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Group 2

Bicycle Life-cycle Study

Alexeis Huaiquin Rosas, Daruska Miric Fuentes, Ryo Nakakido, Aurélien Delrieu & Pouya Saboktakin

Summary/Abstract
In this project the life cycle of a bicycle is studied. This study goes through the most important steps in which an average bike is produced. Also the principal (raw) materials are composed and used in this process as different inputs are considered as well as the output flows in form of end product, manufacturing wastes and environmental emissions. In the first step, the different sub processes needed for the manufacturing of the most relevant materials of the bikes are shown, also showing the different output of wastes generated. The construction process of a common bike is going to be explained more accurately in the second part of the project. The same study regarding environmental impacts analysis is performed on the raw material extraction process, the use phase and the after-use phase of a bike. To finish the explanation of the life cycle, the material usage and waste generation of the maintenance of the bikes is considered, and in the last part of the project the final destination of each part of the used bikes (which can be disposed in landfilled or recycled) is shown. There is a discussion about a better environmental behavior in the life cycle of the bicycles that can be produced by more recycling of the different parts and materials of the bikes or the improvement of the efficiency of the energy systems implicated in the whole process.

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................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17 Total lifecycle environmental impact per passenger-kilometer .................................................................................................................................................. 4 1) Resource extraction phase ............................................................................................... 5 2) Process phase ....................................................................................... 15 Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) .......... 4 Process and emissions associated to the extraction of the materials ................... 15 After-use phase............................................................................. 4 Components and materials of an average bicycle ......... 11 Assembly line (Cannondale bicycles...................................................................................... 9 Chain....... 16 Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Aluminum wheels ..................... 15 3) 4) Use phase ........................................CONTENTS Introduction ............................................................... 17 References ........................ 21 2|P a g e ..... 8 Tires ........................ 3 Objective .......................................................................................................................................... Pennsylvania) ................................... 4 Method .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12 Transportation .............................................................................................. 17 Production Processes phase .................................................................................................................

aluminum.INTRODUCTION The life cycle is a framework. All the stages of the manufacturing of the process must be considered. laws for the waste emissions and ways in which companies may develop strategies for decreasing or controlling the emission of wastes. mainly used to study and identify the different environmental impacts of a product. 3|P a g e . because those stages also case environmental impacts. which in this case is a bicycle. The objective of this tool to detect the environmental impacts. This project is about the life cycle of a bicycle which is made up off steel. just like the main process of the bike manufacturing. rubber and other materials that have their own manufacturing processes. realizing which one is more environmental friendly. from the extraction of the materials to the disposal that allow us to formulate better policies. which necessitates consideration regarding the construction of the lifecycle of the bikes due to the environmental impacts and the waste generated in the maintenance of this vehicle. Also it can be used for the comparison of different product. including the processes that are needed for the manufacture of the materials that compose a common bike.

Table 1 shows the components that were mentioned and some other for an average bicycle. 1) RESOURCE EXTRACTION PHASE COMPONENTS AND MATERIALS OF AN AVERAGE BICYCLE Various materials are needed for the construction of a bicycle. also using some internet related information.and allocated to team members to be investigates and developed. the gears and the frame. mild steel. Suggestions are made for the categorized impacts like recycling and efficient energy consumption. meanwhile the subcomponents are the chains. foam and PVC. use and after-use phases in which the first two steps generate the most relevant environmental impacts. the cranks and the shifters. Also in order to perform a comprehensive and detailed project.OBJECTIVE The aim of this work is to research and describe the life cycle of an average bicycle. rubber. and the materials needed for each component for the bicycle.ch 2009). the work was divided in four topics. considering the whole material flow from extraction phase to the manufacturing stage. All these materials contribute to give the bikes an average mass of 17 kilograms (simplel. it is needed to research all the chemical compounds that constitute it. These components are made mainly of steel. The principal parts of an average or regular bike are the tires. including the amount of the average weight of needed for each component: 4|P a g e . aluminum. the use phase & after-use phase. the process phase. METHOD The method used for the research and information gathering was mainly from bicycle’s life cycle papers and books references.The resource phase. and for fulfilling the entire life cycle of this transportation tool.

