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Part 5- Modulation Techniques

Professor Z Ghassemlooy

Electronics & IT Division Scholl of Engineering, Sheffield Hallam University U.K. www.shu.ac.uk/ocr

Contents

Signals Modulation – Why? Types of Modulation Techniques BER Performance Advance Modulation Techniques

Signals

Signals can be:

– Deterministic: value at any instant can be expressed exactly with a mathematic formula (eg. Sine wave) – Probabilistic: future values can be estimated, based on past values

• Random: a probabilistic function where all values within a range are equally likely to occur

**Most telecom signals are probabilistic:
**

– Estimation of a sample value is the best we can do.

Signals

Is physical representation of information (voice, data,..) Is function of time and location Has parameters, which represent the value of information Types: Time Value

Continuous Discrete

Disc eret

Analogue signal Digital signal

• Sine wave as special periodic signal used as a Carrier:

s(t) = A sin(2 π f t + ϕ)

frequency

Peak amplitude

Phase

Periodical ideal periodic signal 1 0 T f = 1/T ∞ ∞ 1 g(t) = c + ∑an sin(2πnft) + ∑bn cos(2πnft) 2 n=1 n=1 Harmonic components 1 0 t t DC AC components .Signal .

Representation A [V] Amplitude domain ϕ A [V] t[s] Frequency domain f [Hz] Q = M sin ϕ phase state diagram (amplitude M and phase ϕ in polar coordinates) ϕ I = M cos ϕ .Signal .

Noise White noise: all frequencies at equal power – Many sources (thermal noise. combination sources) – Not possible in practical circuits. so we get … Band-limited white noise: constant power spectral density over a finite range of frequencies – Corrupts digital signals when decision thresholds are crossed .

Modulation . .Why? Smaller antennas (e.g.. λ/4) Multiplexing Ability to manipulate the signal To fully utilise the medium characteristics Improve the performance …….

System Block Diagram Digital data 101101001 Digital modulation Analogue base-band signal Aerial Analog modulation Modulated RF signal fm Transmitter Noise Analog base-band signal Radio carrier fc >fm Analog demodulation Radio carrier Decision circuit Digital data 101101001 Receiver .

Analogue Modulation Where the center frequency of base-band signal shifted up to the radio carrier frequency by means of: – Amplitude modulation (AM) – Frequency modulation (FM) – Phase modulation (PM) .

or frequency θn=2p(fn-fc)t. . which are constant over a bit time Tb.Digital Modulation Digital data is translated into an analogue carrier signal by means of Passband Digital Modulation (typically bits encoded in amplitude) Passband digital modulation has form s(t ) = n = −∞ ∑ A (t ) cos(2πf t + θ n c ∞ n (t )) Bits encoded in amplitude An. phase θn.

Types Amplitude Shift Keying(ASK) Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Multi-levels Schemes .Digital Modulation .

ASK Data m(t) Ac 1 0 1 • The most basic and simple • Low bandwidth • Ssusceptible to interference Bit duration Tb t Carrier frequency s(t ) ASK ⎧ Ac cos( 2πf c t ) m( nTb ) = 1 = m(t ) Ac cos( 2πf c t ) = ⎨ m( nTb ) = 0 0 ⎩ Information .

• The y axis is the quadrature (Q) carrier Components (i.Vector & Constellation Diagrams A 0 Vector diagram cos ωct Q A I 0 Constellation diagram: • The x axis is a reference for symbol that are in-phase (I) with the carrier. sin ωct) .e.ASK .

PSK Data m(t) Ac t 1 0 1 s(t ) PSK m( nTb ) = 1 ⎧ Ac cos( 2πf c t ) = Ac m(t ) cos( 2πf c t ) = ⎨ ⎩ Ac cos( 2πf c t + π) m( nTb ) = −1 Bit duration Tb .

PSK .Implementation • Basic Carrier (cos ωct) PSK Inverter Data • Advanced Input data Pulse shaping filter X PSK Carrier (cos ωct) .

symbols are equal and Opposite to each other. unlike ASK. . I.e.Constellation Diagrams Q cos ωct -A A I cos ωct It display antipodal signalling.PSK .

PSK .Spectrum BPSK represented in a complex envelope form: S BPSK = Re ( Acm(t )e { jθc )e 2 πf ct } 2 Complex envelope The power spectral density of the complex envelope is: Pce− BPSK ( f ) = Ac ⎜ ⎜ πfT b ⎝ 2 ⎛ sin πfTb ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ .

contd.Spectrum . ⎡⎛ sin π( f − f )T ⎞ 2 ⎛ sin π( − f − f )T ⎞ 2 ⎤ Ac c b⎟ c b⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎜ +⎜ PBPSK ( f ) = 4 ⎢⎜ π( f − f c )Tb ⎟ ⎜ π( − f − f c )Tb ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣⎝ 2 Power spectral density fc-2Rb fc-Rb fc fc+2Rb fc+Rb Frequency .PSK .

ASK/PSK – Non-Coherent Demodulation Similar to AM but only requires to choose between one of two values Decision Device s(t) × Tb nTb r(nTb) ∫ ( ⋅) dt 0 r1 ∆N “1” or “0” cos(2πfct) Sampler r0 Decision device determines which of r0 or r1 that r(iTb) is closest to – Noise immunity ∆N is half the distance between r0 and r1 – Bit errors occur when noise exceeds this immunity .

M. Shankar .A coherent demodulator for BPSK P.

FSK The instantaneous frequency of the carrier signal is switched between two (or more) values by the modulating digital data signal. ⎧ Ac cos mωc t S FSK (t ) = ⎨ ⎩ Ac cos nωc t 0 < t < Tb For '1' 0 < t < Tb For '0' ⎫ ⎧t ⎪ ⎪ S FSK (t ) = Ac cos⎨∫ [ωc + (δω)m(t )] dt ⎬ ⎪ ⎪0 ⎭ ⎩ Data .

