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# Sean Li Math 4340 Notes Spring 2013 Abstract Algebra Lecture 11 2/13/13 Recall the second isomorphism theorem.

m. Nontransitivity of normality. Let H, K be normal subgroups of G and K H. Then K H G. The converse is not always true, because normality is not transitive. A normal subgroup of a normal subgroup need not be normal in the big group. Example. In S4 , V = {e, (1 2)(3 4), (1 3)(2 4), (1 4)(2 3)} is a normal subgroup. H = {e, (1 2)(3 4)} is a normal subgroup of V , but not of S4 . Cyclic Groups. Let Cn = (x) be the cyclic group of order n with generator x. That is, y Cn = y = xm for some m. We can understand cyclic groups by relating them to (Z, +). There is an obvious surjective homomorphism f : Z Cn given by f (m) = xm . If K = ker f , we get Z /K Cn by the rst isomorphism theorem. Every subgroup of Z is in the form m Z where m is some xed integer. We have Cn Z /n Z. Also Zn . The isomorphism is not really unique because Cn typically has more than one generator.