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NUMBER: -Countable vs. Uncountable nouns -plural forms -nouns having only sg./pl. forms CASE: expression of possession GENDER: natural vs. grammatical gender PC in the use of gender
COUNTABLE vs. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS COUNTABLE NOUNS nouns referring to people or things that can be counted as separate, individual items. a manager, a job, an idea, a few ideas, two computers UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS things that cannot be divided or counted. accommodation*, advertising, advice, cash, documentation, employment, equipment, evidence, feedback, furniture, guidance, hardware, health, help, information, literature, luggage, machinery, marketing, money, paperwork, permission, progress, publicity, research, software, traffic, training, transport, travel, weather, work (Source: Cambridge Business Corpus)
My boss has a PhD.000 for this report.g. my.UNCOUNTABLE COUNTABLE Do not have plural forms Can be singular or plural Can you arrange (some) accommodation for ten visitors? This new job is a great opportunity for me. We paid £6. Always take a singular verb Can take a singular or a plural verb This software is out of date and needs updating. We had a meeting and we solved this problem. My colleagues are all graduates. one) Research is expensive. I have lots of opportunities to travel. Can be used without a determiner Singular countable nouns need a determiner (e. Cannot be used with indefinite articles a/an Can be used with indefinite articles a/an We made (some) progress in our research. a/an. this. .
) UNCOUNTABLE when they refer to SUBSTANCE / IDEA (b.) COUNTABLE when they refer to 1. CONTAINERS (for things) 2. TYPES/BRANDS 3. A PARTICULAR SITUATION . Nouns that are (a. PARTICULAR EXAMPLES / CONCRETE THINGS 4.
(=cups of~) (colloquial English) 2. There’s cheese in the fridge. He had a stone in hand. There’s a hair in my soup! 4.I prefer tea to coffee. 1. Three teas and two coffees.) COUNTABLE (a. Our shop offers you dozens of cheeses to choose from.) UNCOUNTABLE . (b. The statue was made of stone. (=kinds of~) 3. She has blonde hair. please.
Our office is full. There’s no room to expand. Going to Asia was a great experience. BUSINESS (= company) Small businesses are our future. 2. (plural only) documents) EXPERIENCE (= practical knowledge) Do you get the local paper? PAPER (=material) I have to file the papers of this I didn’t have any paper deal. I have limited experience in sales. PAPER (= newspaper. so I couldn’t take notes. UNCOUNTABLE COUNTABLE . ROOM (= a hall) ROOM (=space) We’re short of meeting rooms. BUSINESS (=activity) EXPERIENCE (= an event) We do business all over the world.
This year they are investing in road works all over the country. The physical properties of this product are outstanding. WORK (= job. COMPETITION (=contest) COUNTABLE UNCOUNTABLE We run competitions as part of promotion. music produced by an artist. 2. COMPETITION (=rivalry for supremacy) PROPERTY (= a building. He is a first-year student but he is looking for parttime work. activity) Our company intends to buy some of this artist’s works. a piece of land. PROPERTY (=things that somebody owns) WORK (= books. plural only) features that a substance has) Is there much competition in the field of IT? They sold a property to avoid going bankrupt. . (plural only) activities involved in building/repairing roads and bridges) The hotel is not responsible for any loss or damage to guests’ property. painting/s.
PAPER. PROGRESS. WRITING! . SOFTWARE) SOME / A BIT OF ADVERTISING (CASH. LUGGAGE. EVIDENCE. FUN. MACHINERY. TRAFFIC. MEASURES AND CONTAINERS: A LITER OF OIL 15 TONNES OF CEMENT A BOTTLE OF WATER TWO TINS OF PAINT A PIECE OF / AN ITEM OF / A BIT OF ADVICE (EQUIPMENT. Expressions used with UNCOUNTABLE nouns. MONEY. TRAVEL) DO NOT USE IT IN FORMAL A BIT OF IS COLLOQUIAL. NEWS. LUCK. FEEDBACK. FURNITURE.
adagio/-s radio – radios. quiz quizzes potato – potatoes. party – parties tray . General rule: noun (singular) + -s road/-s. -X. storey storeys watch – watches.trays. area/-s. -S. fox . video – videos CONSONANT + -Y VOWEL + -Y -CH*. casino/-s. -SH. machine/-s Variations: Noun ending in PLURAL FORM + ies +s + es EXAMPLES family – families. boss – bosses. photo/-s. echo/-es. kilo/-s. veto/-es piano/-s. volcano/-es.foxes. hero – heroes. mosquito/-es. -Z CONSONANT + -O +es +s VOWEL + -O +s . negro/-es.
woman – women. goose – geese. alumnusalumni.chiefs. thief – thieves.people sheep – sheep. series – series. criterioncriteria Other irregulars + (R)EN change of vowel no change in plural Foreign nouns varies according to the origin of word .shelves. craft – craft. *mouse – mice. alumnaalumnae. cliff – cliffs child – children. foot – feet. means . corpus-corpora. referendum/-s – referenda GREEK: crisis-crises. tooth – teeth. belief . analysisanalyses. medium – media. half halves. datum – data. shelf .beliefs. ox . elf . loaf – loaves.oxen man – men.elves chief . phenomenon-phenomena.ending in –F / -FE ending in –F / -FF usually + -VES +s leaf – leaves. ***person . symposium – symposia.means LATIN: stimulus – stimuli. ellipsis/-es. basis-bases.
VIP – VIPs. MP – MPs. In formal written English MD – MDs. 1970s Abbreviation / decade + -s Plurals formed with apostrophe (‘) are common but may be considered correct in INFORMAL writing! .
headquarters. thanks. binoculars GAMES: dominoes. darts. scales. savings. jeans. congratulations. outskirts. Economics. Politics. stairs. valuables. customs . These occur in a number of categories: CLOTHING: clothes. surroundings. glasses. remains. cards. Maths. news. earnings. trousers. athletics OTHER: goods. They appear frequently in the plural form. overalls TOOLS/EQUIPMENT: scissors. aerobics. pyjamas. billiards SUBJECTS/ACTIVITIES: Physics.
vs. only) returns (pl. vs. only) vs. premises (pl. vs. only) terms (pl. vs. colour/-s compass/-es custom/-es vs. minutes (pl. only) vs. only) vs. . only) damage/-es minute/-es only) premise/-es return/-es term/-es colours (plural only) compasses (pl. damages (pl. customs (pl.
family. team *police. board. party. audience. majority. denote a group army. committee. crew. staff. jury. people When they refer to the whole group (as a unit) + verb in the SINGULAR When they refer to the members of the group (as individuals) + verb in the PLURAL * always + verb in the PLURAL AGREEMENT .
real estate) multi-word verbs (breakdown. a ten-minute drive) .created by combining two or more words. swimsuit) adjective + noun (highway. Thanksgiving. tea cup. rocking chair two words joined by a hyphen: waste-bin. stand-up. turnover two separate words: business magazine. passer-by Compounds can be formed from nouns (business person) noun + verb (windsurfing) verb + noun (cookbook. can be written as a single word: dressmaker. *downfall) time expressions (a three-hour delay.
toothbrushes The compound nouns ending in –FUL and –LOAD + -s (at the end) handful – handfuls workload – workloads If the compound does not contain a noun the last word gets the plural form grown-up – grown-ups. PLURAL FORMS The noun or the main noun gets the plural form washing machine – washing machines printer cartridge – printer cartridges toothbrush .driveins . take-off – take-offs. drive-in .
