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A famous Tang Dynasty guqin "Jiu Xiao Huan Pei". Theguqin has been played since ancient times, and has traditionally been favored by scholars and literati as an instrument of great subtlety and refinement.
Music history, sometimes called historical musicology, is the highly diverse subfield of the broader discipline of musicology that studies the composition. In theory, "music history" could refer to the study of the history of any type or genre of music (e.g., the history of Indian music or the history of rock). In practice, these research topics are nearly always categorized as part ofethnomusicology or cultural studies, whether or not they are ethnographically based. The methods of music history include source studies (esp. manuscriptstudies), paleography, philology (especially textual criticism), style criticism, historiography (the choice of historical method), musical analysis, and iconography. The application of musical analysis to further these goals is often a part of music history, though pure analysis or the development of new tools of music analysis is more likely to be seen in the field of music theory. (For a more detailed discussion of the methods see the section on "Research in Music History" below) Some of the intellectual products of music historians include editions of musical works, biography of composers and other musicians, studies of the relationship between words and music, and the reflections upon the place of music in society. Pedagogy Although most performers of classical and traditional instruments receive some instruction in music, art pop, or rock and roll history from teachers throughout their training, the majority of formal music history courses are offered at the college level. In Canada, some music students receive training prior to undergraduate studies because examinations in music history (as well as music theory) are required to complete Royal Conservatory certification at the Grade 9 level and higher. Particularly in the United States and Canada, university courses tend to be divided into two groups: one type to be taken by students with little or no music theory or ability to read music (often called music appreciation) and the other for more musically literate students (often those planning on making a career in music). Most medium and large institutions will offer both types of courses. The two types of courses will usually differ in length (one to two semesters vs. two to four), breadth (many music appreciation courses begin at the late Baroque or classical eras and might omit music after WWII while courses for majors traditionally span the period from the Middle Ages to recent times), and depth. Both types of courses tend to emphasize a balance among the acquisition of musical repertory (often emphasized through listening examinations), study and analysis of these works, biographical and cultural details of music and musicians, and writing about music, perhaps throughmusic criticism. More specialized seminars in music history tend to use a similar approach on a narrower subject while introducing more of the tools of research in music history (see below). The range of possible topics is virtually limitless. Some examples might be "Music during World War I," "Medieval and Renaissance instrumental music," "Music and Process," "Mozart's Don Giovanni." In the United States, these seminars are generally taken by advanced undergraduates and graduate students, though in European countries they often form the backbone of music history education. The methods and tools of music history are nearly as numerous as its subjects and therefore make a strict categorization impossible. However, a few trends and approaches can be outlined here. Like in

any other historical discipline, most research in music history can be roughly divided into two categories: the establishing of factual and correct data and the interpretation of data. Most historical research does not fall into one category solely, but rather employs a combination of methods from both categories. It should also be noted that the act of establishing factual data can never be fully separate from the act of interpretation. Archival work may be conducted to find connections to music or musicians in a collection of documents of broader interests (e.g.,Vatican pay records, letters to a patroness of the arts) or to more systematically study a collection of documents related to a musician. In some cases, where records, scores, and letters have been digitized, archival work can be done online. One example of a composer for whom archival materials can be examined online is the Arnold Schoenberg Center. Performance practice draws on many of the tools of historical musicology to answer the specific question of how music was performed in various places at various times in the past. Scholars investigate questions such as which instruments or voices were used to perform a given work, what tempos (or tempo changes) were used, and how (or if) ornaments were used. Although performance practice was previously confined to early music from the Baroque era, since the 1990s, research in performance practice has examined other historical eras, such as how early Classical era piano concerti were performed, how the early history of recording affected the use of vibrato in classical music, or which instruments were used in Klezmer music. Biographical studies of composers can give a better sense of the chronology of compositions, influences on style and works, and provide important background to the interpretation (by performers or listeners) of works. Thus biography can form one part of the larger study of the cultural significance, underlying program, or agenda of a work; a study which gained increasing importance in the 1980s and early 1990s. Sociological studies focus on the function of music in society as well as its meaning for individuals and society as a whole. Researchers emphasizing the social importance of music (including classical music) are sometimes called New musicologists. Semiotic studies are most conventionally the province of music analysts rather than historians. However, crucial to the practice of musical semiotics - the interpretation of meaning in a work or style - is its situation in an historical context. The interpretative work of scholars such as Kofi Agawu and Lawrence Kramer fall between the analytic and the music historical. Before 1800 The first studies of Western musical history date back to the middle of the 18th century. G.B. Martini published a three volume history titled Storia della musica (History of Music) between 1757 and 1781. Martin Gerbert published a two volume history of sacred music titled De cantu de musica sacra in 1774. Gerbert followed this work with a three volume work Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacracontaining significant writings on sacred music from the 3rd century onwards in 1784.


Ludwig van Beethoven's manuscript sketch forPiano Sonata No. 28, Movement IV, Geschwind, doch nicht zu sehr und mit Entschlossenheit(Allegro), in his own handwriting. The piece was completed in 1816. In the 20th century, the work of Johannes Wolf and others developed studies inMedieval music and early Renaissance music. Wolf's writings on the history of musical notation are considered to be particularly notable by musicologists. Historical musicology has played a critical role in renewed interest in Baroque music as well as medieval and Renaissance music. In particular, the authentic performance movement owes much to historical musicological scholarship. Towards the middle of the 20th century, musicology (and its largest subfield of historical musicology) expanded significantly as a field of study. Concurrently the number of musicological and music journals increased to create further outlets for the publication of research. The domination of German language scholarship ebbed as significant journals sprang up throughout the West, especially America. Exclusion of disciplines and musics In its most narrow definition, historical musicology is the music history of Western culture. Such a definition arbitrarily excludes disciplines other than history, cultures other than Western, and forms of music other than "classical" ("art", "serious", "high culture") or notated ("artificial") - implying that the omitted disciplines, cultures, and musical styles/genres are somehow inferior. A somewhat broader definition incorporating all musical humanities is still problematic, because it arbitrarily excludes the relevant (natural) sciences (acoustics, psychology, physiology, neurosciences, information and computer sciences, empirical sociology and aesthetics) as well as musical practice. The musicological sub-disciplines of music theory and music analysis have likewise historically been rather uneasily separated from the most narrow definition of historical musicology. Within historical musicology, scholars have been reluctant to adopt postmodern and critical approaches that are common elsewhere in the humanities. According to Susan McClary (2000, p. 1285) the discipline of "music lags behind the other arts; it picks up ideas from other media just when they have become outmoded." Only in the 1990s did historical musicologists, preceded by feminist musicologists in the late 1980s, begin to address issues such as gender, sexualities, bodies, emotions, and subjectivities which dominated the humanities for twenty years before (ibid, p. 10). In McClary's words (1991, p. 5), "It almost seems that musicology managed miraculously to pass directly from pre- to postfeminism without ever having to change - or even examine - its ways." Furthermore, in their discussion on musicology and rock music, Susan McClary and Robert Walser also address a key struggle within the discipline: how musicology has often "dismisse[d] questions of socio-musical interaction out of hand, that part of classical music's greatness is ascribed to its autonomy from society." (1988, p. 283)

Exclusion of popular music According to Richard Middleton, the strongest criticism of (historical) musicology has been that it generally ignores popular music. Though musicological study of popular music has vastly increased in quantity recently, Middleton's assertion in 1990that most major "works of musicology, theoretical or historical, act as though popular music did not exist"holds true. Academic and conservatory training typically only peripherally addresses this broad spectrum of musics, and many (historical) musicologists who are "both contemptuous and condescending are looking for types of production, musical form, and listening which they associate with a differentkind of music...'classical music'...and they generally find popular music lacking" He cites three main aspects of this problem (p. 104-6). The terminology of historical musicology is "slanted by the needs and history of a particular music ('classical music')." He acknowledges that "there is a rich vocabulary for certain areas [harmony, tonality, certain part-writing and forms], important in musicology's typical corpus"; yet he points out that there is "an impoverished vocabulary for other areas [rhythm, pitch nuance and gradation, and timbre], which are less well developed" in Classical music. Middleton argues that a number of "terms are ideologically loaded" in that "they always involve selective, and often unconsciously formulated, conceptions of what music is." As well, he claims that historical musicology uses "a methodology slanted by the characteristics of notation," 'notational centricity' (Tagg 1979, p. 28-32). As a result "musicological methods tend to foreground those musical parameters which can be easily notated" such as pitch relationships or the relationship between words and music. On the other hand, historical musicology tends to "neglect or have difficulty with parameters which are not easily notated", such as tone colour or non-Western rhythms. In addition, he claims that the "notation-centric training" of Western music schools "induces particular forms of listening, and these then tend to be applied to allsorts of music, appropriately or not". As a result, Western music students trained in historical musicology may listen to a funk or Latinsong that is very rhythmically complex, but then dismiss it as a low-level musical work because it has a very simple melody and only uses two or five chords. Notational centricity also encourages "reification: the score comes to be seen as 'the music', or perhaps the music in an ideal form." As such, music that does not use a written score, such as jazz, blues, or folk, can become demoted to a lower level of status. As well, historical musicology has "an ideology slanted by the origins and development of a particular body of music and its aesthetic...It arose at a specific moment, in a specific context - nineteenth-century Europe, especially Germany and in close association with that movement in the musical practice of the period which was codifying the very repertory then taken by musicology as the centre of its attention." These terminological, methodological, and ideological problems affect even works symphathetic to popular music. However, it is not "that musicology cannot understand popular music, or that students of popular music should abandon musicology." (p. 104).


The Middle Ages (adjectival forms: medieval, mediaeval, andmedival) is the period of European history encompassing the 5th to the 15th centuries, normally marked from the collapse of the Western Roman Empire (the end of Classical Antiquity) until the beginning of the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery, the periods which ushered in the Modern Era. The medieval period thus is the mid-time of the traditional division of Western history into Classical, Medieval, and Modern periods; moreover, the Middle Ages usually is divided into theEarly Middle Ages, the High Middle Ages, and the Late Middle Ages. In the Early Middle Ages, depopulation, deurbanization, and barbarianinvasions, begun in Late Antiquity, continued apace. The barbarian invaders formed new kingdoms in the remains of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century North Africa and the Middle East, once part of the Eastern Roman Empire, became an Islamic Empire after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break withAntiquity was not complete. The Eastern Roman Empire orByzantine Empire survived and remained a major power. Additionally, most of the new kingdoms incorporated many of the extant Roman institutions, while monasteries were founded as Christianity expanded in western Europe. In the 7th and 8th centuries, the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, established an empire covering much of western Europe; the Carolingian Empire endured until the 9th century, when it succumbed to the pressures of invasion the Vikings from the north; the Magyars from the east, and theSaracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after AD 1000, the population of Europe increased greatly as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and crop yields to increase. Manorialism the organization of peasants into villages that owed rent and labor services to the nobles; and feudalism the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords, in return for the right to rent from lands and manors - were two of the ways society was organized in the High Middle Ages. Kingdoms became more centralized after the breakup of the Carolingian Empire. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts, by western European Christians, to regain control of the Middle Eastern Holy Land from the Muslims, and succeeded long enough to establish Christian states in the Near East. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism and the founding of universities; and the building of Gothic cathedrals, which was one of the outstanding artistic achievements of the High Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages were marked by difficulties and calamities, such as famine, plague, and war, which much diminished the population of western Europe; in the four years from 1347 through 1350, the Black Death killed approximately a third of the European population. Controversy, heresy, and schism within the Church paralleled the warfare between states, the civil war, and peasant revolts occurring in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Age and beginning the Early Modern period.

Characteristics of Music
Music comes from the Ancient Greek muses, who were the nine goddesses of art and science. Music actually began around 500 B.C. when Pythagoras experimented with acoustics and how math related to tones formed from plucking strings. The main form of music during the Middle Ages was the Gregorian chant, named for Pope Gregory I. This music was used in the Catholic Churches to enhance the services. It consisted of a sacred Latin text sung by monks without instrumentation. The chant is sung in a monophonic texture, which means there is only one line of

music. It has a free-flowing rhythm with little or no set beat. The chants were originally all passed through oral tradition, but the chants became so numerous that the monks began to notate them.

Music in Society
Towards the end of the Middle Ages, about the 12 th and 13th centuries, music began to move outside of the church. French nobles called troubadours and trouveres were among the first to have written secular songs. Music of this time was contained among the nobility, with court minstrels performing for them. There were also wandering minstrels who would perform music and acrobatics in castles, taverns, and town squares. These people were among the lowest social class, along with prostitutes and slaves, but they were important because they passed along information, since there were no newspapers. COMPOSERS OF THE MIDDLE AGES Queen Blanche of Castile (1188-1252) Comtessa Beatiz de Dia (attested 1212) Herrad of Landsberg (1167-1195) Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) Leonin (1163-1190)

The Renaissance 1450-1600

Renaissance music is music written in Europe during the Renaissance. Consensus among music historians with notable dissent has been to start the era around 1400, with the end of the medieval era, and to close it around 1600, with the beginning of the Baroque period, therefore commencing the musical Renaissance about a hundred years after the beginning of the Renaissance as understood in other disciplines. As in the other arts, the music of the period was significantly influenced by the developments which define the Early Modern period: the rise of humanistic thought; the recovery of the literary and artistic heritage of ancient Greece and Rome; increased innovation and discovery; the growth of commercial enterprise; the rise of a bourgeois class; and the Protestant Reformation. From this changing society emerged a common, unifying musical language, in particular the polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish school. The development of printing made distribution of music possible on a wide scale. Demand for music as entertainment and as an activity for educated amateurs increased with the emergence of a bourgeois class. Dissemination of chansons, motets, and masses throughout Europe coincided with the unification of polyphonic practice into the fluid style which culminated in the second half of the sixteenth century in the work of composers such as Palestrina, Lassus, andWilliam Byrd. Relative political stability and prosperity in the Low Countries, along with a flourishing system of music education in the area's many churches and cathedrals, allowed the training of hundreds of singers and composers. These musicians were highly sought throughout Europe, particularly in Italy, where churches and aristocratic courts hired them as composers and teachers. By the end of the 16th century, Italy had absorbed the northern influences, with Venice, Rome, and other cities being centers of musical activity, reversing the situation from a hundred years earlier. Opera arose at this time in Florence as a deliberate attempt to resurrect the music of ancient Greece.[1] Music, increasingly freed from medieval constraints, in range, rhythm, harmony, form, and notation, became a vehicle for personal expression. Composers found ways to make music expressive of the texts they were setting. Secular music absorbed techniques from sacred music, and vice versa. Popular secular forms such as the chanson and madrigal spread throughout Europe. Courts employed virtuoso performers, both singers and instrumentalists. Music for the first time became self-sufficient, existing for its own sake. Many familiar modern instruments, including the violin, the guitar, and keyboard instruments, were born during the Renaissance. During the 15th century the

sound of full triads became common, and towards the end of the 16th century the system of church modes began to break down entirely, giving way to the functional tonality which was to dominate western art music for the next three centuries. From the Renaissance era both secular and sacred music survives in quantity, and both vocal and instrumental. An enormous diversity of musical styles and genres flourished during the Renaissance, and can be heard on commercial recordings in the 21st century, including masses, motets, madrigals, chansons, accompanied songs, instrumental dances, and many others. Numerous early music ensembles specializing in music of the period give concert tours and make recordings, using a wide range of interpretive styles.

One of the most pronounced features of early Renaissance European art music was the increasing reliance on the interval of the third (in the Middle Ages, thirds had been considered dissonances). Polyphony became increasingly elaborate throughout the 14th century, with highly independent voices: the beginning of the 15th century showed simplification, with the voices often striving for smoothness. This was possible because of a greatly increased vocal range in music in the Middle Ages, the narrow range made necessary frequent crossing of parts, thus requiring a greater contrast between them. The modal (as opposed to tonal) characteristics of Renaissance music began to break down towards the end of the period with the increased use of root motions of fifths. This later developed into one of the defining characteristics of tonality. The main characteristics of Renaissance music are: Music based on modes. Richer texture in four or more parts. Blending rather than contrasting strands in the musical texture. Harmony with a greater concern with the flow and progression of chords. Polyphony is one of the notable changes that mark the Renaissance from the Middle Ages musically. [3] Its use encouraged the use of larger ensembles and demanded sets of instruments that would blend together across the whole vocal range.

Principal liturgical forms which endured throughout the entire Renaissance period were masses and motets, with some other developments towards the end, especially as composers of sacred music began to adopt secular forms (such as the madrigal) for their own designs. Common sacred genres were the mass, the motet, the madrigale spirituale, and the laude. During the period, secular music had an increasing distribution, with a wide variety of forms, but one must be cautious about assuming an explosion in variety: since printing made music more widely available, much more has survived from this era than from the preceding Medieval era, and probably a rich store of popular music of the late Middle Ages is irretrievably lost. Secular music included songs for one or many voices, forms such as the frottola, chanson and madrigal. Secular music was music that was independent of churches. The main type was the German lied, Italian frottola, the French chanson, the Italian madrigal, and the Spanish villancico [2] . Secular vocal genres included the madrigal, the frottola, the caccia, the chanson in several forms (rondeau, virelai, bergerette, ballade, musique mesure), the canzonetta, the villancico, the villanella, the villotta, and thelute song. Mixed forms such as the motet-chanson and the secular motet also appeared. Purely instrumental music included consort music for recorder or viol and other instruments, and dances for various ensembles. Common genres were the toccata, the prelude, the ricercar, the canzona, and intabulation (intavolatura, intabulierung). Instrumental ensembles for dances might play a basse danse (or bassedanza), a pavane, a galliard, an allemande, or a courante. Towards the end of the period, the early dramatic precursors of opera such as monody, the madrigal comedy, and the intermedio are seen.

Theory and notation

According to Margaret Bent (1998), "Renaissance notation is under-prescriptive by our standards; when translated into modern form it acquires a prescriptive weight that overspecifies and distorts its original openness."

Renaissance compositions were notated only in individual parts; scores were extremely rare, and barlines were not used. Note values were generally larger than are in use today; the primary unit of beat was the semibreve, or whole note. As had been the case since the Ars Nova (see Medieval music), there could be either two or three of these for each breve (a double-whole note), which may be looked on as equivalent to the modern "measure," though it was itself a note value and a measure is not. The situation can be considered this way: it is the same as the rule by which in modern music a quarter-note may equal either two eighth-notes or three, which would be written as a "triplet." By the same reckoning, there could be two or three of the next smallest note, the "minim," (equivalent to the modern "half note") to each semibreve. These different permutations were called "perfect/imperfect tempus" at the level of the breve semibreve relationship, "perfect/imperfect prolation" at the level of the semibreveminim, and existed in all possible combinations with each other. Three-to-one was called "perfect," and two-toone "imperfect." Rules existed also whereby single notes could be halved or doubled in value ("imperfected" or "altered," respectively) when preceded or followed by other certain notes. Notes with black noteheads (such as quarter notes) occurred less often. This development of white mensural notation may be a result of the increased use of paper (rather than vellum), as the weaker paper was less able to withstand the scratching required to fill in solid noteheads; notation of previous times, written on vellum, had been black. Other colors, and later, filled-in notes, were used routinely as well, mainly to enforce the aforementioned imperfections or alterations and to call for other temporary rhythmical changes. Accidentals were not always specified, somewhat as in certain fingering notations (tablatures) today. However, Renaissance musicians would have been highly trained in dyadic counterpoint and thus possessed this and other information necessary to read a score, "what modern notation requires [accidentals] would then have been perfectly apparent without notation to a singer versed in counterpoint." Seemusica ficta. A singer would interpret his or her part by figuring cadential formulas with other parts in mind, and when singing together musicians would avoid parallel octaves and fifths or alter their cadential parts in light of decisions by other musicians (Bent, 1998). It is through contemporary tablatures for various plucked instruments that we have gained much information about what accidentals were performed by the original practitioners. For information on specific theorists, see Johannes Tinctoris, Franchinus Gaffurius, Heinrich Glarean, Pietro Aron, Nicola Vicentino,Toms de Santa Mara, Gioseffo Zarlino, Vicente Lusitano, Vincenzo Galilei, Giovanni Artusi, Johannes Nucius, and Pietro Cerone.

Early Renaissance music (14001467)

This group gradually dropped the late Medieval period's complex devices of isorhythm and extreme syncopation, resulting in a more limpid and flowing style. What their music "lost" in rhythmic complexity, however, it gained in rhythmic vitality, as a "drive to the cadence" became a prominent feature around mid-century.

