# Source: CIVIL ENGINEERING FORMULAS

CHAPTER 3

COLUMN FORMULAS

COLUMN FORMULAS
100
CHAPTER THREE

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Columns are structural members subjected to direct compression. All columns can be grouped into the following three classes: 1. Compression blocks are so short (with a slenderness ratio — that is, unsupported length divided by the least radius of gyration of the member — below 30) that bending is not potentially occurring. 2. Columns so slender that bending under load is a given are termed long columns and are deﬁned by Euler’s theory. 3. Intermediate-length columns, often used in structural practice, are called short columns. Long and short columns usually fail by buckling when their critical load is reached. Long columns are analyzed using Euler’s column formula, namely, Pcr n
2 EI l2

n 2EA (l/r)2

In this formula, the coefﬁcient n accounts for end conditions. When the column is pivoted at both ends, n 1; when one end is ﬁxed and the other end is rounded, n 2; when both ends are ﬁxed, n 4; and when one end is ﬁxed and the other is free, n 0.25. The slenderness ratio separating long columns from short columns depends on the modulus of elasticity and the yield strength of the column material. When Euler’s formula results in (Pcr /A) > Sy, strength instead of buckling causes failure, and the column ceases to be long. In quick estimating numbers, this critical slenderness ratio falls between 120 and 150. Table 3.1 gives additional column data based on Euler’s formula.

TABLE 3.1 Strength of Round-Ended Columns According to Euler’s Formula*

Material† Cast iron 107,000 53,400 62,600

Wrought iron 89,000

Lowcarbon steel

Mediumcarbon steel

Ultimate compressive strength, lb/in2 Allowable compressive stress, lb/in2 (maximum) Modulus of elasticity Factor of safety Smallest I allowable at worst section, in4 7,100 14,200,000 8 Pl 2 17,500,000 50.0 14.4 12.5 17.6 15.2 21.4 17.5 17.2 14.9 21.1 15,400 28,400,000 5 Pl 2 56,000,000 60.6 17,000 30,600,000 5 Pl 2 60,300,000 59.4

COLUMN FORMULAS

101

Limit of ratio, l/r

20,000 31,300,000 5 Pl 2 61,700,000 55.6 16.0 13.9 19.7
diameter of a

Rectangle r

b√1 12 , l/b

Circle r 1 4 d , l/d Circular ring of small thickness

r

d √1 8 , l/d

*

(P allowable load, lb; l length of column, in; b smallest dimension of a rectangular section, in; d circular section, in; r least radius of gyration of section.) To convert to SI units, use: 1b/in2 6.894 kPa; in4 (25.4)4 mm4.

Sw 9.2 Typical Short-Column Formulas Material Carbon steels Carbon steels Carbon steels Carbon steels Alloy-steel tubing Cast iron AREA Am. Co.TABLE 3.000 0. ANC NYC Chicago l r l r 60 l AISC l r Code Slenderness ratio 120 120 150 l r 65 √cr l 70 r 120 Formula 2 Sw 17. All rights reserved.000 40 l r .000 70 l r COLUMN FORMULAS 103 Sw 15. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.485 l r Sw 16.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Br.000 100 † 2 Scr 135.digitalengineeringlibrary.000 50 l r Sw 19.000 l r 15.9 c l r Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.58 1.64 0.87 1.84 0.84 1.24 0.94 0.93 0.3 Values of the Ratio z/r (See Fig.55 0.40 0.98 1.62 1.12 1.75 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.85 0.50 0.35 0.25 0.25 0.32 1.60 0.47 0.21 1.90 1.40 1.00 1.5) r1 r 0.37 1.digitalengineeringlibrary.71 1.05 0.52 0.12 .24 0.95 108 0.51 1.59 0.90 0.45 2.80 0.39 1.50 1.12 1.74 1.30 0.35 0.7 0.48 0.45 1.35 1.54 1.82 0.66 1.47 0.12 1.75 0.24 0.94 0.30 0.15 0.35 0. 0.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.72 0.77 0.65 0.13 0.00 1.60 0.65 0.0 e r 0.97 0.25 0.5 e r COLUMN FORMULAS 0.56 1.40 0.12 0.61 0.70 1.24 0.55 0.49 0.60 0.85 0.90 0.66 1.TABLE 3. All rights reserved.35 0.8 0.46 1.02 0. 3.75 0.0 0.45 1.95 0.89 1.61 0.42 0.85 0.71 1.72 0.93 1.24 0.9 1.12 0.72 1.55 0.10 0.35 0.6 0.81 1.89 1.78 1.70 0.12 2.32 0.20 0.36 0.29 1.80 0.50 0.75 1.99 0.25 1.82 1.23 1.

000 35.9 283.250 3.0 2.250 0.000 40.8 241.TABLE 3.385 0. All rights reserved.000 57.0 2.4 330.00 2. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.4 422.6 0.8 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.385 0.0 475.00 3.00 MPa K k n 1.7 511.00 2.00 3.0 Average Fcy COLUMN FORMULAS Material psi MPa Type Johnson equation Straight line Straight line Straight line Squared parabolic Squared parabolic 123 14S–T4 24S–T3 and T4 61S–T6 14S–T6 75S–T6 34.0 1.200 274.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 Material Constants for Common Aluminum Alloys Values Fce psi 39.300 74.4 275.800 48. Ref: ANC-5.000 41.0 1. .000 69.3 393.digitalengineeringlibrary.385 0.100 61.000 234.

. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.85 fc bd 1 e d √ 1 e d 2 2 m 1 d d e d Column Strength When Compression Governs For no compression reinforcement.COLUMN FORMULAS COLUMN FORMULAS 127 where m m fy /0. the Pu equation becomes e d Pu 0. the preceding Pu equation becomes Pu 0.digitalengineeringlibrary.85 f cbd m 1 √ 1 e d 2 2 e m d Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.85f c m 1 As / bd As / bd Special Cases of Reinforcement For symmetrical reinforcement in two faces.

Pu 0.COLUMN FORMULAS COLUMN FORMULAS 129 where D Ds t overall diameter of section. and with bars in a circle may be computed from the following equations: When tension controls.39 t m)D Short Columns Ultimate strength of short. in (mm) diameter of circle through reinforcement.18 The eccentricity for the balanced condition is given approximately by eb (0.85bhf c √ 0. Pu Ast fv 3e/Ds 1 9.8D Ag f c 0. in (mm) Ast /Ag When compression governs. All rights reserved.24 0. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.67Ds)2 1.digitalengineeringlibrary. h. square members with depth.5 0.5 e h 2 0.67 Ds h tm e h Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.6De /(0. .

com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.COLUMN FORMULAS 130 CHAPTER THREE When compression governs.18 Slender Columns When the slenderness of a column has to be taken into account. the eccentricity should be determined from e Mc /Pu.67Ds)2 12he/(h 1. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. . Pu Ast fy 3e/Ds 1 Ag f c 0. where Mc is the magniﬁed moment.digitalengineeringlibrary.