1. ***Ice cream and cake is his favourite dessert. *** the elements of the subject function as a single unit + verb in the SINGULAR His lawyer and business partner prepares the tax forms. . COMPOUND SUBJECT (X and Y) + verb in the PLURAL Writing and reading are necessary for success in college.
Five dollars is a modest fee. 2. . money) + verb in the SINGULAR Twenty-four hours is a long time in politics. A PLURAL SUBJECT DESCRIBING A SINGLE ENTITY (time. measurement. Five kilos of beans is about eleven pounds.
Either the idea or the details are wrong. 3. NEITHER + noun … NOR + noun EITHER + noun … OR + noun NOR OR the number of the noun which is closer to the verb imposes the number of the verb (PROXIMITY RULE) Neither the students nor the teacher is correct. . Snowstorms or rain causes accidents.
) SUBJECTS: + verb in the SINGULAR (if we refer to the science) Statistics seems to be very difficult for students. Titles of books. 4. + verb in the PLURAL (if we refer to any other aspect but the science) Statistics show a significant increase in consumer confidence over the last months. movies. . Nouns with no plural forms CLOTHES: + verb in the PLURAL (Scissors are used to cut the jeans. articles + verb in the SINGULAR Monetary Theories is a useful book. 5.
The United Nations are in disagreement on this issue. COLLECTIVE NOUNS The United Nations has agreed to deploy a peacekeeping force. 6. The United Nations is in disagreement on this issue. .
A NUMBER. if we refer to the individuals forming the group. It is common use to use a plural verb after nouns such as THE MAJORITY. the agreement with the verb is made in the plural. . In British English. A COUPLE when these are followed by OF + a plural noun: The majority of the people were pleased to see the government fall. In the same context in American English a singular verb is preferred.
THE NOUN Gender Case .
. GRAMMATICAL vs. Some grammarians assert that English does not have grammatical gender. feminine NATURAL GENDER In Modern English grammatical gender is not important. feminine. neuter The biological and social notion of being male or female. masculine. NATURAL GENDER GRAMMATICAL GENDER The gender that a word has from a linguistic point of view masculine.
CONTRASTING NOUNS DESCRIBING PEOPLE boy / girl brother / sister father / mother gentleman / lady king / queen monk / nun Mr / Mrs – Miss – Ms nephew / niece sir / madam uncle / aunt man / woman Replaceable by HE / SHE . Nouns that are automatically replaced by masculine or feminine pronouns or by IT. 1.
poultry) gander / goose ram / ewe (sheep) stallion / mare (horse) . CONTRASTING NOUNS DESCRIBING ANIMALS Replaceable by IT bull .ox / cow (cattle) rooster – cock / hen (chicken. 2.
. looks) god / goddess heir / heiress host / hostess prince / princess *steward / stewardess (PC term: flight attendant) waiter / waitress Some words have gone out of use or considered pejorative (authoress. 3. manageress). poetess. –ESS ENDINGS AND OTHER FORMS INDICATING GENDER MASCULINE FORM + -ESS = FEMININE FORM *actor / actress (talent vs.
-ESS endings are used for female animals leopard / leopardess lion / lioness tiger / tigress HE / SHE.(stressed) is used as prefix he-goat / she-goat wolf / she-wolf . In a few cases.
OTHER ENDINGS (bride)groom / bride hero / heroine lad / lass landlord / landlady male / female usher / usherette widower / widow .
‘WOMAN’ policeman / policewoman (PC term: police officer) salesman / saleswoman (PC term: sales representative. 4. sales rep) postman / postwoman chairman / chairwoman (PC term: chair. chairperson) spokesman / spokeswoman (PC term: spokesperson) . IDENTIFYING MASCULINE AND FEMININE BY ‘MAN’.
If we want to refer to a person of the opposite sex. ‘male’ / ‘female’ are used in front of the noun. nurse traditionally refer to a woman and words such as judge and wrestler refer to a man.is assumed that words like model. It model / male model nurse / male nurse judge / female judge wrestler / female wrestler .
cousin. journalist. guest. speaker. etc. enemy. owner. His doctor says she is pleased with his progress. neighbour. foreigner. COMMON / DUAL NOUNS adult. relative. strange. spouse. passenger. student. cook. orphan. person. My accountant says he is moving his office. . parent. lawyer. artist. For most English nouns only the use of a replacing pronoun clarifies the gender.
he or she must send a medical certificate to the College office. English used HE when the gender of the person was not known If a student is ill. he must send his medical certificate to the College office. PC!!!! Nowadays the usage above is considered sexist. Gradually. ‘HE OR SHE’ is preferred. If a student is ill. they can have it. If anyone wants my ticket. . therefore to be avoided. ‘THEY’ is becoming popular in such contexts (although some grammarians still consider it as an INFORMAL construction) If a student is ill. HE or SHE / THEY Traditionally. they must send a medical certificate to the College office.
CARS. ANIMALS. SHIPS Sometimes people refer to animals (usually pets) as HE/SHE. She’s sinking! . sailors use SHE for boats and ships (an affective use) ‘How’s the new car?’ ‘She’s running beautifully. intelligence or feelings Go and find the cat and put him out. especially when they are thought of as having personality.’ The ship has struck a rock. Some people use SHE for motorbikes and cars.
especially if referring to a woman. chair(woman) of the Institute of Public Relations . one has to use the term man/woman (a woman doctor) Other nouns for jobs and roles do refer to males or females. Some nouns have a ‘natural’ gender. often by their suffix (businessman. That’s the view of Sheila Davidson. chairman of the Institute of Public Relations. Nouns do not have a grammatical gender in English. and prefer a form with no implicit gender (chair) or to match the suffix to the person (chairwoman). mother / father) Most nouns for jobs do not imply a gender. A lot of people avoid such situations now. manageress) Some time ago it used to be common to use the –man suffix to refer to people of both sexes. there are different terms referring to males and females (woman / man. That’s the view of Sheila Davidson. To specify gender.