Middle Renaissance music (14671534)

1611 woodcut of Josquin des Prez, copied from a now-lost oil painting done during his lifetime[4] In the early 1470s, music started to be printed using a printing press. Music printing had a major effect on how music spread for not only did a printed piece of music reach a larger audience than any manuscript ever could, it did it far cheaper as well. Also during this century, a tradition of famous makers began for many instruments. These makers were masters of their craft. An example is Neuschel for his trumpets. Towards the end of the 15th century, polyphonic sacred music (as exemplified in the masses ofJohannes Ockeghem and Jacob Obrecht) had once again become more complex, in a manner that can perhaps be seen as correlating to the stunning detail in the painting at the time. Ockeghem, particularly, was fond of canon, both contrapuntal and mensural. He composed a mass, Missa prolationum, in which all the parts are derived canonically from one musical line. It was in the opening decades of the next century that music felt in a tactus (think of the modern time signature) of two semibreves-to-a-breve began to be as common as that with three semibrevesto-a-breve, as had prevailed prior to that time. In the early 16th century, there is another trend towards simplification, as can be seen to some degree in the work of Josquin des Prez and his contemporaries in the Franco-Flemish School, then later in that of G. P. Palestrina, who was partially reacting to the strictures of the Council of Trent, which discouraged excessively complex polyphony as inhibiting understanding the text. Early 16thcentury Franco-Flemings moved away from the complex systems of canonic and other mensural play of Ockeghem's generation, tending toward points of imitation and duet or trio sections within an overall texture that grew to five and six voices. They also began, even before the Tridentine reforms, to insert ever-lengthening passages of homophony, to underline important text or points of articulation. Palestrina, on the other hand, came to cultivate a freely flowing style of counterpoint in a thick, rich texture within which consonance followed dissonance on a nearly beat-by-beat basis, and suspensions ruled the day (see counterpoint). By now, tactus was generally two semibreves per breve with three per breve used for special effects and climactic sections; this was a nearly exact reversal of the prevailing technique a century before.

Late Renaissance music (15341600)

San Marco in the evening. The spacious, resonant interior was one of the inspirations for the music of the Venetian School. In Venice, from about 1534 until around 1600, an impressive polychoral style developed, which gave Europe some of the grandest, most sonorous music composed up until that time, with multiple choirs of singers, brass and strings in different spatial locations in the Basilica San Marco di Venezia (seeVenetian School). These multiple revolutions spread over Europe in the next several decades, beginning in Germany and then moving to Spain, France and England somewhat later, demarcating the beginning of what we now know as the Baroque musical era. The Roman School was a group of composers of predominantly church music in Rome, spanning the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras. Many of the composers had a direct connection to the Vatican and the papal chapel, though they worked at several churches; stylistically they are often contrasted with the Venetian School of composers, a concurrent movement which was much more progressive. By far the most famous composer of the Roman School is Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. While best known as a prolific composer of masses and motets, he was also an important madrigalist. His ability to bring together the functional needs of the Catholic Church with the prevailing musical styles during the Counter-Reformation period gave him his enduring fame.[5] The brief but intense flowering of the musical madrigal in England, mostly from 1588 to 1627, along with the composers who produced them, is known as the English Madrigal School. The English madrigals were a cappella, predominantly light in style, and generally began as either copies or direct translations of Italian models. Most were for three to six voices. Musica reservata is either a style or a performance practice in a cappella vocal music of the latter, mainly in Italy and southern Germany, involving refinement, exclusivity, and intense emotional expression of sung text. The cultivation of European music in the Americas began in the 16th century soon after the arrival of the Spanish, and the conquest ofMexico. Although fashioned in European style, uniquely Mexican hybrid works based on native Mexican language and European musical practice, appeared very early. Musical practices in New Spain continually coincided with European tendencies throughout the subsequent Baroque and Classical music periods. Among these New World composers were Hernando Franco, Antonio de Salazar, and Manuel de Zumaya. In addition, many composers observed a division in their own works between a prima pratica (music in the Renaissance polyphonic style) and a seconda pratica (music in the new style) during the first part of the 17th century.

The 15th and 16th century masses had two kinds of sources that were used, monophonic and polyphonic, with two main forms of elaboration, based on cantus firmus practice or, beginning some time around 1500, the new style of pervasive imitation. Four types of masses resulted: Cantus firmus mass (tenor mass) The cantus firmus/imitation mass The paraphrase mass

The imitation mass (parody mass) Masses were normally titled by the source from which they borrowed. Cantus firmus mass uses the same monophonic melody, usually drawn from chant and usually in the tenor and most often in longer note values than the other voices.

In the late 16th century, as the Renaissance era closed, an extremely manneristic style developed. In secular music, especially in the madrigal, there was a trend towards complexity and even extreme chromaticism (as exemplified in madrigals of Luzzaschi, Marenzio, and Gesualdo). The term "mannerism" derives from art history.

Transition to the Baroque

Beginning in Florence, there was an attempt to revive the dramatic and musical forms of Ancient Greece, through the means of monody, a form of declaimed music over a simple accompaniment; a more extreme contrast with the preceding polyphonic style would be hard to find; this was also, at least at the outset, a secular trend. These musicians were known as the Florentine Camerata. We have already noted some of the musical developments that helped to usher in the Baroque, but for further explanation of this transition, see antiphon, concertato, monody, madrigal, and opera, as well as the works given under "Sources and further reading." For a more thorough discussion of the transition to the Baroque specifically pertaining to instrument music, see Transition from Renaissance to Baroque in instrumental music. Instruments of the Renaissance Many instruments originated during the Renaissance; others were variations of, or improvements upon, instruments that had existed previously. Some have survived to the present day; others have disappeared, only to be recreated in order to perform music of the period on authentic instruments. As in the modern day, instruments may be classified as brass, strings, percussion, and woodwind. Medieval instruments in Europe had most commonly been used singly, often self accompanied with a drone, or occasionally in parts. During the 15th century there was a division of instruments into Haut (loud, outdoor instruments) and Bas (quieter, more intimate instruments) Only two groups of instruments could play freely in both types of ensembles: the Cornett and sackbut and the Tabor and tambourine.[6] Beginning of the 16th century, instruments were considered to be less important then voices. They were used for dances and to accompany vocal music. [2] Instrumental music remained subordinated to vocal music, and much of its repertory was in varying ways derived from or dependent on, vocal models.[1]

Brass instruments in the Renaissance were traditionally played by professionals. Some of the more common brass instruments that were played: Slide trumpet: Similar to the trombone of today except that instead of a section of the body sliding, only a small part of the body near the mouthpiece and the mouthpiece itself is stationary. Also the body was an S-shape so it was rather unwieldy, but was suitable for the slow dance music which it was most commonly used for. Cornett: Made of wood and was played like the recorder (will be mentioned at greater length later on) but blown like a trumpet. It was commonly made in several sizes, the largest was called the serpent. The serpent became practically the only cornetto used by the early 17th century while other ranges were replaced by the violin. It was said to be the closest instrument to the human voice with the ability to use dynamics and expression. Trumpet: Early trumpets had no valves, and were limited to the tones present in the overtone series. They were also made in different sizes. Although commonly depicted being used by angels, their use in churches was limited, a prominent exception being the music of the Venetian School. They were most commonly used in the military and for the announcement of royalty. Period trumpets were found to have two rings soldered to them, one near the mouthpiece and another near the bell.

Sackbut (sometimes sackbutt or sagbutt): A different name for the trombone, [7] which replaced the slide trumpet by the end of the 15th century. Sackbuts were used almost exclusively in church music and faced behind the player.


As a family strings were used in many circumstances, both sacred and secular. A few members of this family include: Viol: This instrument, developed in the 15th century, commonly has six strings. It was usually played with a bow. It has structural qualities similar to the Spanish vihuela; its main separating trait is its larger size. This changed the posture of the musician in order to rest it against the floor or between the legs in a manner similar to the cello. Its similarities to the vihuela were sharp waistcuts, similar frets, a flat back, thin ribs, and identical tuning. This is the predecessor of the modernday violin, viola, and violoncello (cello). Lyre: Its construction is similar to a small harp, although instead of being plucked, it is strummed with a plectrum. Its strings varied in quantity from four, seven, and ten, depending on the era. It was played with the right hand, while the left hand silenced the notes that were not desired. Newer lyres were modified to be played with a bow. Irish Harp: Also called the Clrsach in Scottish Gaelic, or the Clirseach in Irish, during the Middle Ages it was the most popular instrument of Ireland and Scotland. Due to its significance on Irish history it is seen even on the Guinness label, and is Ireland's national symbol even to this day. To be played it is usually plucked. Its size can vary greatly from a harp that can be played in one's lap to a full-size harp that is placed on the floor Hurdy gurdy: (Also known as the wheel fiddle), in which the strings are sounded by a wheel which the strings pass over. Its functionality can be compared to that of a mechanical violin, in that its bow (wheel) is turned by a crank. Its distinctive sound is mainly because of its "drone strings" which provide a constant pitch similar in their sound to that of bagpipes. .

Some Renaissance percussion instruments include the triangle, the Jew's harp, the tambourine, the bells, the rumble-pot, and various kinds of drums. Tambourine: In the early ages the tambourine was originally a frame drum without the jingles attached to the side. This instrument soon evolved and took on the name of the timbrel during the medieval crusades, at which time it acquired the jingles. The tambourine was often found with a single skin, as it made it easy for a dancer to play. The skin that surrounds the frame is called the vellum, and produces the beat by striking the surface with the knuckles, fingertips, or hand. It could also be played by shaking the instrument, allowing the tambourine's jingles to "clank" and "jingle". Jew's harp: An instrument often known for its historical purpose for men "serenading" their sweethearts,[citation needed] It even went to the extent of being repeatedly banned for its "endangerment on female virtue",[citation needed] it is also believed that it was banned because of its construction of silver, and due to the great demand on silver in the 19th Century Austria this was another reason for its outlawing. A steel instrument that produces sound using shapes of the mouth and attempting to pronounce different vowels with ones mouth. The loop at the bent end of the tongue of the instrument is plucked in different scales of vibration creating different tones.

Woodwinds (aerophones)
The woodwind instruments (aerophones) produce sound by means of a vibrating column of air within the pipe. Holes along the pipe allow the player to control the length of the column of air, and hence the pitch. There are several ways of making the air column vibrate, and these ways define the subcategories of woodwind instruments. A player may blow across a mouth hole, as in a flute; into a mouthpiece with a single reed, as in a modern-day clarinet or saxophone; or a double reed, as in an oboe or bassoon. All three of these methods of tone production can be found in Renaissance instruments. Shawm: A typical oriental shawm is keyless and is about a foot long with seven finger holes and a thumb hole. The pipes were also most commonly made of wood and many of them had carvings and decorations on them. It was the most popular double reed instrument of the renaissance period; it was commonly used in the streets with drums and trumpets because of its brilliant, piercing, and often deafening sound. To play the shawm a person puts the entire reed in their mouth, puffs out their cheeks, and blows into the pipe whilst breathing through their nose.

Renaissance recorders
Reed pipe: Made from a single short length of cane with a mouthpiece, four or five finger holes, and reed fashioned from it. The reed is made by cutting out a small tongue, but leaving the base attached. It is the predecessor of the saxophone and the clarinet. Hornpipe: Same as reed pipe but with a bell at the end. Bagpipe/Bladderpipe: Believe to have been invented by herdsmen who thought to use a bag made out of sheep or goat skin and would provide air pressure so that when its player takes a breath, the

player only needs to squeeze the bag tucked underneath their arm to continue the tone. The mouth pipe has a simple round piece of leather hinged on to the bag end of the pipe and acts like a nonreturn valve. The reed is located inside the long metal mouthpiece, known as a bocal. Panpipe: Designed to have sixteen wooden tubes with a stopper at one end and open on the other. Each tube is a different size (thereby producing a different tone), giving it a range of an octave and a half. The player can then place their lips against the desired tube and blow across it. Transverse flute: The Transverse flute is similar to the modern flute with a mouth hole near the stoppered end and finger holes along the body. The player blows in the side and holds the flute to the right side. Recorder: The recorder is a common instrument still used today, often taught to children in elementary schools. Rather than a reed it uses a whistler mouth piece, which is a beak shaped mouth piece, as its main source of sound production. It is usually made with seven finger holes and a thumb hole.

Characteristics of Music
During the Renaissance Period, vocal music was still more important then instrumental. A humanistic interest in language created a close relationship between words and music during this time. Composers began to write music to give deeper meaning and emotion to the words in their songs. They wrote in a style referred to as word painting, where the music and words combine to form a representation of poetic images. Renaissance music is very emotional music, although to us it seems to be much calmer. This is because the emotion is expressed in a balanced way, without extreme contrasts of dynamics, tone color, and rhythm. Renaissance music has a mostly polyphonic texture, which means there are many lines of music being played at the same time. As opposed to medieval times, this music has a more full sound, because the bass register was used, expanding the range of music to about four octaves. Each line of melody has rhythmic independence, giving Renaissance music a more flowing rhythm and not a sharply defined beat. The melodies are also easy to sing because they move along scales with few large leaps.

Music in Society
Music was becoming more popular during this time. Much of this was due to the invention of the printing press, which could circulate copies of music. The number of composers also began to increase. The Renaissance had the ideal of the universal man and believed that every educated person was to be trained in music. Musicians still worked in the churches, courts, and towns. The size of church choirs grew. But unlike the Middle Ages where just a few soloists performed in the church, an entire male choir would now sing. Music was still important in the church, although it has shifted more to the courts. The kings, princes, and dukes were all fine composers. One court alone might have had ten to sixty composers consisting of vocalists and instrumentalists. There was a music director for each court that would compose and direct the courts performers. The town musicians would perform for civic processions, weddings, and religious services. Musicians now had a higher status in society with better pay, and they wanted to be known and sought credit for their work. COMPOSERS OF THE RENAISSANCE Antoine Brumel (1460-1520) Jean de Castro (1540-1611) John Dowland (1563-1626) Thomas Morley (1557-1602) Claudin de Sermisy (1490-1562)

The Baroque Age 1600-1750

Baroque music is the style of Western music extending approximately from 1600 to 1750.[1] This era follows the Renaissance and was followed in turn by the Classical era. The word "baroque" comes from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning "misshapen pearl"[2], a negative description of the ornate and heavily ornamented music of this period; later, the name came to be applied also to its architecture. Baroque music forms a major portion of the classical music canon, being widely studied, performed, and listened to. Composers of the baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Alessandro Scarlatti, Antonio Vivaldi,Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Arcangelo Corelli, Franois Couperin,Denis Gaultier, Claudio Monteverdi, Jean-Philippe Rameau and Henry Purcell. The baroque period saw the creation of functional tonality. During the period, composers and performers used more elaborate musical ornamentation, made changes in musical notation, and developed new instrumental playing techniques. Baroque music expanded the size, range, and complexity of instrumental performance, and also established opera as a musical genre. Many musical terms and concepts from this era are still in use today.

Etymology History of European art music

The term "Baroque" is generally used by music historians to describe a broad range of styles from a wide geographic region, mostly in Europe, composed over a period of approximately 150 years. [1] Although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music, in an anonymous, satirical review of the premire in October 1733 of Rameaus Hippolyte et Aricie, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734. The critic implied that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque," complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was filled with unremitting dissonances, constantly changed key and meter, and speedily ran through every compositional device.[1] The systematic application by historians of the term "baroque" to music of this period is a relatively recent development. In 1919, Curt Sachs became the first to apply the five characteristics of Heinrich Wlfflins theory of the Baroque systematically to music.[3] In English the term acquired currency only in the 1940s, in the writings of Lang and Bukofzer. [1] As late as 1960 there was still considerable dispute in academic circles, particularly in France and Britain, whether it was meaningful to lump together music as diverse as that of Jacopo Peri, Domenico Scarlatti, and J.S. Bach under a single rubric. Nevertheless, the term has become widely used and accepted for this broad range of music. [1] It may be helpful to distinguish the Baroque from both the preceding (Renaissance) and following (Classical) periods of musical history.

History Early baroque music (16001654)

The Florentine Camerata was a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered under the patronage of Count Giovanni de' Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts, especially music and drama. In reference to music, their ideals were based on their perception of Classical (especially ancient Greek) musical drama, in which discourse and oration was viewed with much importance.[4] As such, they rejected the use by their contemporaries of polyphony and instrumental music, and discussed such ancient Greek music devices as monody, which consisted of a solo singing accompanied by a kithara. The early realizations of these ideas, including Jacopo Peri's Dafne and L'Euridice, marked the beginning of opera,[6] which in turn can be considered to have marked the catalyst of Baroque music.

Concerning music theory, the more widespread use of figured bass (also known as "thorough bass") represents the developing importance of harmony as the linear underpinnings of polyphony.[8] Harmony is the end result of counterpoint, and figured bass is a visual representation of those harmonies commonly employed in musical performance. [9] Composers began concerning themselves with harmonic progressions,[10] and also employed the tritone, perceived as an unstable interval,[11] to create dissonance. Investment in harmony had also existed among certain composers in the Renaissance, notably Carlo Gesualdo;[12]However, the use of harmony directed towards tonality, rather than modality, marks the shift from the Renaissance into the Baroque period.[13] This led to the idea that chords, rather than notes, could provide a sense of closure, which is one of the fundamental ideas of what came to be known as tonality. Italy formed one of the cornerstones of the new style, as the papacybesieged byReformation but with coffers fattened by the immense revenues flowing in from Habsburgconquestsearched for artistic means to promote faith in the Roman Catholic Church. One of the most important musical centers was Venice, which had both secular and sacred patronage available.[original research?] Giovanni Gabrieli became one of the important transitional figures in the emergence of the new style, although his work is largely considered to be in the "High Renaissance" manner. However, his innovations were foundational to the new style. Among these are instrumentation (labeling instruments specifically for specific tasks) and the use of dynamics. [original research?] The demands of religion were also to make the text of sacred works clearer, and hence there was pressure to move away from the densely layered polyphony of the Renaissance, to lines which put the words front and center, or had a more limited range of imitation. This created the demand for a more intricate weaving of the vocal line against backdrop, or homophony. [original research?] Claudio Monteverdi became the most visible of a generation of composers who felt that there was a secular means to this "modern" approach to harmony and text, and in 1607 his opera L'Orfeo became the landmark which demonstrated the array of effects and techniques that were associated with this new school, calledseconda pratica, to distinguish it from the older style or prima pratica. Monteverdi was a master of both, producing precisely styled madrigals that extended the forms of Luca Marenzio and Giaches de Wert. But it is his pieces in the new style which became the most influential. These included features which are recognizable even to the end of the baroque period, including use of idiomatic writing, virtuoso flourishes, and the use of new techniques. [original research?] This musical language proved to be international, as Heinrich Schtz, a German composer who studied in Venice under both Gabrieli and later Monteverdi, used it to the liturgical needs of the Elector of Saxony and served as the choir master in Dresden.

Middle baroque music (16541707)

The rise of the centralized court is one of the economic and political features of what is often labelled the Age of Absolutism, personified by Louis XIV of France. The style of palace, and the court system of manners and arts which he fostered, became the model for the rest of Europe. The realities of rising church and state patronage created the demand for organized public music, as the increasing availability of instruments created the demand for chamber music. This included the availability of keyboard instruments. The middle Baroque is separated from the early Baroque by the coming of systematic thinking to the new style and a gradual institutionalization of the forms and norms, particularly in opera. As with literature, the printing press and trade created an expanded international audience for works and greater cross-pollination between national centres of musical activity. The middle Baroque, in music theory, is identified by the increasingly harmonic focus of musical practice and the creation of formal systems of teaching. Music was an art, and it came to be seen as one that should be taught in an orderly manner. This culminated in the later work of Johann Fux in systematizing counterpoint.

One pre-eminent example of a court style composer is Jean-Baptiste Lully. His career rose dramatically when he collaborated with Molire on a series of comdie-ballets, that is, plays with dancing. He used this success to become the sole composer of operas for the king, using not just innovative musical ideas such as the tragdie lyrique, but patents from the king which prevented others from having operas staged. Lully's instinct for providing the material that his monarch desired has been pointed out by almost every biographer, including his rapid shift to church music when the mood at court became more devout. His 13 completed lyric tragedies are based on libretti that focus on the conflicts between the public and private life of the monarch. Musically, he explored contrast between stately and fully orchestrated sections, and simple recitatives and airs. In no small part, it was his skill in assembling and practicing musicians into an orchestra which was essential to his success and influence. Observers noted the precision and intonation, this in an age where there was no standard for tuning instruments. One essential element was the increased focus on the inner voices of the harmony and the relationship to the soloist. He also established the string-dominated norm for orchestras. Arcangelo Corelli is remembered as influential for his achievements on the other side of musical technique as a violinist who organized violin technique and pedagogy and in purely instrumental music, particularly his advocacy and development of the concerto grosso. Whereas Lully was ensconced at court, Corelli was one of the first composers to publish widely and have his music performed all over Europe. As with Lully's stylization and organization of the opera, the concerto grosso is built on strong contrasts sections alternate between those played by the full orchestra, and those played by a smaller group. Dynamics were "terraced", that is with a sharp transition from loud to soft and back again. Fast sections and slow sections were juxtaposed against each other. Numbered among his students is Antonio Vivaldi, who later composed hundreds of works based on the principles in Corelli's trio sonatas and concerti. In England the middle Baroque produced a cometary genius in Henry Purcell, who, despite dying at age 36, produced a profusion of music and was widely recognized in his lifetime. He was familiar with the innovations of Corelli and other Italian style composers; however, his patrons were different, and his musical output was prodigious. Rather than being a painstaking craftsman, Purcell was a fluid composer who was able to shift from simple anthems and useful music such as marches, to grandly scored vocal music and music for the stage. His catalogue runs to over 800 works. He was also one of the first great keyboard composers, whose work still has influence and presence. In contrast to these composers, Dieterich Buxtehude was not a creature of court but instead was an organist and entrepreneurial presenter of music. Rather than publishing, he relied on performance for his income, and rather than royal patronage, he shuttled between vocal settings for sacred music, and organ music that he performed. His output is not as fabulous or diverse, because he was not constantly being called upon for music to meet an occasion. Buxtehude's employment of contrast was between the free, often improvisatory sections, and more strict sections worked out contrapuntally. This procedure would be highly influential on later composers such as Bach, who took the contrast between free and strict to greater heights.

