Textiles in

Geotextiles
Dr Muhammad Mushtaq Mangat www.mushtaqmangat.org

Geotextiles
  Permeable fabrics which, when used in

association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. geotextile fabrics come in three basic forms:

  These are made from polypropylene or polyester,   woven (looks like mail bag sacking),   needle punched (looks like felt),   heat bonded (looks like ironed felt).   [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geotextile]

http://www.conhur.com/ geotextile.html

Start of modern geotextiles [1]
  In the early 1960s and 1970s, some pioneering

engineers wondered if textiles conditions

  could be used to control soils under difficult   Very wet soils need draining and textiles were

used to line drains, to prevent mud and silt from clogging up the drains. small access roads constructed over very soft wet soils. [1].

  Similarly, engineers tried to use textiles beneath

  It was found that these textiles helped to

increase the life and performance of roads. laying of textiles on the coast to prevent erosion by wave action. use of geotextiles spread geographically worldwide and in area terms their use increased almost exponentially. increase into the 21st century [1].

  Also, early work was being undertaken in the

  During the last 20 years of the 20th century, the

  It is expected that their use will continue to

Geosynthetics
  In the field of civil engineering, membranes

used in contact with, or within the soil, are known generically as ‘Geosynthetics’.

  This term encompasses permeable textiles,

plastic grids, continuous fibres, staple fibres and impermeable membranes.

  Textiles were the first products in the field,

extending gradually to include additional products, but have remained by far the most important of the range.

Geotextile types
  Geotextiles basically fall into five categories:   Woven
  Heat-bonded nonwoven

Needlepunched nonwoven   Knitted and   Fiber/soil mixing [1]

The most common types of geotextiles are woven and non woven.
       

Woven for: Sediment control Unpaved road bases Strengthening paved roads Erosion protection subsurface drainage.

It possesses the following features: Woven Polypropylene UV Resistant Rot Resistant Biological Degradation Resistant Chemically Inert

       

   

http://www.erosionpollution.com/geotextiletypes.html

Non woven geotextile
  Used for   Roads   Roofs   Railroads   Ponds   Dams, trenches   Landfills.
   

Possess the following features: 100% Propylene Staple Fibers Needle-Punched Random Network Formation UV Resistant Rot Resistant Biological Degradation Resistant Stable Within 2-13 pH

           

http://www.ecvv.com/product/ 2625680.html

http://www.erosionpollution.com/ geotextile-types.html

The main geotextile fiber-forming polymers
  Two most common fiber polymers used for

the manufacture of geotextiles are:

  polypropylene and polyethylene   Polyester is almost inevitably used when high   strengths are required

Essential properties of geotextiles
  Three main properties which are required:   Mechanical responses   Filtration ability   Chemical resistance

Mechanical responses
  It includes:   The ability of a textile to perform work in a

stressed environment environment

  Ability to resist damage in an arduous   Ability to cope with the expected imposed

stresses and its ability to absorb those stresses over the proposed lifetime of the structure without straining more than a predetermined amount

Mechanical tests [1]
               

tensile testing by means of a wide strip test pore size testing by dry sieving water flow testing normal to the plane of the textile puncture resistance testing creep testing perforation susceptibility (cone) testing water flow testing in the plane of the textile testing of sand/geotextile frictional behaviour

Geotextile and filtration

  The woven geotextile’s separation action

prevents the mixing of dissimilar soils allowing each soil layer in the road structure to function as intended. properties of woven geotextiles impart stability into the road section reducing rutting and extending roadway life.

  The high tensile strength and low elongation

[http://www.nilex.com/products/geotextiles/woven_geotextiles]

Chemical resistance
  There are four main agents of deterioration:   Organic   Inorganic   Light exposure   Time change within the textile fibers [1].

References
  [1] Rankilor, P.R., Textiles in civil engineering,

in Handbook of Technical Textiles A.R. Horrocks, Anand, S. C., Editor 2000, Woodhead Publishing Ltd Cambridge.

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