. refers to the relation in which one noun / pronoun stands to some other word in the sentence Some grammarians identify two cases in English: possessive/ genitive and common Others support the idea of four cases: nominative. accusative. genitive and dative.
(who?) She is my superior. a prepositional object. The ACCUSATIVE . (whom?) At the meeting. his secretary. Ada. subjective complement or apposition Salespeople have a flexible work schedule. has circulated the agenda for the next meeting. He saw his friend in the street. etc. he disagreed with his colleagues. can function as a direct object. The NOMINATIVE has the syntactic function of subject.
After verbs such as ANNOUNCE. THE DATIVE has the function of indirect object is marked by the prepositions TO and FOR or by word-order THE PREPOSITIONAL DATIVE (to whom? For whom? Of whom?) When the Accusative form precedes the Dative form Give the money to John. . EXPLAIN. BELONG.SPEAK Explain to Mary what it means. REPLY. LISTEN. COMMUNICATE. SUGGEST. DESCRIBE. INTRODUCE.
THE GENITIVE / POSSESSIVE ‘s Genitive ‘of’ Genitive POSSESSOR and POSSESSED OBJECT . THE DATIVE THE DATIVE WITHOUT PREPOSITION used when the Dative precedes the Accusative Show our guests the production line.
esp. in literature) (N. (APOSTROPHE) ‘S GENITIVE FORM Singular noun + ‘s The manager’s decision Singular noun ending in –s + ‘s The actress’s speech Irregular plural noun (plural forms not ending in -s) + ‘s Children’s games (most) names ending in –s + ‘s (‘ is also accepted. the genitive is pronounced as /iz/) Charles’s address (Charles’ address) * Greek names ending in –s + ‘ (Archimedes’ principle) Plural noun/ name + ‘ Managers’ meeting the Joneses’ house .B. no matter how it is written.
. groups. (He is the assistant of the manager on the left. places.) To refer to the origin of something (where it comes from. The theory of human needs is Maslow’s most famous work. USE When the possessor refers to people (animals. who made it) Oil is Saudi Arabia’s biggest export. times Have you seen John’s new car? Have you met the boss’s new assistant? Have you seen the article in today’s Observer? Sometimes ‘s can be added to a noun phrase which does not end with a noun He is manager-on-the-left’s assistant. pets).
Could you give me a pound’s worth of candies? In certain fixed expressions: at death’s door for God’s/goodness’/Pete’s/Christ’s/heaven’s sake . value + ‘worth’) There will be an hour’s delay. To refer to a quantity or measure (duration. distance.
the florist’s. the doctor’s. the hairdresser’s. SERVICES.’ . The possessed object can be omitted when reference is made TO SOMEONE’S HOME. MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS (the grocer’s. the chemist’s. SOME SHOPS. Christie’s) We are going to the Linda’s for the weekend. (Linda’s home) The possessed object can be omitted in REPLIES when it is clear from the context: ‘Whose briefcase is this?’ ‘Richard’s. Macy’s.
. DOUBLE pronoun) POSSESSIVE (OF and ‘s/possessive Is used when a noun is seen both as specific and as one of several (use indefinite article with the noun!) I have heard the story from a friend of my brother’s. He is a colleague of ours.
THE DEFINITE ARTICLE THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE THE ZERO ARTICLE .
There are two classes of determiners: Words Words which help us to CLASSIFY or IDENTIFY. . Words which enable us to indicate QUANTITY. Proper nouns do not generally require identification but there are situations in which they are used with determiners.in front of common nouns (or adjective + common noun) that affect (determine) the meaning of the noun.
POSSESSIVES Do you like my new briefcase? . Words which help us to CLASSIFY or IDENTIFY: INDEFINITE ARTICLE I bought a new briefcase yesterday. DEMONSTRATIVES I bought this/that briefcase yesterday. DEFINITE ARTICLE The briefcase that I’m holding is new.
QUANTIFIERS I didn’t buy many briefcases in the past years. Words which enable us to indicate QUANTITY NUMBERS I bought two new briefcases yesterday. .
the information. A/AN is used only in front of A SINGULAR COUNTABLE NOUN: a letter. an invoice THE is used in front of: A SINGULAR COUNTABLE NOUN: the letter the letters the water. the equipment A PLURAL COUNTABLE NOUN: AN UNCOUNTABLE NOUN: .
invoices water. information. ZERO ARTICLE: we often use no article in front of A PLURAL COUNTABLE NOUN: letters. equipment AN UNCOUNTABLE NOUN: .
AN is used before vowel sounds.Q. /j/ (pronounced like y in 'you‘) is a semi-consonant. /ən/ or /ei/? A is used before consonant sounds (not just consonant letters!!!). (Bachelor of Arts) I. Provide the correct indefinite article: fire N (the letter) house umbrella year eye uniform honour union hotel B. . A or AN? and /ə/.A. N.B.
When something is mentioned for the first time: Peter and Jane shared an office on the ground floor. 1. To refer to an example of a certain class: John is a Catholic. 2. Religions Names of days . The meeting was scheduled on a Wednesday.
or example of something (+ adjective) *** if you refer to something as UNIQUE. He was promoted on the post/position/ role of Marketing Manager. ZERO ARTICLE is used: He has been appointed head of the department / the head of the department. English has become the international language of business. . That is a very good (type of/kind of) coffee. She was a company director when she retired. *** after THE POST/POSITION/ROLE OF + job title. Names of jobs *** When we give someone’s TITLE or UNIQUE POSITION. English has become an international language. A kind of. THE or ZERO ARTICLE is used. THE or ZERO ARTICLE is used: Mary is training to be a certified accountant.
to refer to an unknown person. With some units of time or measurement. Kenneth Perch on the phone. to mean someone or something that has the same qualities as that person or thing: John is a good architect. an early Rembrandt + the name of a famous artist. + Proper nouns: The burglar took a diamond necklace and two valuable paintings. Do you want to talk to him? . + a famous name. to refer to one of his/her creations: + the name of a person. 3. to mean EACH: 5. but he will never be a Gustave Eiffel. Quantity: ‘only one’ 6. the expression meaning ‘a certain…’ There is a (certain) Dr. after WHAT and SUCH: What a shame! He’s such an efficient professional! The trains to Brussels depart three times an hour. half an hour a quarter of an hour 50 pence a litre 4.
the inventor? . ‘the main one’) Do you mean the Benjamin Franklin. /ðə/ is used before consonant sounds /ði/ is used before vowel sounds /ði:/ is used when we want to draw attention to the noun that follows (‘the one and only’.
