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Unbalanced Three-phase Distribution System Load-flow Studies Including Induction Machines


D. R. R. Penido, Student Member, IEEE, L. R. Araujo, S. Carneiro Jr, Senior Member, IEEE, J. L. R. Pereira, Senior Member, IEEE
distribution systems, and has been tested on both radial and meshed systems. Control devices models have been incorporated in the MICT algorithm [9-10]. This methodology applies the full Newton method to solve the nonlinear current injection equations which are derived using phase coordinates, and the complex variables are written in rectangular form. The authors have recently extended TCIM to include neutral conductors and system grounding, thus this approach will be referred from now on as the Four-Conductor Current Injection Method FCIM [11]. Some new component models were developed and included in the methodology. The authors believe that this methodology will be of assistance for the analysis of unbalanced distribution systems with neutral conductors, isolated or with any kind of grounding. The equations have been derived so as to include mutual couplings, and allows for the computation of neutral and grounding voltages and currents directly. FCIM can be applied to solve radial or non-radial unbalanced distribution systems. The induction machines have been modelled using three different approaches: i.Constant slip; ii.Constant electrical power input/output; iii.Constant mechanical power output/input. In the first case, the equivalent circuit of the machine can be represented by fixed impedance, whereas in the second and third alternatives, an extra equation has been added to the equations to be solved by the full Newton method, using the slip as a new state variable. Thus the slip and the input reactive power are obtained when convergence is achieved. II. SUMMARY OF THE FOUR-CONDUCTOR CURRENT INJECTION METHOD - FCIM A. Basic Equations The proposed four conductor power flow formulation is based on the current injected at every node of the power system that can be expressed in terms of series and shunt connections. In terms of the bus admittance matrix the net current injected at busbar k is expressed as:

AbstractThis panel discussion summarizes some steady state distribution systems studies based on the Four-Conductor Current Injection Method - FCIM - power flow. This method applies the full Newton method to solve the nonlinear current injection equations which are derived using phase coordinates, and the complex variables are written in rectangular form. The method can include neutral currents and voltages. This summary intends to discuss simulation results obtained with some IEEE Distribution Test Feeders. Index TermsLoad flow analysis, current injection method, induction machines modeling, unbalanced operation

he IEEE test feeders available in [1] have been developed for the purpose of validation of distribution systems analysis software [2]. Recently some of the test systems have been extended to include a center tapped wye-delta transformer bank, and induction motors [3-6]. The current endeavour of the Distribution Systems Analysis Subcommittee - DSASC aims at the development of a larger IEEE-34 bus test system, including induction generators [7]. This panel discussion intends to report on steady-state studies that have been carried out on the center-tapped system [4-5], on the induction machine test case [6] and on the IEEE-34 Node system [7]. The Three-phase Current Injection Method TCIM of load flow analysis [8], has been developed to address unbalanced
This work was supported in part by the National Research Council , CNPq. D. R. R. Penido is with the Eletrobras, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil (e-mail: debora@eletrobras.com). L. R. Araujo is with the Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (e-mail: leandroaraujo@petrobras.com.br). S. Carneiro, Jr is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil (e-mail: sandoval@coep.ufrj.br). J. L. R. Pereira is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil (e-mail: jluiz@ieee.org).

I. INTRODUCTION

1-4244-0493-2/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE.

I ks =

Y
p

st kk

Vkt +

ik t ik

Y
p

st t ki i

(1)

Where,

Vkt Vi t

Complex phase t to ground voltage at busbar k; Complex phase t to ground voltage at busbar i;

symmetric component transformation, the three-phase admittance matrix Yabc can be obtained; since y1 and y2 are not equal, Yabc will be asymmetric and will represent the motor running at constant slip. Depending on the induction machine operation strategy adopted, it is necessary to define its control. Two of them were modelled in the FCIM: constant electrical power input/output and constant mechanical power output/input. Using any of these two control strategies, both y1 and y2 are functions of the machine slip (s). Thus the extra equation needed to represent the machine can be written in terms of s as a new state variable. For example, for constant electrical power input the new equation is written as follows:
ele ele Pesp in Pcalcin = 0 ele Pesp in Re V m

s, t p ; p = {a, b, c, n}

k - Set of buses directly connected to busbar k; Yki = Gki + jBki


Generation units and loads are represented as especified net injected complex power as follows:

