Cleaning and Disinfection Controls within a Restaurant Business Introduction Cleaning is necessary to control chemical, physical and microbiological

contamination of food by keeping food premises, equipment and food-contact and hand-contact surfaces free from soiling, whether visible or not (Engel et al. 2001). Cleaning is the process of removing dirt, which can take the form of debris, dust etc. Cleaning may involve kinetic, thermal or chemical energy. Disinfection is defined by British Standard 5283 as, “the destruction of microorganisms, but not usually bacterial spores; it may not kill all microorganisms but reduces them to a level which is neither harmful to health nor the quality of perishable foods”. The aim of disinfection is to eliminate microorganisms present on food-contact surfaces thereby avoiding contamination of raw materials and products with pathogens and spoilage organisms (Langsrud et al, 2003). Disinfection may be achieved by using heat, chemicals, irradiation or UV radiation. UV is usually effective for atmospheres and clear water but not for surfaces. It should be noted that cleaning and disinfection should be carried out as two separate processes. Cleaning and disinfectant controls are an essential part of food safety management and a legal requirement of the food safety management plan (FSMP) of a business. The aim of this report is to detail the implementation of cleaning and disinfectant controls within a busy restaurant business. The report will look at the areas of EU legislation, the compliance with such legislation, and how cleaning and disinfectant controls are established, monitored and verified with relevant codes of practice. The object of this report is Restaurant X, located in a busy commuter town. It is known to me personally as I dine in the restaurant on a regular basis. This enables me to be familiar with the staff, layout and general operation of the business. It would be considered medium sized with a seating capacity of 45 people. It is known locally as an upmarket establishment, with an emphasis on high quality dishes and fine dining. Restaurant X employs three full time staff; two are directly involved in food preparation, the other being the

While each member off staff may have a priority area of responsibility under their control.g. (Engel et al. hygiene and disinfection. pork. Regulation EU 852/2004 relates to hygiene of Foodstuffs. How Cleaning and Disinfection controls contribute to food safety Food safety is described as the protection of human health by preventing food and drink from becoming hazardous to health or having the potential to cause harm to human health. two part time staff exists. distributed or marketed in the State meets the highest standards of food safety and hygiene reasonably available. Additionally. drains etc) to prevent the . Good cleaning practices are important for both food contact surfaces (e. There are numerous EU regulations that pertain to cleaning and disinfectant controls within the realm of food safety. It requires all food businesses to put in place. one involved in table service. all share a collective responsibility for the implementation of cleaning and disinfection controls. appropriate records should be kept relating to cleaning. which can eliminate or reduce potential pathogens. the other in cleaning. It also states that all parts of a food premises must be kept clean. and where necessary. It uses many high-risk foods. Law under Regulation EU 852/2004 requires a number of Prerequisites. worktops. One of these are good cleaning practices. equipment. utensils.g. chopping boards. Such foods are deemed high risk due to the lack of further preparation. of high importance due to Restaurant X using some ready to eat (RTE) foods. implement and maintain a food safety management plan (FSMP) based on the Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles. containers etc) and non-food contact surfaces (e. These prerequisites must be implemented before a HACCP plan is put in place. disinfected. poultry and seafood products. With all food businesses. floors.manager. ceiling. 2001). The FSAI provides documented guidance for food businesses on all areas of food safety. The restaurant serves hot and cold meals. The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) is the national body with powers to enforce food safety law. including raw beef. along with a takeaway sandwich service. The FSAI aims to protect consumers by ensuring that food produced.

