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April 17, 2007

Exercise 6. Proposition. (2.1) If l and m are distinct lines that are not parallel, then l and m have a unique point in common. Proof. Since l and m are not parallel, they have at least one point in common. Suppose l and m have at least two points in common. Let us call two of these points P and Q. By I-1, since P = Q, there exists a unique line r incident with P and Q. Since r is unique, we must have l = r and m = r, which implies l = m. This contradicts the hypothesis that l and m are distinct. We conclude that l and m have a unique point in common. Proposition. (2.2) There exist at least three distinct lines that are not concurrent. Proof. By I-3, there exist 3 distinct noncollinear points. Let these 3 points be denoted P, Q, and R. Since P, Q, and R are noncollinear, none is incident with the line determined by the other two (the existence of which is due to I-1). Therefore, lines {P, Q}, {Q, R}, and {P, R} are distinct. Further, these three lines are not parallel, since there exists at least one point common to each pair chosen among the three lines. Thus, by the preceding proposition, each pair has a unique point in common: P is common to {P, Q} and {P, R}, Q is common to {P, Q} and {Q, R}, and R is common to {Q, R} and {P, R}. Since these are distinct points, the lines are not concurrent. Proposition. (2.3) For every line, there is at least one point not lying on it. Proof. By I-3, there exist three noncollinear points. Let us call these P, Q, and R. Let l be a line. Then at least one of P, Q, R is not incident with l, since P, Q, and R all coincident with l contradicts the fact that they are noncollinear. Proposition. (2.4) For every point, there is at least one line not passing through it. Proof. Let P be any point. By Proposition 2.2, there exist three distinct lines that are not concurrent. P is incident with at most two of these (in the case where P is their unique common point). Therefore, at least one of these three lines does not pass through P .

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5) For every point P . Then the points in the model are: {A. there exist at least two lines through P . D}. l and m are distinct lines through P . C}. we see that no line is incident with all three of them. • However. Consider {A. D} Thus. However. m and n are distinct lines. and let lines be given by the subsets of points {A. noncollinear points. Let these be denoted A. • The line l satisﬁes I-2. I-3. let “lines” be given by the elements of the set. • The points A and B satisfy I-1. there exist three distinct. I-1 does not hold. We have just one line: l = {A. By I-1. Suppose m = n. Then m = n is incident with A and with B. Now. Let “points” be given by subsets of the lines containing exactly two elements. B. C} be the set of points. and C are noncollinear. I-3: Consider a set {A. This contradicts our assumption that P is not incident with l. D} {B. B}. since {A. C. • I-3 is not satisﬁed.. thus. i. Then the following are true. since every pair of points gives a line. B. if we consider the points {A. (2. • I-1 holds. B} {C. and there exists a unique line n incident with P and B. there exists a unique line m incident with P and C. since the line given by the subset {C} is incident with only one point. B}. An interpretation satisfying I-1. Therefore. Let a line be a subset of the points containing exactly two points. By I-3. I-1 does not hold. B}. {B. suppose P is not incident with l. Proof. both are incident with P. B}. Let {A. so I-2 is satisﬁed. and {C. and {C}.Proposition. Additionally. Since C is not incident with l. By I-1. m = n = l. and C. C} {A. An interpretation satisfying I-2. we have l = m. Suppose P is incident with l. B. there exists a unique line m incident with both P and A. An interpretation satisfying I-1. D} {B. {B. A}. since A.e. • I-3 holds. each line is incident with at least three points. I-2: This is a two-point interpretation. so I-3 is satisﬁed. {C. D}. C} {A. B. D} have no line incident with both points. Exercise 7. Consider the line l incident with A and B. B} and {C. since there do not exist three points. C}. 2 . the set of points in the model.