S = P + jQ = (V V ) I
d k d k d k d k n k

d* k

(2)

Where:

d d ; d = {a, b, c}
n k

([ ] [Y
abc t

abc ( s ) ] V m *

abc *

] )= 0

(4)

Complex neutral to ground voltage at busbar k;

Where

ele Pesp in

is the specified electrical power input at the

induction machine busbar m. III. APPLICATIONS Some IEEE unbalanced test systems, having induction machines are presented in this section to illustrate the results obtained with the FCIM methodology. These systems are available in [1]. It is important to emphasize that the available data was converted or adapted to phase coordinates because the FCIM simulation tool requires the data in this format. A. IEEE Center Tapped Wye-Delta Transformer Test Case The system shown in Figure 1 is based on the IEEE 4 Node Test Feeder [1], that was created to be used for testing four wire delta transformer models, where a more complete transformer model was included: the wye-delta transformer bank with a center-tapped transformer in one leg of the delta secondary [4-5]. According to [5], this is considered one of the more interesting transformer connections found in the distribution system, and presents a challenge to designers of three-phase distribution system analysis software. The center tap is grounded, which shifts the secondary side voltage reference to an unusual location for three-phase circuit analysis. One phase is significantly higher in voltage with respect to ground resulting in a crazy leg [5].
1
Infinite Bus

Equations (1) and (2) can be combined to produce nodal current injection equations, which can be linearized and expressed in terms of the corresponding real and imaginary parts. Writing these equations for all n nodes in the system, the resulting set of equations can be written as follows:
abcn abcn I m1 ( J11 ) abcn I r1 abcn I abcn m2 ( J 21 ) I rabcn = 2 M M abcn I mnb abcn abcn I rnb ( J nb1 )

(J )
12 22

abcn

(J )
M

abcn

(J )
nb 2

abcn

Vr1abcn abcn Vm1 abcn abcn L ( J 2 nb ) Vr2 abcn Vm2 M M M abcn Vrnb abcn abcn L ( J nbnb ) Vmnb L

(J )
1nb

abcn

(3)

The off-diagonal elements of the Jacobian matrix in (3) are identical to the corresponding elements of the nodal admittance matrix and thus remain constant during the iterative Newton-Raphson solution process. The diagonal terms are dependent on the load and generation models [8]. B. Representation of Controls The system control devices are modeled using additional equations to represent the control actions [9]. The equations are linearized and added to the current injection equations (3), resulting in an enlarged Jacobian matrix. The full Newton method is then applied to find the solution. As an example, this methodology will be used to represent induction machine control. If the machine is operated at constant slip, the equivalent circuits for positive and negative sequence can be reduced to constant admittances. The zero sequence admittance is made equal to zero, as there are normally no neutral connections to induction machines. Thus the sequence admittance Y012 of the machine will be a diagonal matrix. Applying the synthesis

5 miles [IABC ]

100 ft. [Iabc ]

4
M

120/240

12.47 kV
Figure 1 Center Tapped Wye-Delta Transformer Test Case

The following transformer connections were tested: - Ungrounded wye-delta

- Grounded wye-delta - Leading open wye-open delta - Lagging open wye-open delta In this test case the induction motor slip was considered fixed at 0.035, so the motor model is simplified to a constant admitance model as explained in the previous section. The matrix obtained for the given parameters is:
0.3906 j 0.9072 0.8453 + j 0.3151 0.4547 + j 0.5921 0.3906 j 0.9072 0.8453 + j 0.3151 S YM abc = 0.4547 + j 0.5921 0.8453 + j 0.3151 0.4547 + j 0.5921 0.3906 j 0.9072

purpose of testing induction generator models. The system is unbalanced and each generator is to supply 660 kW to the feeder.
G1 T1
848 822 820 818 802 806 808 812 814 850 816 800 810 824 826 864 846 844 842 834 888 860 890 836 862 840

