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LIAs Laser Welding & Joining

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LASER WELDING
& JOINING
W O R K S H O P
October 23-24, 2012
Renaissance Schaumburg Convention Center Hotel
Schaumburg, Illinois USA
1st ANNUAL
Photo courtesy of
Fraunhofer USA Center for Coatings and Laser Applications Platinum Sponsor:
PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND APPLICATION OF WELDING
AND ALLIED JOINING AND CUTTING PROCESSES WORLDWIDE, INCLUDING BRAZING, SOLDERING, AND THERMAL SPRAYING
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August 2012
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3 WELDING JOURNAL
CONTENTS
29 Factors that Affect Hexavalent Chromium Emissions
A variety of stainless steel welding electrodes and processes
were evaluated to determine their potential hexavalent
chromium generation rates
S. Ferree and F. Lake
38 Automating On-Site Beveling, Cutting, and Welding
Programmable, variable-speed carriages are being used to
achieve high-quality cutting and beveling in the field
N. Drake and B. Malkani
42 How Would Lower Limits for Manganese Affect Welding?
The amounts of manganese fume in welders personal
breathing zones were measured and compared to the
requirements of proposed new limits
P. Blomquist and D. Chute
48 Oxyfuel Safety: Its Everyones Responsibility
These reminders detail the proper and responsible use of
oxyfuel cutting equipment
J. Henderson
54 Putting Your Best Foot Forward on the Job
These tips will help you choose the right boots to wear during
your workday
M. Reilly
58 Safeguarding Your Vision
Heres a guide to choosing this vital piece of personal
protection equipment
J. Bulan, E. Cull, and F. Stupczy
Welding Journal (ISSN 0043-2296) is published
monthly by the American Welding Society for
$120.00 per year in the United States and posses-
sions, $160 per year in foreign countries: $7.50
per single issue for domestic AWS members and
$10.00 per single issue for nonmembers and
$14.00 single issue for international. American
Welding Society is located at 8669 Doral Blvd.,
Doral, FL 33166; telephone (305) 443-9353. Peri-
odicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and additional
mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address
changes to Welding Journal, 8669 Doral Blvd.,
Doral, FL 33166. Canada Post: Publications Mail
Agreement #40612608 Canada Returns to be sent
to Bleuchip International, P.O. Box 25542,
London, ON N6C 6B2
Readers of Welding Journal may make copies of
articles for personal, archival, educational or
research purposes, and which are not for sale or
resale. Permission is granted to quote from arti-
cles, provided customary acknowledgment of
authors and sources is made. Starred (*) items
excluded from copyright.
Departments
Editorial ............................4
Washington Watchword ..........6
Press Time News ..................8
News of the Industry ............10
Aluminum Q&A ..................16
Brazing Q&A ......................20
Product & Print Spotlight ......22
Coming Events....................62
Certification Schedule ..........70
Welding Workbook ..............72
Society News ....................75
Tech Topics ......................76
Errata D1.4:2011 ..............76
Interpretation D17.1:2010 ....76
Ammendment: D17.1:2010 ..76
Guide to AWS Services ........91
Personnel ........................92
Classifieds ......................100
Advertiser Index ................102
213-s Effect of the Consumable on the Properties of Gas Metal
Arc Welded EN 1.4003-Type Stainless Steel
A modified 12% Cr ferritic stainless steel was welded with three
different consumables, then samples underwent tensile, bend,
and Charpy impact toughness testing
E. Taban et al.
222-s Continuous Drive Friction Welding of AI/SiC Composite
and AISI 1030
Studies showed an aluminum matrix composite and AISI 1030
steel can be joined through friction welding
S. elk and D. Gne
229-s Effect of Titanium Content on Microstructure and Wear
Resistance of Fe-Cr-C Hardfacing Layers
A good-performing hardfacing layer was obtained by adding
varying amounts of ferrotitanium into flux cored wire
Y. F. Zhou et al.
Features
Welding Research Supplement
38
48
42
August 2012 Volume 91 Number 8
AWS Web site www.aws.org
On the cover: Full eye and body protection, including safety glasses, correctly
shaded helmet, cap, gloves, and jacket, are key to personal protection for todays
welder. (Photo by Jenny Ogborn, photographer, Lincoln Electric Co., Cleve-
land, Ohio.)
August 2012_Layout 1 7/12/12 3:44 PM Page 3
EDITORIAL
Walking beneath the space shuttle Atlantis as she was being prepared for her final
launch
Touring the design, research, and testing facilities of Case New Holland
Walking alongside the USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) as it was under construction at
Newport News
Viewing the manufacturing lines of Vermeer and Bucyrus in action
Seeing the stack of Discovery in the NASA Vehicle Assembly Building prior to her final
launch
Visiting the David Taylor Model Basin Building at NSWC Carderock including wit-
nessing a live test in the wave pool
Strolling through the Boeing Everett factory
Attending a dinner and reception aboard a retired offshore oil platform
Walking through the advanced materials lab at DuPont
Participating in VIP tours of the filler metal manufacturing line and automation cen-
ter at The Lincoln Electric Co.
While the above may sound like a great vacation, it is actually a list of recent moments
shared by volunteers who serve on our AWS committees moments made possible
strictly because of their involvement with those committees.
Every so often we have to remind ourselves and inform others about why we volun-
teer time to the American Welding Society. Others have written about volunteerism in
this space in the past, and Im sure it will be necessary for others to do so again in the
future. Following are the many reasons they have listed for why individuals volunteer:
Unique networking opportunities for connecting with others in the welding industry
The ability to affect the content of AWS standards for themselves and their companies
The satisfaction of giving back to the industry and helping it to advance forward
Getting involved in AWS programs and becoming part of the decision-making process
on how those programs develop and move forward
The opportunity for younger members to learn from experts in the industry
The opportunity for older members to mentor the next generation coming forward
Making lasting friendships that are forged by years of shared collaboration and yes,
sometimes conflict on AWS committees.
While all of the above is true and are good reasons for becoming a member of and
staying active in AWS committees and other activities, Id like to highlight one of the
lesser-mentioned perks of serving on AWS committees. Quite often the other members
of these committees have really interesting jobs, and work at great companies and in
some very interesting facilities. Every so often they will host an AWS committee meet-
ing and oftentimes arrange VIP tours through their facilities; tours like those mentioned
at the beginning of this Editorial. Yes, it is true that the general public can tour many of
these facilities, but those public tours are rarely hosted by welding experts who can give
insight on current productions. In addition, tours for AWS committee members often go
to places the general tours do not. Even when committee members tour company muse-
ums open to the general public, their experience is unique because they are seeing the
displays and talking about them with a group of like-minded individuals. Im sure youd
relish that more than having to explain to your spouse or some other disinterested fam-
ily member why constructing towing carriage rails that follow the curvature of the earths
surface so as to provide constant gravity is such a neat thing.
Yes, most AWS committee meetings take place in hotel con-
ference rooms and other less-than-memorable facilities. That
is when all those other reasons for becoming involved in AWS
committee work take center stage. However, every once in a
while, we get that little extra bonus of having our work tied to
something unique, interesting, and personally satisfying. I urge
you to get out and get involved with the Societys committees
and other activities. You wont regret it, and you will have some
unique memories and stories to carry home with you.
AUGUST 2012 4
Officers
President William A. Rice Jr.
OKI Bering
Vice President Nancy C. Cole
NCC Engineering
Vice President Dean R. Wilson
Vice President David J. Landon
Vermeer Mfg. Co.
Treasurer Robert G. Pali
J. P. Nissen Co.
Executive Director Ray W. Shook
American Welding Society
Directors
T. Anderson (At Large), ITW Global Welding Tech. Center
J. R. Bray (Dist. 18), Affiliated Machinery, Inc.
J. C. Bruskotter (Past President), Bruskotter Consulting Services
G. Fairbanks (Dist. 9), Fairbanks Inspection & Testing Services
T. A. Ferri (Dist. 1), Victor Technologies
D. A. Flood (Dist. 22), Tri Tool, Inc.
R. A. Harris (Dist. 10), Total Quality Testing
D. C. Howard (Dist. 7), Concurrent Technologies Corp.
J. Jones (Dist. 17), Victor Technologies
W. A. Komlos (Dist. 20), ArcTech, LLC
R. C. Lanier (Dist. 4), Pitt C.C.
T. J. Lienert (At Large), Los Alamos National Laboratory
J. Livesay (Dist. 8), Tennessee Technology Center
M. J. Lucas Jr. (At Large), Belcan Engineering
D. E. Lynnes (Dist. 15), Lynnes Welding Training
C. Matricardi (Dist. 5), Welding Solutions, Inc.
D. L. McQuaid (At Large), DL McQuaid & Associates
J. L. Mendoza (Past President), Lone Star Welding
S. P. Moran (At Large), Weir American Hydro
K. A. Phy (Dist. 6), KA Phy Services, Inc.
W. R. Polanin (Dist. 13), Illinois Central College
R. L. Richwine (Dist. 14), Ivy Tech State College
D. J. Roland (Dist. 12), Marinette Marine Corp.
N. Saminich (Dist. 21), Desert Rose H.S. and Career Center
N. S. Shannon (Dist. 19), Carlson Testing of Portland
T. A. Siewert (At Large), NIST (ret.)
H. W. Thompson (Dist. 2), Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
R. P. Wilcox (Dist. 11), ACH Co.
M. R. Wiswesser (Dist. 3), Welder Training & Testing Institute
D. Wright (Dist. 16), Zephyr Products, Inc.
Founded in 1919 to Advance the Science,
Technology and Application of Welding
Your Opportunity for a
Unique Experience
John Gayler
Managing Director, AWS Certification Department
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House Subcommittee Examines NIST
Manufacturing Proposal
The House Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation re-
cently held a hearing to examine the proposed National Network
for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI). The administration has
requested $1 billion for the NNMI in the fiscal year 2013 budget
request for the National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST).
The NNMI is designed to promote the development of new
manufacturing technologies through collaboration between the
federal government and public and private sector stakeholders.
NIST has already moved forward this fiscal year by establishing
a pilot institute for manufacturing innovation with an initial cost
of $45 million.
In his testimony before the subcommittee, Dr. Patrick Gal-
lagher, director of NIST, advocated for the proposal, saying,
The NNMI is a critical piece of innovation infrastructure that
can help U.S.-based manufacturing to remain globally competi-
tive by fostering cutting-edge technological advances, solving
problems of interest to a wide range of manufacturing sectors,
supporting small- and medium-size manufacturing enterprises,
and strengthening the skills of workers, managers, and
entrepreneurs.
House Committee Approves
Manufacturing Bill
The House Energy & Commerce Committee has approved
the American Manufacturing Competitiveness Act of 2012, H.R.
5865. This legislation would create a bipartisan Manufacturing
Competitiveness Board consisting of 15 members, five from the
public sector appointed by the president including two gover-
nors from different parties and 10 from the private sector ap-
pointed by the House and Senate, with the majority appointing
three and the minority two in each chamber.
The board would conduct a comprehensive analysis of the
U.S. manufacturing sector, covering everything from trade issues
to taxation, regulation, and new technologies. Based on this analy-
sis, it would develop a strategy that includes specific goals and
recommendations for achieving those goals. The first strategy
would be due in 2014 and the second in 2018.
The particular areas of focus include the following:
Elimination or repeal of regulations that create disadvan-
tages for U.S. manufacturers compared to foreign competitors;
Improving government policies and coordination of policy
implementation;
Consolidation or elimination of government programs; and
Improving communication and interaction between govern-
ment and the manufacturing community.
United States Trade Representative Issues
Report on Standards as Trade Barriers
The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR)
has issued its third annual Report on Technical Barriers to Trade.
This report addresses nontariff trade barriers in the form of
product standards, testing requirements, and other technical re-
quirements. In fact, as tariff barriers to trade have decreased,
standards-related measures of this kind have emerged as a key
concern.
As observed by the USTR, When standards-related meas-
ures are outdated, overly burdensome, discriminatory, or other-
wise inappropriate, these measures can reduce competition, sti-
fle innovation, and create unnecessary technical barriers to
trade.
Following are some of the topics addressed in the report:
A description of how the U.S. government identifies tech-
nical barriers to trade and the process of interagency and stake-
holder consultation it employs to determine how to address them;
An explanation of how the United States engages with its
trading partners to address standards-related measures that act
as barriers and prevent their creation through multilateral, re-
gional, and bilateral channels;
A summary of current trends relating to standards-related
measures; and
An identification and description of significant standards-
related trade barriers currently facing U.S. producers, along with
U.S. government initiatives to eliminate or reduce the impact of
these barriers in 19 countries.
New Executive Order Requires Public
Participation in Agency Regulations Review
The White House has issued an executive order requiring fed-
eral agencies to publish a semiannual notice of significant regu-
lations that have undergone a review by each agency. This is the
latest in a series of executive orders and memoranda on the sub-
ject of regulatory review.
The new executive order establishes public participation in a
regulatory review, setting priorities and accountability as manda-
tory elements of every agencys regulatory process, which now
must include a review of significant regulations on an ongoing
basis. Public participation must include a system for requesting
and evaluating nominations of regulations in need of a review.
By requiring the agencies to publish reports on their review
priorities on a semiannual basis and to make available relevant
supporting data, the order seeks to make regular, ongoing regu-
latory review a permanent part of agency rulemaking.
New Government Data Sources Released
The U.S. Employment and Training Administration has re-
leased the second edition of its Guide to State and Local Work-
force Data, which provides comprehensive coverage of workforce
data sources from government and the private sector. A new fea-
ture is direct links to the data source listed.
In addition, the Department of Education released its Edu-
cation Data Initiative, designed to serve as a central guide for
education data resources, including high-value data sets, data vi-
sualization tools, resources for the classroom, applications cre-
ated from open data, and more. This includes a dataset on vo-
cational education.
WASHINGTON
WATCHWORD
AUGUST 2012 6
BY HUGH K. WEBSTER
AWS WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT AFFAIRS OFFICE
Contact the AWS Washington Government Affairs Office at
1747 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20006; e-mail
hwebster@wc-b.com; FAX (202) 835-0243.
WW August 2012_Layout 1 7/12/12 11:27 AM Page 6
Call us at 800-782-2110 for a free quote on your
next project.
www.greinerindustries.com
STRUCTURAL STEEL FABRICATION
We can roll a beam up to 40 inches theeasy way and pipe up to 20
inches. Our press brake has 2,750 tons of power with a 40-foot bed. Our
CNC horizontal boring mill has a 12-foot high by 30-foot long machining
envelope. Our G&L bay boasts a 50-ton lifting capacity with 31-foot hook
height of overhead cranes. Our 30-foot by 50-foot, permanently installed,
leveling bed allows us to level to within fteen thousandths of an inch.
INDUSTRIAL BLASTING & COATING
Our capabilities include 81,000 square feet of capacity, 34-foot by 34-foot
doors and a 100-ton four-point pick-and-carry crane.
You can count on Greiner!
Structural Steel Fabrication
Steel Plate & Sheet Metal Fabrication
Miscellaneous Metals
Machining
Rolling & Forming Services
Cutting Services
Industrial Coatings
Industrial & Electrical Contracting
Crane Rental &Trucking Services
Heat-Bending Services
(AISC Certied for Major Steel
Bridge Fabrication)
Capacity. Precision. Strength.
24-foot hammerhead columns and base
plates for the WorldTrade Centers new
Transportation Hub.
133-ton transfer girder for a
NewYork City high-rise.
Greiner has some of the biggest equipment of its kindinthe
EasternUnitedStates andcertications for handlingjust about
any large, heavy-dutysteel fabricationjobfor you.
25-inch diameter steel node connectors
at JFK International Airport.
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greiner industries_FP_TEMP 7/10/12 2:08 PM Page 7
PRESS TIME
NEWS
AWS/GSI Conference on U.S. and European Welding
Standards to Cover Structural Fabrication, Pipelines
Germanys Gesellschaft fr Schweitechnik International (GSI) and the American
Welding Society (AWS) have partnered to deliver the Conference on U.S. and Euro-
pean Welding Standards: Structural, Pressure Piping, Pipelines, Railroad, NDT.
The event will be conducted in English and take place in Munich, Germany, on Oc-
tober 22 from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. and October 23 from 8:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. The early
booking fee by August 31 is 690 euros, equivalent to about $850 in U.S. currency, while
the fee after that date is 790 euros, approximately $970.
With increased globalization and complexity of supply chains, more companies have
realized the need to be knowledgeable about multiple national and international fabri-
cation codes and standards. The conference will benefit engineers, inspectors, supervi-
sors, and quality control personnel who are familiar with one set of standards but need
to know more about other standards.
The format will be one expert presentation on the U.S. standards followed by an ex-
pert presentation on the comparable European standards for each topic. There will also
be open discussion allotted for each topic. For more information, visit www.aws.org/
conferences.
In addition, a tour of Munich will be organized by GSI the day before the conference
and an optional tour on the afternoon of the second day that concludes the event. A
dinner in a Bavarian brewery will be organized by GSI for the night of October 22.
Permira Funds to Acquire Intelligrated
Intelligrated, Mason, Ohio, a provider of automated material-handling solutions, serv-
ices, and products, has entered into an agreement to be acquired by a holding company
owned by the Permira funds in a transaction valuated in excess of $500 million. Its manage-
ment, led by founders Chris Cole and Jim McCarthy, will maintain a significant stake in the
company and continue to lead the business. Intelligrated will remain headquartered in
Mason, Ohio, with operations throughout the United States as well as in Canada, Mexico,
and Brazil. The investment will support the companys vast growth opportunities.
Victor Technologies Launches Contest for Welding
Students, Schools; More Than $30,000 in Prizes Offered
Victor Technologiesrecently announced its 2012 Innovation to Shape the World
contest for students in welding and cutting programs at secondary and post secondary
schools. Three beginning (first- or second-year) students will win $250 by submitting a
500-word essay supporting the contest theme, and members on three intermediate/
advanced teams will each win $500 for completing a welding and cutting project.
According to Martin Quinn, CEO, Victor Technologies, the six schools associated
with the winners will receive a cutting, welding, and gas control package valued at $4000.
The contest began June 25 and ends October 30. Winners will be announced at the
2012 FABTECH show in Las Vegas. Contest rules, entry forms, and submission guide-
lines are available at www.victortechnologies.com/innovationcontest.
