Source: CIVIL ENGINEERING FORMULAS

CHAPTER 3

COLUMN FORMULAS

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COLUMN FORMULAS
100
CHAPTER THREE

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Columns are structural members subjected to direct compression. All columns can be grouped into the following three classes: 1. Compression blocks are so short (with a slenderness ratio — that is, unsupported length divided by the least radius of gyration of the member — below 30) that bending is not potentially occurring. 2. Columns so slender that bending under load is a given are termed long columns and are defined by Euler’s theory. 3. Intermediate-length columns, often used in structural practice, are called short columns. Long and short columns usually fail by buckling when their critical load is reached. Long columns are analyzed using Euler’s column formula, namely, Pcr n
2 EI l2

n 2EA (l/r)2

In this formula, the coefficient n accounts for end conditions. When the column is pivoted at both ends, n 1; when one end is fixed and the other end is rounded, n 2; when both ends are fixed, n 4; and when one end is fixed and the other is free, n 0.25. The slenderness ratio separating long columns from short columns depends on the modulus of elasticity and the yield strength of the column material. When Euler’s formula results in (Pcr /A) > Sy, strength instead of buckling causes failure, and the column ceases to be long. In quick estimating numbers, this critical slenderness ratio falls between 120 and 150. Table 3.1 gives additional column data based on Euler’s formula.
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TABLE 3.1 Strength of Round-Ended Columns According to Euler’s Formula*

Material† Cast iron 107,000 53,400 62,600

Wrought iron 89,000

Lowcarbon steel

Mediumcarbon steel

Ultimate compressive strength, lb/in2 Allowable compressive stress, lb/in2 (maximum) Modulus of elasticity Factor of safety Smallest I allowable at worst section, in4 7,100 14,200,000 8 Pl 2 17,500,000 50.0 14.4 12.5 17.6 15.2 21.4 17.5 17.2 14.9 21.1 15,400 28,400,000 5 Pl 2 56,000,000 60.6 17,000 30,600,000 5 Pl 2 60,300,000 59.4

COLUMN FORMULAS

101

Limit of ratio, l/r

20,000 31,300,000 5 Pl 2 61,700,000 55.6 16.0 13.9 19.7
diameter of a

Rectangle r

b√1 12 , l/b

Circle r 1 4 d , l/d Circular ring of small thickness

r

d √1 8 , l/d

*

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(P allowable load, lb; l length of column, in; b smallest dimension of a rectangular section, in; d circular section, in; r least radius of gyration of section.) To convert to SI units, use: 1b/in2 6.894 kPa; in4 (25.4)4 mm4.

a combination of axial and bending stress results.1 L/r plot for columns. in general.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Empirical. ECCENTRIC LOADS ON COLUMNS When short blocks are loaded eccentrically in compression or in tension.COLUMN FORMULAS 102 CHAPTER THREE FIGURE 3.1 shows the curves for this situation.2.digitalengineeringlibrary. rational expressions for column stress are. Typical column formulas are given in Table 3. The manner in which this reduction is made determines the type of equation and the slenderness ratio beyond which the equation does not apply. Figure 3. based on the assumption that the permissible stress must be reduced below that which could be permitted were it due to compression only. SHORT COLUMNS Stress in short columns can be considered to be partly due to compression and partly due to bending. . that is. The maximum unit stress SM is the algebraic sum of these two unit stresses. All rights reserved. not through the center of gravity (cg). Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

Sw 9.2 Typical Short-Column Formulas Material Carbon steels Carbon steels Carbon steels Carbon steels Alloy-steel tubing Cast iron AREA Am. Co.TABLE 3.000 0. ANC NYC Chicago l r l r 60 l AISC l r Code Slenderness ratio 120 120 150 l r 65 √cr l 70 r 120 Formula 2 Sw 17. All rights reserved.000 40 l r .000 70 l r COLUMN FORMULAS 103 Sw 15. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.485 l r Sw 16.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Br.000 100 † 2 Scr 135.digitalengineeringlibrary.000 50 l r Sw 19.000 l r 15.9 c l r Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.