’ . although it has not been mentioned before: ‘Where is the meeting room?’ (we assume it is only one meeting room in that building) ‘It’s on the first floor. 1.) The office was small and comfortable. with two facing desks. 2. to refer to something that has already been mentioned and is known to both the speaker and the listener(s): (Peter and Jane shared an office on the ground floor. to refer to something that is known to both speaker and listener(s).
The Times The salt. the head. the bottom . Institutions: The World Bank. 4. the front. etc. The Economist. the outside. the floor The back. the centre. the sugar. the top. the United Nations Public bodies: the Government. the Army Publications: The New York Review of Books. the inside. The IMF. please!) Parts of the whole: The human being: the brain.’ My desk is the one with a silver notebook on it. the weather. the pepper (Pass me the salt. to refer to objects that we regard as UNIQUE: The Earth. the moon. the Police. 3. the sun. ‘Which car did you buy?’ ‘The red one. The European Central Bank. in sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person or object: The man who wrote this petition is famous. the door. the lungs The room: the ceiling. the sky.
to refer to ‘the group as a whole’ the Europeans. the liberals. . before superlatives and ordinal numerals: the highest building. to make a general statement Schools should concentrate more on the student and less on exams. 5. the rich 7. + singular noun. the old. the Japanese. + adjective/ + plural noun. the last chapter 6. the first page.
THE SPECIFYING ‘THE’ THE + noun + OF 8. . The letters on the shelf are for you. THE + clause/ phrase (to specify a person or thing) The Smith you are looking for no longer lives here. The freedom of the individual is worth fighting for.
the next.g. the middle. at the moment. the following day. for the time being. the present. the future + parts of the day: in the morning/afternoon. in the end . e. the end. ‘THE’ in time expressions In time sequences: the beginning. the first. 9. The Renaissance In fixed time expressions. evening + seasons (THE is optional): (the) spring / summer / autumn / winter + date (Ordinal numbers usually require THE when they are spoken. the past.. the last. but not when they are written) The next meeting will be on May 24th. (spoken as May the 24th) + ages: The Middle Ages.
the better. the Lincolns + somebody’s name (to refer to a specific person or to make the distinction between two people having the same name): I’m afraid this is not the Tom Smith I am looking for. The Chicago of the 1920s was a terrifying place. + proper name (to refer to a specific situation) . do the shopping make the beds play the piano/violin/cello/flute + PROPER NOUNS + family names (to refer to the family as a whole): the Smiths. In fixed expressions: THE + comparative. THE + comparative The sooner.
the Black Sea. the Middle East. ‘THE’ with PLACE NAMES: Geographical areas: the Arctic. the Bahamas . the Balkans Oceans. the Isle of Man Groups of islands: the Azores. the Mississippi (or the Mississippi River). the Suez Canal Mountain ranges: the Alps. the Carpathians. the Nile (or the River Nile). the Himalayas Islands (only in the structure THE ISLE/ISLAND OF…): the Isle of Capri. the North Pole. rivers: the Pacific (Ocean). the Caspian (Sea). seas.
the Drive *** A few buildings (in compounds): the British Museum. (the) Sudan. (the) Yemen States/ counties: the Vatican *** A few cities: the Hague. the USA (the United States of America) *** (a few countries): the Netherlands. the City (of London) *** A few streets: the High Street.Deserts: the Gobi (Desert). the Strand. the Library of Congress Universities (in the structure THE UNIVERSITY OF…): the University of Cambridge . the Sahara (Desert) Countries (only unions and associations): the UK (the United Kingdom). the Philippines. the Kalahari (Desert).
The absence of an article THE ZERO ARTICLE is used with: PLURAL COUNTABLE NOUNS: Computers are useful machines. Water is made of hydrogen and oxygen. Mr Thomson is planning to visit China in September. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS: most PROPER NOUNS: .
We use computers at work. abstract nouns. occupations. with the name of a language 3. Come round after lunch. substances. animals. Easter is early this year. Have you had breakfast? Yes. plants. I started work here the Easter before the last. with the name of a meal 4. insects. Thursday will be convenient. politics. 1. languages) We drank tea and ate sandwiches. He understands Chinese well. sports. with special times (holidays) . collections. We had a wonderful Christmas. places. I’ll see you on Tuesday. food. We went skiing at the weekend. drink. products. with uncountable or plural nouns to talk about a type of thing rather than specific things the reader or listener already knows about (plurals: people. 2. colours. The AGM was on the Thursday of that week. philosophy. We go away at Christmas. with days of the week 5. games. nationalities. uncountable nouns: food.
That was the year I was born. It’s warmer during the day. It was the winter of 1995 when things started to go wrong for the company. Winter always depresses me. I prefer to travel by day. The meeting is on June 29th. with years. 8. We are meeting in the morning. with parts of the day and night (especially after at. by. I start the course in September. 7. 6. seasons and months He was born in 1882. She must get home before midnight. before) He can’t sleep at night. on. I hope to get there before dark. They arrived at the hotel in the evening. I couldn’t see in the dark. We play golf in summer / in the summer. with dates in writing . Someone got up in/during the night.
go to work. (as a student) David is in hospital (as a patient) Melanie is going to church (to a religious service) The man is in prison (as a prisoner) The school is a mile from here. Melanie waited in the hospital for news. come to light. go to sea (as a sailor) BUT on the sea. the city. leave town BUT the town centre. THE is used: With other nouns referring to buildings. prison. to the house. make fun of Day and night. the cinema. keep in mind. go into town. the village At work. (the school building) The meeting was at the college. church. go home. the station at home. pen and ink. hospital School is over at half past three. the house. father and son. make the bed Arm in arm. light and dark. by the sea. in the home at sea (sailing). at/to the seaside. face to face. 9. the office. from top to bottom. the factory. come home. college. make friends. She has gone to the prison to visit a relative. the pub. the shop. leave work BUT the office. in bed BUT sit on the bed. We wanted to look round the church but it was locked. with words referring to institutions such as school. the factory Go to bed. leave home BUT in the house. THE is used: 10. university. the library. hand in hand. sun and moon When we refer to that specific building. The young woman is in the prison. in fixed expressions . (school activities) Vicky is at college. on/to the coast In town.
but it is common in written language to apply to both married and unmarried women. Madam/Sir?) or in formal letters. with names of people (first name/surname/full name/ initials) 13. Professor are titles that can be used both on their own or with surnames Madam and Sir are used in BrE as a form of address (Can I help you. Mrs. J. Mrs. Miss. Smith is the pseudonym of a famous author. is followed by a surname. Dr (doctor). Ms. on foot Elizabeth was my colleague’s name. Ms cannot normally be used on their own as a form of address. 11. They are followed by a surname. as salutations (Dear Sir. Queen Elizabeth. Doctor! Captain. with titles (Mr. Lord + Surname Sir John Falstaff / Sir John. Dear Madam) when we do not know the name of the people we are writing to. abbreviated. 12. Dr) Mr. but it can also be used on its own as a form of address (written in full) Dr Brown/ Nice to see you. Lord Spencer . Colonel. Major. Ms is hardly heard in speech. These tools are made by Jackson and Son. with means of transport by air/ bicycle / bike / boat / bus/ car/ coach/ land / plane / sea / ship / tram / tube. Given titles in BrE: Sir + first name (+ surname).
