Burke in 1774 by Joshua Reynolds.

AN OPPORTUNITY FOR PEACE:
Excerpts from Edmund Burke’s “On Conciliation” (1775)
ACT III. SCENE I.
Britain. A hall in CYMBELINE’S palace
CLOTEN.
…There be many Caesars
Ere such another Julius. Britain is
A world by itself, and we will nothing pay
For wearing our own noses…
…Why tribute? Why should we pay tribute? If
Caesar can hide the sun from us with a blanket, or
put the moon in his pocket, we will pay him tribute
for light; else, sir, no more tribute, pray you now.
CYMBELINE.
You must know,
Till the injurious Romans did extort
This tribute from us, we were free.
Caesar’s ambition -Which swell’d so much that it did almost stretch
The sides o’ th’ world -- against all colour here
Did put the yoke upon’s; which to shake of
Becomes a warlike people, whom we reckon
Ourselves to be…
Say then to Caesar,
Our ancestor was that Mulmutius which
Ordain’d our laws…
CAIUS LUCIUS.
I am sorry, Cymbeline,
That I am to pronounce Augustus Caesar -Caesar, that hath moe kings his servants than
Thyself domestic officers -- thine enemy.
Receive it from me, then: war and confusion
In Caesar’s name pronounce I ’gainst thee; look
For fury not to be resisted…

If any of Britain’s own nay-sayers to Lord North’s and King George’s policy of armed coercion
toward the refractory colonies could be said to have been thoroughly vindicated by the outcome of the
Revolutionary War, among such would clearly be Edmund Burke, M.P. from Bristol, a statesman of
peculiarly profound thought and literary abilities, and, as it happens, also a member of Dr. Samuel
Johnson’s circle of regular table gatherers. In hindsight, Burke’s assessment of the American situation and
his predictions as to what would ensue if military war were waged on America were uncannily correct and
perceptive. Not so much in the gist of them -- that could be recognized by others observers not nearly so
wise, informed, and shrewd as Burke -- but in the refined arguments and advance vision, supported by

1

Then there was. as a precedent. Even granting their cause some significant measure of justice.” …Surely it is an awful subject.or there is none so on this side of the grave. where all claim to be concerned about the family’s welfare. Rockingham. and national prosperity? No.” 2 . the affairs of that continent pressed themselves upon us as the most important and most delicate object of Parliamentary attention. indeed. “On Conciliation” (1775). both Americans had that which the ordinary British could envy. Henry Conway. as in family quarrels. he more than anyone else could have prevented final separation of the American colonies from Britain. only be a heavy-handed threat and draconian measure applied to all British who might in the least question or defy governmental authority. But. jealousy. Burke says. Ironically. once and for all. and “A Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol” (1777). Lords Rockingham. with which he presents and applies to make his case. March 22. In some ways. pride. -. My little share in this great deliberation oppressed me.meticulous details and examples. but a reality that evolved and came into being as the result of 1) the hallowed tradition of the cherished rights of British citizens combined with 2) the American experience of almost two centuries of growth. Camden.” for this is what he appeals to as much as anything else. What ultimately holds us together as a society. and that the colonists took for granted as already their right to continue to enjoy. without much interference from without. From Burke as much as anyone else of his time or before. and the obvious British cultural and material benefits and privileges that Americans themselves coveted to possess. expansion. on April 7th. the employing of foreign mercenaries to subdue fellow Britishers. notwithstanding the foresight. Isaac Barré. such as relatively free access to land holding and direct government involvement at home. and pretty much living their lives and doing largely as they saw fit. law and order. and. at least not openly.2 and John Wilkes. a good lesson and reminder not to challenge possible use of British military might. Both he. 1775. the sometimes rival colonies might never have united so firmly together in resolving upon their independence. we learn that the notion of liberty that took hold of America and later Europe in the 18th century was not an abstract notion produced by armchair philosophers and idealists. 1 Chatham. and which de facto prophecies subsequent and modern historians resort to now to explain what ended up happening then. as Burke contends. but brotherhood and our mutual happiness. “Speech on American Taxation” (1774). Gen. such disciplining and admonition could. 2 Irish member of Parliament who is reputed to have coined the term “Sons of Liberty. Burke’s solution was to grant the Americans a relatively autonomous suzerainty. of course. When I first had the honor of a seat in this House. How then an equity and fair distribution was to be arranged was not so easy to get at with so many hands grasping at once. But instead a policy of war was opted for instead. on May 30th 1777. to have factored in the possibility of French aid and intervention on the Americans’ behalf. 