RealWeld Systems Addresses Welding Labor Shortage
EWI, Columbus, Ohio, recently founded a spin-off company, RealWeld Systems,
Inc., to commercialize its welder training advancements. Bill Forquer, previously a sen-
ior marketing executive for Open Text Corp., will serve as launch CEO.
The new companys product, RealWeld Trainer, is based upon exclusive licenses of
EWIs patent-pending technology that measures and scores motions required in proper
welding technique. For each welding skill to be taught, instructors can configure a weld-
ing specification in the software application that includes a targeted zone for each of
these motions. Every time the trainee performs a specific weld, it provides immediate,
objective, graphical feedback of all deviations from this zone.
Henry Cialone, EWI president and CEO, and chairman of RealWeld Systems, also
mentioned the current critical shortage of welders in the United States and how manu-
facturers, vocational schools, and unions can use this training device to help alleviate
that problem.
AUGUST 2012 8
MEMBER
Publisher Andrew Cullison
Publisher Emeritus Jeff Weber
Editorial
Editorial Director Andrew Cullison
Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen
Associate Editor Howard M. Woodward
Associate Editor Kristin Campbell
Peer Review Coordinator Melissa Gomez
Design and Production
Managing Editor Zaida Chavez
Senior Production Coordinator Brenda Flores
Manager of International Periodicals and
Electronic Media Carlos Guzman
Advertising
National Sales Director Rob Saltzstein
Advertising Sales Representative Lea Paneca
Senior Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson
Subscriptions
Subscriptions Representative Sylvia Ferreira
sferreira@aws.org
American Welding Society
8669 Doral Blvd., Doral, FL 33166
(305) 443-9353 or (800) 443-9353
Publications, Expositions, Marketing Committee
D. L. Doench, Chair
Hobart Brothers Co.
S. Bartholomew, Vice Chair
ESAB Welding & Cutting Prod.
J. D. Weber, Secretary
American Welding Society
T. Birky, Lincoln Electric Co.
D. Brown, Weiler Brush
J. Deckrow, Hypertherm
D. DeCorte, RoMan Mfg.
J. R. Franklin, Sellstrom Mfg. Co.
F. H. Kasnick, Praxair
D. Levin, Airgas
E. C. Lipphardt, Consultant
R. Madden, Hypertherm
D. Marquard, IBEDA Superflash
J. Mueller, Victor Technologies International
J. F. Saenger Jr., Consultant
S. Smith, Weld-Aid Products
N. C. Cole, Ex Off., NCC Engineering
J. N. DuPont, Ex Off., Lehigh University
L. G. Kvidahl, Ex Off., Northrup Grumman Ship Systems
S. P. Moran, Ex Off., Weir American Hydro
E. Norman, Ex Off., Southwest Area Career Center
R. G. Pali, Ex Off., J. P. Nissen Co.
R. Ranc, Ex Off., Superior Products
W. A. Rice, Ex Off., OKI Bering
R. W. Shook, Ex Off., American Welding Society
D. Wilson, Ex Off.
Copyright 2012 by American Welding Society in both printed and elec-
tronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or
opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors
of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not in-
tended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the
part of potential users.
PTN August 2012_Layout 1 7/12/12 4:21 PM Page 8
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esab_FP_TEMP 7/10/12 2:07 PM Page 9
NEWS OF THE
INDUSTRY
AWS Weldmex-FABTECH-Metalform
Mexico Exposition Breaks Record
The AWS Weldmex-FABTECH-Metalform Mexico Exposi-
tion, held May 24 in Mexico City, Mexico, broke exhibit space
and attendance records for the fourth consecutive year.
The exhibit space of 67,900 net sq ft increased 32% and atten-
dance of 10,452 increased 33% compared to last years expo. The
event is now the largest manufacturing show in Latin America.
The show featured 315 exhibitors from North America, Asia,
Europe, UK, and India looking at Mexico for access to the U.S.
marketplace. Several exhibitors sold machines right off the floor.
Throughout the course of the show, attendees expressed that
ESAB Opens New Wire Manufacturing Facility
AUGUST 2012 10
Daniel Young (left), South Carolina Dept.
of Commerce, and Lanny Pickens, vice
president of Operations, ESAB North
America, prepare to cut the ribbon to offi-
cially open the companys new wire man-
ufacturing plant in Union County, S.C.
The 260,000-sq-ft building was selected in
part because it offered room for expansion
of production capacity.
Workers oversee the welding wire production lines at
ESABs new facility. The plant brought 101 new jobs to
South Carolina.
ESAB Welding and Cutting Products officially opened its
new manufacturing facility for the production of welding wire
on Midway Dr. in Union County, S.C., on June 20. The com-
pany spent millions to refit the facility, which was originally built
in the 1970s. The state-of-the-art plant also brings 101 new jobs
to the area.
During the ribbon-cutting ceremony, Daniel Young, execu-
tive director, South Carolina Coordinating Council for Eco-
nomic Development, declared South Carolina is a manufactur-
ing state and noted that 24,000 manufacturing jobs have been
added since January 2011. He later explained that South Car-
olina has targeted automotive as an industry it wants to attract
and welding wire fits in with that automotive cluster. ESAB,
with facilities in Florence, S.C., is an existing industry thats
expanding, which shows that were doing something right, he
added.
State and local lawmakers, Union County dignitaries, and
members of the press were on hand for the grand opening. We
hope to soon grow into this extra room, said Lanny Pickens,
vice president, Operations, ESAB North America. I hope you
leave with the same passion we have for this facility and ESAB.
The plant will produce the companys gas metal arc and sub-
merged arc welding wires as well as AristoRod and copper-
coated wires. The opening of the new plant signaled the closing
of the companys wire production facility in Ashtabula, Ohio.
Jerry Schopp, ESABs technical director of the Americas, said
the decision to close Ashtabula had nothing to do with the qual-
ity of the workforce there, but everything to do with the aging,
inadequate buildings. It is an old Union Carbide facility that
has outlasted its life, he said, and there was no room for
expansion.
Earlier, Schopp said the company focused on solid wire at
the new facility because solid wire is the single largest volume
filler metal. It is approximately a 500 million pounds per year
business in North America.
Even though the new plant features mostly new, automated
equipment and is set up according to the principles of Lean
manufacturing, Schopp said 19 of the manufacturing lead oper-
ators were sent for 12 weeks of training at the companys facili-
ties in Italy, Czech Republic, and Mexico. The intention was for
them to learn to make wire a more old-fashioned way from ex-
perienced craftsmen and then take that craft philosophy back
to South Carolina.
Mary Ruth Johnsen, editor, Welding Journal
NI August 2012_Layout 1 7/13/12 9:12 AM Page 10
11 WELDING JOURNAL
the event was the place to be to see the latest technology, expe-
rience live equipment demonstrations, and connect face-to-face
with suppliers who offered solutions to help them achieve better
results, said Chuck Cross, show manager.
The event is sponsored by AWS, the Fabricators & Manufac-
turers Association, International, the Society of Manufacturing
Engineers, and the Precision Metalforming Association.
The next show is scheduled for May 79, 2013, in Monterrey,
Mexico. For more information, contact Chuck Cross, Trade Show
Consulting, LLC, at chuck@tradeshowconsult.com.
Welding Facilities Evolve at SAIT
Polytechnic
More than 100 welding booths are being installed in SAIT
Polytechnics new Trades and Technology Complex, a $400 mil-
lion, 740,000-sq-ft facility opening in Calgary, Alb., Canada this
fall.
Weve found a way to protect and isolate the equipment from
the students, while giving them a larger work area, said George
Rhodes, academic chair, school of manufacturing and automa-
tion. There is a master shut-off located in the shops as well.
The booth working area is 6.8 5.9 ft. Equipment is in cup-
boards, controls are behind a barrier, and cables are in drawers.
A crowd awaits the opening of the 2012 Weldmex expo.
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A SAIT Polytechnic student uses shielded metal arc welding on a
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NI August 2012_Layout 1 7/13/12 9:12 AM Page 11
AUGUST 2012 12
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Screens give instructors a view of whats taking place in each booth.
During the past two years, hundreds of the schools welding
students took part in the design process. They participated in a
survey of what was important in a booth, and spent a few days in
the prototype trying it out and offering feedback. Also, industry
partners were involved in the early stages. Scott MacKay of Cal-
garys Miller Electric office helped Rhodes enhance the prototype
so equipment could fit into the space while leaving room to grow.
The self-contained nature of the booth means each one can
easily be disassembled and relocated. It is designed to be low
maintenance with bright lights and steel walls.
In addition, the school has developed a flexible training op-
tion program for welders, termed blended learning, allowing stu-
dents to complete their theory online over 12 weeks before hands-
on shop classes using SAITs facilities over a three-week period.
Final Steel Beam Placed at Top of
4 World Trade Center
Silverstein Properties President and CEO Larry A. Silverstein
was joined by approximately 1000 construction workers and New
York government, civic, and business leaders at a ceremony mark-
ing the completion of steel erection for the new 4 World Trade
Center (WTC).
The final steel beam, weighing 8 tons and adorned with an
American flag, was signed by Silverstein and other dignitaries,
then it was raised 977 ft in the air and placed at the top of the
72-story tower.
The World Trade Center site is at the heart of Lower Man-
hattans rebirth, said Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg.
Designed by Pritzker Prize-winning architect Fumihiko Maki,
4 WTC is located at 150 Greenwich St. It will be the first office
tower completed on the original 16-acre WTC site and is sched-
uled to open in fall 2013.
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The 4 World Trade Center, captured here in June, is the first office
tower that will be completed on the original World Trade Center
site. Its final steel beam was recently placed. (Image credit, Joe
Woolhead, and courtesy of Silverstein Properties.)
NI August 2012_Layout 1 7/13/12 9:13 AM Page 12
AWS President Recently Profiled in
Charleston Gazette-Mail
AWS President William A. Rice Jr. was profiled in an article
written by Sandy Wells in the June 24 Charleston Gazette-Mail, a
Charleston, W.Va., newspaper.
Rice described his goodwill role on behalf of AWS, where he
also once served as interim executive director, to promote the
welding industry not only here in the United States but around
the world.
In this country, we are short about 250,000 welders, all due
to people like me who are retiring. Its a good-paying job, but it
requires schooling and some effort, Rice said.
He pointed out significant AWS projects, including his per-
sonal role in helping to get virtual welding machines and a start-
up cash donation from The Lincoln Electric Co. to build the AWS
Careers in Welding Trailer. Rice further mentioned that he
awarded the first welding merit badge for the Boy Scouts of Amer-
ica and work is in progress to get a Girls Scouts welding badge.
In addition, he spoke about his long career in the field. His
grandfather, V. S. Rice, established the family business, Virginia
Welding, in 1917. Eventually, the company changed to distribut-
ing equipment under Virginia Welding Supply. Rice grew up in
the business, and when he started working for his father there,
he acquired several welding supply distributorships.
In the 80s, we were named the oldest family-owned welding
supply distributorship in the U.S. My kids are now in the indus-
try, so its fourth-generation, Rice said.
In 1992, he sold out to Airgas but stayed on a year to run the
business. After, he was asked to set up its purchasing group and
hard goods distribution; got promoted to president of industrial
distribution and bought companies to go into that; and later could
not pass up the opportunity when asked to become the president
of Airgas.
Currently, Rice serves as the CEO of OKI Bering.
Industry Notes
Deere & Co. will invest $47 million to expand manufacturing
capacity in its Moline, Ill., cylinder operations where the ven-
ture will result in upgrading machining tools but will not re-
quire an addition to the physical building.
TRUMPF, Inc., chose Ohio Laser LLC, Plain City, Ohio, as a
beta test site for the new TruLaser 1030. Its solid-state disc
laser system sends the beam to the cutting head by fiber. Also,
the machine cuts parts and virtually any shape from steel plate,
stainless steel, and aluminum material up to 0.187 in. thick.
Oxford Alloys CEO Mark Ashworth was presented with the
Presidential E Star Award for Exports by U.S. Department
of Commerce Secretary John Bryson at the White House.
Lincoln Electric Holdings, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, acquired
Wayne Trail Technologies, Inc., a privately held Ohio-based
manufacturer of automated systems and tooling.
Mesabi Range Community & Technical College will offer its
welding diploma program in Two Harbors, Minn., beginning
this fall semester. For more details, visit www.mr.mnscu.edu.
Desert Industrial X-Ray, L.P., Odessa, Tex., received a ma-
jority investment from Sterling Partners, a Chicago-based
private equity firm. It will now operate as Desert NDT.
13 WELDING JOURNAL
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NI August 2012_Layout 1 7/13/12 9:13 AM Page 13
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fabtech_FP_TEMP 7/11/12 8:47 AM Page 14
PREVIEW OF AWS EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AT FABTECH
Conferences and Symposium
Underwater Welding and Cutting (Nov. 12)
Thermal Spray Basics: Putting Coatings to Work (Nov. 12)
Brazing Symposium (Nov. 12)
Health and Safety in the Welding Environment (Nov. 13)
Thermal Spray Technology: High-Performance Surfaces (Nov. 13)
Trends in Nondestructive Examination (Nov. 14)
Resistance WeIding SchooI
RWMA Emmet A. Craig Resistance Welding School (Nov. 13-14)
Seminars
Metallurgy Applied to Everyday Welding (Nov. 12)
Advanced Visual Inspection Workshop (Nov. 12)
API 1104 Code Clinic (Spanish) (Nov. 12)
ASME Section IX, B31.1 & B31.3 Code Clinic (Nov. 12-13)
D1.1 - Code Clinic (Spanish) (Nov. 13)
The Why and How of Welding Procedure Specifications (Nov. 13)
Understanding Welding Symbols (Nov. 13)
Welding of Stainless Steel (Basics) (Nov. 13)
D1.5 Bridge Code Clinic (Nov. 14)
Welding of Stainless Steel (Avoiding Weld Defects) (Nov. 14)
Corrosion of Welds: Causes and Cures (Nov. 14)
Free for Educators
AWS Educational Sessions (including Plummer Lecture) (Nov. 13-14)
ProfessionaI Program
Session 1: Welding Metallurgy (CIMJSEA) (Nov. 12)
Session 2: Arc Welding Studies (Nov. 12)
Session 3: Weld Microstructure and Properties (Nov. 12)
Session 4: Keynote Address: Dr. Peter Mayr (Nov. 13)
Session 5: Modeling (CIMJSEA) (Nov. 13)
Session 6: Friction Stir Welding & Solid State Processes (Nov. 13)
Session 7: Welding Metallurgy (Nov. 13)
Session 8: Sensing Applications (Nov. 13)
Session 9: Weldability (CIMJSEA) (Nov. 13)
Session 10: Applied Technology (Nov. 13)
Session 11: Keynote Address: Prof. Philip Withers (Nov. 14)
Session 12: Applications of Weld Modeling (Nov. 14)
Session 13: Weldability (Nov. 14)
Register at fabtechexpo.com

fabtech_FP_TEMP 7/11/12 8:44 AM Page 15


ALUMINUM
Q&A
BY TONY ANDERSON
Q: Please explain the differences between
heat-treatable and nonheat-treatable alu-
minum alloys. How are they different, and
do they respond the same way during and
after welding?
A: There are two distinctly different types
of aluminum alloys, one that responds fa-
vorably to thermal treatment applied for
mechanical-strengthening purposes (heat
treatable), and the other that does not re-
spond favorably to this form of thermal
treatment (nonheat treatable). To better
understand the differences between these
two alloy groups, it is convenient to ap-
preciate the fundamental methods used
to strengthen aluminum.
Strengthening Aluminum
Pure aluminum (1xxx series) is not gen-
erally used for welded structural applica-
tions as its tensile strength is relatively
low, around 1012 ksi in the annealed con-
dition. These alloys do, however, have
other properties, such as excellent corro-
sion resistance and electrical and thermal
conductivity, which make them very at-
tractive for other applications. To produce
aluminum with the higher strength char-
acteristics needed for structural applica-
tions, it is necessary to employ one or
more of the following methods.
Alloying
The addition of alloying elements to
pure aluminum is the primary method
used in strengthening aluminum. Figure
1 shows the effect of adding magnesium
to pure aluminum. The chart shows that
as we increase the ratio of magnesium to
aluminum, there is a corresponding in-
Increasing Strength - Alloying
5083
5086
5454
5052
5005 S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

k
s
i
% Magnesium
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strain Hardening 5052
75% Reduction In Area
1in. Plate 1/4in. Plate
Hx8 Temper
5052-0
Tensile - 28ksi
Yield - 13ksi
Elongation - 30%
5052-H38
Tensile - 42ksi
Yield - 37ksi
Elongation - 8%
Fig. 1 The effect of adding magnesium
to pure aluminum. As we increase the per-
centage of magnesium to aluminum, there
is a corresponding increase in tensile
strength.
Fig. 2 The effect of strain hardening on
nonheat-treatable Alloy 5052. The strain-
hardening process has provided a substan-
tial increase in strength but also a corre-
sponding decrease in ductility.
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Aluminum Q and A August 2012_Layout 1 7/12/12 3:36 PM Page 16
17 WELDING JOURNAL
crease in tensile strength. This is a very
good example of strengthening aluminum
through alloying. Alloying elements such
as magnesium, copper, manganese, zinc,
silicon, and lithium are added to alu-
minum (often in combinations) to pro-
duce material that is stronger than pure
aluminum.
After alloying, depending on which al-
loying elements are added to aluminum,
one or both of the following treatments
(strain hardening and/or thermal treat-
ment) are generally employed for further
strengthening of the aluminum alloy.
Strain Hardening
Strain hardening (also known as work
hardening or cold working) is an impor-
tant method used to increase the strength
of some aluminum alloys that cannot be
strengthened by heat treatment (these
being the nonheat-treatable alloys). This
method of strengthening involves a
change of shape that is brought about by
the input of mechanical energy. As me-
chanical deformation progresses, the ma-
terial becomes stronger, harder, and less
ductile. This process produces an elonga-
tion of the grains within the material in
the direction of working, which gives a
preferred grain orientation and high level
of internal stress.
An example of the effect of this type
of strengthening on a nonheat-treatable
alloy can be seen when we compare the
properties of 5052-0 in the annealed con-
dition (with no strain hardening) to the
properties of 5052-H38; this is the same
alloy that has been subjected to strain
hardening to the HX8 full-hard condi-
tion (which is usually obtained with cold
work equal to around a 75% reduction in
area, see Fig. 2). The 5052-0 has a typical
ultimate tensile strength of 28 ksi, yield
strength of 13 ksi, and elongation of 30%.