15 Others Rubber 1. each process that transforms raw materials into useful materials to be used to construct each component of the bicycles generates different wastes and 5|P a g e .23 Seat Post Aluminum 0.53 Derailleurs Aluminum 0.24 Foam 0.09 Source: (M.5 Total All materials 17.10 Tires Wire 0.30 Steel 0. Component Material Average Weight [kg] Frame Aluminum 2. material that must be extracted and treated by several processes to become the stainless steel.56 Pedals Aluminum 0. Leuenberger.68 Cables Wire 0. Life Cycle Assessment of Two Wheels Vehicles 2010) PROCESS AND EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED TO THE EXTRACTION OF THE MATERIALS The materials used in the construction of each component are composed from other raw materials that must be refined to get the materials that are used directly in the bikes.03 Chains Steel 0.14 Aluminum 0.00 Steel 3. Frischknecht.45 Crank set Aluminum 0.23 Stem Aluminum 0.36 V-Brakes Rubber/Plastic 0.03 PVC 0. One example. is obtained from the iron ore.15 Steel 0. R.28 Steel 0.50 Handlebar Aluminum 0.11 Rubber/Plastic 0.19 Rubber/Plastic 0.00 Other 0.11 Cassette Sprockets Steel alloyed 0.60 Wheels Aluminum 0.84 Steel 0.Table 1: Materials of each component of an average bicycle .60 Shifters Rubber 0.28 Brake handle Aluminum 0. In other hand.60 Bearings Steel 0.00 Aluminum 2. the stainless steel that is used in many parts of the bikes.3 Seat Rubber/Plastic 0.

Life cycle of a bicycle (2011). Some of the input of materials and waste generation of the process to manufacture the steel necessary to be used directly in the bikes is shown in the table 2. so mining process are required to extract this mineral. lead. Bhalla. dust Process Aluminum ore extraction Bayer’s process Crushed bauxite. / http://www. For example for the reduction process of the iron ore. Table 2: Steel manufacturing processes. The table below shows the sub process of the aluminum refinement and some of the wastes generated. cryolite. titanium. The Bauxite minerals. / http://www. Steel Material Input Material Output Waste Output Hematite. emissions and raw material.emissions. This consists basically in a mining process for the extraction of the iron ore and refinement.com/ The aluminum that composes the bicycles is obtained through the Bauxite mineral. Aluminum Precipitation Sodium hydroxide hydroxide Heat Aluminum hydroxide Water Aluminum oxide. etc.ideasyncrasy. nickel Stainless Steel Calcium silicate Magnesium sulphide Calcium silicate. At the same time. these processes need energy and other materials to go on. magnesium powder Molten iron. limestone Molten iron.ideasyncrasy. just like iron ore is underground. Aluminum Source: R. dust Bituminous coal Iron ore. carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide. energy in form of heat is needed which is normally generated by the burning of coal. and it must be refined and submitted to an electrolysis process. quicklime Molten iron. Life cycle of a bicycle (2011). chromium. Electrolysis carbon carbon oxide. oxygen. The incineration of this material generates emissions like carbon dioxide. carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide Process Iron ore extraction Heating in absence of air Reduction of the ore Removal of sulfur Removal of carbon Alloy melting Annealing Source: R. sodium Silicon. Table 3: Aluminum manufacturing processes. Bhalla. Aluminum Raw Material Input Material Output Waste Output Bauxite Carbon dioxide. calcium phosphate Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide. hydroxide solution calcium oxides Carbon dioxide Sodium Tetra hydro aluminate. magnetite Carbon dioxide. emissions and raw material.com/ 6|P a g e . coke.