FSK – contd. Data FSK Data 1 0 1 1 Ac cos (2πfc1t) c c1 FSK Ac cos (2πfc2t) c c2 Voltage Controlled oscillator Input data FSK .

fc1)/2 FSK bandwidth = 2δf .Spectrum δf Amplitude fc1 -Rb fc1 +Rb δf fc2 -Rb fc2 +Rb fc1 -3Rb fc1 fc1 +3Rb fc Frequency fc2 -3Rb fc2 fc2 +3Rb δf = Frequency deviation = (fc2 .FSK .

FSK .Non-coherent BPF @fc1 c1 S FSK(t) + n(t) BPF @fc2 c2 Envelope detector + ∑ - Decision threshold Data output Envelope detector .Demodulation .

FSK .Demodulation .Coherent × SFSK(t) + n(t) LPF VCO @fc1 c1 + ∑ - Decision threshold Data output × LPF VCO @fc2 c2 .

Bit Error Rate (BER) .ASK/PSK Channel N(t) s(t) + × cos(2πfct) Tb nTb ∫ 0 “1” or “0” ∆N r(nTb)+N(nTb) Receiver Probability of bit error: Pb=p(|N(nTb)|>∆N) N(nTb) is a Gaussian RV .

Assume R = 1 Ohm STb E = No No Or in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR) Bit rate R = 1/Tb.BER – ASK/PSK contd. The expression for BER (or probability of error) normally contains the energy-to-noise ratio (E/No) The unit energy is: E = ST Energy/bit S = Signal power = Ac2/2. thus E S = No No R .

ASK & PSK can be represented as: S ASK (t ) = 2E Tb cos( 2πf c t ) for i = 1.. ⎧ 2E cos( 2πf c t ) ⎪ ⎪ Tb S PSK (t ) = ⎨ ⎪− 2 E cos( 2πf t ) c ⎪ T b ⎩ for biary "1" 0 < t < Tb } for biary "0" . .BER – ASK/PSK contd. 2.

BER – ASK • Coherent Ps −CASK • Non-Coherent ⎛ E = 0. .5 erfc ⎜ ⎜ 2N o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Ps − NCASK = 0. and one needs to use a standard table.5 erfc ⎜ ⎜ 2N o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ erfc = Complementary error function.5 e −( E / 4 N ) ⎛ E 0.

5e E − N0 .BER – PSK Coherent Ps − CPSK ⎛ (t ) = 0 .5erfc ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ E cos ∆ φ ⎟ ⎟ No ⎠ Differential Ps − DPSK (t ) = 0.

Signal -to-Noise Ratio NC-ASK C-ASK E/No (dB) .BER Vs.

CPSK BER Vs. M. Signal-to-Noise Ratio Various phase difference P. Shankar .

BER .FSK The average energy / bit is given as: Ac E = ∫ S FSK (t ) dt = ∫ Ac sin (ωc t ) dt = Tb 2 0 0 2 2 2 Tb Tb 2 Pe −CFSK ⎛ E = Q⎜ ⎜ 2N o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Pe − NCFSK 1 = e 2 −E 2 No Coherent Non-coherent .

ASK.BER – FSK. and PSK • Equal E NC-ASK NC-FSK C-ASK & C-FSK E/No (dB) .

there are four basic symbols (or carriers). . To increase the bit transmission rate one could allow each carrier signal to transmit more than one bit of information. and FSK each modulated carrier is capable of transmitting one bit of information. For example M = 4. PSK. Therefore a sequence of two binary bits can be transmitted by just 4-ary symbols.M-ARY Modulation Schemes In ASK. This is called M-ARY Modulation Schemes.

M-Ary Modulation Binary data Rb bits/sec Digital-toanalogue converter (l -bits) M = 2l level multi-level digital signal Rs =Rb/l M-level modulated output Modulator .

Offers improved BER compared to comparable PSK schemes .Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) Combines amplitude and phase modulation One symbol is used to represent n bits using one symbol BER increases with n.

0000 and 1000 have different phase. but same amplitude. but different amplitude.QAM n = 4 bits = 1 symbol 0011 and 0001 have the same phase. Q 0010 0001 0011 0000 I 1000 Used in standard 9600 bit/s modems .QAM – Example : 16 .

used in satellite communication systems Q 1 I 0 .Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Bit 0 : sin ωt Bit 1 : .sin ωt Basic PSK Low spectral efficiency Robust.

Quadrature PSK (QPSK) 2 bits coded as one symbol Symbol shift of sine wave Less bandwidth then BPSK More complex 10 Q 11 I 00 01 Relative. rather than the absolute phase shift could also be used: •Differential QPSK .

(-1.-1). 1). leading to phase shifts of 0.1). Note that they differ by п /4. respectively. or (-1.1). -1).1) can occur to (1. transitions from (1. When going from (1. depending on the incoming symbol. Thus. -1) or vice versa.Quadrature PSK (QPSK) The two QPSK constellations. Arrows show all possible transitions. I and Q represent the in-phase and quadrature bits. When going from (1. (1.1) to (-1. the phase shifts by п /2. the phase is shifted by п. . -1) to (1. or ± п in QPSK. ± п /2.

Bits errors occur when noise exceeds noise immunity threshold. Digital passband modulation encodes binary bits into the amplitude. BER in AWGN is a function of Eb/N0 . phase. or frequency of the carrier.Main Points Most information today is in bits Digital baseband modulation uses simple techniques to encode bits into baseband analog signal. Decision device in receiver uses threshold to determine which bit was sent.

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