Late baroque music (16801750)

The dividing line between middle and late Baroque is a matter of some debate. Dates for the beginning of "late" baroque style range from 1680 to 1720. In no small part this is because there was not one synchronized transition; different national styles experienced changes at different rates and at different times. Italy is generally regarded as the first country to move to the late baroque style. The important dividing line in most histories of baroque music is the full absorption of tonality as a structuring principle of music. This was particularly evident in the wake of theoretical work by Jean-

Philippe Rameau, who replaced Lully as the important French opera composer. At the same time, through the work ofJohann Fux, the Renaissance style of polyphony was made the basis for the study of counterpoint. The combination of modal counterpoint with tonal logic of cadences created the sense that there were two styles of composition the homophonic dominated by vertical considerations and the polyphonic dominated by imitation and contrapuntal considerations. The forms which had begun to be established in the previous era flourished and were given wider range of diversity; concerto, suite, sonata, concerto grosso, oratorio, opera and ballet all saw a proliferation of national styles and structures. The overall form of pieces was generally simple, with repeated binary forms (AABB), simple three part forms (ABC), and rondeau forms being common. These schematics in turn influenced later composers. Antonio Vivaldi is a figure who was forgotten in concert music making for much of the 19th century, only to be revived in the 20th century. Born in Venice in 1678, he began as an ordained priest of the Catholic Church but ceased to say Mass by 1703. Around the same time he was appointed maestro di violino at a Venetian girls' orphanage with which he had a professional relationship until nearly the end of his life. Vivaldi's reputation came not from having an orchestra or court appointment, but from his published works, including trio sonatas, violin sonatas and concerti. They were published in Amsterdam and circulated widely through Europe. It is in these instrumental genres of baroque sonata and baroque concerto, which were still evolving, that Vivaldi's most important contributions were made. He settled on certain patterns, such as a fast-slow-fast three-movement plan for works, and the use of ritornello in the fast movements, and explored the possibilities in hundreds of works 550 concerti alone. He also used programmatic titles for works, such as his famous "The Four Seasons" violin concerti. Vivaldi's career reflects a growing possibility for a composer to be able to support himself by his publications, tour to promote his own works, and have an independent existence. Domenico Scarlatti was one of the leading keyboard virtuosi of his day, who took the road of being a royal court musician, first inPortugal and then, starting in 1733, in Madrid, Spain, where he spent the rest of his life. His father, Alessandro Scarlatti, was a member of the Neapolitan School of opera and has been credited with being among its most skilled members. Domenico also wrote operas and church music, but it is the publication of his keyboard works, which spread more widely after his death, which have secured him a lasting place of reputation. Many of these works were written for his own playing but others for his royal patrons. As with his father, his fortunes were closely tied to his ability to secure, and keep, royal favour. Perhaps the most famous composer to be associated with royal patronage was George Frideric Handel, who was born in Germany, studied for three years in Italy, and went to London in 1711, which was his base of operations for a long and profitable career that included independently produced operas and commissions for nobility. He was constantly searching for successful commercial formulas, in opera, and then in oratorios in English. A continuous worker, Handel borrowed from others and often recycled his own material. He was also known for reworking pieces such as the famousMessiah, which premiered in 1742, for available singers and musicians. Even as his economic circumstances rose and fell with his productions, his reputation, based on published keyboard works, ceremonial music, constant stagings of operas and oratorios and concerti grossi, grew tremendously. By the time of his death, he was regarded as the leading composer in Europe and was studied by later classical-era musicians. Handel, because of his very public ambitions, rested a great deal of his output on melodic resource combined with a rich performance tradition of improvisation and counterpoint. The practice of ornamentation in the Baroque style was at a very high level of development under his direction. He travelled all over Europe to engage singers and learn the music of other composers, and thus he had among the widest acquaintance of other styles of any composer.

Johann Sebastian Bach has, over time, come to be seen as the towering figure of Baroque music, with what Bla Bartk described as "a religion" surrounding him. During the baroque period, he was better known as a teacher, administrator and performer than composer, being less famous than either Handel or Georg Philipp Telemann. Born in Eisenach in 1685 to a musical family, he received an extensive early education and was considered to have an excellent boy soprano voice. He held a variety of posts as an organist, rapidly gaining in fame for his virtuosity and ability. In 1723 he settled at the post which he was associated with for virtually the rest of his life: cantor and director of music for Leipzig. His varied experience allowed him to become the town's leader of music both secular and sacred, teacher of its musicians, and leading musical figure. He began his term in Leipzig by composing a church cantata for every Sunday and holiday of the Liturgical year, resulting in annual cycles of cantatas, namely his second cycle of Chorale cantatas. About 200 sacred cantatas are extant. Bach created the grand scale works St John Passion, the St Matthew Passion, theChristmas Oratorio, spanning six feast days, and the Mass in B minor. Bach's musical innovations plumbed the depths and the outer limits of the Baroque homophonic and polyphonic forms. He was a virtual catalogue of every contrapuntal device possible and every acceptable means of creating webs of harmony with the chorale. As a result, his works in the form of the fugue coupled with preludes and toccatas for organ, and the baroque concerto forms, have become fundamental in both performance and theoretical technique. Virtually every instrument and ensemble of the age except for the theatre genres is represented copiously in his output. Bach's teachings became prominent in the classical and romantic eras as composers rediscovered the harmonic and melodic subtleties of his works. Georg Philipp Telemann was the most famous instrumental composer of his time, and massively prolific even by the standards of an age where composers had to produce large volumes of music. His two most important positions director of music in Frankfurt in 1712 and in 1721 director of music of the Johanneum in Hamburg required him to compose vocal and instrumental music for secular and sacred contexts. He composed two complete cantata cycles for Sunday services, as well as sacred oratorios. Telemann also founded a periodical that published new music, much of it by Telemann. This dissemination of music made him a composer with an international audience, as evidenced by his successful trip to Paris in 1731. Some of his finest works were in the 1750s and 1760s, when the Baroque style was being replaced by simpler styles but were popular at the time and afterwards. Among these late works are Der Tod Jesu (The Death of Jesus) 1755, "Die DonnerOde" (The Ode of Thunder) 1756, "Die Auferstehung und Himmelfahrt Jesu" (The Resurrection and Ascension of Jesus) 1760 and "Der Tag des Gerichts" (The Day of Judgement) 1762. Influence on later music

Transition to the Classical era (17401780)

The Flute Concert of Sanssouci by Adolph von Menzel, 1852, depicts Frederick the Great playing the
flute as Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach accompanies on the keyboard. The audience includes Bach's colleagues as well as nobles. The phase between the late Baroque and the early Classical era, with its broad mixture of competing ideas and attempts to unify the different demands of taste, economics and "worldview", goes by many names. It is sometimes called "Galant", "Rococo", or "pre-Classical", or at other times, "early Classical". It is a period where composers still working in the Baroque style were still successful, if sometimes thought of as being more of the past than the presentBach, Handel and Telemann all composed well beyond the point at which the homophonic style is clearly in the ascendant. Musical culture was caught at a crossroads: the masters of the older style had the technique, but the public hungered for the new. This is one of the reasons Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach was held in such high regard: he understood the older forms quite well and knew how to present them in new garb, with an enhanced variety of form; he went far in overhauling the older forms from the Baroque.

The practice of the baroque era was the standard against which newcomposition was measured, and there came to be a division between sacred works, which held more closely to the Baroque style from secular or "profane" works, which were in the new style. Especially in the Catholic countries of central Europe, the baroque style continued to be represented in sacred music through the end of the eighteenth century, in much the way that the stile antico of the Renaissance continued to live in the sacred music of the early 17th century. The masses and oratorios of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, while Classical in their orchestration and ornamentation, have many Baroque features in their underlying contrapuntal and harmonic structure. The decline of the baroque saw various attempts to mix old and new techniques, and many composers who continued to hew to the older forms well into the 1780s. Many cities in Germany continued to maintain performance practices from the Baroque into the 1790s, including Leipzig, where J.S. Bach worked to the end of his life. In England, the enduring popularity of Handel ensured the success of Charles Avison, William Boyce, and Thomas Arneamong other accomplished imitatorswell into the 1780s, who competed alongside Mozart and Bach. In Continental Europe, however, it was considered an old-fashioned way of writing and was a requisite for graduation from the burgeoning number ofconservatories of music, and otherwise reserved only for use in sacred works.

After 1760
Because baroque music was the basis for pedagogy, it retained a stylistic influence even after it had ceased to be the style of composing or of music making. Even as Baroque practice fell out of use, it continued to be part of musical notation. In the early 19th century, scores by baroque masters were printed in complete edition, and this led to a renewed interest in the "strict style" of counterpoint, as it was then called. WithFelix Mendelssohn's revival of Bach's choral music, the baroque style became an influence through the 19th century as a paragon of academic and formal purity. In the 20th century, Baroque was named as a period, and its music began to be studied. There are several instances of contemporary pieces being published as "rediscovered" Baroque masterworks. Some examples of this include a viola concerto written by Henri Casadesus but attributed to Johann Christian Bach, as well as several pieces attributed by Fritz Kreisler to lesserknown figures of the Baroque such as Gaetano Pugnani andPadre Martini. Alessandro Parisotti attributed his aria for voice and piano, "Se tu m'ami", to Pergolesi. Various works have been labelled "neo-baroque" for a focus on imitative polyphony, including the works of Giacinto Scelsi, Paul Hindemith, Paul Creston and Bohuslav Martin, even though they are not in the baroque style proper. Musicologists attempted to complete various works from the Baroque, most notably Bach's The Art of Fugue. Composer Peter Schickele parodies classical and baroque styles under the pen namePDQ Bach. Baroque performance practice had a renewed influence with the rise of "Authentic" orHistorically informed performance in the late 20th century. Texts by Johann Joachim Quantz and Leopold Mozart among others, formed the basis for performances which attempted to recover some of the aspects of baroque sound world, including one-on-a-part performance of works by Bach, use of gut strings rather than metal, reconstructed harpsichords, use of older playing techniques and styles. Several popular ensembles adopted some or all of these techniques, including the Anonymous 4, the Academy of Ancient Music, Boston's Handel and Haydn Society, William Christie's Les Arts Florissants, Sigiswald Kuijken's La Petite Bande and others.

Characteristics of Music
Unlike the previous two periods in music, the Baroque Age was a time of unity. Most musical pieces of this time expressed one mood throughout the whole piece. These moods were conveyed through a musical language with specific rhythms and melodic patterns. One exception to the unified mood is vocal music. There would be drastic changes in emotion, but they would still convey one mood for a long period in the piece. One thing that helps the unity of mood was the continuity of rhythm of this time. The rhythm is maintained throughout the entire piece creating a drive and feel of forward motion that goes uninterrupted. Along with mood and rhythm, the melody is also continuous. The melodies tend to be varied throughout the piece and many are elaborate and difficult to sing or remember. They do not give an impression of balance and symmetry; many times a short opening phrase is followed by a longer one with a flow of rapid notes. Dynamics are in the same category with the other characteristics; they are usually continuous. The dynamics in Baroque music have a term called terraced dynamics. This means that the dynamics usually stay the same for a while, but shift suddenly. Much of the Baroque music was played in a polyphonic texture with multiple melodic lines. People of this time believed that music could move the listener in more ways than one. Opera was a major ideal for this belief.

Music in Society
There was a new demand for music now. Churches, aristocratic courts, opera houses, and municipalities wanted music. Composers were pressured to write new music because audiences did not want to hear pieces of music in the old-fashioned style. The composers of the courts were paid well and more prestigious, but they were still considered a servant of the court. They could not quit nor vacation without the patrons permission. The demand for music in the church was greater so they employed musicians, although they were paid less and had less status than the court musicians. In the Baroque Age, a person became a musician usually by being the son of a musician or an apprentice. An apprentice would live in the musicians home and in return for instruction the young boy would do odd jobs for the musician. Orphanages would give thorough musical training to both the boys and girls who lived there. The word conservatory, which today means a music school, originated from the Latin word for orphans home. Musicians usually had to pass a difficult test in order to receive a job. The test was usually performing and submitting compositions, but sometimes the test consisted of nonmusical requirements. The musician might have had to contribute to the towns treasury, or marrying the daughter of a retiring musician. The Baroque Age began the sprout of music in society, and it continued to blossom further. COMPOSERS OF THE BAROQUE PERIOD Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) Wilhelm Friedman Bach (1710-1784) Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687) Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706) Antonin Vivaldi (1678-1741)

Baroque instruments

Baroque instruments including hurdy gurdy, harpsichord, bass viol, lute, violin, and guitar.

Violino piccolo,Violin,Viol,Viola, Viola d'amore,Viola pomposa Tenor violin,Cello,Contrabass,Lute,Theorbo,Archlute,Anglique,Mandolin GuitarHarpHurdy gurdy Woodwinds Baroque flute, Chalumeau,Cortol (also known as Cortholt, Curtall, Oboe family) Dulcian,Musette de cour,Baroque oboe, Rackett,Recorder Brasses Baroque trumpet,Cornett, Horn,Serpent,Sackbut Keyboards Clavichord,Tangent piano Fortepiano early version of piano Harpsichord, Organ

Styles and forms The Baroque suite

The Baroque suite often consists of the following movements: Overture The Baroque suite often began with a French overture ("Ouverture" in French), which was followed by a succession of dances of different types. Allemande Often the first dance of an instrumental suite, the allemande was a very popular dance that had its origins in the German Renaissance era, when it was more often called the almain. The allemande was played at a moderate tempo and could start on any beat of the bar. Courante The courante is a lively, French dance in triple meter. The Italian version is called the corrente. Sarabande The sarabande, a Spanish dance, is one of the slowest of the baroque dances. It is also in triple meter and can start on any beat of the bar, although there is an emphasis on the second beat, creating the characteristic 'halting', or iambic rhythm of the sarabande. [14][15] Gigue The gigue is an upbeat and lively baroque dance in compound meter, typically the concluding movement of an instrumental suite. The gigue can start on any beat of the bar and is easily recognized by its rhythmic feel. The gigue originated in the British Isles. Its counterpart in folk music is the jig. These four dance types make up the majority of 17th century suites; later suites interpolate additional movements between the sarabande and gigue: Gavotte The gavotte can be identified by a variety of features; it is in 4/4 time and always starts on the third beat of the bar, although this may sound like the first beat in some cases, as the first and third beats are the strong beats in quadruple time. The gavotte is played at a moderate tempo, although in some cases it may be played faster.[14] Bourre The bourre is similar to the gavotte as it is in 2/2 time although it starts on the second half of the last beat of the bar, creating a different feel to the dance. The bourre is commonly played at a moderate tempo, although for some composers, such as Handel, it can be taken at a much faster tempo. Minuet The minuet is perhaps the best-known of the baroque dances in triple meter. It can start on any beat of the bar. In some suites there may be a Minuet I and II, played in succession, with the Minuet I repeated. Passepied The passepied is a fast dance in binary form and triple meter that originated as a court dance in Brittany. Examples can be found in later suites such as those of Bach and Handel. [14] Rigaudon The rigaudon is a lively French dance in duple meter, similar to the bourre, but rhythmically simpler. It originated as a family of closely related southern-French folk dances, traditionally associated with the provinces of Vavarais, Languedoc, Dauphin, and Provence.

Basso continuo a kind of continuous accompaniment notated with a new music notation
system, figured bass, usually for a sustaining bass instrument and a keyboard instrument. The concerto and concerto grosso Monody music for one melodic voice with accompaniment, characteristic of the early 17th century, especially in Italy Homophony music with one melodic voice and rhythmically similar accompaniment (this and monody are contrasted with the typical Renaissance texture, polyphony)[19] Dramatic musical forms like opera, dramma per musica Combined instrumental-vocal forms, such as the oratorio and cantata New instrumental techniques, like tremolo and pizzicato Clear and linear melody

Other features

Notes ingales a technique of playing pairs of notes of equal written length (typically eighth notes) with a "swung" rhythm, alternating longer and shorter values in pairs, the degree of inequality varying according to context. Particularly characteristic of French performance practice.

The ritornello aria repeated short instrumental interruptions of vocal passages. The concertato style contrast in sound between orchestra and solo-instruments or small groups of instruments. Precise instrumental scoring (in the Renaissance, exact instrumentation for ensemble playing was rarely indicated) Virtuosic instrumental and vocal writing, with appreciation for virtuosity as such Extensive Ornamentation Development to modern Western tonality (major and minor scales) Cadenza (an extended virtuosic section for the soloist usually near the end of a movement of a concerto).

The aria

Vocal Opera, Zarzuela, Opera seria, Opera comique, Opera-ballet, Masque, Oratorio Passion (music),Cantata, Mass (music), Anthem,Monody, Chorale Instrumental Chorale composition, Concerto grosso, Fugue,Suite, Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gigue,Gavotte, Minuet, Sonata, Sonata da camera,Sonata da chiesa,Trio sonata,Partita, Canzona, Sinfonia, Fantasia,Ricercar, Toccata,Prelude, Chaconne, Passacaglia,Chorale prelude,Stylus fantasticus

The Classical Period 1750-1820

Montage of some great classical music composers. From left to right: Top row Antonio Vivaldi, Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven; second row Gioachino Rossini, Felix Mendelssohn, Frdric Chopin,Richard Wagner, Giuseppe Verdi; third row Johann Strauss II, Johannes Brahms, Georges Bizet, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Antonn Dvok; bottom row Edvard Grieg, Edward Elgar, Sergei Rachmaninoff,George Gershwin, Aram Khachaturian

Classical music is the art music produced in, or rooted in, the traditions of Western liturgical and secular music, encompassing a broad period from roughly the 11th century to present times.[1] The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common practice period. European music is largely distinguished from many other non-European and popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 16th century.[2] Western staff notation is used by composers to prescribe to the performer the pitch, speed, meter, individual rhythms and exact execution of a piece of music. This leaves less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitumornamentation, that are frequently heard in non-European art music and popular music. The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to "canonize" the period from Johann Sebastian Bach toBeethoven as a golden age.[6] The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836.

