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E10 (a) It is easy to see that any two models with three points are isomorphic, just pick any bijective correspondence between its points, the correspondence between the lines follows from that uniquely. (b) See ﬁgure 1 for two non-isomorphic models with 4 points each (but with diﬀerent numbers of lines).

Figure 1. Two non-isomorphic models for incidence geometry with 4 points each. (c) This is the isomorphism discussed in class in the context of constructing the projective plane associated to the aﬃne plane given by the usual Euclidean plane. E12 (a) By incidence axiom 3 (I. A. 3), every model for incidence geometry needs to have at least 3 noncollinear points, say {A, B, C}. These pairwise determine 3 lines AB, AC and BC (see ﬁgure 2, ﬁrst picture). Since each of these lines contains only 2 points, we need to add at least 3 more points into our model, say {D, E, F } each lying on one of these lines (see ﬁgure 2, second picture). There is now a lack of lines in the new model. By I. A. 1 for each pair of points there needs to be a unique line passing through them. Consider ﬁrst the pairs {B, F }, {A, D} and {C, E}. For each of these 3 pairs, the corresponding lines AD, BF and CE cannot contain any other of the already existing points (see ﬁgure 2, third picture). For example if AD contained the point B then the lines AD and BD would intersect in 2 (or more) points contradicting proposition 2.1. Therefore in order to have all lines contain at least 3 points, we need an additional point, say G. To keep the number of

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←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→

Observe that this is the projective plane associated to the 4 point aﬃne plane. F }. points at a minimum. B. D} and {D. To remedy this. In addition. a check reveals that there are left over pairs of points with no lines passing through them. fourth picture). ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ . let BD be the line through the points {B. It is easy to verify that all the axioms of incidence geometry hold. let BD be the line parallel to AC and passing through B. we arrange G to lie on each of AD. We now continue the construction by focusing ﬁrst on the parallel axiom. let’s again start with the bare minimum of any model – three points {A. (b) To construct the minimal geometry where the parallel postulate holds and where every line has at least three points. C} and their associated lines AB. Likewise. AC and BC (ﬁgure 3. {E. D} (ﬁgure 3. For the line AB and the point C there has to be a line parallel to AB and containing C. second picture). we add in another line into our model. We add a point D to our model and let CD be that line. BF ←→ ←→ ←→ and CE (see ﬁgure 2. one which contains all three of these points (see ﬁgure 2.C F B A A C D B E A C D B E F C D B A E A C D B E F G F G Figure 2. namely the pairs {E. There are 7 points and 7 lines in this model. Minimal model for incidence geometry where each line contains at least 3 points. ﬁfth picture). ﬁrst picture). Finally. F }.

We arrive at an interpretation which satisﬁes the parallel axiom and where each line has exactly 3 points. Prop. third picture). Prop. fourth picture).C C D A B A B C H G I D F A E B Figure 3. B. B. 2.4 (1) Let P be any point and assume to the contrary of proposition 2. For example the points G and H don’t have any lines passing through them. H. G. Neither of the lines so far contains 3 points. C}.4 that every line contains P (RAA assumption). 2. Thus we must have P B=P C and so we have two distinct lines containing P . This is a contradiction to proposition 2. C}) would be collinear which contradicts step (1). A case by case check shows that this is indeed a model of incidence geometry where the parallel axiom holds and where every line has precisely 3 points.5 (1) By incidence axiom 3 there exist 3 distinct non-collinear points {A. I} to ensure each line has 3 points (ﬁgure 3. To remedy this we add four more lines into the picture (ﬁgure 3. C} (and hence also {A. ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ . F. (3) If we had P B=P C then {P.2 and thus no such point P can exist. Minimal model for incidence geometry where the parallel postulate holds and where each line contains at least 3 points. B. (2) If P = A then the lines P B and P C both contain P . (2) The assumption of step (1) means that all lines are concurrent. So we add the points {E. Unfortunately it fails the ﬁrst incidence axiom.

B} are collinear as are the points {P. B. They both contain P . In either case we found two distinct lines containing P . B. ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ ←→ . (7) Thus either P A=P B or P A=P C.(4) If P = A consider the lines P A and P B. ←→ ←→ ←→ (5) If P A=P B consider in addition the line P C (which of course also contains P ). A. C} which implies that {A. (6) If we had P A=P B and P A=P C then the points {P. C} are collinear contradicting step (1).

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