1778. is not laws and prisons. Burke might have titled “Conciliation. the Earl of Shelburne (William Petty). Burke was in fact writing history in advance of itself.1 Charles James Fox. It is stupefying exemplary of the same British shortsightedness of the time that no one seems. Yet. that is. And that such was rejected then by the King and most of the British people.. and to resort to force when means were still at hand to procure a logical and peaceable resolution of problems would invariably endanger the very foundations of community. surely this was an enterprise. And had not ill health prevented his becoming once more Prime Minister. So much so. For what withal was the fighting intended? To secure peace. and later his son. patient example and eloquence of Lord Chatham (Pitt the elder). rather it would appear that the guiding intent was emotional and for purposes of imposing on the colonists. in the House of Lords and House of Commons respectively. Grafton. but for such aggressive and bellicose steps on the part of the British people and government.e. that in his three major writings on the subject. For yes. and suspicion took the rein in place of dispassionate reflection and impartial consideration.” his most comprehensive and noteworthy plea for both Britons and Americans “Common Sense. grossly ill conceived and taken up with more than inordinate recklessness and unready precipitation. with continued prospective trade serving to make both British and Americans overtime prosperous and wealthier. might be deemed an even more eloquent spokesman than Burke on behalf of the colonies. i. and what that might further entail. as Burke points out. ~~~***~~~ From “Speech on Moving for Conciliation with the Colonies. themselves gave most moving and memorable speeches on the subject. makes all the more clear how the military conflict was incited much more by pride and passion than rational reflection.

when they hear it. But. So far. This is the relative proportion of the importance of the colonies at these two periods: and all reasoning concerning our mode of treating them must have this proportion as its basis. carried on at the beginning of this century with the whole world! If I had taken the largest year of those on your table. in order. that important country has been brought into her present situation. is. -.. which in all other cases are apt to heighten and raise the subject. rotten. in imposing duties. to ballast my conduct.000l. it will be said. it is now (as a part of sixteen millions) considerably more than a third of the whole. because generalities. I was not less under the necessity of forming some fixed ideas concerning the general policy of the British empire. and sophistical… I choose. taxes. -. and imagination cold and barren. -. which I scarcely know how to comprehend in the terms of any description… The proposition is peace.that under them the state of America has been kept in continual agitation.a situation which I will not miscall. It is simple peace. is not this American trade an unnatural protuberance. not peace to arise out of universal discord. and having no sort of reason to rely on the strength of my natural abilities for the proper execution of that trust. sought in its natural course and in its ordinary haunts. to give permanent satisfaction to your people. and by restoring the former unsuspecting confidence of the colonies in the mother country. fiction lags after truth. more frequent changes in their sentiments and their conduct [i. Not peace through the medium of war. in all parts of the empire. being formed upon the most simple grounds imaginable. one fact is undoubted. I could show how many enjoyments they procure which deceive the burden of life.I found myself a partaker in a very high trust. not peace to depend on the juridical determination of perplexing questions. Refined policy ever has been the parent of confusion. not peace to be hunted through the labyrinth of intricate and endless negotiations. or the precise marking the shadowy boundaries of a complex government. I was obliged to take more than common pains to instruct myself in everything which relates to our colonies. Genuine simplicity of heart is an healing and cementing principle. by a variety of experiments. If I were to detail the imports. My plan. My idea is nothing more. and legislative restrictions on colonial assemblies] than could be justified in a particular person upon the contracted scale of private information. to concentre my thoughts. of being equal to what this great commercial nation. invention is unfruitful. I really did not think it safe or manly to have fresh principles to seek upon every fresh mail which should arrive from America… Sir. It is the very food that has nourished every other part into its present magnitude. and laid in principles purely pacific. to preserve me from being blown about by every wind of fashionable doctrine. which is as easily discovered at the first view as fraud is surely detected