both ends pivoted.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. one free. c end fixity coefficient. both ends fixed.2 Typical Short-Column Formulas (Continued) Code ANC ANC Johnson Secant 1 √cr 1 √cr Material 2017ST aluminum Spruce Steels Steels Formula Slenderness ratio 94 72 † Scr 34. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. c 4. one pivoted. All rights reserved.000 0. other fixed.86. c Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. . is initial eccentricity at which load is applied to center of column cross section.500 245 √c l r † 2 Scr 5. c 2.5 c l r COLUMN FORMULAS 104 † 2 Scr Sy 1 ‡ Scr Sy 4n 2E Sy l r √ l r l r 2n 2E Sy critical 1 ec sec r2 l r √ P 4AE † Scr 2. c 1 one fixed.TABLE 3.digitalengineeringlibrary. ‡ theoretical maximum.

For a rectangular cross section of Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. r radius of gyration. as if it acted through cg. In Fig.2.2 Load plot for columns. and negative on the opposite side. All rights reserved. The unit stresses are (1) Sc. at any point y is S Sc (P/A) Sc(1 Sb Pey/I ey/r 2) y is positive for points on the same side of cg as P. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. S.COLUMN FORMULAS COLUMN FORMULAS 105 FIGURE 3. and (2) Sb. 3. Thus. a load. unit stress. . acts in a line of symmetry at the distance e from cg. P. due to the bending moment of P acting with a leverage of e about cg.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.digitalengineeringlibrary. due to P.

and when greater than one-eighth the diameter. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. The stress due to the weight of the solid modifies these relations. for solid circular sections. Note that in these formulas e is measured from the gravity axis and gives tension when e is greater than one-sixth the width (measured in the same direction as e). SM Sc(1 8e/d). When P is outside the middle third of width b and is a compressive load. For a circular cross section of diameter d. All rights reserved. .3 Load plot for columns. tensile stresses occur. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. SM Sc (1 6e/b). the maximum stress. for rectangular sections.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. FIGURE 3.digitalengineeringlibrary.COLUMN FORMULAS 106 CHAPTER THREE width b.

All rights reserved. SM 3k.digitalengineeringlibrary. For a circular ring.4. 3. Values of z/r and of the ratio of Smax to average S are given in Tables 3. For a rectangular section. thus. where r radius and k distance of P from circumference. the center of moments (Fig. and SM [0.056(k/r)]P/k √rk . no tension can occur. z length of diameter under compression (Fig. Length under compression 2 3P/hk. S average compressive stress on cross section produced by P.4 Circular column load plot. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. For a circular section.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. P acts at distance k from the nearest edge. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. e eccentricity of P. .3) is taken at the center of stress. as in certain classes of masonry construction.4).COLUMN FORMULAS COLUMN FORMULAS 107 If.3 and 3. FIGURE 3. 3.372 0. the material cannot withstand tensile stress and.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.58 1.64 0.87 1.84 0.84 1.24 0.94 0.93 0.3 Values of the Ratio z/r (See Fig.55 0.40 0.98 1.62 1.12 1.75 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.85 0.50 0.35 0.25 0.25 0.32 1.60 0.47 0.21 1.90 1.40 1.00 1.5) r1 r 0.37 1.digitalengineeringlibrary.71 1.05 0.52 0.12 .24 0.95 108 0.51 1.59 0.90 0.45 2.80 0.39 1.50 1.12 1.74 1.30 0.35 0.7 0.48 0.45 1.35 1.54 1.82 0.66 1.47 0.12 1.75 0.24 0.94 0.30 0.15 0.35 0. 0.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.72 0.77 0.65 0.13 0.00 1.60 0.65 0.0 e r 0.97 0.25 0.5 e r COLUMN FORMULAS 0.56 1.40 0.12 0.61 0.70 1.24 0.55 0.49 0.60 0.85 0.90 0.66 1.TABLE 3. All rights reserved.35 0.8 0.46 1.02 0. 3.75 0.0 0.45 1.95 0.89 1.61 0.42 0.85 0.71 1.72 0.93 1.24 0.9 1.12 0.72 1.55 0.10 0.35 0.6 0.81 1.89 1.78 1.70 0.12 2.32 0.20 0.36 0.29 1.80 0.50 0.75 1.99 0.25 1.82 1.23 1.