The 5052-H38 has a typical ultimate ten-
sile strength of 42 ksi, yield strength of 37
ksi, and elongation of 8%.
Consequently, the strain-hardening
process has provided a substantial in-
crease in strength but also a correspon-
ding decrease in ductility. These are char-
acteristic changes in mechanical proper-
ties typically associated with the strain-
hardening process.
Heat Treatment
The particular heat treatment used to
strengthen the heat-treatable aluminum
alloys is called solution heat treatment and
artificial aging (also known as precipita-
tion hardening). Solution heat treatment
is achieved by heating the metal to a suit-
ably high temperature, holding at that
temperature long enough to allow con-
stituents to enter into solid solution, and
cooling rapidly enough to hold the con-
stituents in solution (this is often achieved
by quenching in water).
Controlled precipitation of fine parti-
cles, either at room temperature or ele-
vated temperature after the quenching
operation, helps develop the mechanical
properties of the heat-treatable alloys.
Most alloys will change properties at room
temperature, and this condition is the T4
temper (solution heat treated and natu-
rally aged). The natural-aging process
varies extensively from alloy to alloy and
may take as little as a few days or as long
as several years to produce a substantially
significant and stable condition.
Precipitation can be accelerated in the
heat-treatable alloys by heating them
above room temperature after quenching;
this operation is called artificial aging and
produces the T6 temper (solution heat
treated and artificially aged). The alloys
with slow precipitation reactions at room
temperature are generally precipitation
heat treated to attain their high strengths.
A typical example of the solution heat
treatment and artificial-aging process for
6061-T6 is as follows: Heat alloy to 990F,
immediately quench in water, then reheat
to 350F for around 10 to 12 h Fig. 3.
Aluminum Alloy Response
to Welding
Nonheat-Treatable Aluminum
Alloys
The nonheat-treatable alloys are com-
prised of pure aluminum (1xxx series), man-
Heat Treating
Solution Heat Treatment & Artifcial Ageing of 6061
Solution
Heat-Treat
Water
Quench Artifcial Age
6xxx
990 -T4 350
(10 to 12 Hrs.)
+ + =
6xxx-T6
End Product
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 3 A typical example of the solution
heat treatment and artificial-aging process
for 6061-T6 is as follows: Heat alloy to
990F, immediately quench in water, then
reheat to 350F for around 10 to 12 h.
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Aluminum Q and A August 2012_Layout 1 7/12/12 3:37 PM Page 17
18
ganese alloys (3xxx series), and magnesium
alloys (5xxx series). The strength of these
alloys is initially produced by alloying the
aluminum with these elements and often
further enhanced by strain hardening.
When arc welded, these strain-hard-
ened, nonheat-treatable alloys are sub-
jected to sufficient heat during welding to
remove the strain-hardened properties
and return the base material adjacent to
the weld to its annealed condition. The
transverse tensile strength of a complete
penetration groove weld in these materi-
als is controlled by the reaction of the base
material to the heating during the weld-
ing operation. This reduction in strength
within the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is
unavoidable when arc welding these ma-
terials. The reduction in strength occurs
very quickly as the material reaches the
annealing temperature; extended time at
this temperature is not required. The as-
welded transverse tensile strength of a
groove weld made in the nonheat-treat-
able alloys is usually quite predictable as
it is based on the annealed strength of the
base material.
Heat-Treatable Aluminum Alloys
The initial strength of these alloys is
also produced by the addition of alloying
elements to pure aluminum. These ele-
ments include copper (2xxx series), mag-
nesium and silicon (which is able to form
the compound called magnesium silicide,
6xxx series), and zinc (7xxx series). When
present in a given alloy, singly or in vari-
ous combinations, these elements exhibit
an increasing solid solubility in aluminum
as the temperature increases. Because of
this reaction, it is possible to produce sig-
nificant additional strengthening in the
heat-treatable alloys by subjecting them
to an elevated thermal treatment,
quenching, and, when applicable, precip-
itation heat treatment (also known as ar-
tificial aging).
Unlike the nonheat-treatable alloys,
the heat-treatable alloys are usually not
fully annealed during the welding opera-
tion but are subjected to a partial anneal
and overaging process. These alloys react
to time and temperature; the higher the
temperature and the longer the time at
temperature, the more significant the loss
of strength in the base material adjacent
to the weld. For this reason, it is impor-
tant to control the overall heat input, pre-
heating, and interpass temperatures when
welding the heat-treatable alloys.
Typically, the reduction in strength
from arc welding the heat-treatable alloys
is more pronounced than that of the non-
heat-treatable alloys. An example is the
6061-T6 base alloy which, prior to weld-
ing, has a typical tensile strength of 45 ksi
and an after-welded strength of around
25 ksi in the HAZ. One option for heat-
treatable alloys but not for the nonheat-
treatable alloys is postweld heat treatment
to return the mechanical strength to the
welded component. If postweld heat treat-
ing is considered, the filler metals ability
to respond to the heat-treatment should
be evaluated. Most of the commonly used
filler metals may not respond to postweld
heat treatment effectively without ade-
quate dilution with the heat-treatable base
metal. This is not always easy to achieve
and can be difficult to control consistently.
For this reason, filler metals have been
developed to independently respond to
heat treatment.
Summary
The heat-treatable and nonheat-treat-
able aluminum alloys are fundamentally
different; the primary difference between
these two groups of alloys is related to the
methods used to strengthen them. How-
ever, it also extends to the way these al-
loys react during and after welding, which
can influence the way we design and exe-
cute our welding procedures to minimize
strength loss in our aluminum welded
structures.
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TONY ANDERSON is director of alu-
minum technology, ITW Welding North
America. He is a Fellow of the British
Welding Institute (TWI), a Registered
Chartered Engineer with the British En-
gineering Council, and holds numerous
positions on AWS technical committees.
He is chairman of the Aluminum Asso-
ciation Technical Advisory Committee for
Welding and author of the book Welding
Aluminum Questions and Answers cur-
rently available from the AWS. Questions
may be sent to Mr. Anderson c/o Welding
Journal, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami,
FL 33126, or via e-mail at tony.
anderson@millerwelds.com.
AUGUST 2012
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Aluminum Q and A August 2012_Layout 1 7/12/12 3:36 PM Page 18
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weld engineering_FP_TEMP 7/10/12 2:18 PM Page 19
AUGUST 2012 20
BRAZING
Q&A
BY ALEXANDER E. SHAPIRO
Q: Many times in our repair business, we
encounter the problem of brazing steel
tubes that have deviations in diameters,
so there is no consistency in the size of the
joint clearance of the joints to be brazed.
Sometimes the tubes match each other
and the joint clearance is small, but often
they do not match and the joint clearances
are extensive, and often the centering of
tubes is far from symmetrical. In these
cases, we get voids on the side of the wider
joint clearance. What can be done to braze
wide nonuniform joint clearances prop-
erly, without these voids that cause leak-
ages and require rebrazing after testing
under pressure? We use torch and induc-
tion brazing with BAg-1a for carbon steel
tubes and BAg-22 for stainless steel tubes.
A: Successful brazing or soldering re-
quires a capillarity force in the joint clear-
ance between the parts to be joined. In
your case, the joint clearance should be in
the range of 0.0040.008 in. (0.10.2 mm)
for induction or torch brazing in air, or
0.0020.006 in. (0.050.015 mm) for fur-
nace brazing in a shielding atmosphere.
In mass production, manufacturers are
obliged to meet these rigid specifications,
but in the individual production or in re-
pair business, as in your case, sometimes it
is impossible or economically inefficient.
Therefore, one can try special adjustments
to the process, change the joint design, or
apply some tricky methods to braze
wider joint clearances.
There are many methods known in in-
dustrial practice to braze parts having
noncapillary joint clearances. However,
capillarity is necessary in order to hold the
liquid braze alloy in the joint at brazing
temperature. Therefore, all these meth-
ods involve a complete or at least partial
formation of a capillary system in the wide
joint clearances.
Lets start with the methods applicable
for brazing in air. The easiest way is to put
a thin steel mesh or even steel turning in
the joint clearance in order to form a cap-
Fig. 1 Steel tubes brazed with two wire rings that close the wide joint clearance from
both sides.
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21 WELDING JOURNAL
illary system there. Firstly, both the mesh
and the turning should be carefully
cleaned in acetone and alcohol. Secondly,
the mesh should have large cells, prefer-
ably bigger than 0.08 0.08 in. (2 2 mm)
in order to create conditions for flow of
liquid flux and braze alloy into the joint, as
well as to provide free evacuation of gases
and slag. Appropriately, the capillary sys-
tem made with the steel turning should
provide the same.
Two drawbacks of this method are the
practically inevitable porosity of the joint
metal, and bad fillet formation. This
means that this approach can be recom-
mended only for joining tubes that do not
work under fatigue loading or need to be
air- and leakproof.
The next method is more complicated
because it includes preparation of two ad-
ditional parts and a change of the joint de-
sign, but it is more reliable. You can make
two rings (Fig. 1) from steel wire that have
a diameter bigger than the width of your
largest joint clearance to be brazed. The
inside diameter of the rings should fit the
OD of the tube as shown in Fig. 1. Both
wire rings are fixed at the edges of the joint
when you assemble the tubes before braz-
ing. Then, you can braze the steel tubes
using your regular process either by in-
duction or torch brazing with the flux.
Wire rings form local capillary gaps in the
entrance and exit of the wide joint clear-
ance. These local capillaries hold liquid
filler metal inside the wide joint clearance.
After two or three trials, you should find
the process parameters that give the best
fully dense joints. Placing a part of the
filler metal and flux inside the joint clear-
ance before heating usually helps.
The third approach is most widely used
in the industry; however, it is suitable only
for furnace brazing. The filler metal is pre-
pared in the form of paste containing the
brazing alloy powder and a filler powder.
The filler has melting temperature higher
than that of the braze alloy. For example,
the brazing paste comprises 60% of yellow
brass powder as the braze alloy and 40%
of steel or iron powder as the filler. The
iron particles in the filler do not melt at
brazing temperature and form a capillary
system in the joint. The filler is infiltrated
with the liquid braze alloy, and the result-
ing joint metal has a composite
macrostructure. Figure 2 shows a typical
structure of a wide joint clearance brazed
with this type of composite brazing paste.
Figure 3 illustrates that even ultrawide
joint clearances of different shapes can be
brazed using this method.
This method is successfully used for
brazing stainless steel or superalloy joints
having asymmetric configurations such as
for repairing compressor or turbine
blades, nozzles, etc. Brazing is done in vac-
uum furnaces, and the composite braze
mixture or paste comprises a nickel-based
eutectic alloy as the melting phase and a
base metal or similar alloy powder as the
not-melting filler. The advantages and
drawbacks follow from the nature of this
process. On the one hand, one can easily
adjust the ratio between the braze and
filler particles in the paste in order to den-
sify joint clearances of any width and
shape. On the other hand, there are no
standard applications, and the user always
has to test and optimize the composition
of such double-phase brazing materials
experimentally.
Fig. 3 Ultrawide joint clearances of asymmetric geometry brazed with a composite filler
metal containing 60% braze alloy and 40% iron powder.
This column is written sequentially by
TIM P. HIRTHE, ALEXANDER E.
SHAPIRO, and DAN KAY. Hirthe and
Shapiro are members of and Kay is an ad-
visor to the C3 Committee on Brazing and
Soldering. All three have contributed to the
5th edition of AWS Brazing Handbook.
Hirthe (timhirthe@aol.com) currently
serves as a BSMC vice chair and owns his
own consulting business.
Shapiro (ashapiro@titanium-braz-
ing.com) is brazing products manager at Ti-
tanium Brazing, Inc., Columbus, Ohio.
Kay (Dan@kaybrazing.com), with 40
years of experience in the industry, operates
his own brazing training and consulting
business.
Readers are requested to post their ques-
tions for use in this column on the Brazing
Forum section of the BSMC Web site
www.brazingandsoldering.com.
Fig. 2 Macrostructure of a wide joint
clearance, steel tubing joint brazed with a
composite filler metal that includes up to
40% of not-melted powder. This powder
forms a capillary system in the joint
clearance.
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Brazing Q+A August_Layout 1 7/12/12 4:30 PM Page 21
PRODUCT & PRINT
SPOTLIGHT
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23 WELDING JOURNAL
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AUGUST 2012 24
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continued on page 27
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27 WELDING JOURNAL
continued on page 99
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canadian welding bureau_FP_TEMP 7/10/12 1:22 PM Page 28
V
arious stainless steel welding electrodes and processes
were evaluated to determine their potential hexavalent
chromium [Cr(VI)] emissions or generation rates. Com-
parisons were made to help end users select the optimum solu-
tion for their welding application and fume control.
Welding fume generation rates and analyses were done using
gas metal arc welding (GMAW), flux cored arc welding
(FCAW), metal cored arc welding (MCAW), and shielded metal
arc welding (SMAW) processes. Stainless steel electrodes in
the ferritic, austenitic, martensitic, and duplex grades were used
for these tests. The submerged arc welding (SAW) and gas tung-
sten arc welding (GTAW) processes and electrodes were not
evaluated in this study because their fume emissions are ex-
tremely low (Refs. 14).
The effects on Cr(VI) generation rates were studied for dif-
ferent electrode slag systems, product designs, and welding pa-
rameters. Shielding gases and their effects on Cr(VI) emission
rates were also evaluated for the GMAW, FCAW, and MCAW
processes.
Collecting and Analyzing Fumes
When joining or cladding with the stainless steel electrodes
evaluated in this investigation, Cr(VI) is one of the major weld-
ing fume constituent that must be controlled to provide safe
working environments and to meet industry regulation require-
ments. Although there are other constituents (i.e., manganese,
nickel, etc.) in stainless steel welding fumes, this investigation
only provides Cr(VI) data. Also, the various options for con-
trolling welding fumes by extraction methods or personal pro-
tective equipment are not addressed.
Because there are many welding processes and electrodes
used for joining and cladding stainless steels, it is useful to un-
derstand fume emission rates when selecting a combination for
an application or workplace. Welding engineers use welding
deposition efficiencies, technical advantages, and welding costs
to select a welding process and electrode for stainless steel ap-
plications. However, the need to understand fume emission dif-
ferences of these processes and electrodes is also important be-
cause of the very low permissible exposure limit (PEL) for
Cr(VI) in most countries. For instance, a few years ago, the Oc-
cupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reduced
the PEL for Cr(VI) from 0.052 to 0.005 mg/m
3
. Because Cr(VI)
is one of the key components of the welding fume to control
when welding or cladding stainless steels, it is the area studied
in this work. However, to fully comply with OSHA and other
regulatory requirements, workers should be monitored for po-
tential exposures to all major fume constituents on a regular
basis to assure safe work practices.
When comparing fume emissions of welding processes or
electrodes, the methods used for collecting and analyzing fumes
must be clearly defined. In the United States comparative fume
data may be generated in the laboratory using procedures de-
fined in AWS F1:2:2006, Laboratory Method for Measuring Fume
Generation Rates and Total Fume Emission of Welding and Al-
lied Processes. However, potential fume exposure data for
welders are often obtained through the use of AWS F1.1M:2006,
Method for Sampling Airborne Particulates Generated by Welding
and Allied Processes. AWS F1.5M:2003, Methods for Sampling
and Analyzing Gases from Welding and Allied Processes, may also
be used in field situations for monitoring gases in the work-
place. Other similar specifications and methods are used
throughout the world. Therefore, the actual results and units
used for collecting data from these various methods cannot al-
ways be directly compared.
The comparisons between welding processes and electrodes
in this study (using AWS F1.2 procedures) are meant to pro-
vide fabricators with information to help select the optimum
solution for their stainless steel arc welding applications and
fume control. However, because electrode manufacturers make
29 WELDING JOURNAL
This study analyzed a variety of processes, consumables, and shielding
gas combinations to better understand fume emission rates for
stainless steel joining and cladding applications
STAN FERREE and FRANK
LAKE are with ESAB Welding and
Cutting Products, Hanover, Pa.
Factors that Affect
Hexavalent Chromium
Emissions
BY STAN FERREE AND
FRANK LAKE
Ferree_Layout 1 7/10/12 9:07 AM Page 29
products using different processes, materials, and formulations,
the fumes from electrodes of the same classification may be dif-
ferent.
Welding Fume
Generation Rates
The solid particulates or constituents that evolve in the weld-
ing plume during arc welding can be measured and the quan-
tity used for various calculations. One of the areas of interest is
the fume generation rate (FGR), which may also be described
as fume emission rate (FER). These calculations may be in units
of weight of fume per arc welding time, weight of fume per weld
deposited, or weight of fume per weight of electrode consumed.
For this study, the FGR was assessed by the weight of fume per
arc welding time.
Effects of Welding Current and Electrode Type
In this section, for general comparisons of welding processes,
welding fume generation rates were done with 3XX series stain-
less steel electrodes using the GMAW, FCAW, MCAW, and
SMAW processes. Three types of FCAW electrodes were eval-
uated. They were classified by the American Welding Society
(AWS) A5.22/A5.22M:2010 specification as EXXXT0-3 (flat
position, self-shielded), EXXXT0-1 (flat position, 100% CO
2
shielded), and EXXXT1-4 (all-positional, 75% Ar/25% CO
2
shielded). The SMAW basic rutile electrodes classified by AWS
A5.4/A5.4M:2006 as EXXX-16 were also evaluated. The
MCAW and GMAW electrodes were ECXXX and ERXXX
types classified to AWS A5.22/A5.22M:2010 and
A5.9/A5.9M:2010, respectively (98% Ar/2% O
2
shielded). Var-
ious electrode sizes and welding currents were used to produce
fume generation data.
As shown in Fig. 1, the FGR increased as current increased.
Increasing current increases the surface temperature and va-
porization rate of the molten droplets crossing the arc (Refs. 2,
5). This trend has been reported by many authors for various
types of electrodes (Refs. 212). The self-shielded and the CO
2
-
shielded flux cored electrodes produced similar FGR trends,
which were the highest levels of the electrodes tested. The FGR
of the 75% Ar/25% CO
2
-shielded all-positional flux cored elec-
trode was 10 to 25% lower than those two cored wires, but 30
to 40% higher than the SMAW E3XX-16 electrode. The MCAW
electrodes FGR was 40 to 75% lower than the SMAW elec-
trode, but still slightly higher than the lowest FGR levels pro-
duced by the GMAW electrode.