at last. by removing the ground of the difference. When we speak of the commerce with our colonies. having an enlarged view of objects. let me say. Parliament. of no mean force in the government of mankind. until. which I dare not name.e. amidst so vast a fluctuation of passions and opinions. or it is a reasoning weak. fomented from principle. -. Plain good intention. may disappoint some people. as long as the world endures. I propose.and (far from a scheme of ruling by discord) to reconcile them to each other in the same act and by the bond of the very same interest which reconciles them to British government. It has nothing to recommend it to the pruriency of curious ears… The trade with America alone is now within less than 500. if it did not produce. made. as concerned in the exports from England. during this interval. and augmented more or less in almost every part to which it ever extended. But though I do not hazard anything approaching to a censure on the motives of former Parliaments to all those alterations. an heightening of the distemper. to enter into these minute and particular details.and ever will be so. Sir. how many materials which invigorate the springs of national industry and 3 . Something of this sort seemed to be indispensable. therefore. as to the importance of the object in the view of its commerce. that has drawn the juices from the rest of the body? The reverse. Everything administered as remedy to the public complaint. England. It is peace sought in the spirit of peace. it would rather have exceeded. have here a tendency to sink it. Our general trade has been greatly augmented. was at least followed by. Sir. but with this material difference: that of the six millions which in the beginning of the century constituted the whole mass of our export commerce the colony trade was but one twelfth part.

which seemed too remote and romantic an object for the grasp of national ambition. with a true filial piety. whilst we are looking for them beneath the arctic circle. for they seemed even to excite your envy. so growing. -.extend and animate every part of our foreign and domestic commerce. my opinion is much more in favor of prudent management than of force. Terror is not always the effect of force.] [Edit. as it were. Certainly it is. and yet the spirit by which that enterprising employment has been exercised ought rather. -. -. but. It may subdue for a moment. besides feeding plentifully their own growing multitude. conciliation failing.when I reflect upon these effects. permit me to observe.my rigor relents. nor the activity of France. and that they are not squeezed into this happy form by the constraints of watchful and suspicious government. Sir. The scarcity which you have felt would have been a desolating famine. to the colonies in another point of view. you are without resource: for. America.a people who are still. force remains. No climate that is not witness to their toils. but in the gristle. A phrase American history students will often hear quoted without reference to who said it. but that. Sir. Whilst we follow them among the tumbling mountains of ice. that all which I have asserted in my detail is admitted in the gross. we hear that they have pierced into the opposite region of polar cold. whilst some of them draw the line and strike the harpoon on the coast of Africa. But I confess. No sea but what is vexed by their fisheries. and pursue their gigantic game along the coast of Brazil. is a noble object. has some years ago exceeded a million in value. gentlemen say. We know. If you do not succeed. And pray. if this child of your old age. and not yet hardened into the bone of manhood. that the use of force alone is but temporary. At the beginning of the century some of these colonies imported corn from the mother country. nor the dexterous and firm sagacity of English enterprise. so spirited as this. in my opinion. Gentlemen in this respect will be led to their choice of means by their complexions and their habits. that they are at the antipodes. what in the world is equal to it? Pass by the other parts. and an armament is not a victory.their agriculture. had not put the full breast of its youthful exuberance to the mouth of its exhausted parent. For some time past the Old World has been fed from the New. -. Neither the perseverance of Holland. Those who wield the thunder of the state may have more confidence in the efficacy of arms. -. I am sensible. for preserving a people so numerous.it is an object well worth fighting for. My next objection is its uncertainty. -. is but a stage and restingplace3 in the progress of their victorious industry. Presumably a “stage and resting place” for whalers. First. but it does not remove the necessity of subduing again: and a nation is not governed which is perpetually to be conquered. -. but a feeble instrument. As to the wealth which the colonies have drawn from the sea by their fisheries. 