Eddy Egan Tuliszewski

January 19, 2007 Period ½

Midterm Review Questions 1. What is science and what does it only deal with? (3)  An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.  Only deals with the natural world 2. What are the steps in the scientific method hypothesis? (8)  Observation(Asking a question), Formulation of an hypothesis, Testing the hypothesis(setting up a controlled experiment), Conclusion 3. What is the idea of spontaneous generation?(8)  The idea that life could arise from non-living matter 4. What are some of the characteristics living things share?  Made Up of Cells  Reproduce  Based on a universal genetic code  Grow And Develop  Obtain and use Materials And Energy  Respond to their Environment  Maintain a stable internal environment  (Generally) Change over Time 5. What are the two forms of reproduction? And what do they consist of?  Sexual- cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism  Asexual- the new organism has a single parent. A single parent divides in half to form two new organisms 6. What are ionic bonds? What are covalent bonds? What are van der Waals forces?  Ionic bonds- formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another  Covalent bonds- forms when electrons are shared between atoms  Van der Waals forces- intermolecular forces of attraction 7. Why is water polar?  Uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms. 8. What is the difference between adhesion and cohesion?  Cohesion is the attraction between molecules of the same substance, while Adhesion is an attraction between molecules of different substance.

9. In the pH scale what number has the highest concentration of H+ ions? Which has the highest concentration of OH- ions? What number is it when they are equal?  0- Most Acidic and most H+ ions  14- Most Basic and most OH- ions  7- Neutral 10. How many parts do nucleotides consist of? What are they?  Three Parts- a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base 11. Proteins contain what elements and are made of what polymers?  Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen  Polymers of proteins called – Amino Acids 12. What does the cell theory state?  All living things are composed of cells  Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things  New cells are produced from existing cells 13. What are cells that contain nuclei in which their genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell? What are cells that do not contain nuclei?  Eukaryotes  Prokaryotes 14. The Golgi Apparatus is used for what?  To modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell 15. What is the cell membrane made up of?  Lipid Bilayer  Protein Channels  Carbohydrates  Scientists refer to it as a mosaic of different molecules 16. How is concentration measured?  The Mass of a solute in a given volume of solution or Mass/Volume 17. Means same strength. Means above strength. Means below strength. Cells are always trying to reach this.  Isotonic  Hypertonic  Hypotonic  Equilibrium

18. What are the levels of organization in multicellular organisms? How do they relate to each other?  Individual cells  Tissues- A group of similar cells that perform a particular function  Organs- Many groups of tissues working together  Organ Systems- A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function 19. A principal chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy is called? How is this energy released?  Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP  Released by the breaking of a chemical bond between the second and third phosphates. 20. Plants gather the sun’s energy with what light absorbing molecule? What is the plants’ principal pigment  Pigments  Chlorophyll

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