In general, the electrodes containing slag systems produced
higher FGRs than the solid and metal cored electrodes. This
was partially due to the melting, vaporization, and condensa-
AUGUST 2012 30
Fig. 1 Fume generation rate: electrode type vs. current.
Fig. 2 Fume generation rate vs. current and shielding gas
for flux cored electrodes designed for welding in the flat and
horizontal positions.
Fig. 3 Fume generation rate vs. current and shielding gas
for flux cored electrodes designed for welding in all positions.
Fig. 4 Fume generation rate vs. current for SMAW elec-
trodes.
1
2
3
4
Ferree_Layout 1 7/10/12 9:07 AM Page 30
tion of some slag components, as well as their arc transfer char-
acteristics (Refs. 2, 612). The MCAW and GMAW electrodes
contained little or no slag components, and they were also
welded in a more inert atmosphere (98% Ar/2% O
2
), which re-
duced the oxidation rate of molten droplets crossing the arc,
and therefore their FGR (Refs. 2, 5). The MCAW electrodes
FGR was slightly higher than the GMAW solid electrode be-
cause the metallic particles in its core were more easily melted
and oxidized crossing the arc.
Effects of Shielding Gas
The gas shielded types of stainless steel flux cored electrodes
are often used with 100% CO
2
or 7580% Ar/rem CO
2
shield-
ing gases. Other gas combinations may also be approved for
some electrodes and welding applications. Therefore, the cored
wire manufacturer should always be contacted for its recom-
mendations if a different shielding gas is contemplated.
Fume generation rate tests were done on various flux cored
electrodes designed for welding in the flat and horizontal posi-
tions using a 100% CO
2
shielding gas (E3XXT0-1). Since the
same products were also designed for Ar/CO
2
mixtures
(E3XXT0-4), another set of tests were done using a 75% Ar/25%
CO
2
shielding gas. The FGR results are shown in Fig. 2.
The FGR results were about 25% lower when using 75%
Ar/25% CO
2
. Higher fume levels were emitted when using the
CO
2
shielding gas because it oxidized more molten droplets
during the transfer across the arc (Refs. 2, 57, 9, 10, 12, 15,
and 17). The more unstable arc transfer with the CO
2
shielding
gas also contributed to the higher FGR because the molten
droplets spent more time in the high-temperature arc atmos-
phere, which increased the oxidation rate (Refs. 2, 57).
A similar series of FGR tests were done on flux cored elec-
trodes designed for good welding performance in all positions
(E3XXT1-1 and E3XXT1-4). The FGR results are shown in
Fig. 3. Again, the 75% Ar/25% CO
2
shielding gas produced
lower FGR, but only about 10%.
Effects of SMAW Electrode Coating Type
Over the years, three major SMAW electrode coating types
were developed for stainless steel applications. They are classi-
fied by AWS A5.4 as EXXX-16 (rutile coating), EXXX-15 (basic
coating), and EXXX-17 (acid-rutile coating). A series of FGR
tests as done on each type to determine the effects of the coat-
ing type. The FGR results are shown in Fig. 4.
The E3XX-17 type produced slightly higher fume emissions
(1015%) because it was designed with the largest coating thick-
ness or percentage (weight of coating per weight of total elec-
trode). No significant differences were found between the
E3XX-15 and E3XX-16 electrodes.
31 WELDING JOURNAL
Fig. 5 Cr(VI) in welding fumes vs. Cr in the weld metal.
Fig. 6 Cr(VI) in E309L-17 welding fumes vs. current and
size.
Fig. 7 Cr(VI)GR of an E309L-17 electrode vs. current and
size.
Fig. 8 Cr(VI)GR for alloys of 1.2-mm self-shielded flux
cored electrodes.
5
6
7
8
Ferree_Layout 1 7/10/12 9:08 AM Page 31
Hexavalent Chromium in Welding Fumes
Previous investigators found the chromium (Cr) content in
welding fumes consisted of complex Cr(III) and Cr(VI) com-
pounds (Refs. 8, 11, 12). The tests conducted for this paper
found similar results, but only the Cr(VI) content was studied.
Welding fume samples were collected using AWS F1:2:2006
procedures and Cr(VI) analyses were done using OSHA ID215
methods.
Effects of Alloy Grade and Electrode Type
Fume samples were analyzed using various stainless steel al-
loys of the electrode types tested in Fig. 1. The average results
for the Cr(VI) level in the fumes are shown in Fig. 5. The weld
metal Cr content represents the levels typically found in the
308, 316, 309, and 312 alloys.
As expected, the Cr(VI) level in the fumes increased as the
Cr content in the weld metal increased. However, some inter-
esting differences in Cr(VI) levels of the fumes were found be-
tween the electrodes and the results did not follow the same
order as found with FGR tests in Fig. 1.
The SMAW electrodes (E3XX-16) produced the highest
Cr(VI) levels in the fumes, followed by the self-shielded flux
cored electrodes (E3XXT0-3). The all-positional FCAW elec-
trodes (E3XXT1-4) and the MCAW electrodes (EC3XX) pro-
duced similar Cr(VI) levels, which were substantially lower than
the previous two types. The flat position FCAW CO
2
electrodes
(E3XXT0-1), which produced one of the highest FGR, had
fairly low Cr(VI) levels. And, these levels were similar to the
GMAW (ER3XX) solid electrodes.
The exact mechanisms for Cr(VI) emissions in welding fumes
are not clearly understood. However, several researchers re-
ported that the slag compositions, especially the types of arc
stabilizers used, influence the Cr(VI) level in welding fumes
(Refs. 1216). Most researchers found that potassium com-
pounds create more Cr(VI), while sodium- and lithium-based
arc stabilizers produce lower levels.
Effects of Current on an
E309L-17 SMAW Electrode
A series of fume tests was done on four sizes of an E309L-
17 electrode to determine if the Cr(VI) level in the fume would
be affected by current. As shown in Fig. 6, the Cr(VI) level de-
creased as the current and electrode size increased. The rea-
sons for this trend were not clear.
AUGUST 2012 32
Fig. 9 Cr(VI)GR for alloys of 1.2-mm metal cored elec-
trodes.
Fig. 10 Cr(VI)GR for alloys of 3.2-mm EXXX-15 SMAW
electrodes.
Fig. 11 Cr(VI)GR for 1.2-mm metal cored and solid wire
308L electrodes.
Fig. 12 Cr(VI)GR for 309L electrodes of various welding
processes.
9
10
11
12
Ferree_Layout 1 7/10/12 9:08 AM Page 32
Hexavalent Chromium
Generation Rate
As previously discussed, many variables affect the fume gen-
eration rates and the Cr(VI) level in the welding fumes of stain-
less steel electrodes. To better compare the differences of weld-
ing fumes generated by the various stainless steel electrodes
and welding processes, this section evaluated hexavalent
chromium generation rates [Cr(VI)GR]. To determine
Cr(VI)GR, the %Cr(VI) in the welding fume was multiplied
by the FGR (g/min), and the units were adjusted to mg/min.
Effects of Current on an
E309L-17 SMAW Electrode
The FGR data from Fig. 4 and the Cr(VI) levels from Fig. 6
were used to calculate the Cr(VI)GR for an E309L-17 SMAW
electrode, as shown in Fig. 7. From these calculations, it is clear
that Cr(VI)GR increased as the current and electrode size in-
creased, which was not clear from the results shown in Fig. 6.
The Cr(VI)GR increased about 50% when using the 4.0-mm
size (195 A) vs. the 2.4-mm size (80 A).
Effects of Alloy Grade and Electrode Type
The Cr(VI)GR were studied for 309L, 308L, and 316L al-
loys of 1.2 mm self-shielded flux cored electrodes, 1.2 mm metal
cored electrodes, and 3.2 mm E3XX-15 SMAW electrodes. The
results are shown in Figs. 810.
In all cases, the Cr(VI)GR decreased as the total Cr in the
electrode or weld metal decreased. The SMAW electrodes had
the highest Cr(VI)GR, followed by the self-shielded flux cored
electrodes. The metal cored electrodes produced the lowest
Cr(VI)GR, even at much higher current and voltage levels, be-
cause of the fairly inert shielding gas (98% Ar/2% O
2
) used for
these tests and their no slag system design. The higher
Cr(VI)GR of the other electrodes could be attributed to the
potassium and sodium components in their slag systems and
their overall higher FGR (Refs. 1216).
Although some general trends in Cr(VI)GR were found be-
tween the welding processes, the results must be carefully in-
terpreted. It may appear that the SMAW electrodes Cr(VI)GR
were up to 100% higher than the other processes. However, in
practice, the continuous wire processes would likely produce
more actual arc welding time and fumes than SMAW electrodes.
Therefore, it is difficult to make direct comparisons from labo-
ratory data without knowing the actual variables in a given weld-
ing shop.
33 WELDING JOURNAL
Fig. 13 Cr(VI)GR for 309L gas shielded FCAW-G elec-
trodes vs. current and shielding gas type.
Fig. 14 Cr(VI)GR vs. shielding gas for 2.4-mm self-shielded
FCAW-S electrode compared to 1.6 mm gas-shielded FCAW-
G electrode.
Fig. 15 FGR vs. shielding gas for 2.4-mm self-shielded
FCAW-S electrode compared to 1.6 mm gas-shielded FCAW-
G electrode.
Fig. 16 Cr(VI) in fumes vs. shielding gas for 2.4-mm self-
shielded FCAW-S electrode compared to 1.6 mm gas-
shielded FCAW-G electrode.
13
14
15
16
Ferree_Layout 1 7/10/12 9:09 AM Page 33
Another test was conducted to determine the Cr(VI)GR dif-
ferences between similar continuous wire processes. A 308L
alloy grade of a 1.2-mm metal cored electrode and a 1.2-mm
solid wire were welded using the same shielding gas and simi-
lar current and voltage. The results are shown in Fig. 11.
The solid wire electrodes Cr(VI)GR was about 75% lower
than the metal cored type. Since some of the Cr of the metal
cored electrode came from Cr powder additions to the core, it
is likely that the formation of Cr(VI) in the welding fumes oc-
curred faster because of the increased surface area of these par-
ticles, which were more readily vaporized and oxidized crossing
the arc column.
To compare the Cr(VI)GR differences between welding
processes, 309L electrodes were used to evaluate SMAW
(E309L-17), FCAW-S (E309LT0-3), FCAW-G (E309LT0-4,
E309LT0-1, and E309LT1-4), and GMAW (ER309LSi) prod-
ucts. The welding current was optimized for each process and
as similar as possible. The results are shown in Fig. 12.
The SMAW and self-shielded flux cored electrodes produced
the highest Cr(VI)GR. The Cr(VI)GR of gas-shielded flux
cored wire designed for welding in the flat and horizontal posi-
tions (flat) was reduced about 70% by using 100% CO
2
shield-
ing gas compared to 75% Ar/25% CO
2
. The Cr(VI)GR of the
all-positional (AP) flux cored electrode (E309LT1-4) was about
40% less than the flat position type (E309LT0-4) when using a
75% Ar/25% CO
2
shielding gas. The GMAW solid wire had the
lowest Cr(VI)GR.
The differences in the electrodes flux compositions (from
the coating or core) produced the differences in Cr(VI)GR.
The SMAW and self-shielded flux cored electrodes contained
various potassium and sodium compounds and some volatile
compounds like carbonates and fluorides. The gas-shielded flux
cored electrodes slag systems had relatively high levels of tita-
nium dioxide, which is not as volatile and it also acts as an arc
stabilizer. Therefore, less potassium and sodium compounds
were required to achieve a stable arc compared to SMAW and
self-shielded flux cored electrodes. The GMAW solid wire elec-
trode contained extremely low potassium and sodium com-
pounds (on the wire surface) and no slag, which helped pro-
duce low FGR and Cr(VI)GR.
Effects of Shielding Gas and
Current: FCAW-G Types
The effects of shielding gas composition and welding cur-
rent on Cr(VI)GR were evaluated on a 309L alloy grade of two
gas-shielded flux cored electrodes. One of the flux cored elec-
trodes was designed for welding in flat/horizontal positions
(E309LT0-1 and E309LT0-4), and one was an AP type
(E309LT1-4). The flat type was evaluated using 100% CO
2
and
75% Ar/25% CO
2
. The AP type was evaluated with 75% Ar/25%
CO
2
.
As shown in Fig. 13, all products showed an increase in
Cr(VI)GR as the welding current increased. The Cr(VI)GR of
the flat positional electrode was reduced about 5570% by using
a 100% CO
2
shielding gas instead of 75% Ar/25% CO
2
. The
Cr(VI)GR of the AP positional electrode was similar to the flat
type when using 75% Ar/25% CO
2
.
The effects of the welding current on Cr(VI)GR was antici-
pated because of the strong influence it also has on FGR, as
shown in Figs. 13. The substantial decrease in Cr(VI)GR with
the 100% CO
2
shielding gas was not expected since the FGR
was higher, as shown in Fig. 2, with this gas. However, other in-
vestigators found that CO
2
reduces the quantity of ozone avail-
able for oxidation of Cr to Cr(VI), and it also provides better
protection of the arc because it is denser than 75% Ar/25% CO
2
(Refs. 12, 13, 17).
Effects of Shielding Gas on a FCAW-S Electrode
The effects of adding a 100% CO
2
shielding gas to a self-
shielded flux cored electrode were evaluated because of the in-
teresting results found in Fig. 13. Experiments were done using
a 2.4-mm E309LT0-3 electrode by running tests without an ex-
ternal shielding gas and using a 100% CO
2
shielding gas at two
levels of gas flow (30 and 70 ft
3
/h, 0.9 and 2.0 m
3
/h). The results
were compared to a 1.6 mm gas-shielded flat positional elec-
trode welded with the same gas and a similar current, as shown
in Fig. 14.
Using a 100% CO
2
shielding gas on the self-shielded flux
cored electrode reduced the Cr(VI)GR by 80%, although the
actual FGR increased about 45%, as shown in Fig. 15. How-
ever, as shown in Fig. 16, the Cr(VI) level in the welding fumes
was reduced about 85% when using the CO
2
shielding gas. No
significant differences in Cr(VI)GR, which was similar to the
gas-shielded flat positional electrode, were found between the
two gas flow rates. It should be noted that the ferrite in the weld
metal would increase substantially when welding a self-shielded
AUGUST 2012 34
Fig. 17 Cr(VI)GR for 1.6-mm gas-shielded FCAW elec-
trodes (all-positional) vs. alloy type (Cr in weld metal).
Fig. 18 Cr(VI)GR for 3.2-mm EXXX-16 SMAW electrodes
vs. alloy type (Cr in weld metal).
17
18
Ferree_Layout 1 7/10/12 9:09 AM Page 34
flux cored electrode with a CO
2
shielding gas. The gas would
provide better protection of the solidifying weld from the at-
mosphere, which would decrease the nitrogen level and increase
the ferrite content.
The reduction in Cr(VI)GR when using the CO
2
shielding
gas with the self-shielded flux cored electrode was possibly due
to the less oxidizing properties of this gas compared to air, a
lower arc temperature, differences in arc transfer characteris-
tics and a reduction in ozone (Refs. 5, 7, 16, 17).
Typical Cr(VI)GR for Various Stainless Steel Alloys
Various Cr(VI)GR tests were conducted to study the effects
of alloy compositions and electrode types. Optimum current
and voltage settings were used for each group of tests.
In most cases, the Cr(VI)GR increased as the Cr content in
the weld metal increased, as shown in Figs. 1719. However, as
shown in Fig. 17, the Cr(VI)GR for the all-positional FCAW
E410NiMoT1-4 electrode was slightly higher than expected for
its relatively low weld metal Cr content (11.5% Cr). This oc-
curred because the product design and slag components were
different than the other products tested. Also, as shown in Fig.
18, the SMAW E320LR-16 electrode (20% Cr) produced an
equivalent Cr(VI)GR as the E312-16 alloy (29% Cr) even
though there were substantial differences in the Cr content in
the weld metal. Again, this occurred because of differences in
coating formulations between the two types.
The Cr(VI)GR of the duplex stainless steel types were simi-
lar at the welding parameters used in these tests, as shown in
Fig. 20. The SMAW E2209-17 results were also higher than ex-
pected, based on the Cr content in the weld metal. Again, this
occurred because of differences in coating formulations com-
pared to the other E3XX-16 SMAW electrodes.
Conclusions
Various stainless steel welding electrodes, processes, and pa-
rameters were evaluated to determine their effects on hexava-
lent chromium generation rates in welding fumes. Below are
the conclusions from this work.
1) For all electrodes and welding processes, the FGR and
Cr(VI)GR increased as the welding current was increased.
2) The FGR varied substantially between product types,
welding processes, and welding parameters. The self-shielded
flux cored and the gas-shielded (using 100% CO
2
) flux cored
electrodes produced the highest FGR. The GMAW solid wire
and metal cored electrodes produced the lowest FGR.
3) The FGR of the gas-shielded flux cored electrodes was
reduced about 1020% with a 75% Ar/25% CO
2
shielding gas
compared to 100% CO
2
.
4) No major differences in FGR were found between the
three SMAW electrode types.
5) The Cr(VI) levels, expressed as a percentage of the total
fume, varied significantly between the electrode types and weld-
ing parameters. However, since the FGR also played a role in
the final Cr(VI)GR, the %Cr(VI) in the welding fumes could
not be used as a final comparison between welding electrodes,
processes, and parameters.
6) The Cr(VI)GR increased as the Cr content of the elec-
trode and weld metal increased. Although this trend was ex-
pected, it was not possible to use the final weld metal Cr con-
tent to estimate the Cr(VI)GR when comparing different elec-
trodes. This occurred because the electrodes composition and
slag system greatly influenced the FGR and Cr(VI)GR.
7) When comparing 309L alloyed electrodes, the self-
shielded flux cored and SMAW electrodes produced the high-
est Cr(VI)GR. The GMAW solid wire and the gas-shielded flux
cored electrode (using 100% CO
2
) produced the lowest
Cr(VI)GR.
8) The Cr(VI)GR decreased about 5570% when using a
100% CO
2
shielding gas compared to a 75% Ar/25% CO
2
gas
to weld the gas-shielded flux cored electrodes designed for flat
and horizontal positions (E309LT0-1 vs. E309LT0-4).
9) Using a 100% CO
2
shielding gas to weld a self-shielded
flux cored electrode (E309LT0-3) decreased the Cr(VI)GR by
80%. However, the weld metal ferrite level would be expected
to increase significantly.