3 4 [Edit. possibly for want of this knowledge. comprehending rice. and look at the manner in which the people of New England have of late carried on the whale-fishery. and engaged under the frozen serpent of the South. -. therefore. I feel all the pride of power sink.] 4 . You surely thought those acquisitions of value. in a profitable and subordinate connection with us.4 a generous nature has been suffered to take her own way to perfection. Of their last harvest. so active. -.when I know that the colonies in general owe little or nothing to any care of ours. Sir.but I must prescribe bounds to myself in a matter so vast and various.considering force not as an odious. with a Roman charity. This would be a curious subject indeed. and behold them penetrating into the deepest frozen recesses of Hudson’s Bay and Davis’s Straits. their annual export of grain. Falkland Island. others run the longitude. and all presumption in the wisdom of human contrivances melt and die away within me. but that quite a different conclusion is drawn from it. when I see how profitable they have been to us. you had all that matter fully opened at your bar. I pass. I am persuaded. Those who understand the military art will of course have some predilection for it. that. they will export much more. to have raised your esteem and admiration. ever carried this most perilous mode of hardy industry to the extent to which it has been pushed by this recent people. When I contemplate these things. if fighting a people be the best way of gaining them. This they have prosecuted with such a spirit. that.I pardon something to the spirit of liberty. through a wise and salutary neglect. Nor is the equinoctial heat more discouraging to them than the accumulated winter of both the poles.

as an immediate representative of the people. and every nation has formed to itself some favorite point. religion would have given it a complete effect. always a principle of energy.e. been composed 5 . was formed from her cradle under the nursing care of regular government. but to liberty according to English ideas and on English principles. It happened. and the protestantism of the Protestant religion. But the [religious] dissenting interests have sprung up in direct opposition to all the ordinary powers of the world. I hope. we have no sort of experience in favor of force as an instrument in the rule of our colonies. They took infinite pains to inculcate. and could justify that opposition only on a strong claim to natural liberty. On this point of taxes the ablest pens and most eloquent tongues have been exercised. England. and they succeeded. that the reason of this averseness in the dissenting churches from all that looks like absolute government is so much to be sought in their religious tenets as in their history.. you know. and in the emigrants was the highest of all. that in all monarchies the people must in effect themselves. the people of the colonies are descendants of Englishmen. Sir. All Protestantism. The Church of England. Power and authority are sometimes bought by kindness. if feeling is evidence. Sir. from the particular nature of a House of Commons. the popular representative is the most weighty. that the great contests for freedom in this country were from the earliest times chiefly upon the question of taxing.force failing. is predominant in most of the northern provinces. In order to give the fullest satisfaction concerning the importance of this point. but we know. Religion. or no shadow of liberty could subsist… They were further confirmed in this pleasing error by the form of their provincial legislative assemblies. Most of the contests in the ancient commonwealths turned primarily on the right of election of magistrates. whether the old records had delivered this oracle or not. But in England it was otherwise. which by way of eminence becomes the criterion of their happiness. and to prove that the right had been acknowledged in ancient parchments and blind usages to reside in a certain body called an House of Commons: they went much further: they attempted to prove. This is a persuasion not only favorable to liberty. even the most cold and passive. that it has generally gone hand in hand with them. or on the balance among the several orders of the state. Liberty inheres in some sensible object. under a variety of denominations agreeing in nothing but in the communion of the spirit of liberty. it was not only necessary for those who in argument defended the excellence of the English Constitution to insist on this privilege of granting money as a dry point of fact. The question of money was not with them so immediate. for the greatest part. in all. Our ancient indulgence [i. that in theory it ought to be so. and this share of the people in their ordinary government never fails to inspire them with lofty sentiments. and their mode of professing it is also one main cause of this free spirit. respects. the greatest spirits have acted and suffered. The colonists left England when this spirit was high. most probably. is not to be found. Sir. and formerly adored. mediately or immediately. Their very existence depended on the powerful and unremitted assertion of that claim. This religion. but they can never be begged as alms by an impoverished and