while minimising cross contamination. An adequate number of washbasins must be available. It aims to be efficient in food service. location and size of food premises are to permit adequate maintenance. COSSH applies to any substances that are: • • Toxic. cleaning and disinfection. The building has fully tiled toilets and kitchen floor areas. both long and short term. It aims to protect all individuals against exposure to substances in the workplace that pose a risk to health. design. It is applicable to Restaurant X in terms of cleaning materials. The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002 provides the essential requirements and a sensible approach for the control of substances hazardous to health. construction. Premises must provide adequate working space to allow for the hygienic performance of all operations. Foods may be exposed to different hazards during preparation. Corrosive or Irritant Sensitising. likelihood and possibility of an individual to be exposed. that could directly or indirectly contaminate food. Raw meats are high risk and carry a biological hazard. or from storage in an incorrect area. These include chemical hazards due to the use of sanitation or cleaning products. and to avoid or minimise air-borne contamination. Food can be passed out of the kitchen easily without entry by table staff. Moisture resistance plywood on the roof areas reduces the potential of mould from steam and vapours. carcinogenic or mutagenic It also applies to individuals that handle microorganisms. viral or fungal agents. Harmful. Under EU 852/2004. To facilitate cleaning and prevent corrosion. the layout. A COSSH risk assessment determines the potential. This facilitates both easy hand washing and reduction of cross contamination. Cross contamination from surface contact is one of the most common ways of transmission of pathogens into humans. Separate washbasins exist for food washing. .build up of food debris and microorganisms. Food contact surfaces uses to prepare food may hold hazardous chemical or biological hazards. it uses stainless steel surfaces on all the kitchen equipment and food preparation areas. hand washing and cleaning. Restaurant X is a purpose built premises.

The use of Chemical cleaning products is the typical route taken by food businesses to maintain a clean and disinfected work area. This regulation also specifies compliance with microbiological . A sampling plan must be defined for each criterion. They must also be approved and food safe. cloths. stocking of refrigerators and general kitchen chores. It provides Process Hygiene Criteria that indicate the acceptable functioning of a production process. EU 2073/2005 also states the rules to be complied with by food business operators when implementing the general and specific hygiene measures referred to in Article 4 of Regulation EU 852/2004. it is important to use a detergent to clean before using disinfectants. This introduces a three-way hazard: product. There are a few issues to consider when implementing cost effective cleaning. The kitchen staff hold responsibility for the cleaning of the food preparation areas. mops etc. It lays down the microbiological criteria and indicative contamination values for certain microorganisms. Chemicals must be given time to function and the correct equipment must be used to wipe the surface. This is due to organic matter inhibiting the disinfectant action. These are in direct contact with both the food operator and the preparation surface. operator’s hands and contact surface. The cleaner is responsible for the main areas of the restaurant. However they do not have cleaning properties.Restaurant X uses ready to eat (RTE) foods in the form of chilled meats for their takeaway service. degreasers or detergents are required. utensils and cutlery. Therefore. To clean greasy or oily areas. Surfaces that are in contact with food require disinfectants. 2002) Restaurant X has a dedicated member of staff for cleaning. These are using the correct chemicals at the optimum temperature and concentration. toilets. These do not kill bacteria. Regulation (EU) No 2073/2005 is related to the Microbiological Criteria for Foodstuffs. hallways and stores. Sanitisers are chemicals that have combined detergent and disinfectant properties. These kill bacteria and should be approved for use and food safe. The kitchen staff are also trained in HACCP. which assists them in implementing the cleaning schedule. (Sprenger. The cleaner is responsible for the maintenance of cleaning supplies and filing purchase orders with the manager for new chemicals. A part time staff member also assists in operating the dishwasher.

Management should authorise the cleaning and disinfection method before it is included in the work schedule. All staff who are involved in cleaning and disinfection should be trained in the handling of chemicals. Proper labelling should be used on chemical containers so the content is known. of tools and equipment and the transportation system. guidelines and other recommendations relating to. • • • Management should monitor cleaning and disinfection in order to make sure the work is being done according to the instructions. Sometimes the cleaning step is combined with the disinfection. • Disinfection using an appropriate disinfectant. Chemicals must be kept separate from food and packing. and the right of the authorities to undertake sampling. There should be a clear methodology for cleaning. Important is the complete removal of food rests and garbage from the rooms where production takes place. These are • Cleaning of building.sampling. Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards. Instructions should include handling of chemicals and equipment. It should be available for inspection by both staff involved in the cleaning process and management. 2010). The use of personal protective equipment must be both encouraged and enforced • • Microbiological testing that shows low counts verifies good cleaning and hygiene practices. food production and food safety (FSAI. The National Standards Authority of Ireland (NSAI) provides guidelines to assist in the development of the FSMP and in order to comply with the EU regulations. codes of practice. The Irish Standards 340:2007 and 341:2007 apply to hygiene in . According to the codex there are steps involved in the implementation of good cleaning and disinfectant practice. which can be performed by an inspector.

