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# Chapter 1: Quiz 1

## 1. a. b. c. 55 73.3% 75 15 55.6% 27 15 27.3% 55

2. a.

b. No. There are two possible explanations: i. Of people laid off, 5 , or 80%, are in the 4 protected class. However, 5 , or 80%, of the people retained are also in the protected class. ii. Exactly half of the people in the protected class were laid off, and exactly half of the people not in the protected class were laid off. c. Yes, because everyone age 60 or older was laid off. 3. D, because 13 out of 18 (72.2%) of the younger workers were laid off versus only 33 out of 57 (57.9%) of the older workers. 4. a. 65.5 mm b. There are two possible simulations: Write each of the six antenna lengths on identical pieces of paper or 3 5 cards, and put the six cards in a box. Mix them thoroughly, draw out two (the ones to be bypassed), and record the antenna lengths. Compute the average of the two antenna lengths. Repeat this process many times. Assign the digits 1 through 6 to the antenna lengths1 to represent 63, 2 to represent 65, and so on. On a calculator, generate two different random digits from the interval 1 to 6. Compute the average of the two antenna lengths. Repeat many times. c. Answers will vary. For example, five repetitions using random digits could look like this:
4

d. Yes. Of the 55 recent hires younger than 30, only 15 out of 55, or approximately 27.3%, were placed in salaried positions. In contrast, 12 out of 20, or 60%, of those age 30 or older were placed in salaried positions. 2. a.

b. The ages of those retained has a larger spread than the ages of those laid off. Also, fewer people were retained than were laid off. c. No case, because the distributions are centered in approximately the same place.

Chapter 1: Test A
1. Round 1 and Round 4. Round 1 has the largest difference in the proportion of older workers and the proportion of younger workers who were laid off. In Round 4, no worker younger than 49 was laid off. If students consider older worker to mean age 40 or older, then they could effectively argue that Round 2 has the largest difference instead of Round 1. We have these comparisons: Age 40 or older and laid off:
6 Round 1: 27 , or about 22% 5 Round 2: 21 , or about 23.8%

## Age 50 or older and laid off:

6 Round 1: 20 , or 30% 4 Round 2: 14 , or about 28.5%

## Average Antenna Length 71.5 71.5 67.5 68 68

Chapter 1: Test B
1. Round 1 and Round 2. Round 2 has the largest difference in the proportion of older workers (three out of the five workers age 50 or older) and the proportion of younger workers (zero out of five younger than 50) who were laid off. In Round 1, three out of eight older workers were laid off and only one out of six younger workers. (Note: Students could also select Round 3 instead of Round 1 because the only person laid off in Round 3 was age 55.) 2. a.

d. Out of 1050 repetitions, 130 (13 10) gave an average antenna length of 65.5 mm or smaller. The estimated probability using the 130 plot would then be 1050 , or 0.1238. e. The evidence is relatively weak. The estimated probability of getting an average antenna length of 65.5 mm or smaller by chance alone is about 0.1238. Therefore, it is reasonably likely that simply by chance you would pick workers with antennae as short as the two the queen bypassed for promotion. 5. A. The average tail length was 45 cm or longer in only 2 out of 52 repetitions. The estimated 2 probability would be 52 , or 0.038. The dot plot shows strong evidence that Dog Day Obedience School should be asked to explain why it rejected dogs with long tails. 6. a. There are 15 pairs: 63, 65 63, 68 63, 71 63, 72 65, 68 65, 71 65, 72 65, 73 68, 71 68, 72 68, 73 71, 72 71, 73 72, 73 b. Two pairs: 63, 65 and 63, 68 c. 2 or 0.13 15 63, 73

b. No. There are two possible explanations: 3 Of people laid off, 5 , or 60%, are in the 3 protected class. However, 5 , or 60%, of the people retained also are in the protected class. Exactly half of the people in the protected class were laid off, and exactly half of the people not in the protected class were laid off. c. Using age 50 provides much stronger support for possible age discrimination. 2 Everyone age 50 or older was laid off. Only 7 , or 28.6%, of those younger than age 50 were laid off. 3. E, because 20 out of 32 (62.5%) of the younger workers were laid off as compared to 38 out of 58 (65.5%) of the older workers. 4. a. 167.5 b. There are two possible simulations: Write each of the seven blood pressures on identical pieces of paper or 3 5 cards, and put the seven cards in a box. Mix them thoroughly, draw out two (the ones to be bypassed), and record the blood pressures. Compute the average of the two numbers. Repeat this process many times.

d. The evidence is relatively weak because randomly selecting two workers with an average antenna length of 65.5 mm or shorter is reasonably likely.

## Statistics in Action Instructors Resource Book 2008 Key Curriculum Press

Assign the digits 1 through 7 to the blood pressures1 to represent 107, 2 to represent 115, and so on. On a calculator, generate two different random digits from the interval 1 to 7. Compute the average. Repeat many times. c. Answers will vary. For example, five repetitions using random digits could appear as shown here:
Random Digits 5 and 6 3 and 4 4 and 3 7 and 4 2 and 3 Systolic Pressure 158 and 162 138 and 141 141 and 138 173 and 141 115 and 138 Average Systolic Pressure 160 139.5 139.5 157 126.5

e. The evidence is relatively strong. The estimated probability of getting an average blood pressure of 167.5 or higher by chance alone is approximately 0.0458. Thus, it is not reasonably likely that you would pick workers with blood pressures as high as the two the company bypassed for promotion by chance alone. 5. C. The average tail length was as long or longer than 42 cm in 7 out of 52 repetitions. 7 The estimated probability would be 52 , or 0.135. The dot plot does not show enough evidence to support the claim that Dog Day Obedience School discriminated against dogs with long tails. 6. a. There are 21 pairs:
107, 115 107, 138 107, 141 107, 158 107, 162 107, 173 115, 138 115, 141 115, 158 115, 162 115, 173 138, 141 138, 158 138, 162 138, 173 141, 158 141, 162 141, 173 158, 162 158, 173 162, 173

b. Only one pair: 162, 173 d. Out of 1071 repetitions, 49 (7 7) gave an average systolic pressure of 167.5 or higher. The estimated probability using the plot would 49 then be 1071 , or 0.04575. 1 , or 0.0476 21 d. This evidence is relatively strong because randomly selecting two workers with an average systolic pressure of 167.5 or higher is not reasonably likely by chance alone. The company should be asked to explain further. c.