Characteristics of Music
The Classical Period of music differs from the Baroque Age in that is does not value the fluidity and smoothness of the individual elements of music. There are contrasts of mood; many of the pieces in classical music will convey numerous moods. The moods may be a gradual change or a sudden change, depending on the composer, but the composer always has a firm control. Rhythm is another element that is varied in classical music. Unlike the Baroque Age of fluid rhythm that rarely changes, classical composers used unexpected pauses, syncopations, and frequent changes in length of the notes. The texture in classical music in mainly homophonic, meaning there is a main

melody backed with a progression of chords, although, like the rhythm, it can also change unexpectedly. The melodies in classical music have an easy tune to remember. Although they may be complex compositions, there is usually a basic melody to follow. They are often balanced and symmetrical with two phrases of the same length. The widespread use of dynamic change comes from the composers interests in expressing their different layers of emotions. The crescendo and decrescendo became increasingly used to get the audience more involved. The gradual shift from using a piano instead of the harpsichord came from this desire to have more dynamic changes. Unlike the harpsichord, the piano allows the player to adjust the dynamic by pressing harder or softer on the keys. Most classical composers began to want to control their own music, not make music according to what someone else wanted. Literature The most outstanding characteristic of classical music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. This score typically determines details of rhythm, pitch, and, where two or more musicians (whether singers or instrumentalists) are involved, how the various parts are coordinated. The written quality of the music has, in addition to preserving the works, enabled a high level of complexity within them: Bach's fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic that would be impossible in the heat of live improvisation.[9] [edit]Instrumentation

The Dublin Philharmonic Orchestra performs Tchaikovsky's Fourth Symphony. The instruments used in most classical music were largely invented before the mid-19th century (often much earlier), and codified in the 18th and 19th centuries. They consist of the instruments found in an orchestra, together with a few other solo instruments (such as the piano, harpsichord, and organ). The symphony orchestra is the most widely known medium for classical music. [10] The orchestra includes members of the string, woodwind, brass, and percussion families. Electric instruments such as the electric guitar appear occasionally in the classical music of the 20th and 21st centuries. Both classical and popular musicians have experimented in recent decades with electronic instrumentssuch as the synthesizer, electric and digital techniques such as the use of sampled or computer-generated sounds, and the sounds of instruments from other cultures such as thegamelan. None of the bass instruments existed until the Renaissance. In Medieval music, instruments are divided in two categories: loud instruments for use outdoors or in church, and quieter instruments for indoor use. The Baroque orchestra consisted of flutes, oboes, horns and violins, occasionally with

trumpets and timpani.[10] Many instruments today associated with popular music filled important roles in early classical music, such as bagpipes, vihuelas, hurdy-gurdies, and some woodwind instruments. On the other hand, instruments such as the acoustic guitar, once associated mainly with popular music, gained prominence in classical music in the 19th and 20th centuries. While equal temperament became gradually accepted as the dominant musical temperament during the 18th century, different historical temperaments are often used for music from earlier periods. For instance, music of the English Renaissance is often performed inmeantone temperament. Keyboards almost all share a common layout (often called the piano keyboard). [edit]Form Whereas most popular styles lend themselves to the song form, classical music has been noted for its development of highly sophisticated forms of instrumental music: [11] these include the concerto, symphony, sonata, suite, tude, symphonic poem, and others. Classical composers often aspire to imbue their music with a very complex relationship between its affective (emotional) content and the intellectual means by which it is achieved. Many of the most esteemed works of classical music make use of musical development, the process by which a musical idea or motif is repeated in different contexts or in altered form. The sonata form and fugue employ rigorous forms of musical development. The other notable form in classical music is opera. [edit]Technical execution Along with a desire for composers to attain high technical achievement in writing their music, performers of classical music are faced with similar goals of technical mastery, as demonstrated by the proportionately high amount of schooling and private study most successful classical musicians have had when compared to "popular" genre musicians, and the large number of secondary schools, including conservatories, dedicated to the study of classical music. The only other genre in the Western world with comparable secondary education opportunities is jazz. [edit]Complexity Professional performance of classical music repertoire demands a significant level of proficiency in sight-reading and ensemble playing, thorough understanding of tonal and harmonic principles, knowledge of performance practice, and a familiarity with the style/musical idiom inherent to a given period, composer or musical work are among the most essential of skills for the classically trained musician. Works of classical repertoire often exhibit artistic complexity through the use of thematic development, phrasing, harmonization,modulation (change of key), texture, and, of course, musical form itself. Larger-scale compositional forms (such as that of thesymphony, concerto, opera or oratorio, for example) usually represent a hierarchy of smaller units consisting of phrases, periods,sections, and movements. Musical analysis of a composition aims at achieving greater understanding of it, leading to more meaningful hearing and a greater appreciation of the composer's style.

Music in Society
During the eighteenth century, the economy began rising and people starting making more money. The prospering middle class could afford larger homes, nicer clothes and better food. They also wanted aristocratic luxuries such as theatre, literature, and music. The middle class had a great impact on music in the Classical Period. The palace concerts were usually closed to the middle class, so public concerts were held. Many people were not satisfied with always going to concerts to listen to music; they wanted it in their homes as well. They wanted their children to take music lessons and play as well as the aristocratic children. Many composers wrote music to appease the public and their music was often easy enough for amateur musicians to play.

COMPOSERS OF THE CLASSICAL PERIOD Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827) Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Franz Peter Schubert (1797-1828) Carl Philip Stamitz (1745-1801)

The Romantic Period 1820-1900 Romantic music is a term describing a style of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century. It was related to and in Germany dominated Romanticism, the artistic and literary movement that arose in the second half of the 18th century in Europe. Romantic music as a movement evolved from the formats, genres and musical ideas established in earlier periods, such as the classical period, and went further in the name of expression and syncretism of different art forms with music. Romanticism does not necessarily refer to romantic love, though that theme was prevalent in many works composed during this time period, both in literature, painting, or music. Romanticism followed a path that led to the expansion of formal structures for a composition set down or at least created in their general outlines in earlier periods, and the end result is that the pieces are "understood" to be more passionate and expressive, both by 19th century and today's audiences. Because of the expansion of form (those elements pertaining to form, key, instrumentation and the like) within a typical composition, and the growing idiosyncrasies and expressiveness of the new composers from the new century, it thus became easier to identify an artist based on his work or style Romantic music attempted to increase emotional expression and power to describe deeper truths or human feelings, while preserving but in many cases extending the formal structures from the classical period, in others, creating new forms that were deemed better suited to the new subject matter. The subject matter in the new music was now not only purely abstract, but also frequently drawn from other art-form sources such as literature, or history (historical figures) or nature itself. Romanticism
The Romantic movement was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe and strengthened in reaction to theIndustrial Revolution (Encyclopdia Britannica n.d.). In part, it was a revolt against social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientificrationalization of nature (Casey 2008). It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography (Levin 1967,[page needed]), education (Gutek 1987, ch. 12 on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi[page needed]) and natural history (Nichols 2005,

Musical language
The term Romanticism, when applied to music, can be viewed as an artistic response to social, cultural, economic and political influences that had their beginning in the early nineteenth century and lasted through the twentieth century

The effects of Romanticism in music

A freedom in form and design; a more intense personal expression of emotion in which fantasy, imagination and a quest for adventure play an important part. Emphasis on lyrical, songlike melodies; adventurous modulation; richer harmonies, often chromatic, with striking use of discords. Greater sense of ambiguity: especially in tonality or harmonic function, but also in rhythm or meter. Denser, weightier textures with bold dramatic contrasts, exploring a wider range of pitch, dynamics and tone-colours. Expansion of the orchestra, sometimes to gigantic proportions; the invention of the valve system leads to development of the brass section whose weight and power often dominate the texture. Rich variety of types of piece, ranging from songs and fairly short piano pieces to huge musical canvasses with lengthy time-span structures with spectacular, dramatic, and dynamic climaxes. Closer links with other arts lead to a keener interest in programme music (programme symphony, symphonic poem, concert overture). Shape and unity brought to lengthy works by use of recurring themes (sometimes transformed/developed): ide fixe (Berlioz), thematic transformations (Liszt), Leitmotif (Wagner), motto theme. Greater technical virtuosity especially from pianists, violinists and flautists. The idea of instrumental music composed without reference to anything other than itself. The elevation of the performer as genius as demonstrated through the virtuosity of Paganini and Liszt.

Characteristics of Music
The Romantic Period was a time when emotion was poured into the music. Each composer had an individual style and expression. Music lovers could quickly decipher the composer of a piece of music because of its style. Many of the compositions convey nationalism and exoticism. Nationalism is expressed when a composer writes in the style of their native homeland. Exoticism was a style of music in which the composer was fascinated with a foreign land and would create music to sound like it. Composers used exoticism to keep up with their obsessions with remote, picturesque, and mysterious things. Program music was a huge part of the Romantic Period. This is when the composer would write music to follow a story, poem, idea, or scene. The instruments would represent the emotions, characters, and events of a particular story; it would also convey sounds and motion of nature. One of the greatest program music composers was Hector Berlioz, who wrote the Symphonie fantastique, a story about an artist who overdoses on opium. Timbre, or tone color, was used more now than ever before. It was extremely important to the composer to obtain their specific mood or atmosphere that they wanted the audience to feel. Along with new tone colors, composers also sought new harmonies for greater emotional intensity. They began using the chromatic harmony, which uses chords from the twelve tone scale as opposed to the major and minor eight tone scales. By doing this they could use more tension and release methods. They would play extremely dissonant chords, and then release it with a more stable consonant chord to create feelings of yearning, tension, and mystery. To follow the expansion of timbre, and harmonies, dynamics, pitch, and tempo were also expanded. Composers used extreme dynamics ranging from pppp to ffff, which

is extremely soft to extremely loud. Composers experimented with new instruments, such as the piccolo and contrabassoon to expand the pitches of the orchestra. The other thing they varied was tempo. Accelerandos and ritardandos were used more for variety along with the rubato, a hesitation or pushing of the tempo.

Music in Society
In the earlier periods of music, composers had specific jobs, such as writing for churches or courts. In the Romantic Period, more composers became freelancers; Beethoven was one of the first. He inspired many others to freelance and compose for their own pleasure. Much of the music of this time was written for the middle class because they prospered due to the industrial revolution. Because of this demand from the middle class, public orchestras and operas became more popular. Conservatories began forming in the first half of the nineteenth century throughout Europe. The United States also welcomed conservatories inChicago, Cleveland, Boston, Ohio, and Philadelphia during the later nineteenth century. Music became a big part of the home; many families had pianos of their own. Much of the orchestra music was transcribed for the piano for private use. Many composers did not have financial wealth; only a few had money to support them in their suffering times.


Arrigo Boito (1842-1918) Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) Frederic Chopin (1810-1849) Claude Debussy (1862-1918) Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904) Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847) Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)

The Twentieth Century 1900-1945 20th-century music is defined by the sudden emergence of advanced technology for recording and distributing music as well as dramatic innovations in musical forms and styles. Because music was no longer limited to concerts, opera-houses, clubs, and domestic music-making, it became possible for music artists to quickly gain global recognition and influence. Twentieth-century music brought new freedom and wide experimentation with new musical styles and forms that challenged the accepted rules of music of earlier periods. Faster modes of transportation allowed musicians and fans to travel more widely to perform or listen. Amplification permitted giant concerts to be heard by those with the least expensive tickets, and the inexpensive reproduction and transmission or broadcast of music gave rich and poor alike nearly equal access to high-quality music performances.

Characteristics of Music

During the Twentieth Century, tone color became more important than ever before. Many techniques that were considered uncommon before were being used during this time. Many composers used noiselike and percussive instruments. The glissando, a rapid slide up or down the scales, was used more. The percussion instruments became a major part of twentieth century music. They helped give variety of rhythm and tone colors. The music did not blend as well as it did during the Romantic times because the composer often wrote for each different section of the orchestra to have a different tone color. Prior to 1900, chords in music were either considered consonant of dissonant. Dissonant chords were becoming just as common as consonant chords. The composer was no longer tied down to using traditional chords; what they did was up to them and what sound they wanted to achieve. Another key element of the Twentieth Century was the sway from the traditional tonal system. From the 1600s up to the 1900s, songs had a central tone, and were based on a major or minor scale. Many composers now were getting away from the major and minor scales, and would sometimes have more than one central tone. Just as composers were expanding their tonal abilities, they expanded their rhythmic patterns. Many emphasized irregularity and unpredictability. The different rhythmic patterns were drawn from all over the world. The time signature would often change in the middle of piece. Accents and other rhythmic irregularities would come unexpectedly. Composers also wrote polyrhythmic music, where more than one rhythm would be played at the same time by different sections. With all the different tone colors, tonal systems, and varied rhythms, melodies of the twentieth century became unpredictable. Music in Society Music has become an even greater part of society now, because of recordings, radio broadcasts, and the ability to mass print copies of music for anyone to play in the convenience of their home. At the beginning of the twentieth century, though, many people did not accept these outrageous new styles of music, so the composers mostly performed their less dramatic pieces in concerts. Women became more active in the music world as composers, virtuoso soloists, and educators. During the wars, women joined the orchestras as players and conductors. During Hitlers reign in Europe, many composers moved to the U.S. to look for work. The United States became a powerful force for twentieth century music. Jazz, country, and other popular music swept the world. American colleges and universities have expanded music throughout the nation, educating countless numbers of students. These colleges and universities now are what the churches and nobility were in the past. COMPOSERS OF THE 2OTH CENTURY Bela Bartok (1881-1945) Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990) Carlos Chavez (1899-1978) Aaron Copland (1900-1990) George Gershwin (1898-1937) Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)

Composer Igor Stravinsky as drawn by Picasso

In the early 20th century, many composers, including Rachmaninoff, Richard Strauss, Giacomo Puccini, and Edward Elgar, continued to work in forms and in a musical language that derived from the 19th century. However, modernism in music became increasingly prominent and important; among the most important modernists were Alexander Scriabin, Claude Debussy, and postWagnerian composers such as Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss, who experimented with form, tonality and orchestration.[1] Busoni, Stravinsky, Schoenberg, and Schreker were already recognized before 1914 as modernists, and Ives was retrospectively also included in this category for his challenges to the uses of tonality.[1] Composers such as Ravel, Milhaud, and Gershwin combined classical and jazz idioms.

Late-Romantic and modernist nationalism was found also in British, American, and LatinAmerican music of the early 20th century. Composers such as Ralph Vaughan Williams, Aaron Copland,Carlos Chvez, and Heitor Villa-Lobos used folk themes collected by themselves or others in many of their major compositions.

Microtonal music
In the early decades of the 20th century composers such as Julin Carrillo, Mildred Couper, Alois Hba, Charles Ives, Erwin Schulhoff,Ivan Wyschnegradsky turned their attention to quarter tones (24 equal pitches per octave), and other finer divisions. In the middle of the century composers such as Harry Partch and Ben Johnston explored just intonation. In the second half of the century, prominent composers employing microtonality included Easley Blackwood, Jr., Wendy Carlos, Adriaan Fokker, Terry Riley, Ezra Sims, Karlheinz Stockhausen, La Monte Young, and Iannis Xenakis.

A dominant trend in music composed from 1923 to 1950 was neoclassicism, a reaction against the exaggerated gestures and formlessness of late Romanticism which revived the balanced forms and clearly perceptible thematic processes of earlier styles. There were three distinct "schools" of neoclassicism, associated with Igor Stravinsky, Paul Hindemith, and Arnold Schoenberg. Similar sympathies in the second half of the century are generally subsumed under the heading "postmodernism"

Experimental music
A compositional tradition arose in the mid-20th centuryparticularly in North America called "experimental music". Its most famous and influential exponent was John Cage.[3] According to Cage, "an experimental action is one the outcome of which is not foreseen",[4]and he was specifically interested in completed works that performed an unpredictable action

Minimalist music, involving a simplification of materials and intensive repetition of motives began in the late 1950s with the composersTerry Riley, Steve Reich, and Philip Glass. Later, minimalism was adapted to a more traditional symphonic setting by composers including Reich, Glass, and John Adams. Minimalism was practiced heavily throughout the latter half of the century and has carried over into the 21st century, as well as composers like Arvo Prt, Henryk Grecki and John Tavener working in the holy minimalism variant. For more examples see List of 20th-century classical composers.

Contemporary classical music

In the broadest sense, contemporary music is any music being written in the present day. In the context of classical music the term is informally applied to music written in the last half century or so, particularly works post-1960, though standard reference works do not consistently follow this definition. Since it is a word that describes a movable time frame, rather than a particular style or unifying idea, there are no universally agreed on criteria for making these distinctions. Many composers working in the early 21st century were prominent figures in the 20th century. Some younger composers such asOliver Knussen, Thomas Ads, and Michael Daugherty did not rise to prominence until late in the 20th century. Electronic music

Karlheinz Stockhausen in the electronic-music studio of WDR, Cologne in 1991

For centuries, instrumental music had either been created by singing, drawing a bow across or plucking taught gut or metal strings (string instruments), constricting vibrating air (woodwinds and brass) or hitting or stroking something (percussion). In the early twentieth century, devices were invented that were capable of generating sound electronically, without an initial mechanical source of vibration. As early as the 1930s, composers such as Olivier Messiaen incorporated electronic instruments into live performance. Recording technology was used to produce art music, as well. The musique concrte of the late 1940s and 1950s was produced by editing together natural and industrial sounds. In the years following World War II, some composers were quick to adopt developing electronic technology. Electronic music was embraced by composers such as Edgard Varse, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Milton Babbitt,Pierre Boulez, Luigi Nono, Herbert Brn, and Iannis Xenakis. In the 1950s the film industry also began to make extensive use of electronic soundtracks. From the late 1960s onward, much popular music was developed on synthesizers by pioneering groups like Heaven 17, The Human League, Art of Noise, and New Order. Folk music Folk music, in the original sense of the term as coined in the 18th century by Johann Gottfried Herder, is music produced by communal composition and possessing dignity, though by the late 19th century the concept of folk had become a synonym for nation, usually identified as peasants and rural artisans, as in the Merrie England movement and the Irish and Scottish Gaelic Revivals of the 1880s.[6]Folk music was normally shared and performed by the entire community (not by a special class of expert or professional performers, possibly excluding the idea of amateurs), and was transmitted by word of mouth (oral tradition). In addition, folk music was also borrowed by composers in other genres. Some of the work of Aaron Copland clearly draws on American folk music.

Bluegrass music
Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music, and a sub-genre of country music. Bluegrass was inspired by the music of Appalachia.[1] It has mixed roots in Scottish, Irishand English[2] traditional music, and also later influenced by the music of African-Americans[3] through incorporation of jazz elements. Immigrants from Great Britain and Ireland arrived in Appalachia in the 18th century, and brought with them the musical traditions of their homelands. These traditions consisted primarily of English and Scottish ballads which were essentially unaccompanied narratives and dance music, such as Irish reels, which were accompanied by a fiddle.[4]Many older Bluegrass songs come directly from the British Isles. Several Appalachian Bluegrass ballads, such as Pretty Saro, Barbara Allen, Cuckoo Bird and House Carpenter, come from England and preserve the English ballad tradition both melodically and lyrically.[5] Others such as The Twa Sisters also come from England, however the lyrics are about Ireland.[6] Some Bluegrass fiddle songs popular in Appalachia, such as "Leather Britches", and Pretty Polly, have Scottish roots.[7] The dance tune Cumberland Gap may be derived from the tune that accompanies the Scottish ballad Bonnie George Campbell.[8]Other songs have different names in different places, for instance in England there is an old ballad known as A Brisk Young Sailor Courted Me, however exactly the same song in North American Bluegrass is known as "I Wish My Baby Was Born".[9] In bluegrass, as in some forms of jazz, one or more instruments each takes its turn playing the melody and improvising around it, while the others perform accompaniment; this is especially typified in tunes called breakdowns. This is in contrast to old-time music, in which all instruments

play the melody together or one instrument carries the lead throughout while the others provide accompaniment. Breakdowns are often characterized by rapid tempos and unusual instrumental dexterity and sometimes by complex chord changes. Bluegrass music has attracted a diverse following worldwide. Bluegrass pioneer Bill Monroe characterized the genre as: "Scottishbagpipes and ole-time fiddlin'. It's Methodist and Holiness and Baptist. It's blues and jazz, and it has a high lonesome sound."

Popular music Popular music, sometimes abbreviated pop music (although the term "pop" is used in some contexts as a more specific musical genre), is music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are broadly popular or intended for mass consumption and wide commercial distributionin other words, music that forms part of popular culture. Popular music includes Broadway tunes, ballads and singers such as Frank Sinatra. The relationship (particularly, the relative value) of classical music and popular music is a controversial question. Richard Middletonwrites: Neat divisions between "folk" and "popular", and "popular" and "art", are impossible to find... arbitrary criteria [are used] to define the complement of "popular". "Art" music, for example, is generally regarded as by nature complex, difficult, demanding; "popular" music then has to be defined as "simple", "accessible", "facile". But many pieces commonly thought of as "art" (Handel's Hallelujah Chorus, many Schubert songs, many Verdi arias) have qualities of simplicity; conversely, it is by no means obvious that the Sex Pistols' records were "accessible", Frank Zappa's work "simple", orBillie Holiday's "facile".[7] Moreover, composers such as Scott Joplin, George Gershwin and Andrew Lloyd Webber tried to cater to both popular and high brow tastes.


Blues singer Bessie Smith

Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre[1] that originated inAfricanAmerican communities of primarily the "Deep South" of the United States around the end of the 19th century from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads.[2] The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz, rhythm and blues, and rock and roll is characterized by specific chord progressions, of which thetwelve-bar blues chord progression is the most common. The blue notes that, for expressive purposes are sung or played flattened or gradually bent (minor 3rd to major 3rd) in relation to the pitch of the major scale, are also an important part of the sound.

The blues genre is based on the blues form but possesses other characteristics such as specific lyrics, bass lines and instruments. Blues can be subdivided into several subgenresranging from country to urban blues that were more or less popular during different periods of the 20th century. Best known are the Delta, Piedmont, Jump and Chicago blues styles.World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience, especially white listeners. In the 1960s and 1970s, a hybrid form called blues-rock evolved. The term "the blues" refers to the "blue devils", meaning melancholy and sadness; an early use of the term in this sense is found in George Colman's one-act farce Blue Devils(1798).[3] Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to since 1912, when Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" became the first copyrighted blues composition. [4][5] In lyrics the phrase is often used to describe adepressed mood.

Country music, once known as Country and Western music, is a popular musical form developed in the southern United States, with roots in traditional folk music, spirituals, and the blues.