10) In general, the lowest Cr(VI)GR were found at low cur-
rents, using GMAW solid wires, and a 100% CO
2
shielding gas
for gas shielded flux cored electrodes.
Summary and Cautions
The data and comments included in this report are for gen-
eral references only. The only way to determine whether the
fume levels and any elements in the fumes, like Cr(VI), Mn,
etc., are meeting the requirements of OSHA, ACGIH, or other
regulatory agencies is by measuring the fumes at the workers
35 WELDING JOURNAL
Fig. 19 Cr(VI)GR for 4.0-mm EXXX-16 SMAW electrode
vs. alloy type (Cr in weld metal).
Fig. 20 Cr(VI)GR for 4.0-mm E2209-17 SMAW and 1.6-mm
E2209T1-4 FCAW-G electrodes.
19
20
Ferree_Layout 1 7/10/12 9:10 AM Page 35
breathing zone. There are many variables
in the workplace that will affect the po-
tential fume exposure levels that work-
ers may experience. Therefore, welding
fabricators must measure fume levels and
fume constituents at their work stations
to assure compliance to laws and safe
welding practices. Calculations from data
developed in the lab should only be used
as guidelines for selecting a potential
process or product. Also, the appropri-
ate Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
should always be consulted to determine
the potential hazards of a product.
References
1. EPA AP-42, Section 12.19. 1994.
Development of Particulate and Haz-
ardous Emission Factors for Electric Arc
Welding.
2. Heile, R. F., and Hill, D. C. 1975.
Particulate fume generation in arc weld-
ing processes. Welding Journal 54(7): 201-
s to 210-s.
3. Evans, R. M., et al. 1979. Fumes and
Gases in the Welding Environment, AWS,
Miami, Fla.
4. BG Rules for Occupational Health
and Safety, Welding Fumes. 2006. Jan.,
Section 5.
5. Kobayashi, M., et al. 1978. Some
considerations about formation mecha-
nism of welding fumes. Welding in the
World 16(11/12): 238249.
6. Moreton, J., et al. 1981. Flux-Cored
Wire Welding Fume Emission Rates and
Fume Composition. The Welding Insti-
tute Research Bulletin 22(2).
7. Carter, G. J., and Worrall, D. A.
1984. A Review of Factors Influencing Par-
ticulate Fume Emission During Arc Weld-
ing. The Welding Institute Research Bul-
letin 257, Dec.
8. Moreton, J., et al. 1985. Fume emis-
sion when welding stainless steel. Metal
Construction, Dec.
9. Carter, G. J. 1989. Fume Emission
Rate and Composition for Flux-Cored Arc
Welding of Stainless Steel Using All-Posi-
tional Consumables. The Welding Insti-
tute Research Report 409, Sept.
10. Ferree, S. E. 1995. New genera-
tion of cored wire creates less fume and
spatter. Welding Journal 74(12): 4549.
11. Kimura, S., et al. Investigation on
Chromium in Stainless Steel Welding
Fumes, IIW II-286-79 report.
12. Metal Fume Research Group at
University of Bradford. 1991. Ozone and
Oxides of Nitrogen Formation in
MIG/MAG and Self Shielded Continuous
Welding and Their Relation to Hexavalent
Chromium Formation, Report 9203.
13. Dennis, J. H., et al. Control of Oc-
cupational Exposure to Hexavalent
Chromium and Ozone in Tubular Wire Arc
Welding Processes by Replacement of
Potassium by Lithium or by Additions of
Zinc. University of Bradford, UK report.
14. Davey, T. J., et al. 1987. An assess-
ment of flux cored wire welding of Type
316L Parts 1 and 2, Metal Construc-
tion, Aug. and Sept.
15. Hewitt, P. J. 1994. Reducing Fume
Emissions Through Process Parameter Se-
lections, Occupational Hygiene, Vol. 1, pp.
3545.
16. Miyazaki, et al. Reduction of Solu-
ble Hexavalent Chromium in Welding
Fumes of Stainless Steel Flux-Cored Wires,
IIW XII-1725-02.
17. Hewitt, P. J., et al. 1988. The influ-
ence of gas composition and flow rate on
fume formation in the macro environ-
ments of welding arcs, school of environ-
mental science. Ventilation Proceedings,
University of Bradford.
AUGUST 2012 36
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
Ferree_Layout 1 7/10/12 9:10 AM Page 36
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mercer abrasives_FP_TEMP 7/10/12 2:12 PM Page 37
AUGUST 2012 38
T
he quality of cutting and beveling
operations can have a major im-
pact on subsequent fabrication
processes. Imprecise cutting and edge
beveling can result in faulty fitups that in
turn lead to unsatisfactory welds plus the
expense to rework.
Larger shops perform these opera-
tions accurately with CNC cutting equip-
ment using oxyacetylene, plasma, laser,
waterjet, or carbon arc gouging. But
smaller shops, relying on variable-speed
carriages that are limited to straight-line
and circle cutting, or on a manual
workers skills, are most at risk for en-
countering fitup problems and poor qual-
ity welds.
In the field, efforts to make precise
cuts and bevels are complicated when
they must be performed under adverse
weather and working conditions. Increas-
ingly, automated processes using pro-
grammable variable-speed carriages are
being employed to achieve high-quality
cutting and beveling at many work sites
worldwide.
Carriages Mounted on
Rigid or Flexible Tracks
Rigid-track, programmable, variable-
speed carriages (Fig. 1) are normally mi-
croprocessor-based or electronically con-
trolled. The former technology along with
the tach feedback controls offers a steady
and accurate drive at very low speeds. The
carriages are mounted on rigid aluminum
tracks that are meshed with the pinion on
the carriages to make the drive positive in
all positions. Similarly, the flexible,
spring-steel tracks have accurately spaced
hole to mesh with the pinion of the car-
riage, assurring a positive drive.
The tracks, normally 8 ft long, can be
joined together with a simple fastening
mechanism to make longer sections.
Then the tracks can be formed to follow
the contours of the weldment. Powerful
magnets, attached at regular intervals, se-
cure the tracks to the workpiece and pro-
vide the track stiffness necessary to pro-
duce high-quality cuts Fig. 2. When
the tracks must be secured to a nonfer-
rous (nonmagnetic) surface, the magnets
are replaced with vacuum cups Fig. 3.
The carriages can be fitted with brack-
etry to facilitate clamping the torch onto
a swiveling device, which acts as a pivot
point. This permits positioning the torch
at the desired angle. Slides are provided
for the operator to manually adjust the
vertical and horizontal settings to control
the arc length and edge alignment during
the cutting or beveling process.
Additional accessories available as
add-ons include a mechanical height sen-
sor to maintain a consistent gap between
the torch tip and the work, remote con-
trol pendant, variable-speed motorized
rack arms, different lengths of rack arms,
and high- and low-speed gear trains.
Where multiple parallel cuts are re-
quired, two or more torches can be
mounted on one carriage to make the
cuts simultaneously.
Simple plate cutting and beveling op-
erations, as well as mitered and saddle
cuts can be carried out in situ on large-di-
ameter vessels.
Friction Drive, Trackless
Carriages
Friction-drive, trackless carriages are
similar to the all-position carriages (Fig.
4), but are used for downhill or slight in-
clines and horizontal cutting. They are
not as robust as the all-position carriages
that have the advantage of a rack-and-
pinion positive drive. The friction-drive
carriages were developed for fillet weld-
ing applications. This type of carriage is
ideal for successfully automating cutting
and beveling applications with increased
efficiency and reduced costs.
The friction-drive carriages track the
edge of the workpiece using idler wheels,
enabling the torch to run parallel to the
edge, hence achieving a clean straight
Automating OnSite
Beveling, Cutting, and Welding
Trackmounted programmable carriages
perform a number of metalprocessing
functions for small shops and in the field
BY NICK DRAKE AND
BISH MALKANI
NICK DRAKE (ndrake@gullco.com) and
BISH MALKANI are with Gullco Interna-
tional Ltd., Newmarket, Ont., Canada.
Fig. 1 Cutting a 12-in.-thick slab
using a carriage with rigid tracks.
Gullco feature August_Layout 1 7/10/12 9:02 AM Page 38
39 WELDING JOURNAL
line or curved cut Fig. 5. Two torches
can be used to make double bevels, or,
one torch to make a severance cut, and
the second torch to make the bevels.
A microprocessor control, including a
tach feedback loop, ensures that the car-
riage motion is maintained at the precise
preset speed regardless of the load it is
carrying (up to a 100-lb vertical load ca-
pacity).
Typical Applications
Typical in-situ cutting and beveling
applications include the following:
Fig. 2 Cutting application on a stor-
age tank using a carriage with flexible
tracks.
Fig. 3 Vacuum mounting system for
cutting or welding applications on non-
ferrous materials.
Gullco feature August_Layout 1 7/10/12 9:03 AM Page 39
AUGUST 2012 40
Circumferential all-position cutting of
defective circular shells, and replacement
of new shells on blast furnaces (for re-
pairs by welding).
Cutting of defective areas on trunions,
ladles, converters, rotary kilns, etc.
Cutting of billets, wear plates.
Accurate orbital cutting and beveling
of defective cement kiln shells, tires, etc.
Cutting and mitering of pipes, piles,
and so on at oil platform fabrication sites,
bridge foundations, etc.
Accurate all-position cutting and
beveling of blocks on ships during the
block-joining stages.
Carbon arc gouging equipment can be
mounted on the carriages to perform au-
tomatic gouging at high speeds, minimiz-
ing the monotonous and time-consuming
grinding and back chipping operations.
The carriages can be used for cutting
and dismantling storage tanks and dis-
carded heavy vessels and structures.
Accurate cutting and beveling the
edges of petals for spheres, heavy pres-
sure vessels, etc.
Variable-speed, motorized rack arms
are used for cutting of H-beams, rectan-
gular slots in piles can be performed.
Simple and low-cost multitorch gas
cutting gantries can be fabricated using
variable-speed carriages.
Aluminum formed rings are available
with legs on magnets for cutting/welding.
A typical 28-in.-diameter system can
cut/weld from 25- to 550-mm diameter
inside the ring, and 900- to 1400-mm
diameter outside the ring.
Case Study: Beveling
Kiln Cement Shells
The specifications for the kiln cement
shells and cutting parameters were as
follows.
Diameter: 4 and 4.5 m
Thickness: 50 to 60 mm
Edge preparation: V and double-V
groove
Travel speed: 20 to 50 cm/min
Acetylene gas pressure: 8 lb/in.
2
Oxygen pressure: 90 lb/in.
2
The equipment included all-position,
variable-speed, programmable carriages
running on flexible tracks attached to the
circumference of the shell with magnets.
The tracks were placed parallel to the
edge to be welded. A mechanical height
sensor was used to ensure consistent dis-
tance between the torch and the shell
plate as the shell was not perfectly round.
A defective portion of the shell was ac-
curately cut and removed. The same
equipment used for the cutting was used
to bevel the edges of the kiln by reposi-
tioning the torch and the carriage to the
desired bevel angle then repeating the
process for the bevel cut.
The new shell with the tire was also ac-
curately cut and beveled with the same
equipment, so that when it replaced the
old shell, it fit properly. After replacing
the gas cutting torch with a gas metal arc
welding torch, the same equipment was
used to orbitally weld the shell.
Using this technique, the welds were
produced at 70% arc-on time, greatly im-
proving on the previous procedure, both
through increased efficiency and higher
weld quality, and highly skilled trades-
men were not required to operate the
carriages. The versatility of the equip-
ment combined with the high accuracy of
the cuts and excellent weld quality saved
the client time and expense.
Case Study: Fabricating a
Stainless Steel Structure
A manufacturer was requested to fab-
ricate a complex stainless pipe/shell fab-
rication in a very short timeframe. The
Fig. 4 Bevel cut produced using a
trackless automation carriage.
Fig. 5 Bevel cut on a cement kiln
section during repair.
Gullco feature August_Layout 1 7/10/12 9:03 AM Page 40
biggest concern was making the critical
mitre cutting. The pipe/shell had an in-
side diameter of 1900 mm with varying
wall thicknesses of 16, 27, 43, and 50 mm.
The shells required accurate cuts of 90
deg, and mitres of 135 deg. The mitre-cut
issue was solved by fabricating a clamping
ring, which was clamped onto the pipe in
combination with another ring that held
the track for the carriage. This ring was
placed at 135 deg to the horizontal, and
held by the clamped ring by means of ad-
justable brackets.
The wire feeder, torch, welding brack-
etry, etc., on the standard Gullco Pipe
KAT carriage were stripped off, and the
carriage was retrofitted with simple
bracketry, slides, and a clamp for secur-
ing the plasma torch.
The stripped version of the carriage or-
bited at a preset speed around the pipe on
the ring placed at 135 deg to produce the
plasma-cut mitres that were required.
After the cuts were completed, the same
carriage was refitted with a wire feeder,
bracketry, and a gas metal arc welding
gun. The multipass welding was carried
out using oscillation. This project illus-
trates how one automated carriage was
adapted to perform accurate beveling and
welding operations as required with a min-
imum of equipment, labor, and expense.
Portable, HighSpeed
Plate Beveling Machines
Portable plate edge bevelers have
been available on the market for well
over a decade. While these units are not
variable-speed carriages that can orbit
around a vessel, they can be very useful
due to their portability and maneuver-
ability, and the high speeds at which they
can produce clean machined bevels. They
can bevel up to 10 ft/min, depending on
the capacity of the unit. An example is the
Gullco KBM 18 portable plate beveling
machine pictured in Fig. 6.
These plate beveling machines oper-
ate on the mechanical shear principle,
where clamp rollers grip the plate to be
beveled, and the cutting devices operate
at high speeds. There is no heat input, so
these units are ideal for producing accu-
rate bevels on long seams with no thermal
distortion nor need for grinding the plate
after the beveling process Fig. 7. These
machines can bevel carbon steels, stain-
less steels, and aluminum plates from 6 to
50 mm thick.
Advantages of Using
Automated Carriages
In summary, the advantages of using
programmable automated carriages for
cutting and beveling operations include
the following:
The carriages are versatile and re-
quire little maintenance.
They can be used for various cutting
processes including oxyacetylene, plasma
arc, waterjet, and carbon arc gouging, as
well as for welding applications.
They are simple to use and user
friendly. Skilled workers are not usually
required to operate them.
They are lightweight and portable.
Accessories are available to provide
flexibility to the cutting and beveling op-
erations using optional height sensors,
multiple torches, remote controls, mo-
torized rack boxes, etc.
The cuts and bevels are accurate and
clean, and root faces can be maintained.
41 WELDING JOURNAL
Fig. 6 A portable beveling machine
is shown making a continuous bevel on
superduplex steel plate.
Fig. 7 Long bevel produced on steel.
Gullco feature August_Layout 1 7/10/12 9:03 AM Page 41
AUGUST 2012 42
I
n a number of recent tests, shipyard
welding operations were found to be
in compliance with both the occupa-
tional exposure limits of manganese
(Mn) fume in workers personal breath-
ing zone (PBZ) and the way those
amounts are measured (Refs. 13). But
in 2009, the American Council of Gov-
ernment Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
issued a Notice of Intended Change
(NIC) that would reduce the allowable
levels by a factor of 10 and would for the
first time require measurement of Total,
Respirable, and Inhalable fume using
three separate testing procedures for this
single metallic element. Furthermore, in
early 2012, the proposed limit for Inhal-
able Mn fume was cut in half yet again
(Ref. 4).
To evaluate the impact of these pro-
posed changes, the National Shipbuild-
ing Research Program authorized a proj-
ect to measure the amounts of Mn fume
in the PBZ, using the proposed rules as
a guide. Testing was conducted during
various welding and industrial opera-
tions. Test sites included two commercial
shipyards, one naval shipyard, and one
fabricating facility. A total of 96 samples
were collected and analyzed in accor-
dance with U.S. standards.
This article relates the results of those
tests.
Background
Controlling welding fume emission
has long been the subject of strict regu-
lations, and the U.S. regulatory and ad-
visory organizations [Environmental Pro-
tection Agency (EPA), Occupational
Safety & Health Administration
PAUL BLOMQUIST (pblomquist@
appliedthermalsciences.com) is princi-
pal technologist, Laser Applications, Ap-
plied Thermal Sciences, Inc., Sanford,
Maine. DANIEL O. CHUTE, CIH, CSP, is
president, Atrium Environmental Health
& Safety Services, Reston, Va.
BY PAUL BLOMQUIST AND
DAN CHUTE
How Would Lower Limits for
Manganese Affect Welding?
A shipyard worker wears the three fil-
ters that may soon become required to
sample the amount of manganese fume
in his breathing zone while welding.
Proposed changes could have
far-reaching consequences for
most welding operations
Blomquist Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/12/12 3:58 PM Page 42
43 WELDING JOURNAL
(OSHA), ACGIH, and others] keep in-
creasing their scrutiny of more and more
weld fume components while simultane-
ously lowering the recommended and en-
forceable exposure limits. The 2009 NIC
from the ACGIH would enact a tenfold
reduction in the Threshold Limit Value
(TLV) for Mn, down to 0.02 mg/m
3
of air
over an 8-h period expressed as res-
pirable Mn. The 2009 NIC for Mn also
included a proposed limit of 0.2 mg/m
3
time-weighted average (TWA) for in-
halable Mn. If adopted, not only would
the allowable amount of Mn in weld fume
be lowered, but the proposed limit would
also require new air monitoring methods.
Whereas the established OSHA Permis-
sible Exposure Limit (PEL) and previ-
ous TLVs have always required the same
air monitoring process for the measure-
ment of total Mn, the newly proposed
TLV would require new methods for the
measurement of inhalable and res-
pirable particulate size fractions of Mn
in breathing zone air.
Following the new TLV would require
employers to collect and evaluate three
different types of breathing zone air sam-
ples (total, inhalable, and respirable) for
Mn fume. This triplicate air monitoring
burden for a single substance is unparal-
leled in previous occupational exposure
limits. Current exposure monitoring for
total Mn has always been in conjunc-
tion with other metals of interest; thus a
single pump/filter cassette unit is suffi-
cient to validate compliance with these
standards. An extensive literature search
revealed no prior published experience
with this type of three-way particle-size
testing for Mn in welding fume (Refs.
59). This proposed TLV for Mn remains
on the Notice of Intended Changes for
2012, with a further reduction of inhal-
able Mn to 0.1 mg/m
3
TWA.