All rights reserved.85 1.4 Values of the Ratio Smax/Savg (In determining S average.22 1.67 1.96 2.20 1.80 1.40 1.44 1.45 2.32 1.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.23 2.39 1.40 1.9 1.88 1.40 1.25 0.8 0.20 1.00 1.12 2.60 1.00 1.49 1.48 1.7 0.94 2.29 2.00 0.digitalengineeringlibrary.99 1.80 1. 0.05 0.60 1.10 0.00 1.20 0.15 0.15 0.6 1.00 1.00 0.98 2.12 1.35 0.05 0.11 1.0 1.04 2.0 0.00 1.16 1.44 0.24 1.30 1.23 1.30 0.45 COLUMN FORMULAS 109 0.54 1.11 1.61 1.90 e r 0.00 2.48 2.10 0.27 1.15 1.29 1.10 1.64 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.07 2.37 1.13 1.73 1.33 1.66 1.51 .55 1.25 0.80 1.70 1.35 0.00 1.40 0.40 0.77 1.81 1. use load P divided by total area of cross section) r1 r 0.TABLE 3.5 e r 0.00 1.73 1.76 3.88 2.30 0.20 2.50 1.10 1.20 1.59 1.

Outside the kern.5 Column characteristics. All rights reserved. 3.digitalengineeringlibrary.COLUMN FORMULAS 110 CHAPTER THREE The kern is the area around the center of gravity of a cross section within which any load applied produces stress of only one sign throughout the entire cross section. . For a circular ring. the kern is a square similar to Fig.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. where FIGURE 3. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Figure 3.5 shows kerns (shaded) for various sections. a load produces stresses of different sign.5a. For a hollow square (H and h lengths of outer and inner sides). the radius of the kern r D[1 (d/D)2]/8. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.

.2256Ra[1 (Ri /Ra)2].COLUMN FORMULAS COLUMN FORMULAS 111 2 rmin H 1 6 √2 1 h H 2 0. The nominal bearing strength fp kip/in2 or ksi (MPa) of the concrete is given by fp where fc 0. in2 (mm2) area of the supporting concrete that is geometrically similar to and concentric with the loaded area. ksi (MPa) area of the base plate. and the kern is an octagon similar to Fig. or mat Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. All rights reserved.1179H 1 h H For a hollow octagon.5c. The factored load. where 0.85f c . COLUMN BASE PLATE DESIGN Base plates are usually used to distribute column loads over a large enough area of supporting concrete construction that the design bearing strength of the concrete is not exceeded.2256R becomes 0. thickness of wall 0. Pu. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. fp is 0.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.7f c . Ra and Ri radii of circles circumscribing the outer and inner sides. when the concrete support is slightly larger than the base plate or 1.85f c √ A1 A1 and √ A2 A1 2 specified compressive strength of concrete. the bearing strength. pile cap. 3.9239(Ra – Ri). is considered to be uniformly distributed under a base plate. when the support is a spread footing. in2 (mm2) A1 A2 In most cases.