Country music

Rock music is a genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in 1950s America and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States.[1][2][3] It has its roots in 1940s' and 1950s' rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of other genres such as blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical sources. Musically, rock has centered around the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group withbass guitar and drums. Typically, rock is song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature utilizing a verse-chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse and common musical characteristics are difficult to define. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political in emphasis. The dominance of rock by white, male musicians has been seen as one of the key factors shaping the themes explored in rock music. Rock places a higher degree of emphasis on musicianship, live performance, and an ideology of authenticity than pop music. By the late 1960s, referred to as the "golden age"[1] or "classic rock"[2] period, a number of distinct rock music sub-genres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock,country rock, and jazz-rock fusion, many of which contributed to the development ofpsychedelic rock influenced by the counter-cultural psychedelic scene. New genres that emerged from this scene included progressive rock, which extended the artistic elements;glam rock, which highlighted showmanship and visual style; and the diverse and enduring major sub-genre of heavy metal, which emphasized volume, power and speed. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock both intensified and reacted against some of these trends to produce a raw, energetic form of music characterized by overt political and social critiques. Punk was an influence into the 1980s on the subsequent development of other sub-genres, including New Wave, post-punk and eventually the alternative rock movement. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break through into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop, and indie rock. Further fusion sub-genres have since emerged, including pop punk, rap rock, and rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and synthpop revivals at the beginning of the new millennium.

Rock music has also embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major sub-cultures including mods and rockers in the UK and thehippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race, sex and drug use, and is often seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.


Red Hot Chili Peppers in 2006, showing a quartet lineup for a rock band of a lead vocalist, guitarist, bassist, and drummer The sound of rock is traditionally centered around the electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularization of rock and roll. [4] The sound of an electric guitar in rock music is typically supported by an electric bass guitar pioneered in jazz music in the same era,[5] and percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals.[6] This trio of instruments has often been complemented by the inclusion of others, particularly keyboards such as the piano, Hammond organand synthesizers.[7] A group of musicians performing rock music is termed a rock bandor rock group and typically consists of between two and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist, drummer and occasionally that of keyboard player or other instrumentalist.[8] Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.[9] Melodies are often derived from older musical modes, including the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well asmajor and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions.[9]Rock songs from the mid-1960s onwards often used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. [10] Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock. [11] Because of its complex history and tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition."[12]

A simple 4/4 drum pattern common in rock music Play (helpinfo) Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes in addition to romantic love: including sex, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns and life styles.[9] These themes were inherited from a variety of sources, including the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music and rhythm and blues.[13] The predominance of white, male and often middle class musicians in rock music has often been noted [14] and rock has been seen as an appropriation of

black musical forms for a young, white and largely male audience.[15] As a result it has been seen as articulating the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. [16] Since the term rock began to be used in preference to rock and roll from the mid 1960s, it has often been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from which it is often distanced by an emphasis on musicianship, live performance and a focus on serious and progressive themes as part of an ideology of authenticity that is frequently combined with an awareness of the genre's history and development. [17] According to Simon Frith "rock was something more than pop, something more than rock and roll. Rock musicians combined an emphasis on skill and technique with the romantic concept of art as artistic expression, original and sincere". [17] In the new millennium the term rock has sometimes been used as a blanket term including forms such as pop music,reggae music, soul music, and even hip hop, with which it has been influenced but often contrasted through much of its history.[18]

Rock and roll

The foundations of rock music are in rock and roll, which originated in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s, and quickly spread to much of the rest of the world. Its immediate origins lay in a mixing together of various black musical genres of the time, including rhythm and blues and gospel music, with country and western.[19] In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freedbegan playing rhythm and blues music for a multi-racial audience, and is credited with first using the phrase "rock and roll" to describe the music.[20]

Elvis Presley in a promotion shot for Jailhouse Rock in 1957 Debate surrounds which record should be considered the first rock and roll record. Contenders include Goree Carter's "Rock Awhile" (1949);[21] Jimmy Preston's "Rock the Joint" (1949), which was later covered by Bill Haley & His Comets in 1952;[22] and "Rocket 88" by Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats (in fact, Ike Turner and his band The Kings of Rhythm), recorded by Sam Phillips for Sun Records in 1951.[23] Four years later, Bill Haley's "Rock Around the Clock" (1955) became the first rock and roll song to top Billboard magazine's main sales and airplay charts, and opened the door worldwide for this new wave of popular culture.[24] It has been argued that "That's All Right (Mama)" (1954), Elvis Presley's first single for Sun Records in Memphis, was the first rock and roll record,[25] but, at the same time, Big Joe Turner's "Shake, Rattle & Roll", later covered by Haley, was already at the top of the Billboard R&B charts. Other artists with early rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Fats Domino, Little Richard,Jerry Lee Lewis, and Gene Vincent.[23] Soon rock and roll was the major force in American record sales and crooners, such as Eddie Fisher, Perry Como, and Patti Page, who had dominated the previous decade of popular music, found their access to the pop charts significantly curtailed. [26] Rock and roll has been seen as leading to a number of distinct sub-genres, including rockabilly, combining rock and roll with "hillbilly" country music, which was usually played and recorded in the mid-1950s by white singers such asCarl Perkins, Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly and with the

greatest commercial success, Elvis Presley.[27] In contrast doo wop placed an emphasis on multi-part vocal harmonies and meaningless backing lyrics (from which the genre later gained its name), which were usually supported with light instrumentation and had its origins in 1930s and '40s African American vocal groups.[28] Acts like The Crows, The Penguins, The El Dorados and The Turbans all scored major hits, and groups like The Platters, with songs including "The Great Pretender" (1955), and The Coasters with humorous songs like "Yakety Yak" (1958), ranked among the most successful rock and roll acts of the period.[29] The era also saw the growth in popularity of the electric guitar, and the development of a specifically rock and roll style of playing through such exponents as Chuck Berry, Link Wray, and Scotty Moore.[30] The use of distortion, pioneered by electric blues guitarists such as Guitar Slim,[31] Willie Johnson and Pat Hare in the early 1950s,[32] was popularized by Chuck Berry in the mid1950s.[33] The use of power chords, pioneered by Willie Johnson and Pat Hare in the early 1950s,[32] was popularized by Link Wray in the late 1950s.[34] In the United Kingdom, the trad jazz and folk movements brought visiting blues music artists to Britain.[35] Lonnie Donegan's 1955 hit "Rock Island Line" was a major influence and helped to develop the trend of skiffle music groups throughout the country, many of which, including John Lennon's The Quarrymen, moved on to play rock and roll.[36] Commentators have traditionally perceived a decline of rock and roll in the late 1950s and early 1960s. By 1959, the death of Buddy Holly, The Big Bopper and Richie Valens in a plane crash, the departure of Elvis for the army, the retirement of Little Richard to become a preacher, prosecutions of Jerry Lee Lewis and Chuck Berry and the breaking of the payola scandal (which implicated major figures, including Alan Freed, in bribery and corruption in promoting individual acts or songs), gave a sense that the rock and roll era established up to that point had come to an end. [23]

The "in-between years"

Chubby Checker in 2005 The period of the later 1950s and early 1960s, between the end of the initial period of innovation and what became known in the US as the "British Invasion", has traditionally been seen as an era of hiatus for rock and roll. More recently some authors have emphasised important innovations and trends in this period without which future developments would not have been possible. [37][38] While early rock and roll, particularly through the advent of rockabilly, saw the greatest commercial success for male and white performers, in this era the genre was dominated by black and female artists. Rock and roll had not disappeared at the end of the 1950s and some of its energy can be seen in the Twistdance craze of the early '60s, mainly benefiting the career of Chubby Checker.[38] Having died down in the late 1950s, doo wop enjoyed a revival in the same period, with hits for acts like The Marcels,The Capris, Maurice Williams and Shep and the Limelights.[29] The rise of girl groups like The Chantels, The Shirelles and The Crystals placed an emphasis on harmonies and polished production that was in contrast to earlier rock and roll. [39] Some of the most significant girl group hits were products of the Brill Building Sound, named after the block in New York where

many songwriters were based, which included the number 1 hit for the Shirelles "Will You Love Me Tomorrow" in 1960, penned by the partnership of Gerry Goffin and Carole King.[40] Cliff Richard had the first British rock and roll hit with "Move It", effectively ushering in the sound of British rock.[41] At the start of the 1960s, his backing group The Shadows was the most successful group recording instrumentals.[42] While rock 'n' roll was fading into lightweight pop and ballads, British rock groups at clubs and local dances, heavily influenced by blues-rock pioneers like Alexis Korner, were starting to play with an intensity and drive seldom found in white American acts.[43] Also significant was the advent of soul music as a major commercial force. Developing out of rhythm and blues with a re-injection of gospel music and pop, led by pioneers like Ray Charles and Sam Cooke from the mid-1950s, by the early '60s figures like Marvin Gaye,James Brown, Aretha Franklin, Curtis Mayfield and Stevie Wonder were dominating the R&B charts and breaking through into the main pop charts, helping to accelerate their desegregation, while Motown and Stax/Volt Records were becoming major forces in the record industry. [44] All of these elements, including the close harmonies of doo wop and girl groups, the carefully crafted songwriting of the Brill Building Sound and the polished production values of soul, have been seen as influencing the Merseybeat sound, particularly the early work of The Beatles, and through them the form of later rock music.[45] Some historians of music have also pointed to important and innovative technical developments that built on rock and roll in this period, including the electronic treatment of sound by such innovators as Joe Meek, and the elaborate production methods of the

Surf music
The instrumental rock and roll pioneered by performers such as Duane Eddy, Link Wray, and The Ventures was developed by Dick Dalewho added distinctive "wet" reverb, rapid alternate picking, as well as Middle Eastern and Mexican influences, producing the regional hit "Let's Go Trippin'" in 1961 and launching the surf music craze, following up with songs like "Misirlou" (1962).[46][47] Like Dale and hisDel-Tones, most early surf bands were formed in Southern California, including the BelAirs, the Challengers, and Eddie & the Showmen.[47] The Chantays scored a top ten national hit with "Pipeline" in 1963 and probably the best known surf tune was 1963's "Wipe Out", by the Surfaris, which hit number 2 and number 10 on the Billboard charts in 1965.[48]

The Beach Boys performing in 1964 The growing popularity of the genre led groups from other areas to try their hand. These included The Astronauts, from Boulder, Colorado, The Trashmen, from Minneapolis, Minnesota, who had a number 4 hit with "Surfin Bird" in 1964 and The Rivieras from South Bend, Indiana, who reached number 5 in 1964 with "California Sun".[46] The Atlantics, fromSydney, Australia, made a significant contribution to the genre, with their hit "Bombora" (1963). [46] European instrumental bands around this time generally focused more on the more rock and roll style played by The Shadows, but The Dakotas, who were the British backing band for Merseybeat singer Billy J. Kramer, gained some attention as surf musicians with "Cruel Sea" (1963), which was later covered by American instrumental surf bands, including The Ventures. [49] Surf music achieved its greatest commercial success as vocal music, particularly the work of the Beach Boys, formed in 1961 in Southern California. Their early albums included both

instrumental surf rock (among them covers of music by Dick Dale) and vocal songs, drawing on rock and roll and doo wop and the close harmonies of vocal pop acts like the Four Freshmen.[46] Their first chart hit, "Surfin'" in 1962 reached the Billboard top 100 and helped make the surf music craze a national phenomenon.[50] From 1963 the group began to leave surfing behind as subject matter as Brian Wilson became their major composer and producer, moving on to the more general themes of male adolescence including cars and girls in songs like "Fun, Fun, Fun" (1964) and "California Girls" (1965).[50] Other vocal surf acts followed, including one-hit wonders likeRonny & the Daytonas with "G. T. O." (1964) and Rip Chords with "Hey Little Cobra", which both reached the top ten, but the only other act to achieve sustained success with the formula were Jan & Dean, who had a number 1 hit with "Surf City" (co-written with Brian Wilson) in 1963.[46] The surf music craze and the careers of almost all surf acts was effectively ended by the arrival of the British Invasion from 1964.[46] Only the Beach Boys were able to sustain a creative career into the mid-1960s, producing a string of hit singles and albums, including the highly regarded Pet Sounds in 1966, which made them, arguably, the only American rock or pop act that could rival The Beatles. [50]

The British Invasion

The Beatles arriving in New York in January 1964 at the beginning of the British Invasion By the end of 1962, what would become the British rock scene had started with beat groupslike The Beatles, Gerry & The Pacemakers and The Searchers from Liverpool and Freddie and the Dreamers, Herman's Hermits and The Hollies from Manchester. They drew on a wide range of American influences including soul, rhythm and blues and surf music, [51] initially reinterpreting standard American tunes and playing for dancers. Bands like The Animals fromNewcastle and Them from Belfast,[52] and particularly those from London like The Rolling Stones and The Yardbirds, were much more directly influenced by rhythm and blues and later blues music.[53] Soon these groups were composing their own material, combining US forms of music and infusing it with a high energy beat. Beat bands tended towards "bouncy, irresistible melodies", while early British rhythm and blues acts tended towards less sexually innocent, more aggressive songs, often adopting an anti-establishment stance. There was, however, particularly in the early stages, considerable musical crossover between the two tendencies. [54] By 1963, led by the Beatles, beat groups had begun to achieve national success in Britain, soon to be followed into the charts by the more rhythm and blues focused acts.[55] In 1964 the Beatles achieved a breakthrough to mainstream popularity in the United States. "I Want to Hold Your Hand" was the band's first number 1 hit on the Billboard Hot 100, spending 7 weeks at the top and a total of 15 weeks on the chart. [56][57] Their first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show on 9 February, drawing an estimated 73 million viewers (at the time a record for an American television program) often is considered a milestone in American pop culture. The Beatles went on to become the biggest selling rock band of all time and they were followed into the US charts by numerous British bands.[54] During the next two years British acts dominated their own and the US charts with Peter and Gordon, The Animals, Manfred Mann, Petula Clark, Freddie and the Dreamers,Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders, Herman's Hermits, The Rolling Stones, The Troggs, and Donovan all having one or more number 1 singles.[56] Other major acts that were part of the invasion included The Kinks and The Dave Clark Five.[58][59] The British Invasion helped internationalize the production of rock and roll, opening the door for subsequent British (and Irish) performers to achieve international success. [60] In America it arguably

spelled the end of instrumental surf music, vocal girl groups and (for a time) the teen idols, that had dominated the American charts in the late 1950s and '60s. [61] It dented the careers of established R&B acts likeFats Domino and Chubby Checker and even temporarily derailed the chart success of surviving rock and roll acts, including Elvis.[62]The British Invasion also played a major part in the rise of a distinct genre of rock music, and cemented the primacy of the rock group, based on guitars and drums and producing their own material as singer-songwriters.[28] Garage rock Garage rock was a form of amateurish rock music, particularly prevalent in North America in the mid-1960s and so called because of the perception that it was rehearsed in a suburban family garage.[63][64] Garage rock songs revolved around the traumas of high school life, with songs about "lying girls" being particularly common.[65] The lyrics and delivery were more aggressive than was common at the time, often with growled or shouted vocals that dissolved into incoherent screaming.[63] They ranged from crude one-chord music (likethe Seeds) to near-studio musician quality (including the Knickerbockers, the Remains, and the Fifth Estate). There were also regional variations in many parts of the country with flourishing scenes particularly in California and Texas.[65] The Pacific Northwest states of Washington and Oregon had perhaps the most defined regional sound.[66]

The D-Men (later The Fifth Estate) in 1964 The style had been evolving from regional scenes as early as 1958. "Tall Cool One" (1959) byThe Wailers and "Louie Louie" by The Kingsmen (1963) are mainstream examples of the genre in its formative stages.[67] By 1963, garage band singles were creeping into the national charts in greater numbers, including Paul Revere and the Raiders (Boise),[68] the Trashmen (Minneapolis)[69] and the Rivieras (South Bend, Indiana).[70] Other influential garage bands, such as the Sonics (Tacoma, Washington), never reached the Billboard Hot 100.[71] In this early period many bands were heavily influenced by surf rock and there was a cross-pollination between garage rock and frat rock, sometimes viewed as merely a sub-genre of garage rock.[72] The British Invasion of 196466 greatly influenced garage bands, providing them with a national audience, leading many (often surf or hot rod groups) to adopt a British Invasion lilt, and encouraging many more groups to form.[65] Thousands of garage bands were extant in the US and Canada during the era and hundreds produced regional hits.[65] Examples include: "The Witch" by Tacoma's The Sonics(1965), "Where You Gonna Go" by Detroit's Unrelated Segments (1967), "Girl I Got News for You" by Miami's Birdwatchers (1966) and "125" by Montreal's The Haunted. Despite scores of bands being signed to major or large regional labels, most were commercial failures. It is generally agreed that garage rock peaked both commercially and artistically around 1966. [65] By 1968 the style largely disappeared from the national charts and at the local level as amateur musicians faced college, work or the draft.[65] New styles had evolved to replace garage rock (including blues rock, progressive rock and country rock).[65] In Detroit garage rock stayed alive until the early '70s, with bands like the MC5 and The Stooges, who employed a much more aggressive

style. These bands began to be labelledpunk rock and are now often seen as proto-punk or proto-hard rock. Pop rock

The Everly Brothers in 2006 The term pop has been used since the early 20th century to refer to popular music in general, but from the mid-1950s it began to be used for a distinct genre, aimed at a youth market, often characterized as a softer alternative to rock and roll. [74][75] In the aftermath of the British Invasion, from about 1967, it was increasingly used in opposition to the term rock music, to describe a form that was more commercial, ephemeral and accessible.[17] In contrast rock music was seen as focusing on extended works, particularly albums, was often associated with particular sub-cultures (like the counter-culture), placed an emphasis on artistic values and "authenticity", stressed live performance and instrumental or vocal virtuosity and was often seen as encapsulating progressive developments rather than simply reflecting existing trends.[17][74][75][76] Nevertheless much pop and rock music has been very similar in sound, instrumentation and even lyrical content. The terms "pop-rock" and "power pop" have been used to describe more commercially successful music that uses elements from, or the form of, rock music. [77] Pop-rock has been defined as an "upbeat variety of rock music represented by artists such as Elton John, Paul McCartney, The Everly Brothers, Rod Stewart, Chicago, andPeter Frampton."[78] In contrast, self-published music reviewer George Starostin defines it as a subgenre of pop music that uses catchy pop songs that are mostly guitar-based. Starostin argues that most of what is traditionally called "power pop" falls into the pop rock subgenre and that the lyrical content of pop rock is "normally secondary to the music."[79] The term power pop was coined by Pete Townshend of The Who in 1966, but not much used until it was applied to bands like Badfinger in the 1970s, who proved some of the most commercially successful of the period.[80] Throughout its history there have been rock acts that have used elements of pop, and pop artists who have used rock music as a basis for their work, or striven for rock "authenticity".