858 832

T2
852

838

Some selected results obtained with FCIM, using the ungrounded wye-delta transformer connection, are given in Tables 1 and 2.
Table 1 Phase to Ground Voltages
Bus 1 2 3 4 VAG (kV) 7.200 7.194 117.14 116.25 A (o ) 0.00 -0.05 -0.51 -0.25 VBG (kV) 7.200 7.194 117.00 115.46 B (o ) -120.00 -120.01 179.52 179.42 VCG (kV) 7.200 7.197 204.13 203.68 C (o ) 120.00 119.97 89.86 89.85

G2
828 830 854 856

Figure 2 34 Node Test Feeder With Induction Generators

The electrical power input in each generator is considered constant in this test case. Thus the procedure described in section II.B will be applied to solve this system. Once convergence is achieved, the calculated slip of each generator is obtained and the reactive power input can be calculated. The distributed loads specified for this case were divided between the from bus and the to bus of the respective line section. The voltage regulators actions were not considered in this case, as this would be useful to test the robustness of the method. The different connections (B1, B2 and B3) of the two induction generators transformers were simulated and a part of the results obtained with FCIM are shown on Tables 5 to 10. In all these cases, the electrical power input is constant at 660kW. B1 - Grounded wye wye

In this configuration there is no connection from the primary transformer neutral to the distribution line grounded neutral. Since the system is unbalanced, the primary wye transformer neutral voltage VNG will be 63.26/ 3.047 V.
Table 2 Line Currents
Prim Sec Prim Sec IA (A) 2.747 114.574 C (o ) 113.217 55.092 A (o ) -29.422 -42.435 IN (A) 0.040 10.787 IB (A) 1.763 138.048 N (o ) -21.329 -50.115 B (o ) -175.765 161,349 IG (A) 0.040 8.867 IC (A) 1.610 58.893 G (o ) -21.329 129,313

Table 3 Load Currents


ILAN (A) 25.379 A (o ) -18.627 ILBN (A) 43.335 B (o ) 147.567 ILAB (A) 43.160 AB (o) -26.267 Bus 800 814 814r 852 852r 832 836 848 888 890 G1 G2 Va (kV) 15.095 14.090 14.090 13.758 13.758 13.758 13.719 13.750 2.177 2.106 0.261 0.238

Table 5 Phase to Ground Voltage Nodes


a (o) 0.000 1.836 1.836 4.310 4.310 4.310 4.435 4.474 6.870 14.382 7.468 18.022 Vb (kV) 15.095 14.537 14.537 14.099 14.099 14.099 14.045 14.067 2.229 2.127 0.266 0.240 b (o) -120.000 -119.041 -119.041 -117.386 -117.386 -117.386 -117.366 -117.324 -114.921 -108.317 -114.422 -104.719 Vc (kV) 15.095 14.640 14.640 14.334 14.334 14.334 14.300 14.329 2.273 2.186 0.272 0.247 c (o) 120.000 121.880 121.880 123.497 123.497 123.497 123.493 123.535 125.970 133.151 126.493 136.679

Table 4 Motor Input Currents


IMA (A) 54.642 A ( ) -66.480
o

IMB (A) 55.537

B (o ) 178.137

IMC (A) 58.893

C (o ) 55.092

Induction motor results: slip = 3.5% = 0.035 Stator Input Complex Power: 18.827 + j 12.794 kVA Converted Shaft Power: 17.454 kW

All the results reported above are in close agreement with the results reported in [1]. B. IEEE 34 Node Test Feeder With Induction Generators The one line diagram of this system is shown in Figure 2, as proposed in [7], and is based on the IEEE 34 Node Test Feeder [1]. Two three-phase induction generators with stepdown transformers have been added to the feeder, for the