The changes proposed in the new TLV
for Mn require totally different air sam-
pling methods from the historical OSHA
compliance methods followed for several
decades. At this time, there is no valid
means of comparison to determine
whether any correlation may be drawn
between previous air-sampling data for
Mn and compliance with the new and
drastically lowered occupational expo-
sure limit. In addition, no body of data
has been identified that has previously
studied this relationship. Thus, employ-
ers have no way to determine whether
their previously compliant welding op-
erations are operating above or below the
new limits. This data gap required a field
evaluation to determine whether any his-
torical air-sampling data may correlate
with the new air-sampling requirements
for inhalable and respirable Mn.
For this reason, the National Ship-
building Research Program (NSRP) au-
thorized a project to determine the im-
pact of these proposed rules on U.S. ship-
building operations. The goal of this proj-
ect was to determine whether air moni-
toring of representative tasks could be
used to establish estimated or predictable
ranges of exposure. These data would be
beneficial to the industry to reduce both
the labor and expense burden on individ-
ual shipyards and to provide a more
timely impact analysis of the effects of
these proposed changes.
In the literature, several sources were
examined to determine whether any data
were available that might be applied to
better define what, if any, predictable re-
lationship may exist between the total,
inhalable, and respirable particulate
components of the Mn found in welding
fume as measured in the PBZ of the weld-
ing operator using exposure monitoring
collection and analysis methods accepted
in American industry. No particle-size
data for Mn in welding were found. Fur-
ther, the whole question of whether
health effects may be attributable to
worker exposure to Mn in weld fume re-
mains murky at best. Some comparative
studies point out that Mn in weld fume
is not pure Mn, and the claims of health
effects are based on much higher expo-
sures to relatively pure Mn in other in-
dustries (Refs. 1016).
On-Site Air Monitoring
during Representative
Shipyard Welding
Operations
All project work was performed under
the technical direction of an American
Board of Industrial Hygiene (ABIH)
Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH) and
a CIH collected all air samples. Testing
conducted in each location followed an
identical process to ensure a valid com-
parison of results between each welding
method and each respective location and
operating condition. Personal breathing
zone and ambient area air samples were
collected in accordance with established
protocol for exposure monitoring for in-
halable and respirable Mn, using Insti-
tute of Medicine (IOM) samplers and
SKCcyclone inlets, respectively, as
needed for the particle size separation.
During each sampled event, a consistent
sample collection and analysis process
was followed to ensure the most valid
comparison of results between total, res-
pirable, and inhalable Mn. The field test-
ing plan included collecting samples dur-
ing seven welding and metalworking
processes. Processes tested included the
following:
Flux cored arc welding
Gas tungsten arc welding
Shielded metal arc welding
Pulsed gas metal arc welding
Carbon arc gouging
Grinding
Hybrid laser arc welding.
Air samples for Mn were collected in
accordance with three sampling methods
(see lead photo):
1. Total Mn Collection with 37-mm,
MCE 0.8-um filters in a closed-face
mode, calibrated at approximately 2.0
L/min.
2. Respirable Mn SKC aluminum
cyclone sample inlet, with unweighed 37-
mm, MCE 0.8-um filters in open-face
mode, calibrated at approximately 2.5
L/min.
3. Inhalable Mn IOM sampling
inlet with 25-mm, 0.8-um MCE filter, cal-
ibrated at approximately 2.0 L/min.
The sampling plan included two days
of full-shift on-site testing in each loca-
tion. Each day, samples were collected
from the following four locations:
L1, welding operator breathing zone;
L2, operators helper (or nearby
observer);
L3, area sample at nearest accessible
point to arc and fume generation; and
L4, area sample at point accessible to
observers or passersby.
Each sampling location was tested for
inhalable (I), respirable ( R), and total
(T) Mn. As proposed, each day gener-
ated 12 air samples (L1-I, L1-R, L1-T,
etc.) with a total of 24 air samples being
Fig. 1 Welder equipped for testing,
with three filter cassettes. Not shown
are the three pump units.
Blomquist Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/12/12 3:58 PM Page 43
AUGUST 2012 44
collected at the completion of the two-
day event. In addition, as required by
sampling methods, laboratory and field
blanks were submitted for quality assur-
ance. During air sampling operations, de-
tailed field notes and process informa-
tion were recorded to document perti-
nent technical information on welding
process performance such as run times,
weld speeds, filler and base metals used,
power use, root openings, and other data
necessary to effectively describe and base
conclusions on from this evaluation. The
three sets of filter cassettes are shown in
Fig. 1, and the pump units can be seen in
Fig. 2.
After being collected, the air samples
were submitted to a laboratory that suc-
cessfully participates in the American In-
dustrial Hygiene Associations Industrial
Hygiene Laboratory Accreditation Pro-
gram. Lab analysis complied with OSHA
Method 125G, with ICP/MS (Ref. 17).
Air sampling results have been compared
to applicable OSHA PELs and the cur-
rent and proposed ACGIH TLVs for
manganese.
Results and Discussion
All results for total Mn were well
below the OSHA PEL for Mn of 5 mg/m
3
(ceiling). Analysis of the data generated
revealed that the comparative relation-
ship between total, inhalable, and res-
pirable particulate sizes, however, did
not follow any consistent or predictable
pattern, raising serious questions regard-
ing the validity of the proposed test meth-
ods and equipment. In a significant num-
ber of samples, the values reported for
inhalable and/or respirable fume content
were greater than those of total Mn fume,
clearly an impossible result. The wild
variations seen in the relative compar-
isons of total, inhalable, and respirable
Mn in this study make any predictive
value assigned to these size-fractional
test methods unsupportable at this time.
A bar chart comparing the average
values recorded for each of the processes
tested is shown in Fig. 3. Clearly, GTAW
exhibited the lowest Mn fume values in
PBZ. Hybrid laser arc welding and
GMAW-P were lower than other
processes, but not quite at the level re-
quired if the proposed new TLV is
adopted. The red and yellow dashed lines
shown in Fig. 3 are the limits proposed
in the 2009 and 2012 NIC. Not shown,
due to scale, is the current OSHA PEL
of 5.0 mg/m
3
.
Table 1 summarizes the results. Note
that for Sample T4, the value recorded
for total Mn was 0.58
mg/m
3
Table 1A.
The value for res-
pirable fume was
equal to that, at 0.58
mg/m
3
Table 1C.
While it is credible that all of the fume
could be comprised entirely of the small-
est size of particles, the corresponding
value for inhalable was recorded at 0.87,
which is clearly impossible Table 1B.
In point of fact, examining the entire
table shows that there are 15 cases for
which the inhalable values exceed the
total, and 9 cases in which the respirable
values exceed the total. This suggests that
the equipment, processing methodology,
or both, cannot be used to accurately,
faithfully, or credibly support any testing
to ensure compliance with the proposed
new TLVs.
The Navy and Marine Corps Public
Health Center Industrial Hygiene De-
partment performed a detailed statistical
analysis of the results. Following are three
key points from that analysis (Ref. 3):
1. It was difficult to calculate confi-
dence limits for the air sample results
since no previous work had determined
validated coefficients of variation for the
analysis of inhalable or respirable parti-
cle-size fractions of manganese.
2. Detailed statistical analysis for
three data sets of FCAW results (T3, T4,
T16) found three different rankings of
total, inhalable, and respirable particu-
late. These data sets were selected for
detailed analysis because they demon-
strated the best match of sample dura-
tion times across all three air-sampling
methods combined with the highest Mn
concentrations with significantly meas-
urable variability. Data set T3 demon-
strates greater respirable mass than total
Fig. 2 Fume measurement: A
During air carbon arc gouging, two of
the three pump units can be seen on
the workers back; B during gas
tungsten arc welding on stainless
steel, shown in the foreground are the
three filter cassettes for area monitor-
ing of total, inhalable, and respirable
Mn fumes.
A
B
Blomquist Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/13/12 8:00 AM Page 44
45 WELDING JOURNAL
or inhalable. Data set T4 demonstrates
greater inhalable mass than total. Only
data set T16 demonstrated the expected
ranking of total, inhalable, and respirable
Mn in air.
3. It is not physically possible for res-
pirable or inhalable Mn to exceed total
Mn in a side-by-side sample set. The find-
ings of this study raise questions, which
remain unanswered, about the validity of
particle-size sampling as an accurate
measure of exposure for Mn in welding
fume.
Conclusions
From the foregoing, the following
conclusions can be made:
There is a wide variation in airborne
Fig. 3 Averages of results of tests,
by process. Dashed lines represent the
ACGIH NIC values. Not shown, due to
scale, is the current OSHA PEL at 5.0
mg/m
3
.
Table 1A Air Monitoring Results for Total Mn in Welder PBZ
Total
Total Total Process Sample Type Min Result (Mn, mg/m
3
) 8-h TWA
Personal (P)
Area (A)
T1 Total(2) FCAW P 439 0.60 0.549
T2 Total(10) FCAW P X
T3 Total(4) FCAW A 399 0.41 0.341
T4 Total(5) FCAW A 390 0.58 0.471
T5 Total(19) Grinding P 374 0.23 0.179
T6 Total(11) FCAW P 368 0.47 0.360
T7 Total(7) Grinding A 304 0.32 0.203
T8 Total(16) FCAW A 320 0.50 0.333
T9 Total(15) GMA Pulse Arc P 466 0.39 0.379
T10 Total(11) GMA/CAG A 398 0.55 0.456
T11 Total(4) Carbon Arc Gouging P 415 0.22 0.190
T12 Total(3) GMA/CAG A 448 0.044 0.041
T13 Total(10) GMA Pulse Arc P 459 0.013 0.012
T14 Total(TW-1) GMA Pulse Arc A 446 0.0056 0.005
T15 Total(12) FCAW P 173 2.50 *
T16 Total(5) FCAW A 169 0.098 *
T17 Total(6) SMAW P 189 0.86 *
T18 Total(3) SMAW A 399 0.033 0.027
T19 Total(14) GTA Stainless P 275 0.027 *
T20 Total(25) GTA Stainless A 345 0.0022 0.002
T21 Total(17) SMAW P 286 0.13 0.077
T22 Total(18) SMAW A 390 0.046 *
T23 Total(7) GTA Stainless P 295 0.0060 *
T24 Total(22) GTA Stainless A 360 0.0015 0.001
T25 Total(13) HLAW P 477 0.010
T26 Total(4) HLAW A 477 0.0075
T27 Total(5) HLAW P 58 0.19
T28 Total(8) GTA P 460 0.010
T29 Total(25) Grinding P 360 0.0020
T30 Total(22) Grinding A 345 0.00084
T31 Total(21) Grinding P 355 0.0025
T32 Total(26) HLAW P 110 0.091
*Specific task-related sample. Does not represent an 8-h TWA.
Mean Result, Mn in Air, mg/m
3
By Process
1
0
0.9
FCAW SMAW GTAW HLAW
Total Mn
Respirable Mn
Inhalable Mn
Grinding GMAW-
Pulse
Carbon
Arc
Gouging
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
09 NIC Inh.
0.2 mg/m
3
2012 NIC Inh.
0.01 mg/m
3
09 NIC Resp.
0.02 mg/m
3
Blomquist Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/12/12 3:59 PM Page 45
Mn concentrations found in shipyard
welding and metalworking processes.
Results ranged from 3.0 to 0.00044
mg/m
3
of air, for a greater than 6800-
fold difference.
All results were well below the OSHA
PEL for Mn of 5.0 mg/m
3
of air, ex-
pressed as a ceiling value.
Only GTAW was observed to be con-
sistently below the ACGIH Notice of
Intended Changes TLV for Mn of 0.02
mg/m
3
as respirable particulate. All
other processes tested provided results
that exceeded this limit.
Flux cored arc welding showed the
highest values recorded. Although
FCAW results were fully compliant
with the present OSHA PELs, if the
proposed TLV is adopted, this process
is at greatest risk. This is not good
news, since it is the process of choice
for many welding operations.
The relationship between total, inhal-
able, and respirable Mn does not fol-
low any regular or predictable pattern.
Side-by-side air samples often yield re-
sults with smaller size fractions exceed-
ing total Mn concentration or res-
pirable Mn greater than inhalable Mn.
These findings raise questions about
the technical merits of the proposed
testing process, especially when evalu-
ation requires a threefold increase
in labor, equipment, and laboratory
resources.
Clearly, more work will be required in
the area of test equipment design and
methods validation in order to provide
meaningful and relevant data on which
to base future standards and compli-
ance activities.
Summary
The results of this study demonstrate
that the air-sampling methods currently
available for evaluation of the inhalable
and respirable particulate sizes of Mn
found in welding fume do not correlate
with the established and accepted histor-
ical air-sampling method for total Mn. In
the absence of a demonstrated and re-
producible validation study to demon-
strate a credible means of measurement,
a new TLV for Mn based upon inhalable
and respirable particle sizes lacks suffi-
cient scientific methodology to deter-
mine compliance. The wildly unpre-
dictable variations seen here and now
known to exist in the measurements for
Mn welding fume particle sizes in
welders work zones make any predictive
value assigned to these test methods to-
tally unsupportable at this time.
References
1. Chute, Daniel O. 1999. National
Shipbuilding Research Program; Weld-
ing Fume Study; Report No. 7-96-9,
SNAME Production Committee, SP-7
Welding.
AUGUST 2012 46
Table 1B Air Monitoring Results for Inhalable Mn in Welder PBZ
Inhalable
Total Total Process Sample Type Min Result (Mn, mg/m
3
) 8-h TWA
Personal (P)
Area (A)
T1 Total(2) FCAW P Inhal(IM459) 376 0.52 0.407
T2 Total(10) FCAW P Inhal(IM408) X
T3 Total(4) FCAW A Inhal(IM401) 399 0.31 0.258
T4 Total(5) FCAW A Inhal(IM475) 391 0.87 0.709
T5 Total(19) Grinding P Inhal(IM504) 374 0.24 0.187
T6 Total(11) FCAW P Inhal(IM405) 153 0.52 *
T7 Total(7) Grinding A Inhal(IM385) 303 0.11 0.069
T8 Total(16) FCAW A Inhal(IM076) 320 0.62 0.413
T9 Total(15) GMA Pulse Arc P Inhal(IM357) 390 0.37 0.301
T10 Total(11) GMA/CAG A Inhal(IM332) 303 0.21 0.133
T11 Total(4) Carbon Arc Gouging P Inhal(IM478) X
T12 Total(3) GMA/CAG A Inhal(IM435) 448 0.028 0.026
T13 Total(10) GMA Pulse Arc P Inhal(IM319) 459 0.012 0.011
T14 Total(TW-1) GMA Pulse Arc A Inhal(IM041) 446 0.0063 0.006
T15 Total(12) FCAW P Inhal(IM422) 90 2.2 *
T16 Total(5) FCAW A Inhal(IM353) 169 0.090 *
T17 Total(6) SMAW P Inhal(IM497) 113 0.41 *
T18 Total(3) SMAW A Inhal(IM458) 399 0.027 0.022
T19 Total(14) GTA Stainless P Inhal(IM329) 174 0.022 *
T20 Total(25) GTA Stainless A Inhal(IM482) 345 0.0026 0.002
T21 Total(17) SMAW P Inhal(IM512) 286 0.14 *
T22 Total(18) SMAW A Inhal(IM372) 390 0.051 0.041
T23 Total(7) GTA Stainless P Inhal(IM320) 295 0.0078 *
T24 Total(22) GTA Stainless A Inhal(IM385) 360 0.0015 0.001
T25 Total(13) HLAW P Inhal(IM392) 477 0.0091
T26 Total(4) HLAW A Inhal(IM315) 477 0.0083
T27 Total(5) HLAW P Inhal(IM060) 58 0.20
T28 Total(8) GTA P Inhal(IM161) 460 0.010
T29 Total(25) Grinding P Inhal(IM507) 149 0.0061
T30 Total(22) Grinding A Inhal(IM041) 345 0.00089
T31 Total(21) Grinding P Inhal(IM510) 355 0.0066
T32 Total(26) HLAW P Inhal(IM489) 110 0.095
*Specific task-related sample. Does not represent an 8-h TWA.
Blomquist Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/12/12 4:00 PM Page 46
2. National Shipbuilding Research
Program Report, Reduction of Worker Ex-
posure and Environmental Release of
Welding Emissions. 2003.
3. Chute, D., and Blomquist, P. 2011.
Reduction of weld fume risk in naval and
commercial shipyards final report.
www. nsrp. org/3-RA-Panel _Fi nal _Re-
ports/2011_Reduction_of_Weld_Fume_
Risk_Final_Report.pdf
4. American Conference of Govern-
mental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH),
Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Sub-
stances and Physical Agents, current and
prior editions, www.acgih.org.
5. The Navy Occupational Exposure
Database (NOED), Exposure Monitor-
ing for Mn.
6. Formisano, J. A., Still, K., Alexan-
der, W., and Lippman, M. 2001. Applica-
tion of statistical models for secondary
data usage of the U.S. Navys Occupa-
tional Exposure Database (NOED). Ap-
plied Occupational and Environmental
Hygiene, Vol. 16(2): 201209.
7. OSHA historical air-monitoring
data for occupational exposure to man-
ganese, Integrated Management Infor-
mation System (IMIS). 19842009.
8. NIOSH, Nomination of Welding
Fumes for Toxicity Studies. Feb. 20, 2002.
9. NIOSH, Criteria for a Recom-
mended Standard, Welding. 1988.
10. Antonini, J. M. 2003. Health ef-
fects of welding. Critical Review in Toxi-
cology 33(1): 61103.
11. Antonini, J. M., et al. 2005. Fate
of manganese associated with the inhala-
tion of welding fumes. NeuroToxicology.
12. Ellingsen, D. E., et al. 2003. Man-
ganese Air Exposure Assessment and Bio-
logical Monitoring in the Manganese Alloy
and Production Industry. Royal Society of
Chemistry.
13. Sowards, J. W., Ramirez, A. J.,
Dickinson, D. W., and Lippold, J. C. 2008.
Characterization procedure for the
analysis of arc welding fume. Welding
Journal 87(3): 76-s to 83-s.
14. Sowards, J. W., Lippold, J. C.,
Dickinson, D. W., and Ramirez, A. J.
2008. Characterization of welding fume
from SMAW electrodes, Part I. Welding
Journal 87(4): 106-s to 112-s.
15. Sowards, J. W., Lippold, J. C.,
Dickinson, D. W., and Ramirez, A. J.
2010. Characterization of welding fume
from SMAW electrodes Part 2. Weld-
ing Journal 89(4): 82-s to 90-s.