Blues rock
Although the first impact of the British Invasion on American popular music was through beat and R&B based acts, the impetus was soon taken up by a second wave of bands that drew their inspiration more directly from American blues, including the Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds.[81] British blues musicians of the late 1950s and early '60s had been inspired by the acoustic playing of figures such as Lead Belly, who was a major influence on the Skiffle craze, and Robert Johnson.[82] Increasingly they adopted a loud amplified sound, often centered around the electric guitar, based on the Chicago blues, particularly after the tour of Britain by Muddy Waters in 1958, which prompted Cyril Davies and guitarist Alexis Korner to form the band Blues Incorporated.[83] The band involved and inspired many of the figures of the subsequent British blues boom, including members of the Rolling Stones and Cream, combining blues standards and forms with rock instrumentation and emphasis.[43]

Eric Clapton performing in Barcelona in 1974 The other key focus for British blues was around John Mayall who formed the Bluesbreakers, whose members included Eric Clapton (after his departure from The Yardbirds) and laterPeter Green. Particularly significant was the release of Blues Breakers with Eric Clapton(Beano) album (1966), considered one of the seminal British blues recordings and the sound of which was much emulated in both Britain and the United States.[84] Eric Clapton went on to form supergroups Cream, Blind Faith and Derek and the Dominos, followed by an extensive solo career that helped bring blues rock into the mainstream.[83] Green, along with the Bluesbreaker's rhythm section Mick Fleetwood and John McVie, formed Peter Green'sFleetwood Mac, who enjoyed some of the greatest commercial success in the genre.[83] In the late '60s Jeff Beck, also an alumnus of the Yardbirds, moved blues rock in the direction of heavy rock with his band, The Jeff Beck Group.[83] The last Yardbirds guitarist was Jimmy Page, who went on to form The New Yardbirds which rapidly became Led Zeppelin. Many of the songs on their first three albums, and occasionally later in their careers, were expansions on traditional blues songs. [83] In America, blues rock had been pioneered in the early 1960s by guitarist Lonnie Mack,[85] but the genre began to take off in the mid-'60s as acts developed a sound similar to British blues musicians. Key acts included Paul Butterfield (whose band acted like Mayall's Bluesbreakers in Britain as a starting point for many successful musicians), Canned Heat, the early Jefferson Airplane, Janis Joplin,Johnny Winter, The J. Geils Band and Jimi Hendrix with his power trios, The Jimi Hendrix Experience and Band of Gypsys, whose guitar virtuosity and showmanship would be among the most emulated of the decade.[83] Blues rock bands from the southern states, like Allman Brothers Band, Lynyrd Skynyrd, and ZZ Top, incorporated country elements into their style to produce distinctive Southern rock.[86] Early blues rock bands often emulated jazz, playing long, involved improvisations, which would later be a major element of progressive rock. From about 1967 bands like Cream and The Jimi Hendrix Experience had begun to move away from purely blues-based music into psychedelia.[87] By the 1970s, blues rock had become heavier and more riff-based, exemplified by the work of Led Zeppelin and Deep Purple, and the lines between blues rock and hard rock "were barely visible",[87] as bands began recording rock-style albums.[87] The genre was continued in the 1970s by figures such as George Thorogood and Pat Travers,[83] but, particularly on the British scene (except perhaps for the advent of groups such as Status Quo and Foghat who moved towards a form of high energy and repetitiveboogie rock), bands became focused on heavy metal innovation, and blues rock began to slip out of the mainstream.[88]

Folk rock

Joan Baez and Bob Dylan in 1963 By the 1960s, the scene that had developed out of the American folk music revival had grown to a major movement, utilising traditional music and new compositions in a traditional style, usually on acoustic instruments.[89] In America the genre was pioneered by figures such asWoody Guthrie and Pete Seeger and often identified with progressive or labor politics.[89] In the early sixties figures such as Joan Baez and Bob Dylan had come to the fore in this movement as singersongwriters.[90] Dylan had begun to reach a mainstream audience with hits including "Blowin' in the Wind" (1963) and "Masters of War" (1963), which brought "protest songs" to a wider public,[91] but, although beginning to influence each other, rock and folk music had remained largely separate genres, often with mutually exclusive audiences.[92] Early attempts to combine elements of folk and rock included the Animals "House of the Rising Sun" (1964), which was the first commercially successful folk song to be recorded with rock and roll instrumentation[93] and the Beatles "I'm a Loser" (1964), arguably the first Beatles song to be influenced directly by Dylan.[94] The folk rock movement is usually thought to have taken off with The Byrds' recording of Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man" which topped the charts in 1965.[92] With members who had been part of the cafe-based folk scene in Los Angeles, the Byrds adopted rock instrumentation, including drums and 12-stringRickenbacker guitars, which became a major element in the sound of the genre.[92] Later that year Dylan adopted electric instruments, much to the outrage of many folk purists, with his "Like a Rolling Stone" becoming a US hit single.[92] Folk rock particularly took off in California, where it led acts like The Mamas & the Papas and Crosby, Stills and Nash to move to electric instrumentation, and in New York, where it spawned performers including The Lovin' Spoonful and Simon and Garfunkel, with the latter's acoustic "The Sounds of Silence" (1965) being remixed with rock instruments to be the first of many hits.[92] These acts directly influenced British performers like Donovan and Fairport Convention.[92] In 1969 Fairport Convention abandoned their mixture of American covers and Dylan-influenced songs to play traditional English folk music on electric instruments. [95] This electric folk was taken up by bands including Pentangle, Steeleye Span and The Albion Band, which turn prompted Irish groups like Horslipsand Scottish acts like the JSD Band, Spencer's Feat and later Five Hand Reel, to use their traditional music to create a brand of Celtic rock in the early 1970s.[96] Folk rock reached its peak of commercial popularity in the period 196768, before many acts moved off in a variety of directions, including Dylan and the Byrds, who began to develop country rock.[97] However, the hybridization of folk and rock has been seen as having a major influence on the development of rock music, bringing in elements of psychedelia, and helping to develop the ideas of the singer-songwriter, the protest song and concepts of "authenticity".[92][98] [edit]Psychedelic rock

Main article: Psychedelic rock See also: Raga rock

Jimi Hendrix performing on Dutch TV in 1967 Psychedelic music's LSD-inspired vibe began in the folk scene, with the New York-based Holy Modal Rounders using the term in their 1964 recording of "Hesitation Blues".[99] The first group to advertise themselves as psychedelic rock were the 13th Floor Elevators from Texas, at the end of 1965; producing an album that made their direction clear, with The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators the following year.[99] The Beatles introduced many of the major elements of the psychedelic sound to audiences in this period, with "I Feel Fine" using guitar feedback; in late 1965 the Rubber Soul album included the use of a sitar on "Norwegian Wood" and they employedbackmasking on their 1966 single B-side "Rain" and other tracks that appeared on their Revolveralbum later that year.[100] Psychedelic rock particularly took off in California's emerging music scene as groups followed the Byrds from folk to folk rock from 1965.[100] The psychedelic life style had already developed in San Francisco and particularly prominent products of the scene were The Grateful Dead, Country Joe and the Fish, The Great Society and Jefferson Airplane.[100] The Byrds rapidly progressed from purely folk rock in 1966 with their single "Eight Miles High", widely taken to be a reference to drug use. In Britain arguably the most influential band in the genre were The Yardbirds, [100] who, with Jeff Beck as their guitarist, increasingly moved into psychedelic territory, adding up-tempo improvised "rave ups", Gregorian chant and world music influences to songs including "Still I'm Sad" (1965) and "Over Under Sideways Down" (1966). [101] From 1966 the UK underground scene based in North London, supported new acts including Pink Floyd, Traffic and Soft Machine.[102] The same year saw Donovan's folk-influenced hit album Sunshine Superman, considered one of the first psychedelic pop records, as well as the dbuts of blues rock bands Cream and The Jimi Hendrix Experience, whose extended guitar-heavy jams became a key feature of psychedelia.[100] Psychedelic rock reached its apogee in the last years of the decade. 1967 saw the Beatles release their definitive psychedelic statement in Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, including the controversial track "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" and the Rolling Stones responded later that year with Their Satanic Majesties Request.[100] Pink Floyd produced what is usually seen as their best psychedelic work The Piper at the Gates of Dawn.[100] In America the Summer of Love was prefaced by the Human Be-In event and reached its peak at the Monterey Pop Festival, the latter helping to make major American stars of Jimi Hendrix and The Who, whose single "I Can See for Miles" delved into psychedelic territory.[103] Key recordings included Jefferson Airplane's Surrealistic Pillow andThe Doors' Strange Days.[104] These trends climaxed in the 1969 Woodstock festival, which saw performances by most of the major psychedelic acts, but by the end of the decade psychedelic

rock was in retreat. Brian Wilson of the Beach Boys, Brian Jones of the Rolling Stones, Peter Green of Fleetwood Mac and Syd Barrett of Pink Floyd were early "acid casualties", the Jimi Hendrix Experience and Cream broke up before the end of the decade and many surviving acts moved away from psychedelia into more back-to-basics "roots rock", the wider experimentation of progressive rock, or riff laden heavy rock.[100] [edit]Progression (late 1960s to mid-1970s) [edit]Roots rock

Main article: Roots rock See also: Country rock and Southern rock

Roots rock is the term now used to describe a move away from what some saw as the excesses of the psychedelic scene, to a more basic form of rock and roll that incorporated its original influences, particularly country and folk music, leading to the creation of country rock and Southern rock. [105] In 1966 Bob Dylan went to Nashville to record the album Blonde on Blonde.[106] This, and subsequent more clearly country-influenced albums, have been seen as creating the genre of country folk, a route pursued by a number of, largely acoustic, folk musicians. [106] Other acts that followed the back-tobasics trend were the Canadian group The Band and the California-based Creedence Clearwater Revival, both of which mixed basic rock and roll with folk, country and blues, to be among the most successful and influential bands of the late 1960s.[107] The same movement saw the beginning of the recording careers of Californian solo artists like Ry Cooder, Bonnie Raitt and Lowell George,[108] and influenced the work of established performers such as the Rolling Stones' Beggar's Banquet (1968) and the Beatles' Let It Be (1970).[100]

The Eagles during their 20082009 Long Road out of Eden Tour In 1968 Gram Parsons recorded Safe at Home with the International Submarine Band, arguably the first true country-rock album.[109] Later that year he joined the Byrds for Sweetheart of the Rodeo (1968), generally considered one of the most influential recordings in the genre. [109] The Byrds continued in the same vein, but Parsons left to be joined by another ex-Byrds member Chris Hillman in forming The Flying Burrito Brothers who helped establish the respectability and parameters of the genre, before Parsons departed to pursue a solo career. [109] Country rock was particularly popular in the Californian music scene, where it was adopted by bands including Hearts and Flowers, Poco and New Riders of the Purple Sage,[109] the Beau Brummels[109] and the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band.[110] Some performers also enjoyed a renaissance by adopting country sounds, including: the Everly Brothers; one-time teen idol Rick Nelson who became the frontman for the Stone Canyon Band; former Monkee Mike Nesmith who formed the First National Band; and Neil Young.[109] The Dillards were, unusually, a country act, who moved towards rock music. [109] The greatest commercial success for country rock came in the 1970s, with artist including the Doobie Brothers, Emmylou Harris, Linda Ronstadt and the Eagles (made up of members of the Burritos, Poco and Stone Canyon Band), who emerged as one of the most successful rock acts of all time, producing albums that included Hotel California (1976).[111] The founders of Southern rock are usually thought to be the Allman Brothers Band, who developed a distinctive sound, largely derived from blues rock, but incorporating elements of boogie, soul, and country in the early 1970s.[86] The most successful act to follow them were Lynyrd Skynyrd, who helped establish the "Good ol' boy" image of the sub-genre and the general shape of 1970s' guitar rock.[86]Their successors included the fusion/progressive instrumentalists Dixie Dregs, the more

country-influenced Outlaws, jazz-leaning Wet Willie and (incorporating elements of R&B and gospel) the Ozark Mountain Daredevils.[86] After the loss of original members of the Allmans and Lynyrd Skynyrd, the genre began to fade in popularity in the late 1970s, but was sustained the 1980s with acts like .38 Special, Molly Hatchet and The Marshall Tucker Band.[86] [edit]Progressive rock

Main article: Progressive rock See also: Art rock, Electronic rock, and Kraut rock

Progressive rock, a term sometimes used interchangeably with art rock, was an attempt to move beyond established musical formulas by experimenting with different instruments, song types, and forms.[112] From the mid-1960s The Left Banke, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones and The Beach Boys, had pioneered the inclusion of harpsichords, wind and string sections on their recordings to produce a form of Baroque rock and can be heard in singles like Procol Harum's "A Whiter Shade of Pale" (1967), with its Bach inspired introduction.[113] The Moody Blues used a full orchestra on their album Days of Future Passed (1967) and subsequently created orchestral sounds with synthesisers.[112] Classical orchestration, keyboards and synthesisers were a frequent edition to the established rock format of guitars, bass and drums in subsequent progressive rock. [114]

Prog-rock band Yes performing in concert inIndianapolis in 1977 Instrumentals were common, while songs with lyrics were sometimes conceptual, abstract, or based in fantasy and science fiction.[115] The Pretty Things' SF Sorrow(1968), The Who's Tommy (1969) and The Kinks' Arthur (Or the Decline and Fall of the British Empire) (1969) introduced the format of rock operas and opened the door toconcept albums, often telling an epic story or tackling a grand overarching theme.[116]King Crimson's 1969 dbut album, In the Court of the Crimson King, which mixed powerful guitar riffs and mellotron, with jazz and symphonic music, is often taken as the key recording in progressive rock, helping the widespread adoption of the genre in the early 1970s among existing blues-rock and psychedelic bands, as well as newly formed acts.[112] The vibrant Canterbury scene saw acts following Soft Machine from psychedelia, through jazz influences, toward more expansive hard rock, including Caravan, Hatfield and the North, Gong, and National Health.[117] Greater commercial success was enjoyed by Pink Floyd, who also moved away from psychedelia after the departure of Syd Barrett in 1968, with Dark Side of the Moon(1973), seen as a masterpiece of the genre, becoming one of the best-selling albums of all time.[118] There was an emphasis on instrumental virtuosity, with Yes showcasing the skills of both guitarist Steve Howe and keyboard player Rick Wakeman, whileEmerson, Lake & Palmer were a supergroup who produced some of the genre's most technically demanding work. [112] Jethro Tull andGenesis both pursued very different, but distinctly English, brands of music.[119] Renaissance, formed in 1969 by ex-Yardbirds Jim McCarty and Keith Relf, evolved into a high-concept band featuring the threeoctave voice of Annie Haslam.[120] Most British bands depended on a relatively small cult following, but a handful, including Pink Floyd, Genesis and Jethro Tull, managed to produce top ten singles at home and break the American market.[121] The American brand of prog rock varied from the eclectic and innovative Frank Zappa, Captain Beefheart and Blood, Sweat and Tears,[122] to more pop rock orientated bands like Boston, Foreigner, Kansas, Journey and Styx.[112] These, beside British bandsSupertramp and ELO, all demonstrated a prog rock influence and while ranking among the

most commercially successful acts of the 1970s, issuing in the era of pomp or arena rock, which would last until the costs of complex shows (often with theatrical staging and special effects), would be replaced by more economical rock festivals as major live venues in the 1990s.[123] The instrumental strand of the genre resulted in albums like Mike Oldfield's Tubular Bells (1973), the first record, and worldwide hit, for the Virgin Records label, which became a mainstay of the genre.[112] Instrumental rock was particularly significant in continental Europe, allowing bands like Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Can and Faust to circumvent the language barrier.[124] Their synthesiser-heavy "Kraut rock", along with the work of Brian Eno (for a time the keyboard player with Roxy Music), would be a major influence on subsequent synth rock.[112] With the advent of punk rock and technological changes in the late 1970s, progressive rock was increasingly dismissed as pretentious and overblown.[125][126] Many bands broke up, but some, including Genesis, ELP, Yes, and Pink Floyd, regularly scored top ten albums with successful accompanying worldwide tours. [73] Some bands which emerged in the aftermath of punk, such as Siouxsie and the Banshees, Ultravox and Simple Minds, showed the influence of prog, as well as their more usually recognized punk influences.[127] [edit]Jazz rock

Main article: Jazz rock

Jaco Pastorius of Weather Report in 1980 In the late 1960s jazz rock emerged as a distinct sub-genre out of the blues rock, psychedelic and progressive rock scenes, mixing the power of rock with the musical complexity and improvisational elements of jazz. Many early US rock and roll musicians had begun in jazz and carried some of these elements into the new music. In Britain the sub-genre of blues rock, and many of its leading figures, likeGinger Baker and Jack Bruce of Cream, had emerged from the British jazz scene. Often highlighted as the first true jazz-rock recording is the only album by the relatively obscure New York-based The Free Spirits with Out of Sight and Sound (1966). The first group of bands to selfconsciously use the label were R&B oriented white rock bands that made use of jazzy horn sections, like Electric Flag, Blood, Sweat and Tears and Chicago, to become some of the most commercially successful acts of the later 1960s and early 1970s.[128] British acts to emerge in the same period from the blues scene, to make use of the tonal and improvisational aspects of jazz, included Nucleus[129] and the Graham Bond and John Mayall spinoffColosseum. From the psychedelic rock and the Canterbury scenes came Soft Machine, who, it has been suggested, produced one of the artistically successfully fusions of the two genres. Perhaps the most critically acclaimed fusion came from the jazz side of the equation, with Miles Davis, particularly influenced by the work of Hendrix, incorporating rock instrumentation into his sound for the albumBitches Brew (1970). It was a major influence on subsequent rock-influenced jazz artists, including Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea andWeather Report.[128] The genre began to fade in the late 1970s, as a mellower form of fusion began to take its audience,[130] but acts like Steely

Dan,[130] Frank Zappa and Joni Mitchell recorded significant jazz-influenced albums in this period, and it has continued to be a major influence on rock music.[128] [edit]Glam rock

Main article: Glam rock

David Bowie during the Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders Tour in 1972 Glam rock emerged out of the English psychedelic and art rock scenes of the late 1960s and can be seen as both an extension of and reaction against those trends. [131] Musically diverse, varying between the simple rock and roll revivalism of figures like Alvin Stardust to the complex art rock of Roxy Music, and can be seen as much as a fashion as a musical sub-genre.[131] Visually it was a mesh of various styles, ranging from 1930s Hollywood glamor, through 1950s pin-up sex appeal, prewar Cabaret theatrics, Victorian literary and symbolist styles, science fiction, to ancient and occult mysticism and mythology; manifesting itself in outrageous clothes, makeup, hairstyles, and platform-soled boots.[132] Glam is most noted for its sexual and gender ambiguity and representations of androgyny, beside extensive use of theatrics.[133] It was prefigured by the showmanship and gender identity manipulation of American acts such as The Cockettes and Alice Cooper.[134] The origins of glam rock are associated with Marc Bolan, who had renamed his folk duo to T. Rexand taken up electric instruments by the end of the 1960s. Often cited as the moment of inception is his appearance on the UK TV programme Top of the Pops in December 1970 wearing glitter, to perform what would be his first number 1 single "Ride a White Swan".[135] From 1971, already a minor star, David Bowie developed his Ziggy Stardust persona, incorporating elements of professional make up, mime and performance into his act.[136] These performers were soon followed in the style by acts including Roxy Music, Sweet, Slade, Mott the Hoople, Mud and Alvin Stardust.[136] While highly successful in the single charts in the UK, very few of these musicians were able to make a serious impact in the United States; Bowie was the major exception becoming an international superstar and prompting the adoption of glam styles among acts like Lou Reed, Iggy Pop, New York Dolls and Jobriath, often known as "glitter rock" and with a darker lyrical content than their British counterparts.[137] In the UK the term glitter rock was most often used to refer to the extreme version of glam pursued byGary Glitter and his support musicians the Glitter Band, who between them achieved eighteen top ten singles in the UK between 1972 and 1976.[138] A second wave of glam rock acts, including Suzi Quatro, Roy Wood's Wizzard and Sparks, dominated the British single charts from about 1974 to 1976.[136] Existing acts, some not usually considered central to the genre, also adopted glam styles, including Rod Stewart, Elton John, Queen and, for a time, even the Rolling Stones.[136] It was also a direct influence on acts that rose to prominence later, including Kiss and Adam Ant, and less directly on the formation of gothic rock and glam metal as well as on punk rock, which helped end the fashion for glam from about 1976. [137] Glam has since

enjoyed sporadic modest revivals through bands such as Chainsaw Kittens, The Darkness[139] and in R n' B crossover act Prince.[140] [edit]Soft rock, hard rock and early heavy metal

Main articles: Soft rock, Hard rock, and Heavy metal music

Led Zeppelin live at Chicago Stadium in January 1975 From the late 1960s it became common to divide mainstream rock music into soft and hard rock. Soft rock was often derived from folk rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody and harmonies.[141] Major artists included Carole King, Cat Stevensand James Taylor.[141] It reached its commercial peak in the mid- to late '70s with acts likeBilly Joel, America and the reformed Fleetwood Mac, whose Rumours (1977) was the best-selling album of the decade.[142] In contrast, hard rock was more often derived from blues-rock and was played louder and with more intensity.[143] It often emphasised the electric guitar, both as a rhythm instrument using simple repetitive riffs and as a solo leadinstrument, and was more likely to be used with distortion and other effects.[143] Key acts included British Invasion bands like The Who and The Kinks, as well as psychedelic era performers like Cream, Jimi Hendrix and The Jeff Beck Group.[143] Hard rockinfluenced bands that enjoyed international success in the later 1970s included Queen, [144] Thin Lizzy,[145] Aerosmith and AC/DC.[143] From the late 1960s the term heavy metal began to be used to describe some hard rock played with even more volume and intensity, first as an adjective and by the early 1970s as a noun. [146] The term was first used in music in Steppenwolf's "Born to Be Wild" (1967) and began to be associated with pioneer bands like Boston's Blue Cheer and Michigan's Grand Funk Railroad.[147] By 1970 three key British bands had developed the characteristic sounds and styles which would help shape the subgenre. Led Zeppelin added elements of fantasy to their riff laden blues-rock, Deep Purple brought in symphonic and medieval interests from their progressive rock phrase andBlack Sabbath introduced facets of the gothic and modal harmony, helping to produce a "darker" sound. [148] These elements were taken up by a "second generation" of heavy metal bands into the late 1970s, including: Judas Priest, UFO, Motrhead and Rainbowfrom Britain; Kiss, Ted Nugent, and Blue yster Cult from the US; Rush from Canada and Scorpions from Germany, all marking the expansion in popularity of the sub-genre.[148] Despite a lack of airplay and very little presence on the singles charts, late-1970s heavy metal built a considerable following, particularly among adolescent working-class males in North America and Europe.[149] [edit]Christian rock

Main article: Christian rock

Stryper on stage in 1986 Rock has been criticized by some Christian religious leaders, who have condemned it as immoral, anti-Christian and even demonic.[150] However, Christian rock began to develop in the late 1960s, particularly out of the Jesus movement beginning in Southern California, and emerged as a subgenre in the 1970s with artists like Larry Norman, usually seen as the first major "star" of Christian rock.[151] The genre has been particularly popular in the United States.[152] Many Christian rock performers have ties to the contemporary Christian musicscene, while other bands and artists are closely linked to independent music. Since the 1980s Christian rock performers have gained mainstream success, including figures such as the American gospel-to-pop crossover artist Amy Grant and the British singer Cliff Richard.[153] While these artists were largely acceptable in Christian communities the adoption of heavy rock and glam metal styles by bands like Petra and Stryper, who achieved considerable mainstream success in the 1980s, was more controversial.[154][155] From the 1990s there were increasing numbers of acts who attempted to avoid the Christian band label, preferring to be seen as groups who were also Christians, including P.O.D andCollective Soul.[156] [edit]Punk and its aftermath (mid-1970s to the 1980s) [edit]Punk rock