They are provided to complement legally enforceable EU standards or help in the development of a FSMP. fat soluble and insoluble soils. Through their inspectors. dispersion and and retail businesses respectively. providing staff with access to correct equipment and monitoring of work. which are harder to remove. cutlery and preparation utensils. Detergents demonstrate properties of surfactancy. that Guidelines are not legally enforceable. There are numerous types of contaminants and residues (“soils”) that require removal in a restaurant business such as Restaurant X. the FSAI provides leaflets and communications to the restaurant to assist in compliance with food safety regulations. Effective management of cleaning and disinfection also involves selection of suitable suppliers. inspection of stock levels and good budgeting for materials ensures good management of cleaning. For the manager in Restaurant X. Additionally. which facilitate removal of soils. All are found on food contact surfaces. It must be stated however. These include water soluble. which will be mentioned later. . providing enough staff for the work. they provide advice and guidance on all matters relating to food safety. All require a combination of water and detergent to remove. monitoring and verification of Cleaning and Disinfection controls Establishment The Health Service Executive (HSE) is the local enforcement authority for food hygiene and safety. effective stock control and financial control. Establishment. Standard 340:2007 recommends guidelines for cleaning schedules. The manager has a responsibility to communicate effectively with staff to ensure proper adherence to procedure. the dishwasher unit . Annex 1 of the standard provides sample cleaning schedules and cleaning records. selection of purpose made materials. The standard also requires that an individual trained in HACCP or food hygiene should be in charge of such a cleaning schedule. Temperature aids removal of stubborn soils and mechanical abrasion by hand is required for insoluble soils. For cutlery.

effective cleaning schedules determine: • • • • • • • • • What area or item requires cleaning How the cleaning is performed Which chemicals to use. It applies particularly to hand cleaning. this determined the criteria of each cleaning task. contact surfaces . They ensure cost effective cleaning and disinfection of premises and equipment. Any updates or changes to SOP’s must be communicated to staff and not assumed known. According to Irish Standard 340:2007. their concentration and contact time If heat is required When and how often cleaning is required Duration of each task Who performs each task The signature of the person carrying out the task The signature of a supervisor to verify satisfactory completion Standard operating procedures (SOP) have been designed by the manager to enable the smooth implementation of the FSMP. kitchen utensils. cutlery. cooking utensils and cutlery. surface contact areas and hands (personal hygiene). Daily tasks implemented by food preparation staff use “Clean as you go”. “Clean as you go” is a policy to keep work areas clean and tidy at all times. Any deviation from the SOP’s must be reported to the manager.provides a combination of chemical additive and high temperature to ensure sanitation to a high level. A sample SOP for a food contact surface is shown in Figure 1 Daily cleaning schedules include toilets and restrooms. Completed in conjunction with COSSH regulations. weekly and monthly tasks. With regard to cleaning and disinfectant controls. The cleaner utilises the SOP’s to enable compliance with the regulations and to ensure risk is kept to a minimum. To develop cleaning schedules the manager completed a hazard analysis during the development of the FSMP. Cleaning schedules are developed for daily. SOP’s are followed for each area of the restaurant. Cleaning schedules are the link between management and staff. with an incident report filed for serious mistakes or failures. floors.