in (mm).95d 0. in (mm) (N 0.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. parallel to the flanges.6. Therefore. For a wideflange column. where bf is the flange width. . and d is the depth of column. is B A1 N The thickness of the base plate tp.digitalengineeringlibrary.9Fy BN projection of base plate beyond the flange and parallel to the web. All rights reserved. in (mm). of a rectangular base plate for a wide-flange column may be taken in the direction of d as N √A1 d or 0. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.5(0. in (mm). The length N. in (mm). then.COLUMN FORMULAS 112 CHAPTER THREE foundation.80bf) The width B.85 fc where c is the strength reduction factor 0. in (mm).95d)/2 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.9Fy BN 2Pu 0. A1 should not be less than bf d. is the largest of the values given by the equations that follow: tp m tp n tp where m n √ √ √ 2Pu 0.9Fy BN 2Pu 0. the required area of a base plate for a factored load Pu is A1 Pu c0.

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.0 0. FP 0. Fp 0. where f c is the 28-day compressive strength of the concrete.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.digitalengineeringlibrary. All rights reserved. If the base plate covers less than the full area.80bf)/2 n √(dbf)/4 (2√X)/[1 √(1 2 X)] 1. The allowable pressure depends on strength of concrete in the foundation and relative sizes of base plate and concrete support area. ksi (MPa).COLUMN FORMULAS COLUMN FORMULAS 113 n projection of base plate beyond the edges of the flange and perpendicular to the web. The area. kip (N) and Fp is the allowable bearing pressure on support. . If the base plate occupies the full area of the support. where A1 is the base-plate area (B N).70f c . Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. in (mm) (B 0.85f c 1)] X [(4 dbf)/(d bf) ][Pu/( AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION ALLOWABLE-STRESS DESIGN APPROACH The lowest columns of a structure usually are supported on a concrete foundation.35fc √A2/A1 0.35f c . required is found from: A P FP where P is the load. and A2 is the full area of the concrete support. in square inches (square millimeters).

FIGURE 3. .digitalengineeringlibrary. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. To compute these effects.6 Column welded to a base plate. Plate thickness may be determined by treating projections m and n of the base plate beyond the column as cantilevers. All rights reserved.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.COLUMN FORMULAS 114 CHAPTER THREE Eccentricity of loading or presence of bending moment at the column base increases the pressure on some parts of the base plate and decreases it on other parts. the base plate may be assumed completely rigid so that the pressure variation on the concrete is linear.

n ). Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. ksi (MPa) column axial load. 3.6.COLUMN FORMULAS COLUMN FORMULAS 115 The cantilever dimensions m and n are usually defined as shown in Fig. are required principally for withstanding erection stresses. the welds must be proportioned to resist the forces. kip (N) For columns subjected only to direct load. n.) Yield-line analysis shows that an equivalent can1 tilever dimension n can be defined as n 4√dbf . COMPOSITE COLUMNS The AISC load-and-resistance factor design (LRFD) specification for structural steel buildings contains provisions for design of concrete-encased compression members. 3. (If the base plate is small.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.6. . in (mm) P/(BN) Fp. the area of the base plate inside the column profile should be treated as a beam. All rights reserved. as shown in Fig. the welds of column to base plate. and the required base plate thickness tp can be calculated from tp where l fp Fy P 2l √ fp Fy max (m. It sets the following requirements for qualification as a composite column: The cross-sectional area of the steel core—shapes. ksi (MPa) yield strength of base plate. For columns subjected to uplift. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

all should have at least 1 1 2 in (38. where b is the width of the face of a rectangular section.2 MPa) for normalweight concrete and at least 4 ksi (27. Spacing of ties should not exceed two-thirds of the smallest dimension of the composite section.5 0.6 MPa) for lightweight concrete. Specified minimum yield stress Fy of steel core and reinforcement should not exceed 60 ksi (414 MPa). The cross-sectional area of transverse and longitudinal reinforcement should be at least 0.digitalengineeringlibrary. Wall thickness of steel pipe or tubing filled with concrete should be at least b√Fy /3E or D√Fy /8E.5 Fcr 0. where 0. The concrete should be reinforced with longitudinal load-carrying bars. and lateral ties and other longitudinal bars to restrain the concrete.877 2 c Fcr Fmy Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.85 and Pn is determined from Pn For c 0. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.5 mm2) per in (mm) of bar spacing. Strength of the concrete f c should be between 3 and 8 ksi (20. .658 c Fmy 2 For c 1. or tubing—should be at least 4 percent of the total composite area. D is the outside diameter of a circular section. and E is the elastic modulus of the steel. continuous at framed levels. All rights reserved. The AISC LRFD specification gives the design strength of an axially loaded composite column as Pn.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.007 in2 (4.COLUMN FORMULAS 116 CHAPTER THREE pipe.1 mm) of clear concrete cover.85As Fcr 1.7 and 55.