Ohio. Ceahlau Islands: Christmas Island. 14. Asia. Surrey Most cities Parks: Central Park. Europe Geographical areas: Central Asia. with place names Continents: Africa. Corfu Island Most countries States. Westminster Abbey Most streets: Madison Avenue. Hyde Park Buildings: Buckingham Palace. Lake Geneva Mountains (peaks): Mont Blanc. counties: Bavaria. Lower Egypt. Upper Austria Lakes: Lake Constance. Everest. Bloomingdale’s . Oxford Street Most bridges: Tower Bridge Most shops and restaurants: Marks and Spencers.
DEMONSTRATIVES AND QUANTIFIERS PERSONAL PRONOUNS REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS .
I think this photocopier looks reliable. THIS / THAT (singular) and THESE / THOSE (plural) can be used as adjectives before nouns to refer to somebody or something known to both speaker and listener: ‘I’m not sure which photocopier to order.’ ‘Well.’ .
N. Do you recognize this presentation? These negotiators are extremely proficient. Can you see those people over there? Do you remember that AGM? There were no smartphones in those days. In very INFORMAL SPEECH we can use THIS or THESE instead of A/AN or SOME. They are used to distinguish between close and distant things (in both space and time) CLOSE DISTANT I’ve seen that presentation before. often to introduce a topic or start telling a story: This woman came up to me in the bank and asked if she could borrow… .B. SPACE TIME What are you doing this weekend? There’s so much crime these days.
do you? In certain expressions. THIS or THAT is used instead of SO to intensify an adjective: . They can be used as pronouns to refer to a noun. Alistair says he’s giving up his job to travel the world. So you think you’re that clever. I think that’s stupid. Some residents turned out to welcome the official to their neighbourhood. Those who had bothered were invited to a cocktail party afterwards. a thing or an idea: THIS can be used to talk about a situation we are experiencing: This is a really wonderful idea. I’ve never seen a winter this cold before. They are used as a more formal alternative to THE ONE(S): This is the worst recession we have seen for more than ten years.
none of the information ------------any (of the) information -----(a) little (of the) water half (of) the work ------------neither brief either semester any document ----------half (of) the task QUANTIFIER +SG. are determiners which describe the quantity of something. NOUN I’ve got no coins. + PL. NOUN no none of the neither either any both few/little half . none of the details neither of the briefs either of the two semesters any (of the) documents both (of the) awards (a) few (of the) projects half (of) the tasks + UNCOUNT NOUN I’ve got no money.
NOUN some (of the) projects several (of the) issues a lot of (the) ideas many (of the) managers most (of the) projects each of the applicants every one of the pages + UNCOUNT NOUN some (of the) money ----a lot of (the) time much (of the) furniture most (of the) fruit --------- all (of) the problems all (of) the trouble . NOUN --------a lot of the conference ----most of the holiday each applicant every page all (of) the problem + PL.QUANTIFIER some several a lot of many/much most each every (one of) all + SG.
we do not specify which information) I’d like some of the information. Often quantifiers (except NONE and A LOT) are used directly before a noun: It’s impossible to nominate both candidates for the Vicepresidency. . we can use EACH to refer to two things. They must come to classes every day. They had many exams each semester. (specific information) With BOTH. OF can be omitted before THE: Both (of) the candidates believed they had won. (general. but not EVERY. Note the difference between EACH and EVERY! Both quantifiers describe ‘more than one’. using of THE before a plural or an uncountable noun changes the meaning of the noun from general to specific: I’d like some information. With most quantifiers.
) . ANY in negative or interrogative sentences: You’ve got some interesting ideas but do you have any money to back them? ANY used in affirmative sentences means ‘it does not matter which’: It is possible to use SOME in questions where the speaker has some expectation that the answer will be positive: You can’t negotiate with them. Is some of the information useful? (I expect that part of it is. SOME and ANY SOME is usually used in affirmative sentences. Any business person will tell you that.) Is any of the information useful? (I have no idea if it is useful or not.
None of the students are willing to accept the increase in coursework. depending on the noun they substitute or modify. (spoken or informal written English) . though a plural verb is now accepted in speech and informal writing: None of the students is willing to accept the increase in coursework. Others are used with a singular or plural verb. When used as subjects. and some take a plural verb. some quantifiers take a singular verb. half were against it. Quantifiers (except NO and EVERY) can be used without a noun as subject of the clause: The vote was split: half were in favour of the motion. The quantifiers NEITHER and NONE take a singular verb with plural nouns.
- are words which are substituted for nouns in order to avoid repetition. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS SUBJECT OBJECT POSSESSIVE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS PRONOUNS ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS S I you he she it we they me you him her it us them my your his her its our their mine yours his hers --ours theirs myself yourself/yourselves himself herself itself ourselves themselves .
please? Possessive adjectives are used before a noun to express ‘belonging’: ADJ. It’s ours! Don’t you recognize it? Possessive pronouns are used instead of a possessive adjective + noun: .O.: I met the CEO yesterday. Object pronouns are used instead of a noun as a direct or indirect object: D. Can you give them to him. it’s not their deckchair.: Those books belong to Jeremy. PRON.: No. don’t you? I. we usually use pronouns to refer to them: Paul Allen plans to set up a museum. He was a founder of Microsoft. I really appreciate him.O.: Did the neighbours leave that here? It looks like their deckchair. After we mention a person or an object once. or if the context makes it clear who or what we are referring to.
especially subject pronouns: We can expect new regulations. English does not usually omit pronouns. they are often voted in the AGM. That’s the folder I told you about (it). Object pronouns are not used in infinitive phrases or relative clauses if the object has already appeared in the same sentence: Those plastic cards look safe enough to use (them). .
: It is they who asked for the project to be voted.’ The object pronoun is usually used in short responses: After IT IS the subject pronoun is used in formal language and the object pronoun in informal: FML. ‘Who’s there?’ ‘It’s us. the object pronoun is more common: FML. After AS and THAN in comparative patterns. we use the subject pronoun only in very formal English.: It is them who asked for the project to be voted. There are some cases where either an object pronoun or a subject pronoun can be used. INFML. After AS and THAN we can use a subject pronoun with an auxiliary or modal verb: The line manager didn’t speak English as well as I do/did/can.: The line manager didn’t know the procedure any better than I. INFML: The line manager didn’t actually know the procedure any better than me. .