Sulfur dioxide Petroleum Volatile organic comp. metallic salt Polyurethane. dioxin Vinylchloridemonomer Dioxin PVC additives PVC compound Source: R. propane. Bhalla. copper. obtained from petroleum at the first stages of the chain of process to manufacture it. / http://www. Polymerization amine. (Voc) Mercury. Ethylenedichloride. copper hexachlorobenzene.ideasyncrasy.ideasyncrasy.com/ Process Crude oil extraction Refined to naphtha Electrolysis Steam cracking Thermal decomposition Polymerization Compounding Injection molding Just as PVC. It begins with the extraction of oil to obtain the hydrocarbon that composes it. Carbon dioxide octachlorostyrene Naphtha (ethane. Life cycle of a bicycle (2011).Manufactured by the polymerization of vinyl chloride. PVC Raw material Input Material Output Waste Output Shale Carbon dioxide. zinc. Life cycle of a bicycle (2011). hexachloronbenzene. Many materials are needed for the production of this process. emissions and raw material. Carbon dioxide butane) Chloroform. chlorate hydrocarbon has to pass many sub processes. Foam Process Raw material Input Material Output Waste/Material Output Crude oil extraction Shale Refined to Naphtha Petroleum Volatile organic comp. some of those process (and their materials and waste out puts) are shown in the table 4: Table 4: PVC manufacturing processes. Layering Polyurethane backing-paper Cutting Polyurethane foam Foam Source: R. Waste and material output at shown in the table 5: Table 5: Foam manufacturing processes. phthalene. like electrolysis and distillation. emissions and raw material. the foam is a polymer composed mainly by hydrocarbon. carbon Expansion Carbon dioxide dioxide Polyurethane. PCB. / http://www. Reacting process Di-isocyanate polyol Poly-isocyanate. Rock salt hexachloronethane.com/ 7|P a g e . Bhalla.

8|P a g e . carbon black. 2) PROCESS PHASE After considering the environmental emissions of the raw material used in manufacturing a bicycle such as steel. Rubber Waste/Material Raw material Input Material Output Output Rubber sap Latex acids Butadiene. which is an organic (hydrocarbon) polymer. PVC. in this chapter as a next step the aim is to focus on production procedure of bicycle parts such as tires. oxygen Latex Natural rubber Synthetic rubber Carbon black Carbon dioxide. emissions and raw material. tire and plastic. aluminum wheels. sulfur. Also there is some processes mainly machinery that seems to not pollute. / http://www.com/ It’s important to know that almost all the processes to manufacture the materials needed on the bikes need energy. it can be said that performing more efficient process. sulfur oxides. in form of electricity or heat. chain. Bhalla. less emissions can be achieved. oil Source: R. Some other sub processes are needed to improve the rubber mechanical characteristics. re-milling. VOC.ideasyncrasy. Life cycle of a bicycle (2011). reducing the energy consumption again and also the waste generation. aluminum. but all them use electric energy at the end (for example precipitation need electric energy for pumping purposes). synthetic rubber. using less amount of energy in each part. and to generate that energy is necessary the use of materials like coal or hydrocarbons for obtaining heat for example.The rubber is obtained from the natural rubber or resin. dust. carbon monoxide Process Rubber tapping Mixing Co-polymerization Incomplete Combustion Mixing. and the burning of these materials generate emissions of carbon oxides. styrene Crude oil. final mixing Natural rubber. their material inputs and wastes outputs are mentioned in the following table: Table 6: Rubber manufacturing processes. This way. etc. Also the recycling of the components of the materials of the bicycles would be helpful to decrease the amount of raw material that need to be extracted. adhered in the interior of some kinds of trees that are widely cultivated. body frame and of course considering the assembly line as a whole image where all these parts meet to end up as an end product.