2. c1 0. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.7 c fc Ab.COLUMN FORMULAS COLUMN FORMULAS 117 where c (KL/rm )√Fmy /E m KL As Fmy Em rm effective length of column in (mm) gross area of steel core in2 (mm2) Fy E c1Fyr(Ar /As) c3Ec(Ac /As) c2 fc (Ac /As) radius of gyration of steel core.65 and Ab loaded area.0. tie plates. Certain restrictions apply. they should be tied together with lacing. When the steel core consists of two or more steel shapes. where c 0.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. c2 0. . and c3 0. c2 0. in 0.85. For direct bearing. or batten plates to prevent buckling of individual shapes before the concrete attains 0.4.75 f c . For concrete-encased shapes.7. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. The portion of the required strength of axially loaded encased composite columns resisted by concrete should be developed by direct bearing at connections or shear connectors can be used to transfer into the concrete the load applied directly to the steel column. c1 1. ksi (MPa) Ac Ar Ec Fyr For concrete-filled pipe and tubing.3 of the overall thickness of the composite cross section in the plane of buckling for steel shapes cross-sectional area of concrete in2 (mm2) area of longitudinal reinforcement in2 (mm2) elastic modulus of concrete ksi (MPa) specified minimum yield stress of longitudinal reinforcement. All rights reserved. the design strength of the concrete is 1.digitalengineeringlibrary. in2 (mm2). and c3 0.6.

It is of special importance in structures with slender members. kip (N). P where E A r EA (L/r)2 2 modulus of elasticity of the column material. If the warping rigidity of the section is negligible. 3. . Elastic critical buckling loads may be obtained for all cases by substituting an effective length KL for the length L of the pinned column. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. such as a cruciform section. torsional buckling in a pin-ended column occurs at an axial load of P GJA Ip Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.7) gives valid results for the critical buckling load. in (mm) Figure 3. in2 (mm2) radius of gyration of the column. psi (Mpa) column cross-sectional area. with L/r as the slenderness ratio of the column. giving P EA (KL/r)2 2 In some cases of columns with open sections. the controlling buckling mode may be one of twisting instead of lateral deformation. Euler’s formula for pin-ended columns (Fig. All rights reserved.COLUMN FORMULAS 118 CHAPTER THREE ELASTIC FLEXURAL BUCKLING OF COLUMNS Elastic buckling is a state of lateral instability that occurs while the material is stressed below the yield point.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 shows some ideal end conditions for slender columns and corresponding critical buckling loads. This formula is.

where G J A Ip shear modulus of elasticity torsional constant cross-sectional area polar moment of inertia Ix Iy Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.7 (a) Buckling of a pin-ended column under axial load. All rights reserved.digitalengineeringlibrary. (b) Internal forces hold the column in equilibrium.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. .COLUMN FORMULAS COLUMN FORMULAS 119 FIGURE 3.

