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Notes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.

- Math 4340-Lecture 15
- Math 4340-Lecture 2
- Math 4340-Lecture 4
- Math 4340-Lecture 17
- Math 4340-Lecture 18
- Math 4340-Lecture 10
- Math 4340-Lecture 20
- Math 4340-Lecture 3
- Math 4340-Lecture 1
- Math 4340-Lecture 24
- Math 4340-Lecture 19
- Math 7370-Lecture 21
- Math 4340-Lecture 20
- Math 7370-Lecture 20
- Math 6210 Lec 01
- Math 6710 Lec 01
- Math 7370-Lecture 19
- Math 7370-Lecture 23
- Math 7370-Lecture 18
- Math 7370-Lecture 24

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m. Nontransitivity of normality. Let H, K be normal subgroups of G and K H. Then K H G. The converse is not always true, because normality is not transitive. A normal subgroup of a normal subgroup need not be normal in the big group. Example. In S4 , V = {e, (1 2)(3 4), (1 3)(2 4), (1 4)(2 3)} is a normal subgroup. H = {e, (1 2)(3 4)} is a normal subgroup of V , but not of S4 . Cyclic Groups. Let Cn = (x) be the cyclic group of order n with generator x. That is, y Cn = y = xm for some m. We can understand cyclic groups by relating them to (Z, +). There is an obvious surjective homomorphism f : Z Cn given by f (m) = xm . If K = ker f , we get Z /K Cn by the rst isomorphism theorem. Every subgroup of Z is in the form m Z where m is some xed integer. We have Cn Z /n Z. Also Zn . The isomorphism is not really unique because Cn typically has more than one generator.

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