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Bibliography Books Matchett, CCTV for Security Proffesionals. USA:Elsevier Science,2003. Norris & Armstrong, The Maximum Surveillance Society: The Rise of CCTV. New York: Berg,1999.
Newspapers Paton, “CCTV turning schools into ‘prisons’”. The Telegraph. United Kingdom. (7/7/10) Etolle, “MPD: CCTV cameras to be installed in some schools”. Philippine Star. Manila, Philippines. (5/17/12) Villanueva, “QC mulls CCTV Cameras in public schools”. Philippine Star. Manila, Philippines. (6/3/12)
Websites http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closed-circuit_television. Wikipedia . (18 January 2013) http://www.atl.org.uk/policy-and-campaigns/policies/CCTV-policy.asp . ATL . http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/sep/12/cctv-cameras-schools-out-of-hand . Nick Pickels and Stephanie Benbow. (12 September 2012) http://www.anorak.co.uk/333223/news/cctv-in-schools-if-you-have-nothing-to-hide-you-havenothing-to-fear.html/ . Anorak (13TH, SEPTEMBER 2012 ) http://www.securitycameraworld.com/blog/security-cameras/school-security/weighing-theadvantages-and-disadvantages-of-school-surveillance-systems/. (July 6, 2011)
such asanother town.Body To best understand the needs and possibilities of a modern camera system. however. Modern camera systems are not always a true closed-cicuit system. such as a monitor. signals from a video source. This connection makes a completed closed circuit. The speed of information flow. the images of individuals they recordmust be linked not only to o ne another but to a named dossier which contains all otherrelevant biographical information. This connection is usually made with coaxial cable but can also be made with fiber-optic cable or a single twisted-pair cable if the correct conversion equipment is used. The phrase closed-cicuit television video system is abbreviated as CCTV. This relates to thee xtent to which the records are held on the entire population or only a subsection of themand th e level of detail contained within those files. (Matchett 2003) “Every breath you take every move you make every bond you break every single day I'll be watching you. which are transmitted and can be received by anyone within ranged who has the proper equipment tuned to the proper frequency. there i sthe potential for information gathered at one point of the system to be available forreference at another point. Because the video is available to anyone who is tuned to the correct frequenct. The system becomes totalising in that it is impossible to escapeones own biog raphical record merely by moving to a different point in space. the only way to view the video images from the camera is with a piece of equipment that is part of the closed circuit.” (Norris & Armstrong 1999) Dandeker identifies four components contained within this description which provide ar eference point for determining the extent to which a total surveillance system isapproximated ( Dandeker 1990: 40–1): The size and scope of the files in relation to the subjected population. Thus. which cannot easily be viewed from outside of the system. The centralisation of those files. In theory. for the cameras to be trulyintegrated as part of a total surveillance system. While the totalising vision is enhanced by centralisation. although they are still usually reffered to as such. are transmitted by a direction connection to the receiving equipment. Where files are centrally collected and managed. Broadcast video such as tradtitional television is a much more complex system in which the video images and audio tracks are converted to signals. such as camera. i tsutility for the purposes of control is determined by the speed at which information iscollected . broadcast television is essectially an open-circuit system. some terms and concepts must be first understood. (Matchett 2003) With CCTV systems.