FIGURE 3.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.COLUMN FORMULAS 120 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.8 Buckling formulas for columns.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. These equations for aluminum follow: Euler’s equation: Fe c 2E (L/ )2 Johnson’s generalized equation: Fc Fce 1 K (L/ ) cE Fce n √ The value of n. the axial buckling load is increased to A Ip 2 P GJ ECw L2 where Cw is the warping constant.COLUMN FORMULAS COLUMN FORMULAS 121 If the section possesses a significant amount of warping rigidity. All rights reserved. ALLOWABLE DESIGN LOADS FOR ALUMINUM COLUMNS Euler’s equation is used for long aluminum columns.digitalengineeringlibrary. . which determines whether the short column formula is the straight-line or parabolic type. and depending on the material. either Johnson’s parabolic or straight-line equation is used for short columns. is selected Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. a function of cross-sectional shape and dimensions.

9 Values of c. . All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. K. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.9 constants from Table 3.digitalengineeringlibrary. 3.COLUMN FORMULAS 122 CHAPTER THREE from Table 3. The transition from the long to the short column range is given by L cr √ kcE Fce where Fe Fce L allowable column compressive stress column yield stress and is given as a function of Fcy (compressive yield stress) length of column radius of gyration of column E c n. column-end fixity. for determining the critical L/ ratio of different loading conditions.5 FIGURE 3. k modulus of elasticity—noted on nomograms column-end fixity from Fig.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.5.

000 35.9 283.250 3.0 2.250 0.000 40.8 241.TABLE 3.385 0. All rights reserved.000 57.0 2.4 330.00 2. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.4 422.6 0.8 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.385 0.0 475.00 3.00 MPa K k n 1.7 511.00 2.00 3.0 Average Fcy COLUMN FORMULAS Material psi MPa Type Johnson equation Straight line Straight line Straight line Squared parabolic Squared parabolic 123 14S–T4 24S–T3 and T4 61S–T6 14S–T6 75S–T6 34.0 1.200 274.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 Material Constants for Common Aluminum Alloys Values Fce psi 39.300 74.4 275.800 48. Ref: ANC-5.000 41.0 1. .000 69.3 393.digitalengineeringlibrary.385 0.100 61.000 234.

All rights reserved. Pu . kip (N). 5. The axial-load capacity Pu kip (N). kip (N). in2 (mm2) area of steel reinforcement.COLUMN FORMULAS 124 CHAPTER THREE ULTIMATE STRENGTH DESIGN CONCRETE COLUMNS At ultimate strength Pu. ksi (MPa) 28-day compressive strength of concrete. for axial loads only.digitalengineeringlibrary. is the column ultimate strength with zero eccentricity of load.85 Po For members with tie reinforcement. This is the centroid of the resistance to load computed for the assumptions that the concrete is stressed uniformly to 0. columns should be capable of sustaining loads as given by the American Concrete Institute required strength equations in Chap. Pu 0. where is the capacity reduction factor and Pn . Pu 0. ksi (MPa) gross area of column. for axial loads only. .85 f c and the steel is stressed uniformly to fy. kip (N). in2 (mm2) For members with spiral reinforcement then. may not exceed Pn .85 f c (Ag Ast) fy Ast yield strength of reinforcing steel. rectangular members subject to axial load and bending may be determined from Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. If Po. of short. then Po where fy fc Ag Ast 0. is the column ultimate strength. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. “Concrete Formulas” at actual eccentricities.80 Po Eccentricities are measured from the plastic centroid.

85 f c ba d a 2 A s fy As fs) As fy (d d ) eccentricity. that reinforcement is in one or two faces parallel to axis of bending.003 (c – d )/c. and that reinforcement in any face is located at about the same distance from the axis of bending. Whether the compression steel actually yields at ultimate strength. can be verified by strain compatibility calculations. That is. the strain in the compression steel. in (mm) distance from extreme compression surface to centroid of compression reinforcement. . when the concrete crushes. in2 (mm2) distance from extreme compression surface to centroid of tensile reinforcement. of axial load at end of member with respect to centroid of tensile reinforcement. ksi (MPa) b a As As d d fs The two preceding equations assume that a does not exceed the column depth. in (mm) tensile stress in steel. 0.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. in (mm).85 f c ba 0.digitalengineeringlibrary. All rights reserved. in (mm) depth of equivalent rectangular compressivestress distribution. as assumed in these and the following equations. must be larger than the strain when the steel starts to yield. In this Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. in2 (mm2) area of tension reinforcement. in (mm) area of compressive reinforcement. calculated by conventional methods of frame analysis width of compression face. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. fy /Es.COLUMN FORMULAS COLUMN FORMULAS 125 Pu Pue where e (0.