When we have a noun and a pronoun. .: They are sending the new consignment over for Tom and I to check. we usually put the pronoun first: Don’t you think we should let him and his lawyer decide about going to court? We should use object pronouns after a preposition. INFML. although in informal English it is possible to use the subject pronoun: They are sending the new consignment over for Tom and me to check. If we have a noun and a pronoun where the pronoun does not refer to the speaker. we tend to put the speaker first (out of politeness): You and I are both invited to that presentation. or two pronouns together.
In some exclamations we modify object pronouns. . got up and asked everyone to leave at once. usually with an adjective: Look what I’ve done! Silly me! Lucky old him/her! We can use a noun after a pronoun to clarify who or what we are referring to: I want you people to see the Department head immediately. Ms Stein. Then she.
ONE or ONES are used to avoid repeating countable nouns:
Do you prefer the blue folders or the black ones?
ONE/ONES can be used after THE and adjectives but not immediately after A/AN:
I’d like a folder. Can you pass me one from the top shelf? There are interesting exhibits here. This is an amazing one.
ONE/ONES is not used when we refer to an item that has previously been described:
I need a box. A large one. (= any box) Where is my box? Oh, here it is. (my box – a definite one)
Reflexive pronouns are formed with SELF/SELVES and are used when the subject and the object are the same person or thing:
Quick! The worker has burnt himself!
After prepositions an object pronoun is used to refer to the subject when it is clear who or what it refers to; otherwise a reflexive pronoun is used:
Jim emerged from the underground station and looked around him. (him = Jim) Jane was upset. Her supervisor was really annoyed with her. (her = Jane) Jane was upset. Her supervisor was really annoyed with herself. (herself = supervisor)
Reflexive pronouns are used to refer to the subject after verbs with dependent prepositions:
Politicians have to believe in themselves if they expect the people to believe in them.
Either the object pronoun or the reflexive one can be used to refer to the subject after AS (FOR), LIKE, BUT (FOR) and EXCEPT (FOR):
IDIOMATIC USES Some verbs take the reflexive in English idiomatically: e.g. enjoy oneself, help oneself, behave oneself, etc.
Howard made sure that everyone except him/himself had the agenda of the meeting.
Help yourself with the food, won’t you?
The phrase ‘by oneself’ (one = myself/yourself/himself/herself/ourselves/yourselves, themselves) means ‘alone’ or ‘without help’:
We’ve decided to make the presentation by ourselves.
EMPHATIC USE OF REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Reflexive pronouns can be used to emphasize the subject or object of a sentence. The pronoun can come after the subject, after the auxiliary (if there is one) or verb, after the object or at the end of the sentence.
I myself have used this technique on a number of occasions. I have myself used this technique on a number of occasions. I have used this technique myself on a number of occasions. I have used this technique on a number of occasions myself.
The reflexive pronoun used at the beginning or the end of a sentence and separated by a comma means ‘as far as I’m concerned’.
Myself, I don’t like the communicative approach in language learning. I don’t like the communicative approach in language learning, myself.
some. a few. either.ALWAYS SINGULAR ALWAYS PLURAL each. all . many Much of the research has already been completed. much both.’ “Don’t worry! Any (books) are better than none. a lot. several. Some of the information is considered top secret. Some of us are hiring a motor home to go on holiday. half. Some visitors to the new plant are enthusiastic but many have expressed their disappointment.’ SINGULAR OR PLURAL any. ‘We can’t get many books to the schools in the outback.
(they both blamed the two of them and nobody else) Vs. Steve and Elaine blame each other for the failure of the product. though we tend to use the two forms interchangeably in informal English: He spoke fast and his words tripped over each other/one another. . ONE ANOTHER to more than two. Steve and Elaine blame only themselves for the failure of the project. (Steve blamed Elaine and Elaine blamed Steve) EACH OTHER usually refers to two subjects.
e. When we wish to express general feelings and opinions (i. WE or THEY: You can wear whatever you like to go to work these days. we can use YOU. not necessarily those of the speaker). If we wish to include ourselves. Did you know they’ve introduced a new safety procedure? (= the management) THEY is also used to refer to people in authority: . it is better to use WE: We can wear whatever we like to go to work these days. it is better to use THEY: They behave really badly at football matches nowadays. If we wish to exclude ourselves.
It is used as a subject or object pronoun. ONE is used in formal language to mean people generally including ourselves: One can empathize with the demands of the strikers. and as a reflexive pronoun (oneself): One tends to learn to fend for oneself if one lives alone. .
PERSON someone/somebody anyone/anybody OBJECT something anything PLACE somewhere anywhere MANNER somehow anyhow (informal equivalent of anyway) everyone/everybody no one/nobody everything nothing everywhere nowhere .
place or thing ANY compounds are used when we are thinking of people.’ (no particular present) ‘Well. They do not refer to a specific person. place. there’s something I would like…’ (a particular present) . etc. SOME compounds are used when we are thinking of a particular unspecified person. object. places or things in general: ‘What would you like for your birthday?’ ‘oh. anything.
e.g. ANY + one/thing/where is not negative and it means ‘it doesn’t matter who/what/where’: Anyone would understand that the promotional campaign is a flop. Something else you become aware of in this company is its organic structure. We can use these pronouns with modifiers. adjectives or ELSE: The manager decided to do something active about the problems of the company. they take a singular verb: Everything is going smoothly and NASA expects to launch the shuttle as scheduled. . If we use these pronouns and adverbs as subjects.
possessions people. objects.USED FOR PRONOUNS who whom which which that whose no pronoun ADVERBS where when why NOMINAL PRONOUN what objects. ideas (means the thing that) places times reasons people. animals USED AS SUBJECT √ X √ √ √ √ X √ √ √ OBJECT √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ . animals ideas people. animals people objects. animals relationships. things.
THAT is used to refer to people and objects but WHO is usually preferred for a person when the pronoun is the subject of the relative clause. (the atmosphere of which) . he carried a heavy bag. WHOSE can be used to refer to objects: Mr Harrison is the lawyer who/that has been chosen to represent you. It would only be possible to colonize planets whose atmosphere contained enough oxygen to sustain human life. It is mainly used after prepositions: WHICH is used (not WHO) to refer to inanimate objects: I’m referring to the person with whom you were seen. WHOM is formal and we rarely use it in speech. When he left the office. which made her suspicious.