defeated violence… Lastly. It may be so. and with a strong aversion from whatever tends to deprive them of their chief importance. I do not think. that our fault was more tolerable than our attempt to mend it. as a fundamental principle. and they took this bias and direction the moment they parted from your hands. too. no further hope of reconciliation is left. Every one knows that the Roman Catholic religion is at least coeval with most of the governments where it prevails. They are therefore not only devoted to liberty. but built upon it. notwithstanding its legal rights. for permitting the colonies to trade and flourish without British oversight or interference] has been said to be pursued to a fault. Abstract liberty. If anything were wanting to this necessary operation of the form of government. The colonists emigrated from you when this part of your character was most predominant. But the religion most prevalent in our northern colonies is a refinement on the principle of resistance: it is the dissidence of dissent. and of that kind which is the most adverse to all implicit submission of mind and opinion. and our sin far more salutary than our penitence… First. possess the power of granting their own money. Their growth and their utility has been owing to methods altogether different. not composing. Their governments are popular in an high degree: some are merely popular. the tenth of the people. is in reality no more than a sort of private sect. is a sort of dissent. in this new people is no way worn out or impaired. like other mere abstractions. The people are Protestants. and received great favor and every kind of support from authority. her freedom. where the Church of England. is a nation which still. and even that stream of foreigners which has been constantly flowing into these colonies has.

either in reasoning or in practice. that in Virginia and the Carolinas they have a vast multitude of slaves. in the name of God. and has a regular establishment. from the pleasure of the crown. that freedom. Sir. by their manner. that some gentlemen object to the latitude of this description. in my opinion. fortifies it. but I cannot alter the nature of man. as in countries where it is a common blessing. Some provinces have tried their experiment. and renders it invincible…5 Then. resolved that none but an obedient assembly should sit. of religion in the northern provinces. shall we do with it? You have before you the object. fully counterbalances this difference. that the utmost which the discontented colonists could do was to disturb authority. -.with all its glories. such were our Gothic ancestors. Where this is the case in any part of the world. unhappily meeting with an exercise of power in England.from all these causes a fierce spirit of liberty has grown up. There is. Not seeing there. that. and theirs has succeeded. but a kind of rank and privilege. I can perceive. They have formed a government sufficient for its purposes. It is. because in the southern colonies the Church of England forms a large body. that has not been shaken. than those to the northward. the disorders. knowing in general what an operose business it is to establish a government absolutely new. of form of government. of manners in the southern. I do not mean. which has at least as much pride as virtue in it.of dissenters from the establishments of their several countries. But the question is not. which may give a little stability to our politics. and its first vital movement. Perhaps a more smooth and accommodating spirit of freedom in them would be more acceptable to us. liberty looks. that Lord Dunmore (the account is among the fragments on your table) tells you that the new institution is infinitely better obeyed than the ancient 5 [Edit.] 6 . which. Evident necessity and tacit consent have done the business in an instant. with great violence broke out another way. however. the humors of the people there. to commend the superior morality of this sentiment. and these people of the southern colonies are much more strongly. Americans slave-holders. upon both sides. It is certainly true. Sir. has kindled this flame that is ready to consume us. who are not slaves themselves. without the bustle of a revolution. Freedom is to them not only an enjoyment. and prevent the return of such unhappy deliberations as the present. such as it is. of the remoteness of situation from the first mover of government. is not reconcilable to any ideas of liberty. Perhaps put somewhat differently. a circumstance attending these colonies. those who are free are by far the most proud and jealous of their freedom. You see the magnitude. for our purposes in this contention. Perhaps we might wish the colonists to be persuaded that their liberty is more secure when held in trust for them by us (as their guardians during a perpetual minority) than with any part of it in their own hands. will be all the less willing to allow themselves to be reduced to that most ignoble and humiliating status. however lawful. amongst them. It has grown with the growth of the people in your colonies. By all these