this relates not only to the coverage of the cameras in terms of theirpervasiveness a nd their technological capacity to ‘zoom in’ on the minutiae of everydaylife but also to the exte nt to which this camera surveillance triggers an authoritativereaction to non-conformity. Flusty (1994) and Davis (1990). rather than physically in the form of aphotograph or on videotape. In these ‘fo rtress cities’. . butguaranteed by virtue of being a citizen. (Norris & Armstrong 1999) This privatisation of the democratic sphere and the exclusionary impulses that it hasinsti lled has found its concrete expression in the dramatic rise of walled and gatedresidential comm unities where physical barriers are erected to exclude a marginalised andghettoised underclass from the enclaves of the more affluent elite. Andin the spaces between these fortified zones of affluence. These democratic spaces. ID cards. the streets. They aredemocratic spaces in the se nse that access to them is not dependent on status.(Graham and Marvin 1996. In theca se of CCTV. Forboth. parks andsquares facilitate interactions which ‘synthesise new cultures. however.and disseminated across the system. Davis describes how the Los Angeles PoliceDepartment: ‘continue relentlessly to restrict the space of public assemblage and thefreedom of movement of the young … operating extensive juvenile curfews in nonAngloareas and barricading popular boulevards to prevent “cruising” … sealing off entireneighb orhoods and housing projects under our local variant of “pass law’” (1990: 258). It is this domination of urban space by business rather than civic concerns and t heway that CCTV is used to promote those concerns though the exclusion of ‘flawedconsumers’ and other undesirables which has been highlighted by various commentators(Graham 1998b. The number of points of contact between the system and its subject population. Increasingly. electronic registration systems. C oleman and Sim 1998. fob-controlled gates and fingerprint technology as schools attempt to crackdown on troublemakers. for instance where pictures can bedisseminated electroni cally via the Internet. (Norris & Armstrong 1999) Two American writers. alternative ways of livingand popular forces occasionally strong enough to upset entrenched status quos’ (Flusty1994: 12). have. Individ uals are recast asconsumers rather than citizens. Reeve 1998. but as the site of mass consumption. (Norris & Armstrong 1999) Researchers found the widespread use of CCTV. McCahill 1998). the resid ual population is subjectto a panoply of prohibitions. the city has historically been conceived as an arena which provides spaces forinteractions and exchanges between individuals and different social groups. rather than b earers ofrights. through their case studies o fLos Angeles. Davis 1992). this public space is being recon stituted. as potential harbingers of profit. provided a frightening glimpse of the dystopian potential of surveillance. CCTV is used to policethe boundaries of segregated space and ensure swift respon se to unauthorised entry. For example. not as an arenafor democratic interaction.
come amid growing concerns over a rise in the use of surveillance techniques in schools. The conclusions. . Children at the comprehensive were monitored by a network of 62 CCTV cameras trained on classrooms. This comes despite claims in another report that the collection of CCTV images or other biometric information could contravene the Data Protection Act. in a study by Hull University. Researchers suggested that the sheer scale of surveillance was fuelling paranoia among many pupils.” As part of the study. Dr Michael McCahill. “The bottom line is that complex social problems will never be solved with technological fixes. The school employed a computerised registration system and automatic text messages were sent to parents warning them if children failed to turn up. teachers patrolled with radios and pupils were issued with ID cards. Main entrances and exits were locked with sophisticated fob keys. despite subtle difference in techniques. lecturer in criminology at Hull’s faculty of social sciences.” he said. children at an all-girls’ secondary school claimed that “voyeuristic” cameras could be used to monitor them in changing rooms and toilets. not criminals. while teachers at a private school used technology to spy on children’s computer and internet use. said the unchecked use of surveillance risked creating mutual distrust between teachers and pupils. They found widespread monitoring of children in all three schools. According to the report. a private school and one all-girls’ school. published today in the journal Surveillance and Society. researchers interviewed staff and pupils at three schools in a northern city. This included a “council estate comprehensive”. As many as 85 per cent of teachers have reported the use of CCTV in their schools and one-in-10 admitted cameras were even trained on toilets. “The children we have talked to in this paper are treated as suspects on a regular basis and we have to ask what effect that is going to have on children’s relationships with adults. corridors and play areas.Staff at one comprehensive patrolled corridors and playgrounds with radios to make sure children behaved at lunchtimes. “Schools are full of children.
The study said “technologically sophisticated and computer-literate students” at an elite private school were more likely to be subjected to high-tech surveillance. “Others thought that surveillance was bound up with wider media representations of women and their bodies. Bonoan so that more CCTVs can be installed in other Manila schools. Pupils at the all-girls’ comprehensive complained that cameras could be misused by “voyeuristic” CCTV operators. Pupils told how the school used software to monitor their computer use. “As well as concerns over the voyeuristic use of surveillance.One 15-year-old boy told researchers the school was “like a prison”. The school also used ID cards to pay for school dinners and thumbprint technology for access to library books. At the same time. Trisha Bonoan-David.” (Paton 2010) Barely two weeks before the opening of classes next month. MSN and eBay were “blocked” by teachers. “We are planning to initially install CCTV cameras in selected schools in Sampaloc. MPD director Chief Superintendent Roberto Rosales said close-circuit television cameras shall be installed in selected schools in the Sampaloc area upon the initiative of 4th district Rep. 24. The elimination of violent fraternity wars is one of the six-point programs of Rosales when he assumed the top post at the MPD last Sept. He also instructed his officials to conduct meetings with school principals. I hope other local government officials follow the initiative of Rep. security heads. while websites such as YouTube. some expressed their desire to have a ‘backstage’ area where they can make themselves presentable before being watched. barangay officials and anti-crime volunteer groups to assess the peace and order situation in their areas. Rosales has ordered his 11 police station commanders to beef up patrol and security preparations in all schools in their areas of responsibility to give parents and students a hassle-free enrolment on the first days of classes. the Manila Police District has set up security plans and conducted anti-crime operations as part of its “Balik Paaralan” program.” Rosales said.” said the report. Rosales said he will also initiate dialogues with fraternity heads of different colleges and universities in Manila to be able to find ways and means to foster camaraderie among fraternity and sorority members. .