I met the man who was in the negotiating team at a conference. The relative pronoun that refers to the object of a relative clause can be omitted: The man (who) I met at the conference was in the negotiating team. I remember – it was the day when/that the company went bankrupt. Sometimes he thought that money was the reason why/that he accepted the job. The relative pronoun cannot be omitted if it is the subject of the relative clause: THAT can be used as an alternative to WHEN in relative clauses: The only noun that takes WHY as a relative pronoun is ‘reason’: Instead of WHY we can also use OF + WHICH: . High taxation is often the main reason for which governments fall.
all of whom passed. MANY OF may be used before WHICH or WHOM in a relative clause to refer to the subject or object of the clause: The supermarket removed from the shelves all of its jars of tomato puree. none of whom we thought suitable. The college entered over a hundred students for the exam. We interviewed fourteen applicants for the post. several of which were found to contain fragments of glass. . Modifiers such as ALL OF.
. ANYONE. ANYWHERE. In relative clauses we can modify the pronoun or adverb with –ever to give the meaning of ANYTHING. You can put the billboard wherever you think it looks best. I’d like to meet whoever wrote this report.: Use whichever phone you want – they all have outside lines. I don’t mind. etc.
FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES THE ORDER OF THE ADJECTIVES ADVERBS DEGREES OF COMPARISON SOFTENERS AND INTENSIFIERS .
It’s a warm day. look. become.e. feel.. An adjective can be used attributively (before a noun) or predicatively (after a linking verb i. appear. This coffee tastes good. They feel talkative. touch.) Most adjectives can be used in both positions: This is good coffee. seem. The food is delicious. etc. be. smell. Vs. Three business partners are having lunch in a quiet restaurant. Some adjectives are restricted to one position . get. stay. taste.
local. industrial. INNER / OUTER FORMER – The former sales agent now trains young professionals. national. MAIN / CHIEF / PRINICIPAL – Be careful crossing the main road. social . general. UPPER ELDER / ELDEST Adjectives ending in –al e. INDOOR / OUTDOOR – Chess is an indoor game.g. ONLY – The only problem is that the company is running out of money.
beginning with the prefix a- are usually predicative, e.g.,
Ablaze, afraid, aglow, alike, alive, alone, asleep, aware, ashamed
The products look very alike.
Pleased Ill / unwell Content (= happy) Fine (in good health) / well Glad
descriptions, we often use a sequence of adjectives to refer to a noun, being ordered according to their meaning. Determiners (articles, quantifiers, numerals, demonstrative and possessive adjectives) usually precede the sequence of adjectives. GENERAL DESCRIPTION + PHYSICAL STATE + PROPER ADJECTIVE + noun
1. OPINION (HOW GOOD?) 2. SIZE (HOW BIG?) 3. MOST OTHER QUALITIES 4. AGE (HOW OLD?) 5. COLOUR 7. MATERIAL (MADE OF?) 8. TYPE (WHAT KIND?) 9. PURPOSE (WHAT FOR?)
wonderful, nice, great, awful, terrible large, small, long, short, tall quiet, famous, important, soft, wet, difficult, fast, angry, warm new, old red, blue, green, black stone, plastic, steel, paper an electric kettle, political matters, road transport a bread knife, a bath towel
6. ORIGIN (WHERE FROM?) American, British, French
purpose) a beautiful wooden picture frame (opinion. quality. Examples Japanese industrial designers (origin. type) A long boring train journey (size. purpose) Sometimes . size and quality. type) some nice easy quiz questions (opinion. commas are used between adjectives referring to opinion. material. a horrible. exciting city . quality. ugly building a busy. lively.
the under-fives. the underprivileged. the living. the unemployed. the disabled. The less fortunate cannot afford to go on holiday. Should the mentally ill be allowed to live in the community? . the rich.to do with physical condition or health: . the handicapped.to do with age: We can sometimes use an adverb before such an adjective: THE + ADJECTIVE refers to that group in general. The young have their lives in front of them. the sick. the over-sixties. the strong. PEOPLE are used. When we mean a specific person or a specific group of people. the young The very poor are left without hope. the old. the weak the blind. the poor. the middle-aged. the privileged. the words MAN.to do with social or economic position: the disadvantaged. None of the young people in the village can find jobs here. There are some adjectives that we can use to talk about groups of people in society: . The severely disabled need full-time care. the deaf. the homeless. the healthy the elderly. the hungry. WOMAN. . the starving.
boring. missing. disappointed. frightened. determined. worried COMMON –ED ADJECTIVES . interested. unexpected. exhausted. disabled. increasing. tired. threatening. complicated. following. COMMON –ING ADJECTIVES amazing. existing. ashamed. educated. excited. promising. underlying. working advanced. leading. outstanding. alleged. pleased. encouraging. bored. unemployed. armed. corresponding. remaining. surprised. interesting. exciting. Most adjectives from this group are derived from verbs. willing.
-ous. central. dis-. technical. irregular SUFFIXES -less. mis-. -ful. funny.beautiful. illiterate. PREFIXES NEGATIVE MEANING: un-. instinctive. -y. final. different. Many adjectives are formed by adding an adjective prefix or suffix to a verb or noun. insensitive. -ent. disrespectful. misleading. monotonous. effective. careful. persistent. sunny. in-. -ish cordless. careless. i(l) uninteresting. active. non-. -al. -ive. illegitimate. continuous. non-standard. serious. greenish . stylish.
slow-moving highly-sensitive wishy-washy. nervewracking ADJECTIVE + ADJECTIVE ADJECTIVE + NOUN NOUN + ADJECTIVE ADVERB + -ED PARTICIPLE ADVERB + -ING PARTICIPLE ADVERB + ADJECTIVE REDUPLICATIVE NOUN + -ED PARTICIPLE NOUN + -ING PARTICIPLE . Are made from a combination of more than one word. resulting in a compact expression of information. including: greyish-blue full-time. newly-restored. large-scale butterfly-blue. cutting-edge. so-called free-spending. classroom-based. They take many forms. goody-goody church-owned. law-abiding. roly-poly. life-long ill-suited. horsedrawn eye-catching. age-old.
elderly. silly. We worked hard. EARLY. The ending –LY is the normal adverb ending. We did some hard work. Vs. LATE/ LATELY. QUICK. The material is highly radioactive. LATE. lovely. Vs. I’ve got hardly any money left. almost none) Luckily I found a phone box quite near. friendly. but a few adjectives also end in –ly. They sell cheap clothes in the market. They sell things cheap / cheaply there. The train went quite fast. LOUD. lonely. (without paying) vs. WRONG. NEAR / NEARLY. HARD. She spoke to us in a friendly way / manner. HIGH. Vs. FAST. likely. The animals are allowed to wander freely. I nearly fell asleep in the meeting. Vs. (very little. the adjectives CHEAP. (very) We got into the concert free. In informal English. STRAIGHT. FREE / FREELY These pairs of adverbs have different meanings: I tried hard. I’ve been very busy lately. NEAR. ugly The interviewer was very friendly. HIGH / HIGHLY. as usual. DEEP. SLOW can be used as adverbs. (uncontrolled) . (in the last few days/weeks) The plane flew high above the clouds. LOW. but I didn’t succeed. LONG. (almost) Rachel arrived late. HARD / HARDLY. Come here as quick / quickly as you can. This is a silly question. RIGHT can be used both as adjectives and as adverbs I came on the fast train. lively.