considerations we are strongly urged to determine something concerning it. and with an higher and more stubborn spirit. or the troublesome formality of an election. Every such return will bring the matter before us in a still more untractable form. of descent. finding all passage through the legal channel stopped. and makes the spirit of liberty still more high and haughty than in those to the northward. and have brought with them a temper and character far from alien to that of the people with whom they mixed. Until very lately. there is nothing so solid and certain. the habits.what. or the moral causes which produce it. whether their spirit deserves praise or blame. But having. attached to liberty. the haughtiness of domination combines with the spirit of freedom. In such a people. Such were all the ancient commonwealths. For what astonishing and incredible things have we not seen already! What monsters have not been generated from this unnatural contention! Whilst every principle of authority and resistance has been pushed. much less with theirs. Sir. and increased with the increase of their wealth: a spirit. and such will be all masters of slaves. We are called upon to fix some rule and line for our future conduct. we never dreamt they could of themselves supply it. may be united with much abject toil. Sir. which. the temper. such in our days were the Poles. like something that is more noble and liberal. I do not mean to commend either the spirit in this excess. with all its imperfections on its head. the importance. with great misery. with all the exterior of servitude. So well they have done it. Even the popular part of the colony constitution derived all its activity. knowing first hand the contempt conferred on slaves. of education. and as broad and general as the air. as we have tried ours. as far as it would go. We thought. Perhaps ideas of liberty might be desired more reconcilable with an arbitrary and boundless authority. -. The fact is so. from these six capital sources. all authority in America seemed to be nothing but an emanation from yours. -.

if not the very prospect of anarchy. we wholly abrogated the ancient government of Massachusetts. are as strong as links of iron. and dull as all men are from slavery. or what may arise out of this unheard-of situation. and persuade them that they are not sprung from a nation in whose veins the blood of freedom circulates. one of whose causes of quarrel with those masters is their refusal to deal any more in that inhuman traffic? An offer of freedom from England would come rather oddly. I am much against any further experiments which tend to put to the proof any more of these allowed opinions which contribute so much to the public tranquillity. and transmitted to them in that condition from England… Pursuing the same plan of punishing by the denial of the exercise of government to still greater lengths. with a cargo of three hundred Angola negroes. without judges. I fear. The language in which they would hear you tell them this tale would detect the imposition. we are obliged to depreciate the value of freedom itself. -. would instantly enforce a complete submission. and subsisted in a considerable degree of health and vigor. My hold of the colonies is in the close affection which grows from common names. must they not a little suspect the offer of freedom from that very nation which has sold them to their present masters. trade. We cannot. without public council. we suffer as much at home by this loosening of all ties. and this concussion of all established opinions. whether of revenue. wherever the chosen race and sons of England worship freedom. To prove that the Americans ought not to be free. falsify the pedigree of this fierce people. or empire. In effect. For. the cohesion is loosened. in order to prove that the Americans have no right to their liberties. or deriding some of those feelings. as we do abroad. that these two things may exist without any mutual relation. and not the names by which it is called: not the name of Governor. shipped to them in an African vessel. and we never seem to gain a paltry advantage over them in debate. we are every day endeavoring to subvert the maxims which preserve the whole spirit of our own. without executive magistrates. and equal protection. But let it be once understood that your government may be one thing and their privileges another. your speech would betray you.government ever was in its most fortunate periods. This new government has originated directly from the people. It would be curious to see the Guinea captain attempting at the same instant to publish his proclamation of liberty and to advertise his sale of slaves… For that service. 