Each product has a specific area of use. main restaurant and toilet areas. This minimises cross contamination. light covers and doorframes. or disposed of daily. glass. which are diluted to 500ml spray bottles. Cleaning materials including chemicals and clothing are stored together in a separate room at the rear of the building. Synthetic brushes are kept separately for the kitchen. Different products are used for the floors. while the cleaner must use disposable gloves and overshoes. The main products used are mild bleaches for toilet areas. A sample daily cleaning schedule for the Restaurant X is shown in Figure 2. This loaded by kitchen staff as required. Clean items are removed and stored when dry. dining tables. This is both to prevent contamination and misuse.and containers. Personal hygiene also comes under the realm of cleaning. The kitchen staff use disposable gloves. Disposal of waste cleaning products is the responsibility of the cleaner. A specialist supplier is used for the acquisition of hygiene and cleaning products. Weekly cleaning schedules include frames of the kitchen equipment. They are colour-coded in 5 litre containers. which can be boil-washed. The . Mop buckets and cleaning bottles must be cleaned after use to prevent contamination Mop heads must be disinfected by placing in strong bleach after each use. aprons and hairnets. water filters and behind equipment such as refrigerators and ovens. Cloths are either of the reusable type. Staff must use protective clothing when involved in any cleaning procedure. with hand repeated hand washing required between changing tasks or moving areas. Waste water from cleaning must be disposed of at the rear of the building in a suitable drain. and detergents for dining and food prep areas including sanitisers containing surfactants and sequestrants. The products used are both biodegradable and non polluting. utensils and food preparation areas. Mop heads have a maximum of three days life cycle for each. The easy to read colour coding ensure the correct products are used and prevents cross contamination. Monthly cleaning schedules include Extractor fans. Hand wash signs are in clear view at all critical control points (CCP’s) and are highlighted in SOP’s. There is a strict no-jewellery policy as these harbour dirt and bacteria. Kitchen utensils and cutlery are cleaned using the dishwasher. table legs.

hand wash gel and paper towel in the toilets. The kitchen staff have a number of responsibilities with respect to monitoring. Cleaning checklists are visible in the main restaurant and toilet areas. These provide both customer confidence and easy inspection by the manager. hairnets and gloves occur twice weekly with supplies inspected to ensure correct rate of usage. Visual inspection monitors the effectiveness of the dishwasher. Monitoring of Cleaning and Disinfection controls All members of staff carry a duty to monitor the cleaning and disinfectant controls. Utensils that are used frequently are cleaned by hand using the “clean as you go” policy. refrigerators and ovens are also the responsibility of the kitchen staff. Inspections for clean aprons.use of the dishwasher frees up staff time and ensures a more thorough clean. Random inspection of the cleaning equipment by the manager ensures vigilance by all staff. Freezers. The correct mixture ratio of cleaning chemicals must be used. Floor surfaces are monitored to ensure there is no debris or foreign material that could cause contamination. Replacements must be prompt and stock monitored. The supervision of staff at work monitors the compliance of staff to cleaning and disinfectants controls. They are cleaned twice weekly with monitoring by the . The cleaner is responsible for monitoring the general cleanliness of the restaurant and using initiative to prioritise areas. By keeping all cleaning materials together it ensures easy monitoring of stock. Cleaning logs are checked against actual work completed with any deviations being communicated to the cleaner or kitchen staff. Monitoring is necessary to ensure compliance with EU regulations and that poor cleaning doesn’t compromise food safety. The high temperature enables built in disinfection. The cleaning log includes the aforementioned disposal of waste products and cleaning of mop heads and cloths. with the manager observing their use to ensure they are not being used either too quickly or not enough. The cleaner must sign at each task and the manager checks the checklists daily. Frequent visual inspection of surfaces and utensils monitors the frequency of cleaning. The cleaner must also monitor use of toilet paper.

