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By Farheen Layaq
5. STATES OF MATTER [1 mark] What is the equation of state of an ideal gas for n moles? What is the equation of state for real gases? What is compressibility factor? What are the units of coefficient of viscosity? Which are the two graphs will be straight line at constant temperature. P vs V or P vs 1 / V ? 6. What are the S.I units of Surface tension? 7. Under what conditions real gases normally show ideal gas behaviour? 8. Why does a liquid boil at a lower temperature at the top of a mountain that at sea level? 9. What is an isotherm? 10. Real gases show ideal behaviour at low pressure.Explain. 11. Why does viscosity of a liquid decrease on heating? 12. H2 and He show exceptional behaviour in deviations from ideal behaviour. Explain? 13. What is the significance of R in gas equation? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. [2 or 3 Marks] State the law relating number of molecules with volume of gases. Give two examples. State Boyles law. What is the practical utility of the law? Give the type of curve obtained when a. Pressure of a sample of a gas is plotted against volume at constant temperature. b. Pressure of a sample of a gas is plotted against inverse of volume at constant temperature. a. State Daltons law of partial pressure. Explain the terms (i) Partial pressure (ii) Aqueous tension. b. Give one practical application of Daltons law Derive the equation of state by using the gas laws. Compute the value of R in different units. List the important postulates of kinetic molecular theory of gas. How will you explain the following gas laws on the basis of kinetic theory? (i) Boyles law (ii) Charles law (iii) Daltons law.

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7. a. Define and explain the terms (i) Ideal gas and (ii) Real gas b. What are the deviations from ideal behaviour of gases? 8. Discuss briefly the effects of temperature on a. Vapour pressure b.Surface Tension c.Viscosity 9. Using equation of state PV=nRT. Show that at a given temperature density of a gas is proportional to a gas pressure P. 10. Density of a gas is found to be 5.46g/dm3 at 27 0 C at 2 bar pressure. What will be its density at STP. 11. In terms of Charles law explain why 2730C is the lowest possible temperature. 12. Critical temperature of CO2 and CH4 are 31.1 0C and 81.90C respectively. Which of these has stronger intermolecular forces and why? 13. Explain the physical significance of Vanderwaals parameters. 14. A neon-dioxyen mixtrure contains 70.6g dioxygen and 167.5gm of Neon. If pressure of the mixture of gases in the cylinder is 25 bar, what is the partial pressure of dioxygen and neon in the mixture? 15. A balloon is filled with hydrogen at room temperature. It will burst if pressure exceeds 0.2 bar. IT at 1 bar pressure the gas occupies 2.27L volume, upto what volume can the balloon be expanded?

6. THERMODYNAMICS [1 mark] 1. What is thermochemical equation? 2. Under what conditions the amount of heat changes in a process equals its internal energy? 3. Under what conditions the amount of heat change in a process equals its enthalpy change? 4. What do positive and negative signs of H indicate. 5. What is the standard state of a substance? 6. Why we usually study enthalpy change and not internal energy change? 7. Decomposition of CaCO3 is a spontaneous process though it absorbs energy? 8. Under what conditions, the heat evolved or absorbed is equal to the internal energy change? 9. What are the conditions of energy and randomness for a process to be spontaneous? 10. What is the relationship between standard enthalpy of formation and the enthalpy of a compound.

11. What is the sign of S for the process C(s) + CO2 (g) -------------> 2CO(g) 12. Why the entropy of a substance is zero at absolute? 13. Define Internal energy and enthalpy of a reaction. [2 or 3 Marks] 1. What is bond energy? How are the bond energies related to change in enthalpy of a reaction? 2. What is meant by terms of system and surroundings? Discuss the various types of systems. 3. What do you mean by spontaneous and non spontaneous processes. 4. What is meant by enthalpy? Can the decrease in enthalpy be the criterion for the spontaneity of all reactions?. If not, why? 5. What is thermochemical equations? State conventions which are used while writing a theromochemical reactions? 6. What is meant by free energy change of a chemical reaction? Show relationship between the energy factor (H) and the randomness factor (TS) . 7. State Gibbs-Helmholtz equation and explain its use in predicting the spontaneity of a reaction. 8. Determine the sign of the entropy change in the following reactons: 1) H2(g) + O2 (g) ------------> H2O(l). 2) PCl3 + Cl2(g) ------------------>PCl5(g). 3) NH4Cl(s)------------------------>NH3(g) + HCl(g). 9. State whether the following processes are spontaneous or not: a. Water flowing up a hill. b. Dissolution of common salt in water. c. Flow of heat from a hot to a cold body d. Reaction of H2 and O2 11. State Hesss law of heat summation. 12. The reaction of Cyanamide NH4 CN(s) with dioxygen was carried out in a bomb calorimeter and Cl was found to be 742.7KJmol-1 at 298K. Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction at 298K. NH2CN(g)+3O2(g) -----------> N2(g) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) 13. Enthalpies of formation of CO(g), CO2(g), N2O(g) and N2O4(g) are -110, -393, 81 and 9.7 KJmol-1 respectively. Find the value of rH for the reaction. N2O4(g) + 3CO(g)---------->N2O(g) + 3CO2(g) 14. Calculate the entropy change in surroundings when 1.00 mol of H2O (l) is formed under standard conditions. fH- = -286kJmol-1. 15. Derive cp-cv=R. 16. Derive the equation of work done in a reversible process 17. Explain Born-Habers cycle with NaCl as an example. 3

18. State the first law of Thermodynamics with an equation. [5 Marks] State and Explain Hesss law of constant heat summation. How this law is helpful in calculating the enthalpy change in a reaction? Explain the term free energy. How free energy change is related to enthalpy and entropy changes? How does it help in predicting the spontaneity of a reaction? Explain the following: a. reaction enthalpy b. Enthalpy of a solution c. Lattice enthalpy d. Enthalpy of atomisation Comment on the following statements: a. An exothermic reaction is always thermodynamically spontaneous b. Reaction with G<0 always have an equilibrium constant greater than 1. c. Arrange water vapour, liquid water and Ice in the order of increasing entropy.

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