long-lasting state by utilizing steam to heat (up to 180 degrees for 3 minutes) or cure the tire. The milling process shapes the rubber into flat. 9|P a g e . The following table(s) considers the environmental impacts of the “consumption” of electricity and paper regarding their indirect environmental impacts also. less pliable. which allow the tread and plies of rubber to adhere. long strips and ready to be assembled by a highly automated process in which components are assembled on a rotating drum. Tire builders utilize solvents. sulfur and also carbon black to increase tire’s density. Until the world war 2 bicycle tires were organic but by 1960s synthetic rubber became standard and modern bicycle tire have been made of it ever since. Exposing heat and hazard of sudden inhale of chemicals while respiration apart from the mechanical risks show the environmental impacts of the wastes energy in form of heat also chemical emission and leach. curing press aims to transform the tacky and pliable material to a non-tacky. Besides machinery regular work & maintenance have oil leach and pollution also. Bike tires are made by the combination of rubber.The transportation of the final product is considered also in this chapter as the very last step before reaching the customer. elasticity and durability. nylon and bulletproof Kevlar. This would also reveal waste in form of heat and water consumption. Exposure to the solvents is an area of concern for workers and of course should be considered as an environmental impact. Inspection and testing is performed on random tires focusing on punching and pressure resistance. In almost the last stage. Rolling machines or banbury mixers are fed by rubber stocks and other chemicals such as silica. such as hexane. There are machines simulating the road situation which test tires non-stop for 2 or 3 days in a row and the energy consumption is considerable in this phase. Nylon could be added in this stage or another separate phase using similar equipment. Zink oxide. TIRES Tires first were invented in 1888 by John Dunlop.

The manufacturing process starts with a punch press which cuts and shapes the steel into chain’s inner links. Hence the chemical leach and evaporation is considered as a significant impact despite the low possibility. Then different length and model chains are being packed and ready to send. 10 | P a g e . Table 8 expresses more about the raw material and tools in use in each step as well as environmental impacts.Table 7: Tire manufacturing processes and environmental impacts Process/Phase Compounding and Banbury mixing Tool/Machine Heavy rolling machine/Banbury mixer Raw material artificial rubbers. As the next step chemicals such as ceramic and silica powders plus little amount of water are all mixed with links in a donut shape container which polish the links. Assembly machine in the next step forms the chain beautifully by using outer and inner links in a unique order and connects those using spins and rings. Mineral oil. silica. Hot oil bath as the next step lubricate the chains and make them ready for the very last step in the process which is cutting by a laser machine. Then the links bake in 1500 Fahrenheit degrees in order to gain more strength. solvents (hexane) Curing and Vulcanizing Heat press CHAIN A bicycle chain is essentially a roller chain that is designed specifically to transfer pedal power to the bicycle’s rear wheel. Zinkoxide and sulfur Nylon Environmental impact Energy consumption / Energy waste (heat) / Chemical leach Energy consumption Energy consumption / Energy waste (heat)/ Chemical leach Energy consumption Energy waste (heat)/ water Milling Heavy rolling machine Component Assembly and Building Rotating drum Glue. Hence lots of energy in form of heat is wasted in this phase. Baked links followed by fast cool down of baked steels strengthens the steel more. Then these links take a chemical bath which gives them a nickel Teflon veneer to increase resistance against corrosion and by smoothing the surface allow chain move easily over gears’ brackets.