HSE Inspectors visit the premises annually to complete a full inspection. Crosschecking of cleaned areas against records is performed at random to verify work is carried out satisfactorily. refrigerators and sometimes from staff themselves. The inspectors can access and review records to verify compliance. This is held once a month to monitor and discuss staff knowledge of the FSMP and communicate any changes to legal requirements. Swabs are usually taken at points of food contact including worktop surfaces. including cleaning and disinfection and to take action with training if required. implements external verification via an area inspector. Cleaning records are kept and filed securely. Lab verified total bacterial count must be below acceptable levels for a restaurant to be allowed operate by law. A further surveillance visit occurs during the year at random. The manager implements internal verification and the local Health Service Executive (HSE). Verification of Cleaning and Disinfection controls Verification is the process of checking or reviewing a HACCP system to ensure it is operating according to plan and reaching its objectives. COSHH assessments and records are available for inspection and verification by inspectors. the monthly staff meetings enable the manager to verify staff knowledge on any area of the FSMP. Sink drains are checked daily for debris and blockage. Any shortfalls in training can be addressed and further training organised externally if required. The manager also has the responsibility to verify staff are current with food safety law and good hygiene practice by inspecting training records. The restaurant recently started an internal staff refresher program. Microbial swabs may be taken by the inspector to verify the cleaning and disinfection status.manager via spot checks. It is a requirement under regulation EU 852/2004 that verification procedures are included in a HACCP plan. Critical analysis of corrective actions taken in the event of a Cleaning and Disinfection control failure . As previously mentioned. The manager checks cleaning logs for verification of work completed. the local body in charge of enforcement.

was called into work to help with the cleanup operation. Ovens and worktops were high enough to avoid submersion. Supplies that were damaged were reordered and replaced. dysentery and hepatitis to name but a few. usually works on low risk kitchen chores such as filling dishwashers. person A. for toilet use. was being used instead of the correct sanitising chemical. During the evening. Such water is a hazard and may harbor many different types of pathogens. Due to the large task at hand and the other staff being busy. This included replacing timber floor areas. There is also the risk of chemical contamination from industrial waste.A failure in the area of Cleaning and Disinfection control could compromise food safety and put public health at risk. Sandbag use reduced the damage to some extent. This resulted in river and sewer water flooding the immediate area up to a depth of 2 meters. the manager noticed that the wrong cleaning solution was being used for the area that holds cutlery during the serving process. monthly tasks were performed as immediate tasks. but due to the sheer height of the water could not prevent major damage. Person A was assigned to clean the kitchen floors. the FSMP plan and cleaning schedules were referred to. Luckily. One refrigerator had to be replaced due to water damage and all food stock was removed and replenished. This resulted in cleaning but a lack of disinfection. Due to the circumstances. a lot of tables. During November 2009. The restaurant remained closed for a number of days to perform a clean up operation. cutlery and utensils back into place. These organisms water may cause gastrointestinal infections. On the evening before reopening. reception and halls. Water entered the restaurant through the front entrance and proceeded to flood the main dining area. The cabinet had been in contact with some of the floodwater. To begin the cleanup process. chairs and light equipment had been removed in anticipation of the flooding. painting walls and cleaning tiled floor areas. A part time member of staff. worktops and refrigerators along with moving furniture. untrained in cleaning. . The SOP’s in place for cleaning were extended to include all areas not normally covered by regular cleaning. It also entered the kitchen to a smaller extent. delivering orders and obtaining stock from stores. Hand wash gel. severe flooding hit the area where Restaurant X is located. Person A.

The manager assumed communication between the cleaner and person A would occur. Food preparation would have been performed in this area the following morning. It was also assumed that Person A would be familiar with the products due to working in the restaurant. The overwhelming nature of the task demonstrated the limits of the cleaning and disinfection controls. They reported to be overwhelmed by the task and not familiar with the work normally undertaken by the cleaner. Recommendations and Communications A restaurant can be a high pressure. Food shall be deemed to be unsafe if it is considered to be: (a) injurious to health. staff members were expected to perform in some cases beyond their abilities or knowledge. With staff outside their comfort zone. Due to the lack of disinfection. This avoided a serious breach in food safety. (b) unfit for human consumption. This only increases the risk of mistakes being made. There was no need to report the incident to the HSE. Plates and bowls would have been in direct contact with the contaminated area. the entire kitchen working area was redone with the correct sanitiser. even when performed many times before.Under Section 4 Article 14(1) of Regulation EU 178/2002. can no longer be assumed correct. Individual stress. minor errors started to show. With the manager being under stress. Errors in good practice can occur during unforeseen events. In this case the vigilance of the manager in observing the staff avoided a much worse situation. Work that was normally taken for granted. contaminants may have been transferred by surface contact during the day. Food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe. For corrective action. The food preparation staff are trained in cleaning for . The incident was deemed to be minor by the manager. The restaurant was deemed suitable to reopen by the manager and the first customers returned on the following afternoon. Person A was surprised and admitted it was a genuine error. although an incident report was filed to state the error and the corrective action taken. multitasking and increased workloads can affect work performance. high paced environment. In this case the movement of a member of staff from a low risk area to a high-risk area proved erroneous.