Over the next three years. “All incidents involving students should be resolved right inside school campuses to ease the burden of reporting to police stations. It is estimated to incorporate the video feeds of a total of 15. (Villanueva 2012) The city of Chicago operates a networked video surveillance system which combines CCTV video feeds of government agencies with those of the private sector.896 school-age children in the city in 2010.5 percent are enrolled in the city’s public schools. security chiefs and barangay officials at the Technological Institute of the Philippines (TIP) and presented a comprehensive action plan to deal with the peace and order problems encountered during opening of classes. “Surveillance cameras are needed to make up for the lack of security personnel in QC public schools. (Etolle 2008) MANILA.” Mayor Herbert Bautista said. Drug awareness among students was also tackled by the station’s anti-drug unit led by Inspector John Guiagui. Sapitula said he will set up police assistance centers on strategic locations around school campuses for quick action on crime incidents. Quezon City is known to have the largest school-age population in the country. Fraternal and Arlegui in Quiapo. subway stations. Moriones police station chief Superintendent Jose Mario Espino also conducted saturation drive along Isla Puting Bato in Tondo which resulted in the rounding up of some 20 persons. Of the estimated 572. public schools. Sapitula also led his men in rounding up some 76 persons with suspicious characters along P. Castillejos.000 cameras.” he said.The Quezon City government is exploring the possibility of installing closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras in the city’s public schools to help protect the city’s more than 400.000 students. . supervisors. Philippines . Even home owners are able to contribute footage. Cruz police station chief Superintendent Romulo Sapitula recently conducted a security conference with different school principals. housing projects etc. businesses. Casal. Sta. almost 72. installed in city buses. considered as among the crimeprone areas in the city. according to Sapitula. The operation resulted in the arrest of five persons with criminal records.In compliance with the directive. the city government will invest P50 million to P100 million to install CCTV cameras in densely populated communities to further improve the city’s crime solution and prevention mechanism.
While the system is far too vast to allow complete real-time monitoring. London also has a network of CCTV systems that allows multiple authorities to view and control CCTV cameras in real time. not requiring any user intervention. (Wikipedia 2013) A school is a place of work. Defenders of CCTV in classrooms have stated they will help manage poor behaviour yet teachers and support staff have been experts in managing behaviour for many years without the aid of cameras. It uses a network protocol called Television Network Protocol to allow access to many more cameras than each individual system owner could afford to run and maintain. if only on the grounds that it is a disproportionate use of the technology where other agreed. could well be eroded by the introduction of cameras. where security and safety are reasonable expectations for all management. Indeed the relationship of trust and respect. effective and sounder methods already exist. even if clearly stated by a school. whereby the technology could be used partially and selectively. surveillance CCTV can play its part in meeting those proper expectations. Such purposes. or within a larger mesh system with multiple tripods feeding video back to the command vehicle via wireless. The systems can be used either on a stand-alone basis with secure communications to nearby police laptops. ATL is yet to be convinced in general of the educational merit that surveillance cameras can allegedly bring to a classroom. governable and more effective procedures to observe and assess a teacher's performance. and to police headquarters via 3G. unhelpful and potentially dangerous precedents. Transport for London and a number of London boroughs to share CCTV images between them. An exception to this stance may be in the restricted use . ATL believes that such technology should not be placed in classrooms to gather data for performance management purposes or in capability procedures. Equally. regard must be paid to the rights of the individual for reasonable privacy and the avoidance of unacceptable. which exists between the majority of teachers and pupils. The Glynn County Police Department uses a wireless mesh-networked system of portable battery-powered tripods for live megapixel video surveillance and central monitoring of tactical police situations. Specifically. ATL believes that attempts to use the technology for such reasons could set unnecessary. Moreover. must be challenged.The system is used by Chicago's Office of Emergency Management in case of an emergency call: it detects the caller's location and instantly displays the real-time video feed of the nearest security camera to the operator. staff and pupils. in place of already accepted. The system allows authorities including the Metropolitan Police Service. intrusive monitoring for whatever reason. it stores the video data for later usage in order to provide possible evidence in criminal cases.