16. Gonser, M. J., Lippold, J. C.,
Dickinson, D. W., Sowards, J. W., and
Ramirez, A. J. 2010. Characterization of
welding fume generated by high-Mn con-
sumables. Welding Journal 89(2): 25-s to
33-s.
17. OSHA Method 125G, Metal and
Metalloid Particulates in Workplace At-
mospheres (ICP Analysis).
47 WELDING JOURNAL
Table 1C Air Monitoring Results for Respirable Mn in Welder PBZ
Respirable
Total Total Process Sample Type Min Result (Mn, mg/m
3
) 8-h TWA
Personal (P)
Area (A)
T1 Total(2) FCAW P Resp(21)
T2 Total(10) FCAW P Resp(26) X
T3 Total(4) FCAW A Resp(24) 398 0.46 0.381
T4 Total(5) FCAW A Resp(13) 391 0.58 0.472
T5 Total(19) Grinding P Resp(17) 272 0.13 *
T6 Total(11) FCAW P Resp(30) 359 0.49 0.366
T7 Total(7) Grinding A Resp(20) 304 0.30 0.190
T8 Total(16) FCAW A Resp(23) 185 0.40 *
T9 Total(15) GMA Pulse Arc P Resp(14) 243 0.17 *
T10 Total(11) GMA/CAG A Resp(7) 461 0.68 0.653
T11 Total(4) Carbon Arc Gouging P Resp(13) 94 0.18 *
T12 Total(3) GMA/CAG A Resp(9) 448 0.037 0.035
T13 Total(10) GMA Pulse Arc P Resp(L21209-1) 459 0.0082 0.008
T14 Total(TW-1) GMA Pulse Arc A Resp(L21209-13) 446 0.0049 0.005
T15 Total(12) FCAW P Resp(L21209-7) 137 3.0 *
T16 Total(5) FCAW A Resp(L21209-9) 169 0.083 *
T17 Total(6) SMAW P Resp(11) 275 0.53 *
T18 Total(3) SMAW A Resp(23) 399 0.029 0.024
T19 Total(14) GTA Stainless P Resp(4) 275 0.011 *
T20 Total(25) GTA Stainless A Resp(20) 345 0.0020 0.001
T21 Total(17) SMAW P Resp(21) 286 0.12 *
T22 Total(18) SMAW A Resp(24) 390 0.043 0.035
T23 Total(7) GTA Stainless P Resp(8) 295 0.0058 *
T24 Total(22) GTA Stainless A Resp(15) 300 0.0013 0.001
T25 Total(13) HLAW P Resp(12) 322 0.011
T26 Total(4) HLAW A Resp(2) 477 0.0076
T27 Total(5) HLAW P Resp(3) 58 0.22
T28 Total(8) GTA P Resp(1) 460 0.0091
T29 Total(25) Grinding P Resp(20) 360 0.00048
T30 Total(22) Grinding A Resp(16) 345 0.00044
T31 Total(21) Grinding P Resp(23) 355 0.0020
T32 Total(26) HLAW P Resp(24) 110 0.091
*Specific task-related sample. Does not represent an 8-h TWA.
Blomquist Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/12/12 4:00 PM Page 47
AUGUST 2012 48
O
xyfuel processes such as heating,
cutting, brazing, and welding
create a potential danger from
flames, sparks, and intense heat. Despite
these hazards, millions of people work
accident free.
By design, manufacturers build safe
equipment. This decreases the likelihood
of a potential incident. However, good
oxyfuel operators know that their own
safety, as well as the safety of those
around them, depends on proper and re-
sponsible use of oxyfuel equipment.
Fire Triangle
The foundation for all oxyfuel
processes is the triangle of combustion
or fire triangle. Combustion requires
three elements: fuel, oxygen, and heat.
Operators must control each of these el-
ements, which is why safety starts with a
clean work area free from oily rags,
paper, volatile liquids, trash cans, and
other combustibles. It should go without
saying that theres no smoking, but it
needs to be reinforced.
Oxyfuel processes produce flames,
sparks, and a small amount of infrared
rays. Eye protection options include a
Oxyfuel Safety:
Its Everyones Responsibility
Victor Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/10/12 2:41 PM Page 48
face shield, goggles, or safety glasses, all
with the appropriate shade lens. If oper-
ators use a face shield, they must also
wear safety glasses underneath.
For operators who work in street
clothes, choose tightly woven fabrics
made from natural fibers. Wool is natu-
rally flame retardant, and blue jeans,
denim, and cotton duck are also good
choices. Wearing a lab coat or welding
jacket (or at least sleeves) is a good idea;
heavy-duty applications often require
leather chaps and spats. Button shirt col-
lars and sleeves, and dont cuff pant legs,
as they provide a perfect area to catch
sparks and slag. Never wear polyester
fleece or clothes made from similar syn-
thetics, as they are flammable and/or will
melt. When it comes to footwear, its
hard to beat a good pair of leather boots.
BY JOHN HENDERSON
JOHN HENDERSON is a senior brand
manager, Victor Technologies (www.vic-
tortechnologies.com), St. Louis, Mo.
Guidelines for proper setup and shutdown procedures,
as well as technical and safety principles, are provided
As shown below, a piece of metal gets cut
after the oxyfuel equipments tip was
cleaned to remove obstructions.
For an acetylene heating or cutting
attachment, hold the torch in one
hand and a spark lighter the only
approved tool for lighting a torch
in the other.
Victor Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/10/12 2:42 PM Page 49
AUGUST 2012 50
Cylinder Identification and
Handling
Operators commonly assume the
cylinder color indicates a specific gas.
Unfortunately, distributors and gas sup-
pliers can paint their cylinders any color
they want. To identify a cylinders con-
tents, read the label. If a cylinder does-
nt have a label, dont use it. Contact the
supplier and ask them to take it back.
All cylinders have a United Nations
(UN) gas identification marking on their
label Fig. 1. Common ID numbers in-
clude UN 1072 for oxygen, UN 1001 for
acetylene, UN 1978 for propane, and UN
1077 for propylene.
Careless handling can turn a gas cylin-
der into a projectile. Whenever opera-
tors handle a cylinder, they should keep
the five fundamentals listed below in
mind Fig. 2.
1. Before moving a cylinder, install the
cylinder cap, if there is one.
2. Use a cart designed to transport
cylinders.
3. Place cylinders in a safe location
where theyre protected from sparks,
flames, and heat sources. Dont block
equipment or people.
4. Once in place, secure the cylinders
in an upright position to prevent falling.
5. Lastly, inspect the valve. Look for
signs of damage, and always ensure the
valve is free from oil and grease.
Gases in the Work Area
Many shops have multiple gases on
site, and each gas requires its own safety
precautions. To start, recall that oxygen
is one of the components for the triangle
of combustion. In fact, oxygen is the
source for many gas-related accidents,
and a primary culprit is using oxygen in
place of compressed air. Some of the
areas oxygen gets misused include using
it to blow dust off clothing or work areas,
with pneumatic tools, or as ventilation in
the place of air.
The most widely used fuel gas is acety-
lene. Other fuels are commonly referred
to as alternate fuels. These include LP
gases (propane, propylene, and butane)
and compressed gases such as natural gas
and methane.
The basic structure of an acetylene
cylinder is different from other cylinders
(which are shells only) because it con-
tains a porous mass saturated with liquid
acetone. The acetylene gas is then
pumped into the cylinder, absorbed into
the acetone, and released as it is used.
Because of its nature, always use and
store the acetylene cylinder in an upright
position, and never use acetylene above
15 lb pressure. Acetylene has a tendency
to disassociate above 15 lb/in.
2
, which can
cause a chemical reaction.
Fig. 1 Never use a cylinders color to
identify its content. Read the label and
look for the United Nations identification
number, in this case UN 1001 for acety-
lene.
Fig. 2 Good safety practices shown
here include securing cylinders to the
hand cart with the black strap, installing
cylinder caps, storing oxygen and fuel
gases separately, and wearing proper
eye protection.
Fig. 3 Ensure regulator threads are
free from damage, dust, oil, and grease.
Note that in the presence of pure oxy-
gen, petroleum products can sponta-
neously combust.
Victor Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/10/12 2:42 PM Page 50
Acetylene withdraw rate is critical:
Never withdraw more than
1
7
th
of the
cylinder volume per hour. For example,
if a particular cylinder held 280 ft
3
, di-
viding that by 7 yields 40 usable cubic feet
per hour of gas.
Equipment Setup:
Regulators
Because different gases have differ-
ent volume and pressure requirements,
manufacturers engineer regulators for
specific gases. Victor EDGE regulators
are color-coded and labeled for easy
identification: green for oxygen, red for
acetylene, orange for L.P. gases such as
propane and propylene, gray for carbon
dioxide, black for inert gases such as
argon and nitrogen, and yellow for air.
Pure oxygen can reduce the kindling
temperature of petroleum-based lubri-
cants to room temperature, leading to vi-
olent combustion. As such, the first safety
check is to inspect regulator valves,
threads, and seats and ensure they are
free of oil Fig. 3. Needless to say, never
lubricate any component of an oxyfuel
system. Parts contaminated with oil or
grease should be inspected and cleaned
by qualified service personnel.
Next, inspect regulator and cylinder
fittings, making sure theyre free of dam-
age and dirt. Note: If the nut on the reg-
ulator does not match the fitting on the
cylinder, it means the wrong regulator
has been selected. Find the correct one;
never change the fittings on a regulator.
51 WELDING JOURNAL
Fig. 4 Only open acetylene cylinders
to 1 turn. Also, notice how the oper-
ator stands behind and to the side of the
cylinder when opening the valve, using
the cylinder to shield him if necessary.
Fig. 5 A check valve stops gas from
getting on the wrong side of the torch,
while a flashback arrestor stops fire
from advancing farther up the system
by quenching the temperature to below
the ignition point.
Fig. 6 On a two-piece torch, ensure
that the attachments two O-rings are
present and damage free. Only hand
tighten this connection, as using a
wrench can damage the O-rings.
Victor Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/10/12 2:43 PM Page 51
Before attaching a regulator, stand to
the side of the cylinder, point the valve
toward a clear area, crack the valve, and
close it again. This clears the valve as-
sembly of combustibles and contami-
nants. After doing this for both cylinders,
the operator is ready to attach the regu-
lators.
Equipment Setup: Hoses
There are three grades of hose: Use
R and RM grade for acetylene. T grade
hose may be used with any fuel gas and
is the only grade allowable for alternate
fuels. The acetylene hose, which is typi-
cally red, has a groove across the nut,
which indicates a left-hand thread. The
oxygen hose, which is typically green, will
not have a groove, indicating that its a
right-hand thread. Before attaching the
hose, inspect it for oil, grease, and cracks.
After attaching, remove potential
contaminants by purging the hose. Con-
tamination, if not removed, could be
forced into the equipment and poten-
tially cause clogging, failure, or provide
a source of combustion. To purge a hose,
adjust the regulator knob to about 5
lb/in.
2
and allow gas to flow for a few sec-
onds. Depending on the length of hose,
that time may vary. Back out the adjust-
ing knob after allowing adequate flow
and repeat the process for the other hose.
Note: Only open the acetylene cylin-
der valve
3
4 to one full turn; this facili-
tates faster shut-off in the event of an
emergency Fig. 4. Open oxygen cylin-
ders all the way, as their valves seal in the
fully open and fully closed positions.
Understanding Hazards
To fully understand torch safety, op-
erators must understand some of the
terms for the hazards associated with oxy-
fuel equipment. The terms are as follows:
reverse flow, flashback, backfire, and sus-
tained backfire.
Reverse flow is when either the oxy-
gen enters the fuel gas side of a system
or the fuel gas enters the oxygen side of
the system Fig. 5. This occurs when
there is a restriction of one of the gases
or an imbalance of pressure. This can be
caused by a clogged or blocked tip or al-
lowing one of the cylinders to run out of
gas. If a reverse flow condition exists, a
flashback can occur.
Flashback is the return of a flame
through the torch, into the hose, and even
into the regulator. It could potentially
reach the cylinder. This condition could
cause an explosion anywhere within the
system. Flashback arrestors are designed
to prevent the flame from traveling be-
yond the point of the arrestor. Flashback
arrestors contain a sintered filter that
prevents a flame from passing through
the filter element.
Backfire is the return of a flame back
into the torch, which produces a popping
sound. The flame will either extinguish
or reignite at the tip. This is normally the
result of accidentally bumping the tip
against the workpiece, operating the tip
too close to the workpiece, or allowing
the tip to become overheated. A sus-
tained backfire is when a backfire occurs
and continues burning in the torch. This
condition may be accompanied by a pop-
ping sound followed by a continuous
whistling or hissing sound. Some of the
causes for this are improperly maintained
equipment, overheating of the equip-
ment, or improper pressure settings for
the equipment being used.
Torch Inspection and
Gas Flow
Most torches come in two sections,
the torch handle and various attachments
for heating, cutting, and welding.
Before using an attachment, check its
cone end and be sure the two O-rings are
neither missing nor damaged Fig. 6.
Repair them or replace them if neces-
sary. On a cutting attachment, check the
seating end for the tip. Dents or scratches
here could lead to a leak and promote an
accident.
Before connecting any attachment to
the torch, inspect the seating area of the
torch handle and thread assembly. When
attaching them, hand tighten only. Using
a wrench will damage the O-rings.
Next, inspect the cutting or heating
tip to ensure the holes are free of debris.
On a cutting tip, check the seating end
for scratches or dents. To properly secure
a cutting tip, which is a metal-to-metal
seal, tighten it with a wrench. Before cut-
ting, make sure the cutting oxygen lever
moves freely.
When setting gas pressures (measured
in lb/in.
2
), operators work backward. The
thickness of plate being heated or cut de-
termines what consumable to use, and
that, in turn, determines pressure set-
tings. This information is normally found
in the manufacturers operating proce-
dures or in tip charts. Note that alternate
fuels use different tips and require dif-
ferent pressure settings. Also, remember
the
1
7
th
rule, making sure the acetylene
cylinder has adequate capacity to sup-
port the acetylene consumption of the tip
being used.
Leak Test
After connecting the attachments and
tips, operators need to check the entire
system for leaks. The steps to perform a
leak test are as follows:
Completely back out the regulator
AUGUST 2012 52
Fig. 7 To light a torch using alternate
fuel on a windy day or if a shop fan is
blowing on the work area, place the tip
on the workpiece at a 45-deg angle
after lighting the torch. Open the oxy-
gen valve to turn until the flame
snaps into place.
Victor Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/10/12 2:43 PM Page 52
adjusting mechanism.
Open the cylinder gas valve slowly
until the high-pressure gauge reading sta-
bilizes, then shut off the cylinder valve.
Monitor the gauge for any pressure drop,
which would indicate a leak of the high-
pressure side of the system. If no leak is
evident, open the cylinder valve and ad-
just the oxygen regulator to deliver 20
lb/in.
2
Repeat the process with the fuel gas
valve and regulator, but be sure to adjust
the fuel gas regulator to deliver about 10
lb/in.
2
Close both the oxygen and fuel cylin-
der valves.
Turn the adjusting screw or knob
counterclockwise one-half turn.
Observe the gauges on both regula-
tors for a few minutes. If the gauge read-
ings do not change, then the system is
leak tight.
Open the cylinder valves again. Any
movement of the needles indicates a pos-
sible leak.
If a leak is observed, stop. Do not
use leaking equipment. Check all the
connections. If the leak cant be found,
have the equipment inspected by a qual-
ified technician.
Purging the Torch
Torches also need to be purged to
eliminate the possibility of gases mixing
prematurely, which could lead to a flash-
back, or worse. To start, open the oxygen
valve on the torch handle all the way.
With a cutting attachment, also open the
preheat oxygen valve. Depress the cut-
ting lever for 3 to 5 s. Shut the oxygen
valves and repeat the process for the fuel
side. This is also a good time to recheck
the regulators to make sure they main-
tained set pressure.
Lighting the Torch and
Adjusting the Flame
For an acetylene heating or cutting at-
tachment, hold the torch in one hand and
a spark lighter in the other (never use
matches or a lighter to light the torch).
Do not aim the torch in a direction of
people, equipment, or flammable mate-
rials. Open the fuel valve about
1
8
th
of a
turn and ignite the gas. Continue open-
ing the fuel valve until all the smoke and
soot disappear. Transfer over to the oxy-
gen valve and slowly open it until a bright
neutral flame is established.
Alternate fuels have a specific grav-
ity, either much heavier (propane and
propylene) or much lighter (natural gas)
than air. As a result, operators should
learn three methods of lighting a torch
one will definitely work. In all cases,
when using a standard combination
torch, first open the oxygen valve on the
handle all the way to prevent restriction
of oxygen to the cutting lever.
Technique 1. Turn the fuel valve
turn and light. Then, turn the oxygen pre-
heat valve to turn and walk up the
flame more on this technique shortly.
Technique 2. Turn the fuel valve to
turn and light. Place the tip on the
workpiece at a 45-deg angle, open the
oxygen valve to turn until the flame
snaps into place, then walk up the
flame as normal Fig. 7. Use this if the
flame goes out when using technique 1.
Technique 3. Turn both the fuel and
oxygen valves to turn, light the flame
as soon as possible, and walk up the
flame.
Walk Up the Flame
With alternative fuels, the flame
needs to be walked up or forced to
prevent starving or extinguishing the
flame. After lighting the torch and adding
the initial preheat oxygen, alternately
add more fuel and more oxygen by turn-
ing the respective valves to turn at
a time until the fuel gas valve is com-
pletely (or almost completely) open.
Then, add oxygen until the flame creates
a loud whistling sound and the primary
cones reach their shortest point. Depress
the cutting oxygen lever; readjust the pre-
heat oxygen if necessary.
Note that with propylene, adding a
small additional amount of preheat
oxygen will produce a more concentrated
flame with a heat pattern similar to
acetylene.
Shut Down
Regardless of fuel gas used, always
shut down the oxygen first and the fuel
last. This technique leak checks both
valves every time the torch is shut down.
A snap or a pop indicates a leaking oxy-
gen valve, while a small flame at the end
of the tip indicates a fuel gas leak.
To shut down the entire system, start
by closing both cylinder valves. Next, re-
lease the pressure inside the system by
opening the oxygen valve on the torch
until pressure decays; do the same with
the fuel gas valve. Next, release the ten-
sion on the regulator by turning the knob
or screws counterclockwise until they
move freely. Check the regulators to be
sure that they indicate zero pressure in
the system.