Staff records should be reviewed if uncertainty arises. as there has been an increased risk of flooding over the past number of years. They should be asked if they are confident in each task they are to . should they be required to cover cleaning again they will not need direct supervision. what cleaning is to be performed and by whom. This plan should be formed as a matter of priority. • Training should be provided to the Person A as a preventative measure. The cleaner is trained to clean the full facility. After reviewing the incident. It also needs to be updated as required. This also falls under the area of fitness to work forms and staff training records. five recommendations can be made to improve the cleaning and disinfection controls within the restaurant. It should state who is in charge. Person A. the cleaner and who was not trained. the manager could have prevented the incident in the first place by leading the team. Demonstration of the cleaning products. While the staff member was only following orders. The plan should involve assistance from the local health inspector and fire officer if required. This should be a ground rule with respect of any incident. Leadership in this instance involved recognising who was trained i. • Untrained personnel should not be assigned cleaning tasks. yet an untrained member of staff was utilised instead. These are: • An emergency action plan should be put into place for future events. no matter how serious or spontaneous. • The manager should take control in every situation and delegate tasks only to those fully competent. The manager could undertake this over the course of a day. • Management should brief staff before a major task is undertaken. Therefore. However.their area. person A was rarely involved in any type of cleaning and in those rare cases they were supervised with cleaning tools supplied and ready to work with. a reoccurrence is likely.e. effective use of cleaning utensils and observing the cleaner should be part of the training process.

These all ensure a high standard of cleaning is adhered to. monitoring and verifying cleaning and disinfection controls are an integral part of a businesses food safety management plan.1 Sample Cleaning SOP for Restaurant X Item to be cleaned Cleaning Method Chemical to be used When to be cleaned Food Contact Surface Area Manual Cleaning with disposable paper cloth ‘Blue’ Spray Bottle Sanitiser Before and After each use . This line of communication should always be before. The chain of events from management’s error in delegating tasks to untrained personnel led in turn to individual error resulting in a possible serious incident. Summary Establishing. Figures. This report has shown that even with a well planned FSMP and implementation of good cleaning and disinfectant controls. individual responsibilities and legal obligations on the part of a restaurant business. Lack of preparation by a manager to deal with an unforeseen event contributes to this. Prerequisites are an essential part of the development of cleaning procedures when forming a HACCP system. Having some staff trained in multiple areas can function as a backup when all else fails. Fig. to further support overall hygiene. This report covered the wide range of physical areas. Proper judgement by management can avoid such incidents from occurring in the first place. • Staff should be encouraged to ask for assistance if required. Staying silent because of a fear of causing further problems only exacerbates the situation. Enforcement by the HSE enables good practice to be adhered to due to continuous monitoring. not during a task.undertake. individual limitations can result in a failure.

Available: http://www. Chadwick Court.html. Heir E. Codex. Nash. Hygiene for Management. Holck AL. Managing Food Safety. Bacterial disinfectant resistance – a change for the food industry.2 Sample Daily Cleaning Schedule for Restaurant X Date 01/03/2010 Time AM Clean as you go-> PM Clean as you go-> Item Completed by Signature Refrigerator Freezer WorkTops Sinks Floors Bain Marie Utensils Toilets Waste Area References Engel D. 283-290. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 51. C. Chapter 13 Langsrud S. 2001. London. Chartered Institute of Environmental Health. 2003. Daily Seconds Chef or Kitchen Staff Signature of staff member on checklist Inspection by Manager Fig. Sidhu MS. RA. 2010. Highfield Publications.Frequency of Cleaning Duration of Cleaning Operator Monitoring Verification Each use. FSAI.fsai. 2002. Sprenger. MacDonald D. Last accessed 2 Mar 2010 .ie/food_businesses/topics_of_interest/codex.

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