen more for their architectural and picturesque qualities than for any purely historical a?sociations they may possess. A Pictorial Record. 12s. By SIDNEY HEATH. the stone of the city. and Almshouses. there are treasures which Kings and Queens might well envv. once ia the centre of Parisian life and strife. £i is. Heath goes fully into the the comitry. Crown 4to. the full-page ones and also the little wood-cuts which aie dispersed about the text. " It is so seldom that books of this kind are quite satisfactory that the present Both letterpress. It is famous for its historical associations. The foundaiion of Ford Abbey forms an interesting incident. to be accurate. have imprisoned in these charming" pages many The author and of the most picturesque corners of Paris. an ideal companion on a wander still. Royal 4to. Nature and Art combined have done grand work. Outside. Cloth. but ghosts of a bygone time. It was one of the earliest Cistercian houses erected in Over 750 years ago. the famous tapestries wrought from the cartoons of Raphael in the saloon. od. and not on the year of the original foundation. by J. by G. Paris. are worth a King's ransom. aiid a special chapter assigned to the last Abbot. The Chapter's House still shows considerable fragments which testify to its origin. Drawings. monastery and castle. Wash and Colour Drawings by Gavin. pleasant. both in the course of his essays. . of Ford Abbey. The volume will appeal to all lovers of Paris. 6d. through the Marais. The Story BY THE SAME AUTHOR. duval J. with Architectural and Historical Notes. intimate. now sheltering. The volume contains full page illnstralions and brief architectural and historical descriptions of some fifty old Knglish Hospitals. although these latter have not been entirely neglected."— Daily Foolscap the illustrator — — . for the most part. So are some of the pictures and the china. some terrible haunt them The book is gossipy. from the Mr Duval has managed in every time of Hichlieu to the days of the Revolution instance to tell his story with point and vivacity. TelegrO'-pfh. Thickly studded amid the most lovely natural surroundings are the remains of abbey. 6d. The old Gobelin tape'stry in the dining:-room. 6d. along the quais. and have evoked the shades of the men and women who once frequented them. and to leave but little untouched The illustrations are extiemely delightful. Gavin.Old English Houses of Alms. and wilt bring yet more devotees to the most tascin ating rity of Europe. through ihe Isle de la Tit^. they have constructed the story of the ancient glories. early history of the house. From the Earliest Times to the Present Day. Mr. now disappearing daily under the pick of the house-breaker. Profusely Illustrated with Plans. And as is but fitting. is a noble country mansion in the most lovely setting. except in such cases as the date of foundation happens to be co eval with the existing buildings. up to ttie heights of Montmarte. are admirable a pleasure to took at and to peruse. Exeter Gaxette Norman is Axe Shadows of Old Illustrated with Line. Duval. los. The plates are arranged in chronological order based on the approximate date of the portions of the buildings selected for illustration. A chapter is devoted to the Abbots of Ford. But nowhere in the West will be found a finer specimen of a religious house than at l-'ord Abbey the story of which is exceedingly well told by Mr. standing in the Valley.. Fully Illustrated with original Drawings. by g. We heartily recommend the book to all who like to cast their thoug-hts back to the shadows and ghosts of what to-day is known as the City of lighi. and whose memories some fragrant. . 4to. and volume must be pronounced an exception.. Sidney Heath. which was for years in the patronage of the Courtenays.

Price net. Vol. R. From By " the Earliest Times to the Reformation. 6d. and he is eager to interest the reader in the glorious works of the Gothic architects who built for t^iigland its greatest architectural masterpieces A highly useful glossary of architectural terms occurring throughout the volumes is given at the end. and the seven devoted to the beauties of Salisbury Cathedral. A.G.. We caunot imagine any careful reader oi Mr.' of the mere tripper. gd. by Crown in 8vo. and upwards of i6o full-page Illustrations from Photographs. Sibrec interests the cultui'ed reader at once by a group of fine passages. I. "This new work in two voluiiies 011 the Cathedrals of Kiig"laiid aud Wales is written by au enthusiastic student of Gotliic architecture wlio has studied his subject for 50 years. .Our English Cathedrals. IVIiddleton's essa\'. A. The six pictures illustrating Peterborough. English Church Architecture.S. Together with Chapters on the Cathedral in English Scenery. 34 Maiden Lane. By the rev. 2s. Price 5s. Price 5s. The numeious illustrations and diagrams add still further to the interest aud value of Mr. F.. and in English Poetry and Prose. The reader will find his interest in and appreciation of architectui'e considerably enhanced by a study of this charming and coinpact book. With a Map. Northern Cathedrals. 2S. W. and in Mediaeval and Modern times. London : Francis Griffiths. Middleton's essay being content in future to limit his appreciation of these stupendous creation's England. post. B. This is a delightful essay upon the growth of ecclesiastical architecture Mr. 'I'eunyson. Gilt Top.R. G. Middleton has interpreted for the uninitiated la>men the interesting story of our history that is told by our old cathedrals and abbeys. but at the same time plain to be understood by the ordinary reader. II. JAMES SIBREE. both in prose and verse. T MIDDLETON. inspired by the Gothic Cathedral."— CaiJioiic Herald. net. net.stical monunients of Kiigland and Wales the book should prove very useful.' and "Ahs. 2j/- Ornament.C. In one of the early chapters ^Ir. He has written in language sufficiently technical for the expert. Strand. Cloth. net." Dundee Advertiser.I. Cathedrals. ]\Iilton. which convey no meaning whatever beyood that of mere antiquity to the vast majority even of cultivated readers. are amongst the finest in the two volumes 'I'he enthusiasm of the author is splendid. Their Architectural Beauties and Characteristics and their Historical Associations popularly described. to the meaningless ' Ohs. As an introduction to a pictorial and historical survey of the great ecclesia. Our old cathedrals are poems in stone. Illustrations. Scott. a. Southern- Vol. The Evolution With 250 of Architectural Crown Quarto. BY THE SAME AUTHOR. Russell Lowell aud Carlyle aie a few of our poets whose rapt word-iuipressions are given. Block plans of all the Cathedrals to a uniform scale.

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