for example.” I-3 is satisﬁed. An example of three “noncollinear points” is given by the pairwise intersections of any three distinct planes that meet in the single point O. non-coplanar line that intersects these two in exactly one point (representing a third “point” that is not “collinear” with the ﬁrst two). 3 . I-3 holds. since the interpretation is not formalized enough for analysis-style arguments. i.. I-2 is satisﬁed.e. the only “points not lying on it” (i. there exist at least two circles through P that do not intersect l. and “incidence” is the usual notion of a line lying in a plane. I-1 is not satisﬁed. then there exists a unique parallel plane through that line. I-1 does not hold.e.Exercise 9.” The only objection that arises is of this type: if P “is” the dot exactly in the corner of. “lines” are circles drawn on the paper. because two dots/points do not determine a unique circle/line. every plane containing the line intersects the given plane in a line. but all lines and planes pass through a ﬁxed ordinary point O. and “incidence” means that the dot lies on the circle. since. “lines” are planes in 3-space. Here. lines not lying in it) are those lines that intersect the plane at O.. a rectangular sheet of paper. None of the three parallel postulates hold. but in the case where the intersection of the plane and the line is a point. we take it that the hyperbolic parallel property holds. However. I-2 holds trivially: every plane contains an inﬁnite number of lines. since. (a) “Points” are dots on a sheet of paper. (c) Same as (b). any second plane containing such a line must intersect the given plane in a line (=“point”). The elliptic parallel property holds. “points”) and a third.. if “points” P and Q are modeled by lines in 3-space that are skew. these “points” are not incident with a single “line. then no circle drawn on the paper contains P . I-1 holds. and one near the middle of the straightedge—do not lie on a circle. given a plane (=“line”). if a line (=“point”) does not intersect a given plane (“is not incident with a given line”).” In the absence of more formalized notions of “sheet of paper” and “circles drawn on the paper. I-2 holds. since. it reads as: “For every circle l and every dot P not on l. since any two distinct planes that share a point intersect in a line.e.” this interpretation has the hyperbolic parallel property. as in (b). as in the case of two coplanar lines (here. since any non-degenerate circle drawn on the paper “includes at least two dots. (b) “Points” are lines in 3-space. I-3 holds. then there is no “line” (i. since three dots marked on the paper with a straightedge—one at each end. plane in 3-space) that is incident with both P and Q.

call the point E. consider following argument: By A-3. and can not be G and H simultanously. “lines” are chords. I-1 holds. by the Euclidean parallel property. I-3 holds. call this point F. {A. and C. and the new line can be choosen as {B.H.B.B} determines a unique line. we know there are 3 non-colinear pionts. Now we have lines {A. or E). If l is a chord. call them A. {A. “incidence” means a point lies on the chord in the usual sense. D. since we can choose any two points on a chord.E}. and {A. “incidence” means the pair of points lies on the great circle. I-2 holds. Given any two “points” and the “line” they determine. see Exmaple 6 on page 60. and these two points can not be A-F.C. call them G. I-2 holds: any great circle contains an inﬁnite number of pairs of antipodal points.F}.D}.E}. which by our assumption contains another point (this point can not be A.I}. which by our assumption contains another point (this point can not be B. E. Given any great circle l and a pair of antipodal points P. B.F}. 4 . this line can be choosen as {A. This line contains two points other than C.D}. there exists a “point” not on the line. I-1 holds: the unique “line” incident with any two “points” is a segment of the ordinary unique line containing the two points. and these two points can not be A.C.B. C.C} determines a unique line.C} determines a unique line. and can not be D). any great circle m containing P and P intersects l: there are no parallel great circles. there exist an inﬁnite number of chords containing P that do not intersect l. B.C. “lines” are great circles. thus must be two new points. Exercise 12. with the endpoints of the segment being the line’s intersection with the circle.C. the three “points” mentioned are “noncollinear. there is a line passing A that is parallet to {B. so there must be a new point. and P is a point not lying on l (even if P is “very close” to l).(d) “Points” are points inside a circle. which by our assumption contains another point (this point can not be C). For the ﬁrst part of this problem. The hyperbolic parallel property holds. F (why?).B. This line contains two points other than B. For the second part of the problem.F}. thus. P not lying on l.H. there is a line passing B that is parallet to {A. there is a line passing C that is parallel to {A.E}.D}. D. call this point D.C. (e) “Points” are pairs of antipodal points on a sphere. {B. since two distinct pairs of antipodal points determine a unique great circle. as any chord contains an inﬁnite number of interior points of the circle. C is a point outside {A. I-3 holds. A is not a point in {B. {B.C.I}.” The elliptic parallel property holds.G. and a third not lying on the chord. call it I. B is a point outside of {A.

H} and {C.E. 5 . We add lines {E. for any pair of points there is a line passing them.Finally.F.G}. {D.I}.G}.D.H}. Above we found a model of 9 points and 12 lines. {B. By construction. these points and lines are all neccessory.E. {D. {A. By A-1.I}.F.F. thus it is the “smallest” model.

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