More hazardous impacts happens before the end welding of rims when the acid bath removes the dust and other contaminants from the rims surface and later on the multiphase heating process in order to increase strength of the metal (that re-structure the molecules of aluminum) which consumes electricity or fossil fuels or coal also emit Co2. 11 | P a g e . Right after measuring the rim. So2 and other particles and gases in to the air. a cutting tool separates the rings and for almost a rim. The process is called Anodization. Two ends of a rim is joined by an automatic welding machine which cause a welding line sign on the rim hence a sharp vibrating cutting tool smooth the weld line. After all these processes comes up the anti-corrosion coating in chemical pools using an electrical charge to draw the coating particles onto the rims’ surface. plastic bags. This creates a smooth perfectly flat area for the brake pads to grib.Table 8: Chain production processes and environmental impacts Process/Phase Cutting links Cooking links Polishing links Anti-corrosion veneering Lubrication cutting Tool/Machine Punch-press machines Furnace Doughnut-shaped mixer Chemical pool Hot oil bath Laser cutter Papers. A computer guided machine shaves off the amount of anodized metal for nearly one third of the rim’s surface. So far the automation involved in the processes is considered as energy use sources as well as the probable maintenance chemical and oil uses (and leach) are environmental impacting issues. cartons Raw material input Steel sheet Fuel/Coal ceramic & silica powder Nickel Oil Environmental impact Energy consumption CO2 emission Energy waste (heat) Chemical Leach Chemical leach Oil leach Energy waste (heat) Energy consumption Energy waste (heat) Paper consumption Plastic penetration into the environment packaging ALUMINUM WHEELS In a very simple process aluminum tubes are bent with bending machines to form a circular shape.

Overall. plastic bags. Depending on the model a wheel can have between 10 to 46 spokes. Then a manual phase of assembling wheels is performed then lacing the wheel in which spokes are fixed and connected in rim’s holes. cartons Energy consumption Paper consumption Plastic penetration into the environment packaging ASSEMBLY LINE (CANNONDALE BICYCLES. This would need electricity or fuel 12 | P a g e . Table 9: Environmental impacts of manufacturing aluminum wheels Process/Phase Bending cutting Acid wash Heating Tool/Machine Bending machines Cutting machine Acid bath Heating room Acid(s) Raw material Aluminum tubes Environmental impact Energy consumption Energy consumption Chemical Leach Energy consumption (after burn gases emission) Energy consumption Energy waste (heat) Energy consumption Chemicals Chemical leach Energy consumption End welding Weld line Milling Anti-corrosion coating Grid line Milling Spokes installation Testing Welding machine Milling machine Chemical pool Milling machine (Manual) Alignment testing machines Papers. PENNSYLVANIA) Having Profile and pipe as inventories.Another computer guided machine drills holes for tiny aluminum nipples which hold the aluminum spokes to the rim. After the manual phase. first of all requires transportation inside the site to be places in warehouse and then to the cutting phase. table below tells more about the details regarding the steps priority and environmental impacts. robots make any necessary tensioning adjustments afterwards. Truing the wheel is the important step in aligning the wheel by adjusting the spokes using a specific wrench until the wheel is finally trued.

After the painting phase which in this case in done manually. is done before the frames are sent for painting. In pre-assembly location swing arms or any other hardware such as shock absorbers are attached to the main frame. any other small component is put on and fixed respectively. wheels. etc. gears. 13 | P a g e . bikes are ready for packing in which paperboards. On assembly line the hanging bike moves along and each part such as. CNC machines in the cutting step make parts out of aluminum or steel pipes which would make even more sense when a plasma or laser cutter create accurate holes and channels on tubes. frames are sent to heating room to be then transferred to the decal room where all decals are applied manually.to provide these transitions besides the emitted gases in case of using lift-trucks with diesel engines for instances. Decaled frames are then back to the painting room to get this time a protection layer over decals. would end up with a better painting quality. At this procedure also heat treatment is performed to increase the strength of the frame. After the quality control. A neat frame with no oil or any material on its surface. Then in a manual phase the alignment of the frame is tested. hence a chemical bath is done to prepare the frames respectively. handle bars. In order to give the group the number of tubes as a frame. Then in parallel components for handle bar which are made up of shifters. This ensures there is a nice smooth transition between tubes where the weld I concerned. cartons and plastic bags are used. Some extra machine works for dressing appropriate surfaces. Now the frame is ready and from now on all other extra parts mentioned in the previous parts meet here to form the end product. shifters. Energy consumption and energy waste in form of heat is considerable at this stage. tack welding now gives the general shape of the frame which also allows the parts to be handled as one unit from now on. grips are put together to be fixed on the main frame later on in the assembly line. The overall flow can be grasped from the chart below. wholes. At the welding department attachments are completed and would be completed by a sanding process which removes all imperfections in welded parts. chain.