Main article: Punk rock See also: Protopunk and Hardcore punk

Patti Smith, performing in 1976 Punk rock was developed between 1974 and 1976 in the United States and the United Kingdom. Rooted in garage rock and other forms of what is now known as protopunk music, punk rock bands eschewed the perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock.[157] They created fast, hard-edged music, typically with short songs, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY (do it yourself) ethic, with many bands self-producing their recordings and distributing them through informal channels.[158] By late 1976, acts such as the Ramones and Patti Smith, in New York City, and the Sex Pistols and The Clash, in London, were recognized as the vanguard of a new musical movement.[157] The following year saw punk rock spreading around the world. Punk quickly, though briefly, became a major cultural phenomenon in the United Kingdom. For the most part, punk took root in local scenes that tended to reject association with the mainstream. An associated punk subculture emerged, expressing youthful rebellion and characterized by distinctive clothing styles and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.[159] By the beginning of the 1980s, faster, more aggressive styles such as hardcore and Oi! had become the predominant mode of punk rock.[160] Since punk rock's initial popularity in the 1970s and the renewed interest created by the punk revival of the 1990s, punk rock continues to have a strong

underground following.[161] This has resulted in several evolved strains of hardcore punk, such as Dbeat (a distortion-heavy subgenre influenced by the UK band Discharge), anarcho-punk (such as Crass), grindcore(such as Napalm Death), and crust punk.[162] Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk also pursued a broad range of other variations, giving rise to New Wave, postpunk and the alternative rock movement.[157] [edit]New Wave

Main articles: New Wave music and Synthpop See also: New Romantics and Electronic rock

Deborah Harry from the band Blondie, performing at Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto in 1977 Although punk rock was a significant social and musical phenomenon, it achieved less in the way of record sales (being distributed by small specialty labels such as Stiff Records),[163]or American radio airplay (as the radio scene continued to be dominated by mainstream formats such as disco and album-oriented rock).[164] Punk rock had attracted devotees from the art and collegiate world and soon bands sporting a more literate, arty approach, such asTalking Heads, and Devo began to infiltrate the punk scene; in some quarters the description "New Wave" began to be used to differentiate these less overtly punk bands. [165] Record executives, who had been mostly mystified by the punk movement, recognized the potential of the more accessible New Wave acts and began aggressively signing and marketing any band that could claim a remote connection to punk or New Wave.[166] Many of these bands, such as The Cars, and The Go-Go's can be seen as pop bands marketed as New Wave;[167]other existing acts, including The Police, The Pretenders and Elvis Costello, used the New Wave movement as the springboard for relatively long and critically successful careers,[168] while "skinny tie" bands exemplified by The Knack,[169] or the photogenic Blondie, began as punk acts and moved into more commercial territory. [170] Between 1979 and 1985, influenced by Kraftwerk, Yellow Magic Orchestra, David Bowie, and Gary Numan, British New Wave went in the direction of such New Romantics as Spandau Ballet, Ultravox, Japan, Duran Duran, A Flock of Seagulls, Culture Club, Talk Talk and the Eurythmics, sometimes using the synthesizer to replace all other instruments. [171] This period coincided with the rise of MTV and led to a great deal of exposure for this brand of synthpop, creating what has been characterised as a second British Invasion.[172] Some more traditional rock bands adapted to the video age and profited from MTV's airplay, most obviously Dire Straits', whose "Money for Nothing" gently poked fun at the station, despite the fact that it had helped make them international stars,[173] but in general guitar-oriented rock was commercially eclipsed.[174] [edit]Post-punk

Main article: Post-punk See also: Gothic rock and Industrial music

U2 performing at Madison Square Garden in November 2005 If hardcore most directly pursued the stripped down aesthetic of punk, and New Wave came to represent its commercial wing, post-punk emerged in the later 1970s and early '80s as its more artistic and challenging side. Major influences beside punk bands were The Velvet Underground, The Who, Frank Zappa and Captain Beefheart, and the New York based no wave scene which placed an emphasis on performance, including bands such as James Chance and the Contortions, DNA and Sonic Youth.[175] Early contributors to the genre included the US bands Pere Ubu, Devo, The Residents and Talking Heads.[175] The first wave of British post-punk included Gang of Four, Siouxsie and the Banshees andJoy Division, who placed less emphasis on art than their US counterparts and more on the dark emotional qualities of their music.[175] Bands like Siouxsie and the Banshees,Bauhaus, The Cure, and The Sisters of Mercy, moved increasingly in this direction to found Gothic rock, which had become the basis of a major sub-culture by the early 1980s.[176]Similar emotional territory was pursued by Australian acts like The Birthday Party and Nick Cave.[175] Members of Bauhaus and Joy Division explored new stylistic territory as Love and Rockets and New Order respectively.[175] Another early post-punk movement was the industrial music[177] developed by British bands Throbbing Gristle and Cabaret Voltaire, and New York-based Suicide, using a variety of electronic and sampling techniques that emulated the sound of industrial production and which would develop into a variety of forms of post-industrial music in the 1980s.[178] The second generation of British post-punk bands that broke through in the early 1980s, including The Fall, The Pop Group, The Mekons, Echo and the Bunnymen and Teardrop Explodes, tended to move away from dark sonic landscapes. [175] Arguably the most successful band to emerge from post-punk was Ireland's U2, who incorporated elements of religious imagery together with political commentary into their often anthemic music, and by the late 1980s had become one of the biggest bands in the world.[179] Although many post-punk bands continued to record and perform, it declined as a movement in the mid-1980s as acts disbanded or moved off to explore other musical areas, but it has continued to influence the development of rock music and has been seen as a major element in the creation of the alternative rock movement.[180] [edit]New waves and genres in heavy metal

Main article: Heavy metal music See also: NWOBHM, Glam metal, and Extreme metal

Although many established bands continued to perform and record, heavy metal suffered a hiatus in the face of the punk movement in the mid-1970s. Part of the reaction saw the popularity of bands like Motrhead, who had adopted a punk sensibility, and Judas Priest, who created a stripped down sound, largely removing the remaining elements of blues music, from their 1978 album Stained Class.[181]This change of direction was compared to punk and in the late 1970s became known as the New Wave of British Heavy Metal (NWOBHM). [182] These bands were soon followed by acts including Iron Maiden, Vardis, Diamond Head, Saxon, Def Leppard andVenom, many of which began to enjoy considerable success in the US.[183] In the same period Eddie Van Halen established himself as a metal guitar virtuoso after his band's self-titled 1978 album.[184] Randy Rhoads and Yngwie Malmsteen also became established virtuosos, associated with what would be known as the neoclassical metal style.[185]

Iron Maiden, one of the central bands in the New Wave of British Heavy Metal, performing in Barcelona in 2006 Inspired by NWOBHM and Van Halen's success, a metal scene began to develop in Southern California from the late 1970s, based on the clubs of L.A.'s Sunset Strip and including such bands as Quiet Riot, Ratt, Mtley Cre, and W.A.S.P., who, along with similarly styled acts such as New York's Twisted Sister, incorporated the theatrics (and sometimes makeup) of glam rock acts like Alice Cooper and Kiss.[184] The lyrics of these glam metal bands characteristically emphasized hedonism and wild behavior and musically were distinguished by rapid-fire shred guitar solos, anthemic choruses, and a relatively melodic, pop-oriented approach.[184] By the mid1980s bands were beginning to emerge from the L.A. scene that pursued a less glam image and a rawer sound, particularly Guns N' Roses, breaking through with the chart-topping Appetite for Destruction (1987), and Jane's Addiction, who emerged with their major label debut Nothing's Shocking, the following year.[186] In the late 1980s metal fragmented into several subgenres, including thrash metal, which developed in the US from the style known as speed metal, under the influence of hardcore punk, with lowregister guitar riffs typically overlaid by shredding leads.[187] Lyrics often expressed nihilistic views or deal with social issues using visceral, gory language. It was popularised by the "Big Four of Thrash": Metallica, Anthrax, Megadeth, and Slayer.[183]Death metal developed out of thrash, particularly influenced by the bands Venom and Slayer. Florida's Death and the Bay Area'sPossessed emphasized lyrical elements of blasphemy, diabolism and millenarianism, with vocals usually delivered as guttural "death growls," high-pitched screaming, complemented by downtuned, highly distorted guitars and extremely fast double bass percussion.[188]Black metal, again influenced by Venom and pioneered by Denmark's Mercyful Fate, Switzerland's Hellhammer and Celtic Frost, and Sweden's Bathory, had many similarities in sound to death metal, but was often intentionally lo-fi in production and placed greater emphasis on satanic and pagan themes.[189][190] Bathory were particularly important in inspiring the further sub-genres of Viking metaland folk metal.[191] Power metal emerged in Europe in the late 1980s as a reaction to the harshness of death and black metal and was established by Germany's Helloween, who combined a melodic approach with thrash's speed and energy. [192] England'sDragonForce[193] and Florida's Iced Earth[194] have a sound indebted to NWOBHM, while acts such as Florida's Kamelot, Finland'sNightwish, Italy's Rhapsody of Fire, and Russia's Catharsis feature a keyboardbased "symphonic" sound, sometimes employing orchestras and opera singers. In contrast to other sub-genres doom metal, influenced by Gothic rock, slowed down the music, with bands like England's Pagan Altar and Witchfinder General and the United States' Pentagram, Saint Vitus and Trouble, emphasizing melody, down-tuned guitars, a 'thicker' or 'heavier' sound and a sepulchral mood.[195][196] American bands such as Queensrche andDream Theater pioneered an often instrumentally challenging fusion of NWOBHM and progressive rock called progressive metal,[197]with bands such as Symphony X combining aspects of power metal and classical music with the style, while Sweden's Opethdeveloped a unique style indebted to both death metal and atmospheric 70s prog rock.[198] [edit]Heartland rock

Main article: Heartland rock

Bruce Springsteen in East Berlin in 1988 American working-class oriented heartland rock, characterized by a straightforward musical style, and a concern with the lives of ordinary, blue collar American people, developed in the second half of the 1970s. The term heartland rock was first used to describe Midwestern arena rock groups likeKansas, REO Speedwagon and Styx, but which came to be associated with a more socially concerned form of roots rock more directly influenced by folk, country and rock and roll. [199] It has been seen as an American Midwest and Rust Belt counterpart to West Coast country rock and the Southern rock of the American South.[200] Led by figures who had initially been identified with punk and New Wave, it was most strongly influenced by acts such as Bob Dylan, The Byrds, Creedence Clearwater Revival and Van Morrison, and the basic rock of '60s garage and the Rolling Stones.[201] Exemplified by the commercial success of singer songwriters Bruce Springsteen, Bob Seger, andTom Petty, along with less widely known acts such as Southside Johnny and the Asbury Jukes andJoe Grushecky and the Houserockers, it was partly a reaction to post-industrial urban decline in the East and Mid-West, often dwelling on issues of social disintegration and isolation, beside a form of good-time rock and roll revivalism.[201] The genre reached its commercial, artistic and influential peak in the mid-1980s, with Springsteen's Born in the USA (1984), topping the charts worldwide and spawning a series of top ten singles, together with the arrival of artists including John Mellencamp,Steve Earle and more gentle singer/songwriters such as Bruce Hornsby.[201] It can also be heard as an influence on artists as diverse as Billy Joel,[202] Kid Rock[203] and The Killers.[204] Heartland rock faded away as a recognized genre by the early 1990s, as rock music in general, and blue collar and white working class themes in particular, lost influence with younger audiences, and as heartland's artists turned to more personal works.[201] Many heartland rock artists continue to record today with critical and commercial success, most notably Bruce Springsteen, Tom Petty and John Mellencamp, although their works have become more personal and experimental and no longer fit easily into a single genre. Newer artists whose music would perhaps have been labelled heartland rock had it been released in the 1970s or 1980s, such as Missouri'sBottle Rockets and Illinois' Uncle Tupelo, often find themselves labeled alt-country.[205] [edit]The emergence of alternative rock

Main article: Alternative rock See also: Jangle pop, College rock, Indie pop, Dream pop, and Shoegaze

R.E.M. was a successful alternative rockband in the 1980s The term alternative rock was coined in the early 1980s to describe rock artists who did not fit into the mainstream genres of the time. Bands dubbed "alternative" had no unified style, but were all seen as distinct from mainstream music. Alternative bands were linked by their collective debt to punk rock, through hardcore, New Wave or the post-punk movements.[206]Important alternative rock bands of the 1980s in the US included R.E.M., Hsker D, Jane's Addiction, Sonic Youth, and the Pixies,[206] and in the UK The Cure, New Order, The Jesus and Mary Chain, and The Smiths.[207] Artists were largely confined to independent record labels, building an extensive underground music scene based on college radio, fanzines, touring, and word-of-mouth.[208] They rejected the dominant synthpop of the early 1980s, marking a return to group-based guitar rock.[209][210][211] Few of these early bands, with the exceptions of R.E.M. and The Smiths, achieved mainstream success, but despite a lack of spectacular album sales, they exerted a considerable influence on the generation of musicians who came of age in the 1980s and ended up breaking through to mainstream success in the 1990s. Styles of alternative rock in the U.S. during the 1980s included jangle pop, associated with the early recordings of R.E.M., which incorporated the ringing guitars of mid-1960s pop and rock, and college rock, used to describe alternative bands that began in the college circuit and college radio, including acts such as 10,000 Maniacs and The Feelies.[206] In the UK Gothic rock was dominant in the early 1980s, but by the end of the decade indie or dream pop [212] like Primal Scream, Bogshed, Half Man Half Biscuitand The Wedding Present, and what were dubbed shoegaze bands like My Bloody Valentine, Ride, Lush, Chapterhouse, and the Boo Radleys.[213] Particularly vibrant was the Madchester scene, produced such bands as Happy Mondays, the Inspiral Carpets, and Stone Roses.[207][214] The next decade would see the success of grunge in the United States and Britpop in the United Kingdom, bringing alternative rock into the mainstream. [edit]Alternative goes mainstream (the 1990s) [edit]Grunge

Main article: Grunge

Nirvana (pictured here in 1992) popularized grunge worldwide. Disaffected by commercialized and highly produced pop and rock in the mid-1980s, bands inWashington state (particularly in the Seattle area) formed a new style of rock which sharply contrasted with the mainstream music of the time.[215] The developing genre came to be known as "grunge", a term descriptive of the dirty sound of the music and the unkempt appearance of most musicians, who actively rebelled against the over-groomed images of popular artists.[215] Grunge fused elements of hardcore punk and heavy metal into a single sound, and made heavy use of guitar distortion, fuzz and feedback.[215] The lyrics were typically apathetic and angst-filled, and often concerned themes such as social alienation and entrapment, although it was also known for its dark humor and parodies of commercial rock.[215] Bands such as Green River, Soundgarden, the Melvins and Skin Yard pioneered the genre, with Mudhoney becoming the most successful by the end of the decade. However, grunge remained largely a local phenomenon until 1991, when Nirvanas Nevermind became a huge success thanks to the lead single "Smells Like Teen Spirit".[216] Nevermind was more melodic than its predecessors, but the band refused to employ traditional corporate promotion and marketing mechanisms. During 1991 and 1992, other grunge albums such as Pearl Jam's Ten, Soundgarden'sBadmotorfinger and Alice in Chains' Dirt, along with the Temple of the Dog album featuring members of Pearl Jam and Soundgarden, became among the 100 top selling albums.[217] The popular breakthrough of these grunge bands prompted Rolling Stone to nickname Seattle "the new Liverpool."[218] Major record labels signed most of the remaining grunge bands in Seattle, while a second influx of acts moved to the city in the hope of success. [219] However, with the death of Kurt Cobain and the subsequent break-up of Nirvana in 1994, touring problems for Pearl Jam and the departure of Alice in Chains' lead singer Layne Staley in 1996, the genre began to decline, partly to be overshadowed by Britpop and more commercial sounding post-grunge.[220] [edit]Britpop

Main article: Britpop

Oasis performing in 2005 Britpop emerged from the British alternative rock scene of the early 1990s and was characterised by bands particularly influenced by British guitar music of the 1960s and 1970s. [207] The Smiths were a major influence, as were bands of the Madchester scene, which had dissolved in the early 1990s.[60] The movement has been seen partly as a reaction against various U.S. based, musical and cultural trends in the late 1980s and early 1990s, particularly the grunge phenomenon and as a reassertion of a British rock identity.[207]Britpop was varied in style, but often used catchy tunes and hooks, beside lyrics with particularly British concerns and the adoption of the iconography of the 1960s British Invasion, including the symbols of British identity previously utilised by the mods.[221] It was launched around 1992 with releases by groups such as Suede and Blur, who were soon joined by others including Oasis, Pulp, Supergrass and Elastica, who produced a series of top ten albums and singles.[207] For a while the contest between Blur and Oasis was built by the popular press into "The Battle of Britpop", initially won by Blur, but with Oasis achieving greater long-term and international success, directly influencing a third generation of Britpop bands, including The Boo Radleys, Ocean Colour Scene and Cast.[222] Britpop groups brought British alternative rock into the mainstream and formed the backbone of a larger British cultural movement known as Cool Britannia.[223] Although its more popular bands, particularly Blur and Oasis, were able to spread

their commercial success overseas, especially to the United States, the movement had largely fallen apart by the end of the decade.[207] [edit]Post-grunge

Main article: Post-grunge

Foo Fighters performing an acoustic show in 2007 The term post-grunge was coined for the generation of bands that followed the emergence into the mainstream and subsequent hiatus, of the Seattle grunge bands. Post-grunge bands emulated their attitudes and music, but with a more radio-friendly commercially oriented sound.[220] Often they worked through the major labels and came to incorporate diverse influences from jangle pop, poppunk, alternative metal or hard rock.[220] The term post-grunge was meant to be pejorative, suggesting that they were simply musically derivative, or a cynical response to an "authentic" rock movement.[224] From 1994, former Nirvana drummer Dave Grohl's new band, the Foo Fighters, helped popularize the genre and define its parameters.[225] Some post-grunge bands, like Candlebox, were from Seattle, but the sub-genre was marked by a broadening of the geographical base of grunge, with bands like Los Angeles' Audioslave, and Georgia's Collective Soul and beyond the US to Australia's Silverchair and Britain's Bush, who all cemented post-grunge as one of the most commercially viable sub-genres of the late 1990s.[206][220] Although male bands predominated, female solo artist Alanis Morissette's 1995 album Jagged Little Pill, labelled as post-grunge, also became a multi-platinum hit.[226] Bands like Creed andNickelback took post-grunge into the 21st century with considerable commercial success, abandoning most of the angst and anger of the original movement for more conventional anthems, narratives and romantic songs, and were followed in this vein by new acts including Shinedown, Seether, 3 Doors Down and Puddle of Mudd.[224] [edit]Pop punk

Main article: Pop punk

Green Day performing in 2010 The origins of 1990s pop punk can be seen in the more song-oriented bands of the 1970s punk movement like The Buzzcocks and The Clash, commercially successful New Wave acts such as The Jam and The Undertones, and the more hardcore-influenced elements of alternative rock in the 1980s.[227] Pop-punk tends to use power-pop melodies and chord changes with speedy punk tempos and loud guitars.[228] Punk music provided the inspiration for some California-based bands on independent labels in the early 1990s, including Rancid,Pennywise, Weezer and Green Day.[227] In

1994 Green Day moved to a major label and produced the album Dookie, which found a new, largely teenage, audience and proved a surprise diamond-selling success, leading to a series of hit singles, including two number ones in the US.[206] They were soon followed by the eponymous dbut from Weezer, which spawned three top ten singles in the US. [229] This success opened the door for the multi-platinum sales of metallic punk band The Offspring with Smash (1994).[206] This first wave of pop punk reached its commercial peak with Green Day's Nimrod (1997) and The Offspring's Americana (1998).[230] A second wave of pop punk was spearheaded by Blink-182, with their breakthrough album Enema of the State (1999), followed by bands such as Good Charlotte, Bowling for Soup and Sum 41, who made use of humour in their videos and had a more radio-friendly tone to their music, while retaining the speed, some of the attitude and even the look of 1970s punk. [227] Later pop-punk bands, including Simple Plan, The All-American Rejects and Fall Out Boy, had a sound that has been described as closer to 1980s hardcore, while still achieving considerable commercial success. [227] [edit]Indie rock

Main article: Indie rock See also: Riot Grrrl, Lo-fi music, Post rock, Math rock, Space rock, Sadcore, and Baroque pop