theft or vandalism will often be deterred from such behavior by the knowledge that they will . It is certainly no substitute for other more direct. Evidence as to whether or not the installation of CCTV actually widely prevents negative behaviour. whilst surveillance CCTV can play a useful part in behaviour control in a school outside of classrooms. specific legal requirements will have to be satisfied. by the police for the detection and prevention of crime. there should be additional contextual evidence from other sources. stand-alone basis. there are other suggestions that it merely removes bad behaviour and possibly more serious incidents to other areas not covered by any surveillance. When examining CCTV images to investigate incidents. proactive and effectively integrated methods to maintain good order. the image of a school campus managed through a phalanx of strategically positioned surveillance cameras feeding pictures to banks of monitors being pored over by security staff is not a snapshot of society that ATL believes the majority of parents. and to corroborate or dismiss claims about an incident. personal. for example. It has also been pointed out that camera coverage can be misleading. for example. However. for example. however useful CCTV is as an investigatory tool. to engage in covert surveillance of any type. it is chiefly a reactive instrument. but only as part of a well-defined training programme.) Schools should make clear where all CCTV cameras are located on their premises. and never on an ad hoc. and from where further information on their use can be obtained. In the extreme. Whilst some schools report significant reductions in bullying and vandalism apparently following the introduction of a CCTV system. (ATL) Naysayers are quick to point out the perceived invasion of privacy that being monitored by security cameras entails. is at best variable. as part of the published and widely available documentation on their use. mainly contained in the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000. education professionals and others want to see. surveillance proponents cite the statistics.of classroom-based CCTV for CPD purposes. It is important firstly to note that. amongst other factors. ATL therefore believes that. Students who may be inclined to acts of violence. ATL considers it unacceptable for any school. (If such surveillance is requested. of its own accord. It is a legal requirement that notices must be prominently displayed indicating the use of CCTV cameras. It can be reasonably argued that surveillance CCTV is useful when schools wish to investigate incidents taking place in the school. This is one of the biggest sticking points in the debate over installing surveillance in our schools. it should not be considered as the only instrument. which prove that people are less likely to engage in any negative activity if they know they are being watched. Many believe that students would find the cameras to be too intimidating in what should be a nurturing learning environment. depending greatly upon positioning and quality of image. Just as importantly.
Phil Gibbs. destroying the possibility of an anonymous act. CCTV would work. the Examination Officers’ Association (EOA) conducted a pilot scheme that it hoped would catch out cheats. surveillance alone won’t solve all the behavioral problems at large in our school system. In 2008. also in York.482 pupils — more CCTV cameras than the whole of York city centre. And that includes the teachers. in alleviating problems of accusations and speculation. This brings us to another telling point for the pro side of the argument. recorded video feeds are admissible as legal evidence in any court of law. I’m not a ‘big brother’ fan. you have nothing to fear. which is covered by 78. CCTV is installed because its lazy and works on the hideous premise that everyone is a prospective cheat. CCTV has been embraced by the officials at King’s Heath Boys’ maths and computing college in Birmingham. said back then: “There is a growing problem of security and we’re trying to come to terms with that. Just command and be omnipresent. but the video feed recordings of such events provide detailed evidence which can be used by security team members and school officials to accurately identify both the perpetrators and victims. Having school wide surveillance means that not only can events be quickly responded to and mitigated. Of course. Fulford school.not only be observed. “If you have nothing to hide. but it can be a useful tool in our mission to create safer learning environments for our children. features 113 cameras for 1.” People have always cheated. deputy head teacher at King’s Heath. tells us: . Don’t discuss and inspire. In the unfortunate event that circumstance escalate. (Editor 2011) WHAT is the purpose of placing CCTV cameras in schools? Is it to collect data on pupils and teachers? Is it an attempt by the officials to prove how in control they are and how much they care for the student and staff body? The CCTV camera represents interaction. but you have increasing numbers of people who don’t know the students in the hall. The comprehensive school boasts 86 CCTV cameras — one for every seven of the 580 pupils. Huntington secondary school in York. has cameras in the toilets. and leaving them to face the consequences. and can be of great assistance in ongoing police investigations. both for officers and for the students. nor can it prevent all violence or criminal activities.” So goes the mantra. but will be recorded. North Yorkshire. EOA chief executive Andrew Harland.