etc emission Energy consumption/ Cooling liquid leach Chemical leach Chemical spray leach Chemical penetration into the environment Chemical spray leach Energy consumption paperboards. cartons and plastic bags Paper consumption/ Plastic penetration into the environment Dressing machinery Frame wash Painting Decaling Decal fixing Assembly Packaging Drilling machines Chemical pool Cooling oils/liquids Chemicals Paints Glued decals Fixator sprays Assembly line electric tools 14 | P a g e . SO2. Mengru (Arthur) Tu (2009). Development of an agent-based system for manufacturing control and coordination with ontology and RFID technology Table 10: Environmental impacts of assembly line of bicycles Process/Phase In-house transportation Cutting Accurate channeling Tack welding Welding Sanding Heat treatment Tool/Machine Lift trucks Cutting machine Plasma or laser cutters Welding guns Welding machines Sanding machines Heating room Electricity / fuel Electrodes Raw material Fuel Environmental impact CO2. etc emission Energy consumption Energy consumption/ Energy waste (heat) Energy consumption Energy consumption Energy waste (heat)/ water Energy consumption Energy consumption/ Energy waste (heat) CO2. SO2.Chart 1: Assembly line scheme Source: Ruey-Shun Chena.

PM. 3) USE PHASE Bicycle is known as a green transportation mean hence it is a difficult task to mention the direct environmental impacts generated during the use phase. The motive power source in the bicycle is produced by human muscle power where the required impulsion energy is obtained from food consumption. HC. should be considered and the reason is the increase of the order in the manufacturing phase where the impacts have been already mentioned. The main environmental impact is of course matter of exhaust gases emitted into the atmosphere by truck and container. 2005).per year (Williams. Transportation can be done directly to the sport or toy stores and/or to the local distribution centers. brake grips. Considering the maintenance of these vehicles would add more items to these impacts as well. The production of waste tires throughout the world is estimated to be 1billion tons tires-all types. SO2. wheels. lubricants e. But the indirect impacts through using of spare parts like tires. 4) AFTER-USE PHASE Now a day’s wastes utilization is a major issue to get clean and healthy environment. Pradhan and Singh (2011) discussed that termal pyrolysis of tire-in general. Wang et al (2011) also discussed the use of recycled tire crumb rubber as an alternative electrode material in microbial fuel cells as the tire particles showed satisfying 15 | P a g e . grease and other chemical items which cause soil pollution for instance because of leaching. As the environmental pollution caused by waste tires has become a rigorous issue in global environment protection. The maintenance process uses oils. Emissions produced by bicycle use in this phase (CO2eq.by batch reactors at 600°C would lead to the pyrolytic oil that has significantly higher calorific value and thus can be used as an alternative to fossil fuel after proper treatment. CO.TRANSPORTATION The process phase of the bicycle’s life cycle does not end here and actually there is one more step before starting the “use phase” and that is transportation of the end products to the consumption area.g. etc. NOx and Pb) are largely zero and do not consider emissions required by the production of food.