Lo-fi indie rock band Pavement In the 1980s the terms indie rock and alternative rock were used interchangeably.[231] By the mid1990s, as elements of the movement began to attract mainstream interest, particularly grunge and then Britpop, post-grunge and pop-punk, the term alternative began to lose its meaning.[231] Those bands following the less commercial contours of the scene were increasingly referred to by the label indie.[231] They characteristically attempted to retain control of their careers by releasing albums on their own or small independent labels, while relying on touring, word-of-mouth, and airplay on independent or college radio stations for promotion. [231] Linked by an ethos more than a musical approach, the indie rock movement encompassed a wide range of styles, from hard-edged, grungeinfluenced bands like The Cranberries and Superchunk, through do-it-yourself experimental bands like Pavement, to punk-folk singers such as Ani DiFranco.[206][207] It has been noted that indie rock has a relatively high proportion of female artists compared with preceding rock genres, a tendency exemplified by the development of feminist-informed Riot Grrrl music.[232] Many countries have developed an extensive local indie scene, flourishing with bands with enough popularity to survive inside the respective country, but virtually unknown outside them. [233] By the end of the 1990s many recognisable sub-genres, most with their origins in the late '80s alternative movement, were included under the umbrella of indie. Lo-fi eschewed polished recording techniques for a D.I.Y. ethos and was spearheaded by Beck, Sebadohand Pavement.[206] The work of Talk Talk and Slint helped inspire both post rock, an experimental style influenced by jazz andelectronic music, pioneered by Bark Psychosis and taken up by acts such as Tortoise, Stereolab, and Laika,[234][235] as well as leading to more dense and complex, guitar-based math rock, developed by acts like Polvo and Chavez.[236] Space rock looked back to progressive roots, with drone heavy and minimalist acts like Spacemen 3, the two bands created out of its split, Spectrum andSpiritualized, and later groups including Flying Saucer Attack, Godspeed You Black Emperor! and Quickspace.[237] In contrast,Sadcore emphasised pain and suffering through melodic use of acoustic and electronic instrumentation in the music of bands likeAmerican Music Club and Red House Painters,[238] while the revival of Baroque pop reacted against lo-fi and

experimental music by placing an emphasis on melody and classical instrumentation, with artists like Arcade Fire, Belle and Sebastian and Rufus Wainright.[239] [edit]Alternative metal, rap rock and nu metal

Main article: Heavy metal music See also: Alternative metal, Rap rock, Rap metal, and Nu metal

Alternative metal emerged from the hardcore scene of alternative rock in the US in the later 1980s, but gained a wider audience after grunge broke into the mainstream in the early 1990s. [240] Early alternative metal bands mixed a wide variety of genres with hardcore and heavy metal sensibilities, with acts like Jane's Addiction and Primus utilizing prog-rock, Soundgarden and Corrosion of Conformityusing garage punk, The Jesus Lizard and Helmet mixing noise-rock, Ministry and Nine Inch Nails influenced by industrial music,Monster Magnet moving into psychedelia, Pantera, Sepultura and White Zombie creating groove metal, while Biohazard and Faith No More turned to hip hop and rap.[240]

Linkin Park performing in 2009 Hip hop had gained attention from rock acts in the early 1980s, including The Clash with "The Magnificent Seven" (1981) and Blondie with "Rapture" (1981).[241][242]Early crossover acts included Run DMC and the Beastie Boys.[243] Detroit rapperEsham became known for his "acid rap" style, which fused rapping with a sound that was often based in rock and heavy metal.[244][245] Rappers who sampled rock songs included Ice-T, The Fat Boys, LL Cool J, Public Enemy and Whodini.[246]The mixing of thrash metal and rap was pioneered by Anthrax on their 1987 comedy-influenced single "I'm the Man".[246] In 1990, Faith No More broke into the mainstream with their single "Epic", often seen as the first truly successful combination of heavy metal with rap. [247] This paved the way for the success of existing bands like 24-7 Spyz and Living Colour, and new acts including Rage Against the Machine and Red Hot Chili Peppers, who all fused rock and hip hop among other influences.[224][246] Among the first wave of performers to gain mainstream success as rap rock were 311,[248] Bloodhound Gang,[249] and Kid Rock.[250] A more metallic sound - nu metal - was pursued by bands including Limp Bizkit, Korn and Slipknot.[246]Later in the decade this style, which contained a mix of grunge, punk, metal, rap and turntable scratching, spawned a wave of successful bands like Linkin Park, P.O.D. and Staind, who were often classified as rap metal or nu metal, the first of which are the best-selling band of the genre.[251] In 2001, nu metal reached its peak with albums like Staind's Break the Cycle, P.O.D's Satellite, Slipknot's Iowa and Linkin Park'sHybrid Theory. New bands also emerged like Disturbed, postgrunge/hard rock band Godsmack and Papa Roach, whose major label dbut Infest became a platinum hit.[252] However, by 2002 there were signs that nu metal's mainstream popularity was weakening.[224]Korn's long awaited fifth album Untouchables, and Papa Roach's second album Lovehatetragedy, did not sell as well as their previous releases, while nu metal bands were played more infrequently on rock radio stations and MTV began focusing on pop punk andemo.[253] Since then, many bands have changed to a more conventional hard rock, heavy metal, or electronic music sound.[253] [edit]Post-Britpop

Main article: Post-Britpop

Coldplay in 2008 From about 1997, as dissatisfaction grew with the concept of Cool Britannia, and Britpop as a movement began to dissolve, emerging bands began to avoid the Britpop label while still producing music derived from it.[254][255] Many of these bands tended to mix elements of British traditional rock (or British trad rock),[256]particularly the Beatles, Rolling Stones and Small Faces,[257] with American influences, including post-grunge.[258][259] Drawn from across the United Kingdom (with several important bands emerging from the north of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), the themes of their music tended to be less parochially centered on British, English and London life and more introspective than had been the case with Britpop at its height.[260][261] This, beside a greater willingness to engage with the American press and fans, may have helped some of them in achieving international success.[262] Post-Britpop bands have been seen as presenting the image of the rock star as an ordinary person and their increasingly melodic music was criticised for being bland or derivative. [263] Post-Britpop bands like The Verve with Urban Hymns (1997), Radiohead from OK Computer (1997), Travis from The Man Who (1999), Stereophonics from Performance and Cocktails (1999), Feeder from Echo Park(2001) and particularly Coldplay from their debut album Parachutes (2000), achieved much wider international success than most of the Britpop groups that had preceded them, and were some of the most commercially successful acts of the late 1990s and early 2000s, arguably providing a launchpad for the subsequent garage rock or post-punk revival, which has also been seen as a reaction to their introspective brand of rock. [259][264][265][266] [edit]The new millennium (the 2000s) [edit]Post-hardcore and emo

Main articles: Post-hardcore and Emo See also: Screamo

Post-hardcore developed in the US, particularly in the Chicago and Washington, D.C areas, in the early-to-mid 1980s, with bands that were inspired by the do-it-yourself ethics and guitar-heavy music of hardcore punk, but influenced by post-punk, adopting longer song formats, more complex musical structures and sometimes more melodic lyrics. Existing bands that moved on from hardcore includedFugazi.[267] From the late 1980s they were followed by bands including Quicksand,[268] Girls Against Boys[269] and The Jesus Lizard.[270] Bands that formed in the 1990s included Thursday,[271] Thrice,[272] Finch,[273] and Poison the Well.[274]

Members of Fugazi performing in 2002 Emo also emerged from the hardcore scene in 1980s Washington, D.C., initially as "emocore", used as a term to describe bands who favored expressive vocals over the more common abrasive, barking

style.[275] The style was pioneered by bands Rites of Spring andEmbrace, the last formed by Ian MacKaye, whose Dischord Records became a major centre for the emerging D.C. emo scene, releasing work by Rites of Spring, Dag Nasty, Nation of Ulysses and Fugazi.[275] Fugazi emerged as the definitive early emo band, gaining a fanbase among alternative rock followers, not least for their overtly anti-commercial stance.[275] The early emo scene operated as an underground, with shortlived bands releasing small-run vinyl records on tiny independent labels.[275] The mid-'90s sound of emo was defined by bands like Jawbreaker and Sunny Day Real Estate who incorporated elements of grunge and more melodic rock.[276] Only after the breakthrough of grunge and pop punk into the mainstream did emo come to wider attention with the success of Weezer's Pinkerton (1996) album, which utilised pop punk.[275] Late 1990s bands drew on the work of Fugazi, SDRE, Jawbreaker and Weezer, including The Promise Ring, The Get Up Kids, Braid, Texas Is the Reason, Joan of Arc, Jets to Brazil and most successfully Jimmy Eat World, and by the end of the millennium it was one of the more popular indie styles in the US.[275] Emo broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s with the platinum-selling success of Jimmy Eat World's Bleed American (2001) and Dashboard Confessional's The Places You Have Come to Fear the Most (2003).[277] The new emo had a much more mainstream sound than in the 90s and a far greater appeal amongst adolescents than its earlier incarnations. [277] At the same time, use of the term emo expanded beyond the musical genre, becoming associated with fashion, a hairstyle and any music that expressed emotion.[278]The term emo has been applied by critics and journalists to a variety of artists, including multi-platinum acts such as Fall Out Boy[279]and My Chemical Romance[280] and disparate groups such as Paramore[279] and Panic at the Disco,[281] even when they protest the label. By 2003 post-hardcore bands had also caught the attention of major labels and began to enjoy mainstream success in the album charts. [271][272] A number of these bands were seen as a more aggressive offshoot of emo and given the often vague label ofscreamo.[282] Around this time, a new wave of post-hardcore bands began to emerge onto the scene that incorporated more pop punk and alternative rock styles into their music, including The Used,[283] Hawthorne Heights,[284] Senses Fail,[285] From First to Last[286]and Emery[287] and Canadian [288] and Alexisonfire.[289] British bands Silverstein bands like Funeral For A Friend,[290] The Blackout[291]and Enter Shikari also made headway.[292] [edit]Garage rock/post-punk revival

Main articles: Garage rock revival and Post-punk revival

The Strokes performing in 2006 In the early 2000s, a new group of bands that played a stripped down and back-to-basics version of guitar rock, emerged into the mainstream. They were variously characterised as part of a garage rock, post-punk or New Wave revival.[293][294][295][296] Because the bands came from across the globe, cited diverse influences (from traditional blues, through New Wave to grunge), and adopted differing styles of dress, their unity as a genre has been disputed.[297]There had been attempts to revive garage rock and elements of punk in the 1980s and 1990s and by 2000 scenes had grown up in several countries.[298] The Detroit rock scene included The Von Bondies, Electric Six, The Dirtbombs and The Detroit Cobras[299] and that of New York Radio 4, Yeah Yeah Yeahs and The Rapture.[300] Elsewhere, other lesser-known acts such as Billy Childish and The Buff Medways from Britain,[301]The (International) Noise Conspiracy from Sweden,[302] The's from Japan,[303] and [304] the Oblivians from Memphis enjoyed underground, regional or national success. The commercial breakthrough from these scenes was led by four bands: The Strokes, who emerged from the New York club scene with their dbut album Is This It (2001); The White Stripes, from Detroit, with their third album White Blood Cells (2001); The Hives from Sweden after their compilation album Your New Favourite Band (2001); and The Vines from Australia with Highly

Evolved (2002).[305]They were christened by the media as the "The" bands, and dubbed "The saviours
of rock 'n' roll", leading to accusations of hype.[306] A second wave of bands that managed to gain international recognition as a result of the movement included Black Rebel Motorcycle Club, The Killers, Interpol and Kings of Leon from the US,[307] The Libertines, Arctic Monkeys, Bloc Party, Editors, Franz Ferdinand andPlacebo from the UK,[308] Jet from Australia[309] and The Datsuns and The D4 from New Zealand.[310] [edit]Contemporary heavy metal, metalcore and retro-metal

Main article: Heavy metal music See also: Metalcore and New Wave of American Heavy Metal

Metal remained popular in the 2000s, particularly in continental Europe. By the new millennium Scandinavia had emerged as one of the areas producing innovative and successful bands, while Belgium, Holland and especially Germany were the most significant markets. [311] Established continental metal bands that placed multiple albums in the top 20 of the German charts between 2003 and 2008, including Finnish band Children of Bodom,[312] Norwegian act Dimmu Borgir,[313] Germany's Blind Guardian[314] and Sweden'sHammerFall.[315]

Children of Bodom, performing at the 2007 Masters of Rock festival Metalcore, originally an American hybrid of thrash metal and hardcore punk, emerged as a commercial force in the mid-2000s.[316][317] It was rooted in the crossover thrash style developed two decades earlier by bands such as Suicidal Tendencies, Dirty Rotten Imbeciles, and Stormtroopers of Death and remained an underground phenomenon through the 1990s; [318] early bands include Earth Crisis,[319][320] Converge,[321] Hatebreed[322] andShai Hulud.[323][324] By 2004, melodic metalcore, influenced by melodic death metal, was sufficiently popular for Killswitch Engage's The End of Heartache and Shadows Fall's The War Within to debut at number 21 and number 20, respectively, on the Billboard album chart.[325][326] Bullet for My Valentine, from Wales, broke into the top 5 in both the U.S. and British charts with Scream Aim Fire (2008).[327] Metalcore bands have received prominent slots at Ozzfest and the Download Festival.[328] Lamb of God, with a related blend of metal styles, reached number 2 on the Billboard charts in 2009 with Wrath.[329] The success of these bands and others such as Trivium, who have released both metalcore and straight-ahead thrash albums, andMastodon, who played in a progressive/sludge style, inspired claims of a metal revival in the United States, dubbed by some critics the "New Wave of American Heavy Metal".[330][331] Its roots have been traced to the music of acts like Pantera, Biohazard and Machine Head, drawing on New York hardcore, thrash metal and punk, helping to inspire a move away from the nu metal of the early 2000s and a return to riffs and guitar solos. [332][333] The term "retro-metal" has been applied to such bands as Texas-based The Sword, California's High on Fire, Sweden's Witchcraft, and Australia's Wolfmother.[334] The Sword's Age of Winters (2006) drew heavily on the work of Black Sabbath and Pentagram, [335] while Witchcraft added elements of folk rock and psychedelic rock,[336] and Wolfmother's self-titled 2005 debut album combined elements of the sounds of Deep Purple and Led Zeppelin. [337] [edit]Digital electronic rock

Main article: Electronic rock See also: Laptronica, Indie electronic, Electroclash, Dance-punk, New rave, and Synthpop

In the 2000s, as computer technology became more accessible and music software advanced, it became possible to create high quality music using little more than a single laptop computer.[338] This resulted in a massive increase in the amount of home-produced electronic music available to the general public via the expanding internet,[339] and new forms of performance such as laptronica[338]and live coding.[340] These techniques also began to be used by existing bands, as with industrial rock act Nine Inch Nails' album Year Zero (2007),[341] and by developing genres that mixed rock with digital techniques and sounds, including indie electronic, electroclash, dance-punk and new rave.

Gaspard Aug and Xavier de Rosnay ofJustice in 2001 Indie electronic, which had begun in the early 1990s with bands like Stereolab and Disco Inferno, took off in the new millennium as the new digital technology developed, with acts including Broadcast from the UK, Justice from France, Lali Puna from Germany and The Postal Service, and Ratatat from the US, mixing a variety of indie sounds with electronic music, largely produced on small independent labels.[342][343] The electroclash sub-genre began in New York at the end of the 1990s, combining synth pop, techno, punk and performance art. It was pioneered by IF with their track "Space Invaders Are Smoking Grass" (1998), [344] and pursued by artists including Felix da Housecat,[345] Peaches, Chicks on Speed,[346] and Ladytron.[347] It gained international attention at the beginning of the new millennium and spread to scenes in London and Berlin, but rapidly faded as a recognisable genre.[348] Dance-punk, mixing post-punk sounds with disco and funk, had developed in the 1980s, but it was revived among some bands of the garage rock/post-punk revival in the early years of the new millennium, particularly among New York acts such as Liars, The Rapture and Radio 4, joined by dance-oriented acts who adopted rock sounds such as Out Hud.[349] In Britain the combination of indie with dance-punk was dubbed new rave in publicity forKlaxons and the term was picked up and applied by the NME to bands[350] including Trash Fashion,[351] New Young Pony Club,[352]Hadouken!, Late of the Pier, Test Icicles[353] and Shitdisco,[350] forming a scene with a similar visual aesthetic to earlier rave music.[350][354] Renewed interest in electronic music and nostalgia for the 1980s led to the beginnings of a synthpop revival, with acts including Adultand Fischerspooner. In 2003-4 it began to move into the mainstream with Ladytron, the Postal Service, Cut Copy, the Bravery and, with most commercial success, The Killers all producing records that incorporated vintage synthesizer sounds and styles which contrasted with the dominant sounds of post-grunge and nu-metal.[355] The style was picked up by a large number of performers, particularly female solo artists, leading the British and other media to proclaim a new era of the female electropop star. Artists named included British acts Little Boots, La Roux and Ladyhawke.[356][357] Male acts that emerged in the same period included Calvin Harris,[358]Frankmusik,[359] Hurts,[360] Kaskade,[361] LMFAO,[362] and Owl City, whose single "Fireflies" (2009) reached the top of the Billboard chart.[363][364] [edit]Social impact

Main article: Social effects of rock music

The worldwide popularity of rock music meant that it became a major influence on culture, fashion and social attitudes. Different sub-genres of rock were adopted by, and became central to, the identity of a large number of sub-cultures. In the 1950s and 1960s, respectively, British youths adopted the Teddy Boy and Rockers subcultures, which revolved around US rock and

roll.[365] The counter-culture of the 1960s was closely associated with psychedelic rock.[365] The mid1970s punk subculture began in the US, but it was given a distinctive look by British designer Vivian Westwood, a look which spread worldwide.[366] Out of the punk scene, the Goth and Emo subcultures grew, both of which presented distinctive visual styles. [367]

The 1969 Woodstock Festival was seen as a celebration of the counter-cultural lifestyle When an international rock culture developed, it was able to supplant cinema as the major sources of fashion influence.[368] Paradoxically, followers of rock music have often mistrusted the world of fashion, which has been seen as elevating image above substance. [368] Rock fashions have been seen as combining elements of different cultures and periods, as well as expressing divergent views on sexuality and gender, and rock music in general has been noted and criticised for facilitating greater sexual freedom.[368][369] Rock has also been associated with various forms of drug use, including the stimulants taken by some mods in the early to mid-1960s, through the LSD linked with psychedelic rock in the late 1960s and early 1970s; and sometimes to cannabis, cocaine and heroin, all of which have been eulogised in song.[370][371] Rock has been credited with changing attitudes to race by opening up African-American culture to white audiences; but at the same time, rock has been accused of appropriating and exploiting that culture.[372][373] While rock music has absorbed many influences and introduced Western audiences to different musical traditions,[374] the global spread of rock music has been interpreted as a form of cultural imperialism.[375] Rock music inherited the folk tradition of protest song, making political statements on subjects such as war, religion, poverty, civil rights, justice and the environment.[376] Political activism reached a mainstream peak with the "Do They Know It's Christmas?" single (1984) and Live Aidconcert for Ethiopia in 1985, which, while successfully raising awareness of world poverty and funds for aid, have also been criticised (along with similar events), for providing a stage for self-aggrandisement and increased profits for the rock stars involved. [377] Since its early development rock music has been associated with rebellion against social and political norms, most obviously in early rock and roll's rejection of an adult-dominated culture, the counterculture's rejection of consumerism and conformity and punk's rejection of all forms of social convention,[378] however, it can also be seen as providing a means of commercial exploitation of such ideas and of diverting youth away from political action.[379] Disco Disco is an up-tempo style of dance music that originated in the early 1970s, mainly from funk, salsa, and soul music, popular originally with gay and black audiences in large U.S. cities, and derives its name from the French word discothque. Hip hop Subgenres/periods of history in hip hop include: Old school hip hop, New school hip hop, Gangsta rap, Underground hip hop, Alternative hip hop and Crunk/Snap music. Jazz

Trumpeter, bandleader and singer Louis Armstrong, known internationally as the "Ambassador of Jazz," was a much-imitated innovator of early jazz. Jazz has evolved into many sometimes contrasting subgenres including smooth jazz and free jazz New Age music There are new-age compositions which sit equally comfortably in the world music category. Polka The polka, which first appeared in Prague in 1837, continued to be a popular form of dance music through the 20th century, especially in Czechoslovakia, Poland, and areas of the United States with a large population of central-European descent. A particularly well-known 20th-century example isJaromr Vejvodas Modansk polka (1927), which became popular during World War II in Czechoslovakia as "koda lsky" ("A Waste of Love"), in Germany as the Rosamunde-Polka, and among the allied armies as the Beer Barrel Polka (as a song, known as "Roll out the Barrel"). In the United States, the "Eastern style" Polish urban polka remained popular until about 1965. Polka music rose in popularity in Chicago in the late 1940s after Walter Lil Wally Wallace Jagiello created "honky" polka by combining the Polish-American rural polka with elements of Polish folksong and krakowiak. A later, rock-influenced form is called "dyno" polka.[8] Salsa Salsa music is a diverse and predominantlyCaribbean rhythm that is popular in many Latin countries. World music The term is usually used for all music made in a traditional way and outside of the Anglo-Saxon world, thus encompassing music from Africa, Latin America, and parts of Europe, and music by nonnative English speakers in Anglo-Saxon countries, like Native Americans or Indigenous Australians.