7 . Obedience is what makes government. These are ties which. We were confident that the first feeling. An Englishman is the unfittest person on earth to argue another Englishman into slavery… Slaves as these unfortunate black people are. Let the colonies always keep the idea of their civil rights associated with your government. I am afraid. The experiment was tried. -. without attacking some of those principles. Anarchy is found tolerable. As long as you have the wisdom to keep the sovereign authority of this country as the sanctuary of liberty. for which our ancestors have shed their blood… …For. we are every day endeavoring to subvert the maxims which preserve the whole spirit of our own. -from that nation. or Committee. my trust is in her interest in the British Constitution. or that we have not at all adverted to some other far more important and far more powerful principles which entirely overrule those we had considered as omnipotent. from similar privileges. in order to prove that the Americans have no right to their liberties. A vast province has now subsisted. as at present. A new. It was not a manufacture ready formed. and everything hastens to decay and dissolution. and we never seem to gain a paltry advantage over them in debate. for all service. strange. To prove that the Americans ought not to be free. from kindred blood. without governor.they will cling and grapple to you. unexpected face of things appeared. which is refused an entry into the ports of Virginia or Carolina. without attacking some of those principles. How long it will continue in this state. or deriding some of those feelings. unalterable by any human art. and was not transmitted through any of the ordinary artificial media of a positive constitution. and no force under heaven will be of power to tear them from their allegiance. though light as air. for which our ancestors have shed their blood… The temper and character which prevail in our colonies are. we are obliged to depreciate the value of freedom itself. as formerly. how can the wisest of us conjecture? Our late experience has taught us that many of those fundamental principles formerly believed infallible are either not of the importance they were imagined to be.the cement is gone. the sacred temple consecrated to our common faith. for near a twelvemonth.

and a great empire and little minds go ill together. but by promoting the wealth. have not had the liberty and privilege of electing and sending any knights and burgesses. are not fit to turn a wheel in the machine. consisting of fourteen separate governments.com 6 7 [Edit. the more perfect will be their obedience… Is it not the same virtue which does everything for us here in England? Do you imagine. we ought to auspicate all our public proceedings on America with the old warning of the Church. and all in all. “May this (‘first stone’) prove happy and prosperous. Sursum corda!6 We ought to elevate our minds to the greatness of that trust to which the order of Providence has called us. -“That the colonies and plantations of Great Britain in North America. 78. “Lift up you hearts. from the sense of the deep stake they have in such a glorious institution. and infuses into both that liberal obedience without which your army would be a base rabble and your navy nothing but rotten timber.e. By adverting to the dignity of this high calling our ancestors have turned a savage wilderness into a glorious empire. Seattle. to represent them in the high court of Parliament. far from being qualified to be directors of the great movement of empire. and have made the most extensive and the only honorable conquests.. If we are conscious of our situation. these ruling and master principles.and who. Let us get an American revenue as we have got an American empire.. William Thomas Sherman 1604 NW 70th St. -. then. will sound wild and chimerical to the profane herd of those vulgar and mechanical politicians who have no place among us: a sort of people who think that nothing exists but what is gross and material. English privileges have made it all that it is. no! It is the love of the people.”] 8 . therefore. are in truth everything. which in the opinion of such men as I have mentioned have no substantial existence.they will turn their faces towards you. that it is the Land-Tax Act which raises your revenue? that it is the annual vote in the Committee of Supply which gives you your army? or that it is the Mutiny Bill which inspires it with bravery and discipline? No! surely.” Upon this resolution the previous question was put and carried: for the previous question [i.”] [Edit. But to men truly initiated and rightly taught. or others. the happiness of the human race. English privileges alone will make it all it can be. those opposing Burke’s proposal]. for Burke’s proposal]. I know well enough. which gives you your army and your navy. and containing two millions and upwards of free inhabitants. and glow with zeal to fill our place as becomes our station and ourselves.e. Magnanimity in politics is not seldom the truest wisdom. not by destroying. the more friends you will have. the number. I now (quod felix faustumque sit!)7 lay the first stone of the Temple of Peace. Washington 98117 206-784-1132 wts@gunjones. the more ardently they love liberty. 270. against it [i. The more they multiply. it is their attachment to their government. In full confidence of this unalterable truth. All this. and I move you.

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