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Zeecol Limited

Ground-level Power Supply


Prepared for: HBD Industries, Inc. Prepared by: William Mook, CEO 7 12 December 2011 Concept Overview Rim-Motor Design (1) Wheel Rim (2) Hub Motor (3) Electronic Wedge Brake (4) Active Suspension (5) Electronic Steering (6) Ground-level Power Strip (7) Power studs 6

Zeecol Limited

112 A Nayland Street Chirstchurch, NZ 8081

william.mook@mokenergy.com

Zeecol Limited

Ground-level Power Supply


Stud Contact Innovation
A safe, reliable, aesthetic , modular stud contact system is imbedded in rubber strips installed in typical roadways used by all vehicles including a new type of electric vehicle described here.

Studded Tires Provide Electrical Contact


Studded tire technology is adapted to create a rotating power contact system that works in conjunction with a molded strip of contacts. The spacing of the contacts in the tire matches the spacing of the contact in the strip to assure contact closure.

Signal Processing and Solid State Switching


A polyphase rim-mounted motor is driven by a three phase power pickup derived from common connection within the tire of three contact types. These contact types send out a digital signal unique to each. The ground-level contacts in the power strip, pick up these signals when contact is made, and switch the appropriate phase to the road contact demanded by the tire contact.

Small Battery or Capacitor is used to Provide Power when no Contact is made.


The rim motor contains electrical energy storage capability to drive the vehicle between one and ten kilometers in the absence of ground-level power supply. Larger supplies may be stored on board the vehicle.

Liquid Fuel Replacement


Liquid fuels have reached their peak output in 2008. For every barrel of oil discovered four barrels of oil are used. This means that within our lifetime, liquid fuels will become higher priced and more scarce. This was rst predicted in 1952 by Dr. K Hubbert. At that time crude oil was $1.50 per barrel. During the rst oil crisis in 1972 oil prices rose to $5 per barrel. By 1980s oil was $15 per barrel. In the late 1990s $25 per barrel. By 2002 oil reached $60 per barrel. In 2008 oil reached $140 per barrel. This trend will continue. Coal, hydro, nuclear, and other sources are less costly and more abundant than liquid fuels These sources of energy are stationary Connecting vehicles to these power supplies with ground-level contacts displaces liquid fuel use Providing the cost per kilometer is not excessive Providing that the contact works in conjunction with existing road ways Providing that the modied roadways can be used by all vehicle types An opportunity exists for test in Christchurch NZ rebuilding its Central Business District

Zeecol Limited

Ground-level Power Supply


Improved Rim Motor
There are three ways to build a wheel based motor. The rst, shown on the cover of this report, places the motor in the hub of the wheel. The second sketched here, places the motor in the tire itself. This is the preferred implementation once in production. The third, places the motor outside the wheel driving it, and the tire becomes a mere electrical conduit operating on a standard hub. This last approach is likely most suitable for initial system design and proof of concept. Tire Hub

Tire Powers Standard Electric Vehicle


An even simpler approach to early-stage development is to power an existing hybrid vehicle with an external supply derived from tire contact with the ground-level power supply. Drive

Tire Stud Contact


Each tire on the vehicle contains 180 contacts spread evenly in a hexagonal pattern across the contact area of the tire. Their spacing is 3.94 cm. These are combined to create a three-phase pick up with 60 contacts are dedicated within each tire to one phase. A typical tire with 3 times atmospheric pressure will have a contact area of 290 square centimeters. This contact area will contain 21 of the 180 contacts. 7 of these are dedicated to each phase. With two tires in contact, 42 contacts will be connected to the ground-level power supply nearly continuously. At 2000 watts per contact, this system supplies 84,000 watts overall. Sufcient to power an automobile. At 20 kV, typical for polyphase tram systems in use today, using sliding stud contact systems, currents as low as 0.15 Amps are required. Power Studs Contact

Footprint Pressure Distribution


GOODYEAR WRANGLER HT 1980 LBS @ 44 PSI LT235/85R16

Zeecol Limited

Ground-level Power Supply


Ground-level Power Strip
The spacing of contact #12 studs on the tire form a hexagonal close packed array with a spacing of 3.95 cm. A similar spacing of 3.5 cm diameter hexagonal metal plates leaves a 0.225 cm rubber border between hexagons. This also means that 78.5% of the time, studs will make contact with plates. Molding the appropriate shape in the tire opening holding the stud causes the stud to remain retracted on unprepared roadways while rolling across recessed hexagonal plates causes the tire stud to be extended by small geometry changes in the rubber. As a result the tire stud makes contact with the recessed plate. Once contact is made between the road and tire contact, the signal sent by the tire contact is sensed and interpreted by the intelligent road contact. This causes the road contact to select the appropriate phase from the three phase supply to switch into the contact. Signals interfere to cancel operation if more than one tire contact makes contact with a single road contact.

Zeecol Limited

Target Price Estimate


Capital Cost for Construction (once in production)
Total cost per kilometer of roadway upgrade is less than $200,000. A 15% to 20% cost. Longevity is expected to be three years initially, extending to fteen years as technology progresses. This is for a strip 0.5 meter wide and 1,000 meter long made in rolls of 100 meters and connected together and applied to a trench cut in the roadway. Description Rubber Substrate Contacts Electronics Installation Quantity 500 204000 204000 Unit Price $70.00 $0.22 $0.40 Total Cost $35,000.00 $44,880.00 $81,600.00 $28,000.00 $189,480.00

Approximately 8,300 km of roadway are being rebuilt or improved in Canterbury New Zealand at a cost of $1.8 million per kilometer. A total construction project of $14.94 billion. A substantial part of the total $65 billion cost associated with the series of earthquakes which occurred here in 2010 and 2011. Adding a cost of approximately 11% to power these roadways, to power electric buses, commercial vehicles and eventually private vehicles within Canterbury, provides relative independence of foreign oil prices. The superabundance of hydro-power in New Zealand is also of benet. Partnering with vehicle suppliers and system suppliers to build a supply chain provides a substantial opportunity. Not only in roadway, but in vehicle part sales and roadway maintenance and replacement part sales. In Canterbury approximately 22,000 new vehicles are sold each year and 180,000 vehicles operate. Starting in the CBD of Christchurch, with a few hundred personal and commercial vehicles as a starting point represent an early-stage opportunity of $100 million with the potential to grow to $2 billion and a $700 million per year opportunity in this city alone, which can grow to other cities in Christchurch, Australia, Japan, and beyond.