(2009). The material inventory was determined from leading vehicles producing companies in China. 281-290. Table 11 shows the material inventory used in the bicycle production process. 1400 pounds of coal and 120 pounds of limestone are conserved. electric scooter. for all the vehicles. 281-290. specifically as ferrous metal. C. fabricating refined materials into individual parts. The importance of recycling aluminum is that the energy saved by recycling 1 ton of aluminum equals the amount of electricity used by a typical home within a 10 years period. This is a good example of bike tires afteruse phase. because for every ton of steel recycled. (2009). there is possibility of resale in 2nd hand markets. Bicycle parts that are made of steel can be recycled as scrap metal. Transportation Research Part D 14. 2500 pounds of iron ore. Comparative environmental impacts of electric bikes in China. in the municipal drop-off center or scrap metal center.R. if the bike can still be used. Recycling it is important. Page 2. also shows the material inventory for electric bike. LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY (LCI) Seen from a general form. Comparative environmental impacts of electric bikes in China. etc.R. The production process. and assembling the parts into the final vehicle. motorcycle and bus. consists of the following stages: mining or extraction of raw materials. also the spare parts might be used after reassembling. processing those raw materials into usable refined material.conductivity after 2-4 layers of graphite coating. Also. 1 Cherry. C. 16 | P a g e .1 Table 11: Inventory of materials in vehicles production process Source: Cherry. Transportation Research Part D 14.

Transportation Research Part D 14. TOTAL LIFECYCLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT PER PASSENGER-KILOMETER In this point it is show the average emissions produced. Air pollution (PM). Waste water and Solid waste. (2009). control can be focused or can design strategies for decreasing environmental damage. Table 11: Environmental impact in vehicles production process Source: Cherry. The environmental impact considers data reported in industrial statistical yearbooks. Comparative environmental impacts of electric bikes in China. The inventory between production process and environment are: Air pollution (SO2). These emissions were calculated using the material inventories from producing companies in China. electric bike. come into contact with the environment causing an impact on this.R. electric bike. In this.During the manufacturing process of bicycles are generated various types of emissions. Also. motorcycle and bus is illustrated. per passenger kilometer traveled for bicycle. As seen in the table. In the Table 12. in the production and use phases. Greenhouse gas (CO2eq). It is important to specify that the types included de emissions due to the mining and production of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. to identify emission intensities (kg pollutant per kg of material produced). generated in the stages mentioned before. and the production of plastic and rubber. does not include transportation logistic impact. electric scooter. electric scooter. C. 17 | P a g e . LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LCIA) PRODUCTION PROCESSES PHASE Some of the wastes. the waste water is a major cause emissions impact in the bicycle process. the impact in the environment and the energy use for bicycle. 281-290.

2 Cherry. Comparative environmental impacts of electric bikes in China.R. 100% recycle rate and one battery every 10000 km for electric bikes and one battery every 3 years or 250000 km for buses. (2009). one battery every 3 years or 75000 km for car. (2009). one battery every 3 years or 18000 km for motorcycle. 281-290. Transportation Research Part D 14. This factor assumes generally uncongested city. Table 13 gives the emissions of both faces together. Transportation Research Part D 14. 281-290. in energy consumption per distance terms. Comparative environmental impacts of electric bikes in China.motorcycle and bus. hence it can help designing a strategy to eliminate or reduce this environmental impact. 1-2 pax for motorcycle and 1-2 pax for electric bike. bus. Table 12: Environmental Impact per passenger-kilometer - Source: Cherry. So it can be said that the bikes are the most efficient option of transportation. Table 13 shows that the most important bicycle emission is carbon dioxide. C.R. this is an important comparison of the environmental impacts. 1000000 km. 25-75 pax for bus. which are2: Lifespan of 197000 km. C. and as expected the bicycle the more friendly with the environment. The vehicle that make more emissions of carbon dioxide is the car. motorcycle and electric bike respectively. 20000 km. bicycle. Several assumptions were made to develop Table 13. Average load factor of 1-3 pax for car. 60000 km and 50000 km for car. 18 | P a g e . 1 pax for bicycle. Page 7.