Table 6 Line Currents


Line 800-802 814r850 846-848 880-890 T1-G1 T2-G2 Ia (A) 35.756 35.756 14.105 100.889 909.428 1023.73 a (o) -61.231 -61.230 -178.111 -98.952 -147.690 -135.052 Ib (A) 30.426 27.526 12.796 102.656 919.410 1038.49 b (o) 175.283 171.049 65.202 140.729 94.346 105.134 Ic (A) 23.88 22.458 14.421 101.294 942.457 1034.08 c (o) 50.856 47.741 -57.983 20.021 -27.192 -15.666

Induction generator 1 results: slip = -0.8530125 % Stator Input Complex Power: -660.000 +j 331.292 kVA Converted Shaft Power: -670.411 kW Induction generator 2 results: slip = -1.0785586 % Stator Input Complex Power: -660.000 +j 353.130 kVA Converted Shaft Power: -673.096 kW

Table 10 Line Currents


Line 800-802 814r-850 846-848 880-890 T1-G1 T2-G2 Ia (A) 34.129 34.129 14.010 98.680 927.325 1024.907 a (o) -59.552 -59.552 174.890 -99.232 -178.011 -165.527 Ib (A) 30.314 27.564 14.431 104.222 905.390 1030.266 b (o) 171.654 167.035 67.515 139.796 63.543 75.272 Ic (A) 25.591 24.108 13.066 101.809 937.982 1040.023 (o ) 53.432 50.689 -53.575 21.253 -56.083 -45.380

B2 - Grounded wye ungrounded wye


Table 7 Phase to Ground Voltage Nodes
Bus 800 814 814r 852 852r 832 836 848 888 890 G1 G2 Bus 948 990 Va (kV) 15.095 14.090 14.090 13.758 13.758 13.758 13.719 13.750 2.177 2.106 0.263 0.240 Vgn (kV) 0.00271 0.00305 a (o) 0.000 1.836 1.836 4.310 4.310 4.310 4.435 4.474 6.870 14.382 7.047 17.415 gn (o) 38.005 38.469 Vb (kV) 15.095 14.537 14.537 14.099 14.099 14.099 14.045 14.067 2.229 2.127 0.267 0.241 b (o) -120.000 -119.041 -119.041 -117.386 -117.386 -117.386 -117.366 -117.324 -114.921 -108.317 -113.857 -104.056 Vc (kV) 15.095 14.640 14.640 14.334 14.334 14.334 14.300 14.329 2.273 2.186 0.269 0.244 c (o) 120.000 121.880 121.880 123.497 123.497 123.497 123.493 123.535 125.970 133.151 126.339 136.618

Induction generator 1 results: slip = -0.8526303 % Stator Input Complex Power: -660.000 +j 331.263 kVA Converted Shaft Power: -670.406 kW Induction generator 2 results: slip = -1.0777549 % Stator Input Complex Power: -660.000 +j 353.030 kVA Converted Shaft Power: -673.086 kW

In the three cases the load flow converged with four iterations of the full Newton method. C. Induction Machine Test Case Figure 3 shows the one-line diagram of the unbalanced system proposed in [6].
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS INDUCTION MACHINE TEST CASE BUS2

Table 8 Line Currents


Line 800-802 814r-850 846-848 880-890 T1-G1 T2-G2 Ia (A) 35.756 35.756 14.105 100.889 909.428 1023.732 a (o) -61.231 -61.230 -178.111 -98.952 -147.690 -135.052 Ib (A) 30.426 27.526 12.796 102.656 919.410 1038.487 b (o) 175.283 171.049 65.202 140.729 94.346 105.134 Ic (A) 23.881 22.458 14.421 101.294 942.457 1034.082 c (o) 50.856 47.741 -57.983 20.021 -27.192 -15.666