Scotland and Wales. All too often. surveillance is used as a quick fix. It seems prudent to establish an evidential basis before pursuing such widespread surveillance. The code will not directly apply to schools. Our concerns about the scale of their use are not only a matter of the privacy of school children and teachers. the Home Office'sproposed regulatory system. Indeed. the person responsible for overseeing surveillance cameras was not able to investigate and take any action necessary. is far too weak to give anyone real confidence that oversight of CCTV cameras is robust.“The existence of CCTV provides both a deterrent and evidence of any incidents which may require investigation. and that the commissioner should have those powers. or does it displace it? Are better lockers a more effective way to reduce theft? Numerous reports looking at CCTV have found it does little to deter crime. . a code of practice and a new surveillance camera commissioner. One report in 2007 looking at Parisian schools found that CCTV was "at best ineffective. but are also over the reasons why Britain continues to race ahead of nearly every other country when it comes to surveillance. teachers and pupils need to be part of the discussion. teacher or pupil feels a camera is intrusive. Based on Freedom of Information Act responses from more than 2. with little or no evaluation of whether it actually addresses the problem. Parents. our research highlights the variations between schools using CCTV. Unfortunately.000 schools. cameras are also in practical teaching areas. It would be ridiculous if. particularly given the heightened sensitivity of recording young people at school.000 CCTV cameras in secondary schools and academies across England. along with our new state-ofthe-art library block. We think the code should apply to all publicly funded organisations. science and physical education.” (Anorak 2012) Our research on CCTV cameras in schools estimates that there are now more than 100. which include technology. The government has a role to play too. in a situation where a parent. some teachers have been making strong arguments about how they believe CCTV undermines the relationship they have with their pupils and that it is not a prerequisite of a safe school. Following staff consultation. while the commissioner will have no powers of inspection or enforcement. Theft continued to increase and intruders were not prevented from entering the premises. at worst negative". Does it really reduce bullying.
The number of cameras installed in the school complies with the guidance we received from the government and the local authority when the new building was completed in 2010. (Pickels 2012) We have 162 CCTV cameras at St Mary's. governors and parents all feel that they make a significant contribution to the safeguarding of our students and staff and help protect property. It was designed to support a school population of 1. Children tell us this is one of the areas of the school that they are concerned about potential bullying. They see the cameras when they visit the school and when I explain that they are part of our safeguarding measures I have only ever received nods of approval. where there is expensive equipment such as computers and laser cutters. Tapes are only viewed by myself or another senior member of staff if there is an incident. There are 18 cameras located in each of the school's toilets suites. They are focused on basin areas and are very overt. such as cycle racks.100. The feedback from parents about the CCTV cameras has been overwhelmingly positive. The teachers. The surveillance experiment of the past 20 years has failed to reduce crime or improve public safety. general circulation areas and areas deemed to be high risk for theft. one involved toilet paper being used to block the sink. we believe that we can ensure any surveillance in schools is proportionate and absolutely necessary. The cameras are not used as part of a surveillance system. Across the whole of the school there have only been another two incidents. As schoolchildren across the country are now expected to accept surveillance for the formative years of their education. or for ingress by trespassers such as the entrance way. but now have 820 pupils so we have a high camera to pupil ratio. it is time for a different approach. They tell us they feel very safe at school. One of the important factors parents consider when choosing a school for their children is their child's safety. police had access to the CCTV footage and it led to a prosecution. Other cameras are located in specialist rooms for teaching ICT or technology. Students are also positive about the cameras.Combined with evidential studies into how CCTV is being used and whether it is actually improving safety. including an external attempt to steal lead from the roof. (Benbow 2012) . in order to confirm who is responsible. We will grow to this population by 2016. In the almost three years since the cameras have been installed there have been two incidents in the toilet suites which involved a little bit of damage. In this case. I am not aware of any parent who has raised concerns about the possibility of their child being under surveillance or the issue that surveillance becomes the norm.
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