and until the final destination. through the manufacture this vehicle.Discussion As all the processes associated with the manufacturing of a bicycle which cause different environmental impacts were researched. These stages are shown schematically in the following figure: Fig 1: Diagram of the life cycle of the bicycles. that could be the disposal in landfill. recycling or resale.com/conduct-a-mini-life-cycle-asse-124497 19 | P a g e . from the extraction of the raw materials that compose the bikes. tool that allow us to organize and classify the different stages of the process of the bicycle manufacturing. There are inputs in the bicycle life cycle in form of energy and raw material as well as outputs if form of disposed parts or wasted energy hence production optimization and reuse or recycling mean to keep the material in the cycle and prevent them leaving it. these impacts can be detected by the realization of a life cycle (in this case for the bikes). Source: http://www.apartmenttherapy.

and many others. etc. An example of investment could be the installation of insulation in pipelines. job that must be done by vehicles that use fuel and generate carbon dioxide. Consequently the amount of greenhouse gases and waste generated in the first stages raw material extraction and production would also decrease. burning hydrocarbons like fuel oil.The most important environmental impact detected in the whole chain of process was the emission of carbon dioxide. This would help decreasing the amount of raw material input in the cycle. that are almost always treated in the plant of process to be discharged in rivers or in the sea. A direct way to cause an environmental impact through the emissions of carbon dioxide could be for example during the transportation of raw materials. which burns hydrocarbons and pollute greenhouse gases. and this electricity could be generated at the end by thermo electric power plants. and the industrial liquid wastes. the most relevant greenhouse gas of these days. transport. These emissions of waste could be direct or indirect. works that have their own sub processes that could be heating. precipitation. or many others sources. but uses other sources of energy like the electricity to perform their jobs. Another considerable step about the life cycle realized is the final stages and the important of recycling the parts. sulfur dioxide. The same goes for industrial processes like heating that could be done by heat exchangers or furnaces. considering the extraction and refining of the raw materials. 20 | P a g e . Also there are other kinds of direct waste emissions that must be mentioned. which final destination are principally in landfills. and in the manufacture of each of the different materials that compose the bicycles. generating carbon dioxide. carbon monoxide. cooling. most of the pumps need electricity for working. decreasing the leakage of heat. distillation. will help to decrease the energy consumption (decreasing the amount of hydrocarbons burned) and decreasing the amount of greenhouse gases generated. The major part of carbon dioxide (as carbon monoxide. these are the industrial solid wastes. sulfur dioxide. The indirect way of polluting consists in all the process that not generates emissions directly. and each one of those processes need energy in form of heat or electricity to be performed. and others) emissions have their source in the manufacture of the bike itself. coal. An example of this is the pumping of fluids (which don’t generate emissions). This lead us to the conclusion that investing in more efficient process in the whole chain of the bicycle manufacture process.

Matthew Davidson.us/v2_dept/iwm/show-item-info. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications.com/watch?v=xYUOLGEPw9Q&feature=related http://www.co.com/watch?v=h8j5-dC6_x8&feature=endscreen&NR=1 http://www. Yi Zuo. 2005. Transportation Research Part D 14. Wiley and Sons London.Recycled tire crumb rubber anodes for sustainable power production in microbial fuel cells.com/watch?v=JM_x0qPM8Ok http://www. Singh (2011). Vol. 2 .aspx?id=99 21 | P a g e .mn.youtube. http://www. Williams PT. K. Mengru (Arthur) Tu (2009). Heming Wang. Debalaxmi Pradhan and R.youtube.com/watch?v=XMdrPxD3I_Y http://aarline.youtube. 2nd ed. 281-290. 5 . (2009).info/hotaar/?p=1           http://www. October 2011 Ruey-Shun Chena.R. Development of an agent-based system for manufacturing control and coordination with ontology and RFID technology.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=xYUOLGEPw9Q&NR=1 http://www. Zhiyong Ren. Thermal Pyrolysis of Bicycle Waste Tyre Using Batch Reactor.youtube.References   Cherry.anoka. No.youtube. Comparative environmental impacts of electric bikes in China. C. Waste Treatment and Disposal.

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