3 1
SOURCE

4
OTHER LOAD

BUS1

LINE

5
BUS2LV

SUBSTATION

Induction generator 1 results: slip = -0.8530125 % Stator Complex Power Input: -660.000 +j 331.292 kVA Converted Shaft Power: -670.411 kW Induction generator 2 results: slip = -1.0785586 % Stator Complex Power Input: -660.000 +j 353.130 kVA Converted Shaft Power: -673.096 kW

MOTOR LOAD

Figure 3 Induction Machine Test Case

To solve this system the induction motor model having the slip as a state variable was used, because the electrical power input is considered constant at 1000kW in this test case. The results obtained with the proposed methodology are summarized below, and are in very close agreement with the those obtained in [6].
Table 11 Phase to Ground Voltage Nodes
c (o) 120.000 121.761 121.761 123.340 123.340 123.340 123.332 123.371 125.788 132.990 96.371 106.486 Bus 1 2 3 4 5 VAG (kV) 69.71505 69.69935 7.32274 6.80839 0.25251 A (o ) 0 -0.013 -33.139 -36.444 -39.221 VBG (kV) 69.71505 69.70236 7.38484 7.22876 0.26843 B (o ) -120 -120,010 -152.401 -154.862 -157.765 VCG (kV) 69.71505 69.70407 7.40100 7.20007 0.26527 C (o ) 120 119.986 88.268 87.690 85.038

B3 - Grounded wye delta


Table 9 Phase to Ground Voltage Nodes
Bus 800 814 814r 852 852r 832 836 848 888 890 G1 G2 Va (kV) 15.095 14.175 14.175 13.897 13.897 13.897 13.865 13.900 2.202 2.136 0.265 0.241 a (o) 0.000 1.524 1.524 3.674 3.674 3.675 3.757 3.776 6.130 13.275 -23.684 -13.284 Vb (kV) 15.095 14.565 14.565 14.166 14.166 14.166 14.117 14.141 2.241 2.147 0.266 0.242 b (o) -120.000 -118.615 -118.615 -116.617 -116.617 -116.617 -116.554 -116.488 -114.031 -107.081 -143.179 -133.257 Vc (kV) 15.095 14.531 14.531 14.133 14.133 14.133 14.087 14.110 2.236 2.136 0.268 0.242

Table 12 Line Currents


1-2 3-4 IA (A) 34.223 360.115 A ( ) -29.885 -55.972
o

IB (A) 27.031 273.690

B (o ) -151.188 -174.532

IC (A) 30.669 210.561

B (o ) 101.259 59.814

Table 13 Load Currents


ILAN (A) 309.221 A ( ) -54.639
o

ILBN (A) 218.419

B (o ) -173.057

ILCN (A) 154.318

CN (o) 61.848

Table 14 Motor Input Currents


IMA (A) 1337.454 A (o ) -64.003 IMB (A) 1445.176 B (o ) 179.664 IMC (A) 1470.565 C (o ) 54.263

Induction motor results: slip = 0.7277487 % = 0.007277487 Stator Input Complex Power: 1000.00 + j 490.055 kVA Converted Shaft Power: 986.596 kW

The load flow converged in four iterations of the full Newton method. IV. CONCLUSIONS This panel discussion reported on steady-state studies which have been carried out on three IEEE Test Feeders. The simulations were conducted using the Four-Conductor Current Injection Method FCIM [11], that applies the full Newton method to solve the nonlinear current injection equations.The equations are derived using phase coordinates, and the complex variables are written in rectangular form. The method includes neutral conductors and grounding explicitly. It is seen that the results obtained are in close agreement with the calculations reported using other methods. It is also seen that FCIM is very robust, as convergence was obtained with not more than 4 iterations in all cases. The authors feel that this methodology will be of assistance for the analysis of radial or meshed unbalanced distribution systems. V. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of P. A. N. Garcia for useful discussions on power system modeling. VI. REFERENCES [1] http://ewh.ieee.org/soc/pes/dsacom/testfeeders.html [2] W. H. Kersting, Transformer Model Test System, Proceedings of 2003 IEEE PES Transmission & Distribution Conference, Dallas, TX, September 2003. [3] R. C. Dugan and S. Santoso, An Example of 3-phase Transformer Modeling for Distribution System Analysis, Proceedings of 2003 IEEE PES Transmission & Distribution Conference, Dallas, TX, September 2003. [4] W. H. Kersting, Center Tapped Wye-Delta Transformer Test Case, Proceedings of 2004 IEEE PES General Meeting, Denver, CO, June 2004. [5] R. C. Dugan, Experiences with the Center-tapped WyeDelta Transformer Test Case, Proceedings of 2004 IEEE PES General Meeting Conference, Denver, CO June 2004.