in (mm). e. the ultimate strength is Pu 0. of the axial load with respect to the plastic centroid and d is the distance. When Pu is less than Pb or the eccentricity. in.85 fc bd m e d 2 m 1 e d e d m 1 d d √ 1 2 ( m m) Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary. tension governs. is greater than eb. The load Pb for balanced conditions can be computed from the preceding Pu equation with fs fy and a 1cb ab 1d 87. can be obtained from Mb Pbeb 0. c is the distance. for unequal tension and compression reinforcement. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.85 fc ba b d As fy (d d d d ) ab 2 As fy d where eb is the eccentricity.COLUMN FORMULAS 126 CHAPTER THREE case. All rights reserved.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. from plastic centroid to centroid of tension reinforcement.000 87. ksi (MPa). in (mm). in (mm). from the extreme compression surface to the neutral axis and Es is the modulus of elasticity of the steel. . In that case. kip (k Nm).000 fy The balanced moment.

. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.85 fc bd 1 e d √ 1 e d 2 2 m 1 d d e d Column Strength When Compression Governs For no compression reinforcement.COLUMN FORMULAS COLUMN FORMULAS 127 where m m fy /0. the Pu equation becomes e d Pu 0. the preceding Pu equation becomes Pu 0.digitalengineeringlibrary.85 f cbd m 1 √ 1 e d 2 2 e m d Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.85f c m 1 As / bd As / bd Special Cases of Reinforcement For symmetrical reinforcement in two faces.

or e is less than eb.38 Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. may be computed from Pu As fy d 0. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. .18 e/d Circular Columns Ultimate strength of short.COLUMN FORMULAS 128 CHAPTER THREE When Pu is greater than Pb.85e D 0. In that case.38 mDs 1 2.5D 0. the ultimate strength is approximately Pu Pu Po (Po Pb) Mu Mb 1 Po (Po /Pb 1)(e/eb) where Mu is the moment capacity under combined axial load and bending. as given. of member when concentrically loaded. h.5 bhf c 3he/d 2 1.digitalengineeringlibrary. compression governs. Pu 0.85 f c D 2 √ 0. circular members with bars in a circle may be determined from the following equations: When tension controls. For symmetrical reinforcement in single layers. in kip (k Nm) and Po is the axial-load capacity. All rights reserved. the ultimate strength when compression governs in a column with depth. kip (N).85e D 2 0.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Pu 0.COLUMN FORMULAS COLUMN FORMULAS 129 where D Ds t overall diameter of section. and with bars in a circle may be computed from the following equations: When tension controls.39 t m)D Short Columns Ultimate strength of short. in (mm) diameter of circle through reinforcement.18 The eccentricity for the balanced condition is given approximately by eb (0.85bhf c √ 0. Pu Ast fv 3e/Ds 1 9.8D Ag f c 0. in (mm) Ast /Ag When compression governs. All rights reserved.24 0. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.67Ds)2 1.digitalengineeringlibrary. h. square members with depth.5 0.5 e h 2 0.67 Ds h tm e h Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.6De /(0. .

com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.COLUMN FORMULAS 130 CHAPTER THREE When compression governs.18 Slender Columns When the slenderness of a column has to be taken into account. the eccentricity should be determined from e Mc /Pu.67Ds)2 12he/(h 1. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. . Pu Ast fy 3e/Ds 1 Ag f c 0. where Mc is the magnified moment.digitalengineeringlibrary.