‘How are you?’ ‘Very well. (Our results were good. thank you. WELL may be the adverb of GOOD We all did well in the test. the opposite of ILL The manager was very ill.’ .) An adjective meaning ‘in good health’. but he is quite well again now.
but the Sales Manager was the most pleased. nice) usually have the endings –er (than) (for the comparative) and –est (for the superlative) The secretary needs a bigger computer. SHORT and LONG ADJECTIVES One-syllable adjectives (small. For three-syllable adjectives and with longer ones. The comparative and superlative forms of short and long adjectives are different. Everyone was pleased with the results of the negotiation. the more/less. For adjectives ending in –ed. the more/less. the most / the least forms are used The film is more exciting than the book. This machine is the most reliable. . the most / the least forms are used. This is the nicest colour.
modern. gentle. correct. most boring – more boring than. exact. most. quiet. most careful – more careful. the happiest 2. narrow. the most careful helpful. annoyed. -est. frequent. normal. other adjectives that have more. words ending in –ful or –less have more. words ending in a consonant + Y have –er. the most boring willing. polite. eager. and some have more. stupid. certain. foolish. -est happy – happier. simple. words ending in –ing and –ed have more. nervous. Some two-syllable adjectives have –er. hopeless 3. adjectives that have both –er and –est and more and most . tired 5. most: afraid. pleasant. 1. recent clever. surprised 4. cruel. common. famous. useful.
lucky – luckier. thinnest . hottest. luckiest Adjectives ending in a single vowel + single consonant double the consonant before adding –er and –est hot – hotter. nicest Consonant + -Y. Final –e of the positive form is dropped before –er and –est: nice – nicer. Y shifts into I before adding -er and -est. thin – thinner.
slowly) form the comparative and superlative with more and most. Can you type faster than that? Many adverbs formed by ADJECTIVE + -LY (carefully. The short adverbs that have the same form as an adjective form the comparative and superlative with –er. easily. Note the forms sooner. . Try to come to the office sooner. soonest and more often. -est. We could do this more easily with a computer. most often.
eldest + noun instead of older. oldest. but only for people in the same family (elder than is NEVER used) My elder sister is the CEO of that company.good/ well bad/ badly far better worse farther/further best worst farthest/furthest We can use elder. .
Thy don’t earn as much money as they’d like. AS … AS is used to say that things are equal or unequal. It isn’t as cold as yesterday. . THE SAME AS The result of the contest was the same as last year.
It’s much faster by tube. rather. This chair is a bit more comfortable. a little. He is twenty years older than me. a lot. This month’s figures are slightly less good. He is twenty years older than I am. then we use the subject form (I) SOFTENERS and INTENSIFIERS We an put a word or phrase (much. far. a personal pronoun on its own has the object form (me). slightly) before a comparative to intensify or soften the meaning of the adjective. a bit. . After THAN or AS. quite. but if the pronoun has a verb after it.
The country is rapidly losing its workers. as more and more people are emigrating. COMPARATIVE + COMPARATIVE THE + COMPARATIVE. the more reliable the product. THE + COMPARATIVE . Everything is getting more and more expensive. Used to imply that a change in one thing goes with a change in another The higher the price. Used to express a gradual change The queue was getting longer and longer.
An adverb can be found in three places in a sentence: FRONT POSITION (at the beginning of a sentence). . MID POSITION (close to the verb) and END POSITION (at the end of the sentence). Outside (front position) it was obviously (mid position) raining hard (end position).
You’re certainly a lot better today. the adverb comes before the main verb. haven’t I? Use of adverbs in mid position in questions – after the subject: Has Andrew always liked Statistics? Do you often go out to business lunches? . When the verb TO BE is on its own. The briefs have definitely been stolen. The adverb comes after the first auxiliary: The visitors are just leaving. The boss is usually in a bad temper. the adverb usually comes after it. then the adverb usually comes before it: You certainly are a lot better today. If there is no auxiliary. I really have made a mistake. When there is stress on the verb TO BE or on the auxiliary. I really enjoy negotiations.
I like classical music very much. . after the object. Tom proofread his report quickly. We played volleyball yesterday. An adverb does not usually go between the verb and the direct object. Nevertheless. object: an adverb can go before a long Detectives examined carefully the contents of the dead man’s pockets. it is put in end position.
ADVERBS OF PLACE AND TIME Adverbs and adverbial phrases of place and time usually go in end position: Is there a phone box nearby? We’re meeting by the entrance. The train is now approaching Swindon. I’ll soon find out. Last week we had nothing to do. ADVERBS OF MANNER tell us how something happens. but an adverb which ends in –LY can sometimes go in mid position as well. Did you have a nice time in New York? Sometimes they can go in front position: We are really busy this week. We asked permission politely. Some short adverbs of time can also go in mid position: . They usually go in end position. I’ll see you before very long. We politely asked permission.
I should get it next week. STILL is used before the auxiliary: STILL is stronger than YET. I have two more lines to write. YET means that we are expecting something. She’s still at work. ALREADY means ‘sooner than expected’ usually goes at the end of a negative statement or a question: YET Vicky has got a letter but she hasn’t opened it yet. not yet. often expressing surprise that the situation has gone on for so long. We wrote a month ago and we’re still waiting for a reply. Rita hasn’t bought her plane ticket yet. Are you still waiting after all this time? Has Tom already been on holiday? In questions STILL and ALREADY usually go after the subject: . Wait a minute! I’m not ready yet. STILL and ALREADY usually go in mid position: Sarah isn’t home yet. I’ve only been at work an hour. STILL means ‘going on longer than expected’. and I’m already exhausted. STILL and ALREADY In a positive statement. It’s nearly lunch time and you still haven’t opened your e-mail. In negative statements. Rita still hasn’t bought her plane ticket. Have they sent you your cheque yet? No.
In informal speech NOT … ANY LONGER or NOT … ANYMORE is used. ANY LONGER/ANY MORE comes at the end of the sentence. You can’t buy these items now. She doesn’t work here any longer/ any more. They don’t make these items any longer / any more. It goes in mid position. I used to belong to the golf club but I’m no longer a member. NO LONGER can be a little formal. They no longer make them. . Rita has resigned. NO LONGER means that something is finished.
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