[6] R. C. Dugan, Distribution System Analysis - Induction Machine Test Case, March 2005. [7] W. H. Kersting, IEEE 34 Node Test Feeder With Induction Generators, December 2005. [8] P. A. N. Garcia, J. L. R. Pereira, S. Carneiro Jr., V. M. Costa, N. Martins, Three-phase Power Flow Calculations Using the Current Injection Method, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 15, n. 2, May 2000, pp 508-514. [9] P. A. N., Garcia, J. L. R., Pereira, S. Carneiro Jr., Voltage Control Devices Models for Distribution Power Flow Analysis, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,Vol 16, November 2001, pp. 586 -594. [10] P. A. N., Garcia, J. L. R., Pereira, S. Carneiro Jr, Improvements in the Representation of PV Buses on ThreePhase Distribution Power Flow, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol 19, No.2, April 2004, pp. 894-896. [11] D. R. R. Penido, 2004, Three-Phase Four-Wire Power Flow, (In Portuguese) M.Sc. Dissertation, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, March 2004. VII. BIOGRAPHIES
Debora Rosana Ribeiro Penido was born in Brazil in 1978. She received the degree of Electrical Engineer in 2002 and the M.Sc. degree in 2004, both from the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Minas Gerais, Brazil and now she is a Ph.D. student in Electrical Engineering at the Graduate School of Engineering (COPPE) / Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Brazil. From 2003 to the present date she has been working in the Transmission Department of the Brazilian Electrical Company. (ELETROBRAS), at the Electrical Studies Division. Her research interests include models and analytical tools for distribution systems analysis and planning of transmission systems. Leandro Ramos de Araujo was born in Brazil in 1974. He received the degree of Electrical Engineer in 1997 and the M.Sc. degree in 2000, both from the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Minas Gerais, Brazil and the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from the Graduate School of Engineering (COPPE) / Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Brazil in 2005. From 2003 to 2005 he worked in the Electrical Energy Research Center (CEPEL) of Brazilian Electrical Company (ELETROBRAS). From 2005 to the present date he has been working in Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS). His research interests include the development of tools for optimization and operation of transmission, distribution and industrial systems. Sandoval Carneiro Jr. (M'1978; SM1991) was born in Brazil in 1945. He received the degree of Electrical Engineer from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FEI), of the Catholic University of So Paulo, Brazil, in 1968; the M.Sc. degree from the Graduate School of Engineering (COPPE) / Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) in 1971 and the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from University of Nottingham, England, in 1976. From 1971 to the present date he has been a Lecturer at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and in 1993 was promoted to Full Professor. From 1978 to 1979 he was Deputy-Director and from 1982 to 1985 Director of COPPE / UFRJ. From 1987 to 1988 and in 1994 he was Visiting Professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. From October 1991 to June 1992 he was General Director of CAPES- Ministry of Education Agency for Academic Improvement. Dr. Carneiro is a registered professional engineer in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. His research interests include electromagnetic transients simulations and models and analytical tools for distribution systems analysis. Jose Luiz Rezende Pereira (M'1985; SM2005) received his B.Sc. in 1975 from Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil, the M.Sc. in 1978 from COPPE -- Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and the Ph.D. in 1988 from UMIST, UK. From 1977 to 1992 he worked at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Since 1993 he works at Electrical Engineering Department of Federal University of Juiz de Fora. Dr. Pereira's research interests include planning and operation modeling for transmission and distribution systems.