Always follow the proper shutdown
procedures when finished cutting, even
if its just for a lunch break. Never leave
oxyfuel systems pressurized while unat-
tended. A leaking torch or hose could
cause a pool of gas to build up (such as
inside a barrel), creating a serious
hazard.
Leader, Participant
Guidelines
By following these guidelines, opera-
tors minimize the possibility of an acci-
dent and make the environment safe for
those around them.
To support training efforts, Victor of-
fers a DVD featuring a 36-min oxyfuel
safety video in English or Spanish and
extensive supplemental documents
Fig. 8. These documents include check-
lists for many of the best practices dis-
cussed in this article, a 65-page leaders
guide on how to conduct a successful
seminar, and a participants guide with
training materials and quizzes to assess
knowledge retention.
53 WELDING JOURNAL
Fig. 8 The Victor oxyfuel safety DVD includes a 36-min video and extensive train-
ing materials for leaders and participants. To request a free copy, contact a Victor
Technologies district manager.
Victor Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/10/12 2:46 PM Page 53
AUGUST 2012 54
E
ach day, welders rely on numer-
ous types of protective gear to
help keep them safe while per-
forming various tasks. Forming a foun-
dation literally from the ground up, start-
ing with the importance of footwear,
must not be forgotten.
A proper pair of work boots is essen-
tial not only to protect your feet and toes
but also to improve traction and stability
on a variety of surfaces and environ-
ments, plus provide comfort and durabil-
ity while standing for long periods see
lead photo.
The human foot contains 26 relatively
small bones, more than 150 ligaments,
and an intricate network of muscles,
nerves, and blood vessels. One small mis-
step or accident can result in varying lev-
els of injury, causing time lost and com-
promised well-being.
According to the most recent report
from the National Occupational Re-
search Agenda in conjunction with the
Centers for Disease Control and Preven-
tion, there were 689,700 nonfatal occu-
pational injuries and illnesses in the man-
ufacturing sector in 2008. The leading
causes resulting in days away from work
due to injury were contact with objects
or equipment and falls (Ref. 1).
The market is full of manufacturers
introducing new boots, proprietary tech-
nologies, and the latest and greatest ad-
ditions to the art of safety footwear. Un-
derstanding what you need and knowing
the terminologies will help you to better
find what is hoped will be your favorite
pair of boots. After all, comfortable feet
make the work day easier and let you
focus on the real job at hand.
Know Your Needs
Understanding the various safety fea-
tures in work boots is paramount to find-
ing the right one for your needs. Always
start with your safety manager or fore-
man to determine if there are specific
safety-gear requirements for your partic-
ular job or project.
The Occupational Safety and Health
Administration enforces guidelines for
occupational foot protection based on re-
(info@keenfootwear.com) is the
Keen Utility division director,
Portland, Ore.
Welders should consider the many
options for protective toes, soles,
and construction types available
when deciding what boots to buy
BY MARK REILLY
Putting
Your Best
Foot
Forward
on the Job
For skilled craft trades across the
board, finding the right boots to
wear during your workday, espe-
cially if most of that time is spent
standing, is like finding the right tool
for your job. First, evaluate your
needs and requirements, then pro-
ceed with selecting the ideal style
for your working environment.
KEEN Article August 2012_Layout 1 7/11/12 10:32 AM Page 54
55 WELDING JOURNAL
quirements established by the American
National Standards Institute (ANSI).
These guidelines help to ensure that
skilled craftsmen and laborers wear the
right protection when exposed to job site
hazards including electrical, falling, slip-
pery surfaces, and much more.
It is important to review requirements
with your employer and be sure to select
footwear that meets these needs.
Footwear manufacturers do a good job
of creating footwear that are ANSI com-
pliant, but knowing what you need ahead
of time will save time and effort.
Presented below are terminologies
and types of safety and performance fea-
tures that help to keep feet safe and
comfortable.
Exploring Steel,
Aluminum, and
Composite Safety Toes
Finding the right protective toe is, in
part, preference. There are three types
of protective toes steel, composite,
and aluminum. All three toes can be
ASTM rated similarly for protection. Of-
tentimes, workers will select a specific
safety toe based on their working envi-
ronment and needs.
Steel Toes. Steel toes are the tradi-
tional choice for protective toe caps and
are the heaviest and most compact. While
your feet are not exposed to the steel in-
sert, steel toes can conduct heat more
than alternative safety options. Footwear
manufacturers today have begun devis-
ing ways to improve the fit and comfort
of steel toes by using protective toe-caps
designed for the fit and size of the boot.
For example, Keen Utility uses asymmet-
rical safety toes in industrial footwear
that are contoured to the shape of the
toes and feet, reducing bulk and weight
without sacrificing safety.
Aluminum Toes. Aluminum toes offer
another choice for lightweight protection
while still meeting ANSI/ASTM safety
standards. They are thicker than steel
toes and provide a good option for work-
ers looking for the most lightweight
choice in footwear.
Composite Toes. Composite toes are
typically comprised of carbon fiber, plas-
tic, or Kevlar. They comply with
ANSI/ASTM safety requirements and
are lighter than steel toes but are the
thickest option for a safety toe and there-
fore have a bulkier silhouette than their
steel or aluminum counterparts. Com-
posite toes do not transfer cold or heat
and because they are nonmetallic, offer
Tips for Buying
Industrial Work Boots
Just as you prepare for a long day on the job, shopping the right way for
your work boots takes preparation as well. Below are simple tips to remem-
ber when shopping for your next pair of work boots.
Do Your Research First. Find out what requirements you might have
in your work environment and what personal needs you may have.
Shop for Boots in the Afternoon or Early Evening. Feet tend to swell
throughout the day, especially for those on their feet. By selecting footwear
when your feet are at their largest, your work boots will feel comfortable,
even on the longest days.
Come Prepared. Bring a typical pair of socks that you might wear to
better understand how your boots might fit.
Do Not Forget about Comfort. While protection is paramount, com-
fort, as they say, is king. Brands today incorporate so many comfort fea-
tures to partner with their performance and protection enhancements. An-
timicrobial insoles, lighter, more asymmetrical steel toes, additional
padding, and other modern comfort features all go into making a pair of
boots comfortable.
Do Not Forget Your Homework. Yes, the job does not end when you
punch out. Aftercare for your footwear provides a longer life for your boots.
Treat leather with mink oil or leather treatments to keep materials supple
and resistant to water. Also, store your boots in a clean, dry place to re-
duce odors and preserve the leather.
While deciding what kind of industrial boots to wear in the workplace, keep an eye
out for key features that will help protect as well as provide comfort for your feet
during long days. As an example, pointed out here is the construction of Keen
Utilitys Pittsburgh model.
KEEN Article August 2012_Layout 1 7/11/12 10:33 AM Page 55
a good safety option for workers passing
through metal detectors or working in an
environment that needs to stay metal
free.
Details on Metatarsal
Guards
Work boots with metatarsal guards
help to protect the upper foot and toe
areas from heavy falling objects; how-
ever, a side benefit of an external guard
for welders is added protection to the
upper foot and laces that might be
burned by falling hot materials.
Protection Taken to
the Next Level
There are a few products on the mar-
ket today that take protection to the next
level in footwear.
Tough-Tec leather provides increased
abrasion resistance and is often added to
the boots upper to provide further pro-
tection in that area as well as to the foot.
For those craftsmen working near
open flames, Kevlar fibers offer fire re-
sistance. A few manufacturers utilize
Kevlar laces for firefighting and weld-
ing wear that do not melt when heat is
applied, like nylon laces.
All About Soles
There are a number of durable mate-
rials on the market creating outsoles that
are long wearing, slip resistant, and pro-
tective. While certain industries may re-
quire a specific material, having an un-
derstanding of the options will help you
make a more informed decision.
Rubber Outsole. This catchall term
refers to the bottom of the boot; how-
ever, understanding its materials and
their functions is paramount. Rubber is
a common outsole component and is typ-
ically abrasion, oil, and slip resistant
important features for work in construc-
tion or manufacturing settings. Vibram
is a high-performance rubber, a good
choice for work sites with rugged ter-
rains, and provides maximum traction on
both wet and dry surfaces. Manufactur-
ers often have their own proprietary rub-
bers, allowing their outsoles to have ad-
ditional performance or safety attributes.
Thermo Polyurethane Outsole. Out-
soles made from thermo polyurethane
are long-wearing and abrasion, oil, and
chemical resistant. Designed to be tough,
they typically resist splitting, and are
more lightweight than their rubber
counterparts.
Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Midsole. A
boots midsole is designed to disperse
weight or provide stability for the foot.
An ethylene vinyl acetate midsole is a
foam-like material that is lightweight,
flexible, and cushions the foot with each
step.
Reviewing Various
Boot Configurations
How a boot is constructed can be di-
rectly related to weight, flexibility, and
performance. Footwear brands are con-
tinually innovating construction methods
to improve durability and comfort for the
wearer. Various constructions include the
following:
Cement Construction. Cement con-
struction means the boots sole is ce-
mented directly to the upper. This con-
struction is lightweight and flexible but
may result in delamination over time. Ce-
ment constructed boots cannot be
resoled.
Goodyear Welt Construction.
Goodyear welt construction provides
durability for footwear as the upper and
inner sole are stitched together with a
leather strip or welt. The sole is then
stitched through the welt. This process
allows boots to be resoled or repaired,
extending the longevity of the footwear.
Industry Innovations. Footwear man-
ufacturers are always challenging them-
selves to find the next best way to create
safety footwear. You see brands innovat-
ing welt construction to improve flexibil-
ity, durability, and even appearance.
Keen Utility recently unveiled a new
welted construction that combines
Goodyear welt with a cemented toe
cap, protecting the stitching and reduc-
ing delamination from repeated flexes,
which is a good feature for welders and
other workers constantly bending and
flexing their feet on the job site.
Final Thoughts
From choosing what toe type suits
your work needs to determining the right
construction model, there are many fac-
tors to consider when selecting which
industrial boot is best for your job
requirements.
Reference
1. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.
2010-142, www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2010-
142/pdfs/2010-142.pdf.
AUGUST 2012 56

Manufacturing
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KEEN Article August 2012_Layout 1 7/11/12 10:35 AM Page 56
Heavy Duty High Power GFCIs
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Designed for high-current, rugged environments
Ideal for welding applications
Ratings from 120 Volt/30 Amp/Single Phase, up to
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providing maximum protection.
The only line of high power GFCI/ELCI of its kind
Benefits of using HD-PRO ground fault
protection in a welding environment:
Reduce risk of shock hazards
Reduce risk of electrical fires
Reduce production downtime
Protect expensive equipment
Support safety programs such as OSHAs VPP
Reduce potential fines and penalties
New OSHA regulations require GFCI protection on receptacles
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AUGUST 2012 58
E
ye safety on the job isnt just
something thats good to practice.
Its necessary and important, es-
pecially when you consider this stagger-
ing statistic from the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention: Each day, ap-
proximately 2000 U.S. workers receive
medical treatment after suffering an eye-
related injury on the job.
Such work-related injuries result in
blindness for thousands every year, ac-
cording to the U.S. Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA).
The majority of these injuries occur be-
cause the victim used improper eye pro-
tection or, even worse, there was a com-
plete lack of correct protective equip-
ment. Case in point: According to the Bu-
reau of Labor Statistics, three out of five
workers who do not wear eye and face
protection wind up with injuries.
Its no surprise OSHA requires em-
ployers to provide proper eye protection
to all workers who might encounter haz-
ards in the workplace environment.
Welders and metal fabricators are no ex-
ception. It is critical that everyone work-
ing in these industries wear proper per-
sonal protective equipment (PPE) to en-
sure his or her eyes stay safe and healthy
while on the job.
Although eye protection designed for
use in the welding industry includes
everything from welding helmets to face
shields, perhaps the simplest, but still
vital, eye protection is safety glasses. In-
expensive, easy-to-use, and effective,
safety glasses are the first level of pro-
tection for your eyes in a welding or fab-
ricating situation.
JAMY BULAN, EMILY CULL, and
FRANK STUPCZY are with The
Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland,
Ohio, www.lincolnelectric.com.
Safeguarding Your Vision
Heres why safety glasses are a must on the fab shop floor
BY JAMY BULAN,
EMILY CULL, AND
FRANK STUPCZY
Although flying particles such as
metal, slag from chipping, dirt,
sparks, and debris from grinding
cause nearly 70% of job-related
eye injuries, those injuries can
be easily prevented by a good
pair of safety glasses.
Bulan Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/10/12 2:47 PM Page 58
59 WELDING JOURNAL
No Safety Glasses?
Danger Ahead!
Failing to wear safety glasses poses nu-
merous risks for welders and fabricators.
Flying particles metal, slag from chip-
ping, dirt, sparks, and debris from grind-
ing cause nearly 70% of job-related
eye injuries. These small particles can fly
into an unprotected eye, causing
scratches or other damage. While these
particles are a hazard that might not al-
ways be seen, they can easily be pre-
vented by a good pair of safety glasses
(see lead photo).
Other potential dangers in a welding
or fabricating environment include fly-
ing sparks, as well as chemical splashes.
Safety glasses can help to protect eyes
from both of these dangers, though a face
shield is recommended in addition to
safety glasses if youre working with
chemicals. There is no such thing as being
too cautious when it comes to eye safety.
While you should always wear safety
glasses in the shop, whether you are weld-
ing or doing other fabricating work, re-
member one important thing: Never weld
with safety glasses alone. Always wear a
welding helmet, preferably an autodark-
ening one that automatically adjusts its
shade level depending on the brightness
of the welding arc. Helmets are required
to protect your eyes from welders flash
or arc eye, which occurs when the arc
or heat rays inflame the eyeballs cornea.
Though these dangers can be pre-
vented by wearing safety glasses, its also
important to remember that PPE, while
necessary, should always be considered
the last line of defense while on the job-
site. As a first line of defense, you should
try to eliminate or control the hazard as
much as you reasonably can, through safe
welding and fabricating procedures, as
well as use of the correct, up-to-date
equipment. Personal protection equip-
ment should never be considered an al-
ternative to correct procedure and equip-
ment on the jobsite. Instead, view it as
an extension of those elements some-
thing that provides added assurance and
safety.
Regulations and Testing
OSHA regulations, specifically stan-
dards 1910.133 covering General Indus-
try and 1926.102 covering Construction,
require employers to protect their em-
ployees from known eye and face hazards
through the provision of proper PPE.
Such equipment must comply with the
requirements set out in ANSI Z87.1,
Practice for Occupational and Educa-
tional Eye and Face Protection. This stan-
dard from the American National Stan-
dards Institute (ANSI) is used to certify
safety glasses for workplace applications.
The most recent version of the standard
was released in 2010.
ANSI Z87.1 describes a variety of re-
quired tests safety glasses must pass be-
fore they are certified for use in the work-
place. This includes tests for impact and
coverage, as well as protection against
splash, dust, and optical radiation. One
such test is the high velocity test, which
determines the impact a pair of safety
glasses can withstand by shooting a metal
ball at the glasses. If the glasses shatter,
they do not meet the requirements out-
lined in the standard.
Safety glasses will always be marked
to indicate their compliance with ANSI
Z87.1, as well as their impact rating. For
instance, glasses that can withstand a
higher level of impact will be marked
Z87.1+. Such ratings can help you select
the proper pair of glasses for your weld-
ing and fabricating applications.
ANSI/AWS Z49.1:2012, Safety in
Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, is
also an important standard for welders
and fabricators to understand, as it out-
lines the operations and usage standards
for safety in welding, cutting, and allied
processes, including the importance of
proper PPE and use of ANSI Z87.1 rated
PPE.
Choosing a Pair of Safety
Glasses
There are a variety of factors to con-
sider when selecting a pair of safety
glasses. The first element is sizing and fit.
Safety glasses should always have side
protection (side shields or wraparound
frames), fully covering the front and sides
of the eye area. To find the best fit, try
on different styles of glasses to determine
the best size and shape for your needs. If
you wear prescription eyeglasses, safety
glasses are available that are made to fit
over prescription lenses, such as Lincoln
Electrics Cover2 safety glasses.
Comfort and weight are also impor-
tant. Most wearers prefer lighter safety
glasses for a long day on the job. Such
features as padding located at pressure
points can also make a big difference in
the comfort of a pair of safety glasses.
Some safety glasses have padding made
of soft rubber or elastomers on the touch
points (nose area and the temple tips) to
provide a more comfortable and secure
fit than uncovered hard plastic.
If youre working in areas where con-
densation occurs, consider purchasing a
pair of glasses with an antifog coating.
And, if you need extra help reading or
viewing close work, bifocal safety glasses
are available.
Fig. 1 If you are cutting and grinding,
you may need a pair of shaded safety
glasses. These glasses usually provide
shade 5 infrared protection.
Bulan Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/10/12 10:58 AM Page 59
Shade is another important aspect of
choosing safety glasses. Clear safety
glasses should be worn underneath a
welding helmet when welding the
safety glasses will protect the eyes from
sparks or other debris, while the shaded
helmet prevents eye damage that could
be caused by the ultrabright arc.
In grinding and cutting situations,
shaded safety glasses may be required.
Typically, these safety glasses provide
shade 5 infrared protection Fig. 1.
For outdoor work, such as on a con-
struction site, safety glasses are impor-
tant as well and are available in a variety
of tints. Glasses such as Lincoln Electrics
Finish Line outdoor safety glasses keep
eyes safe from debris and other jobsite
hazards while incorporating a mirrored
lens that protects eyes against the bright-
ness of the sun.
Goggles or safety glasses with a 360-
deg foam liner often are recommended
in cutting and grinding environments, as
well as on construction sites, to com-
pletely shield the eyes because these op-
erations tend to create a great deal of
dust Fig. 2. Choice of goggles or safety
glasses with a liner depends on industry
regulations, as well as the individual com-
panys jobsite safety standards.
Finally, dont forget about style when
selecting a pair of safety glasses. Many
manufacturers now offer safety glasses
that are as fashionable as a pair of sun-
glasses, making it easy to be stylish and
safe.
Caring for Your Safety
Glasses
For the best eye protection and
protection of your investment keep
your safety glasses in good condition. Ex-
amine them regularly and purchase a new
pair of safety glasses when needed.
Follow the manufacturers mainte-
nance instructions and make sure to
clean and disinfect your glasses regularly,
especially if another worker has used
them. Never wear excessively scratched,
dirty, or otherwise damaged safety
glasses, as they may cause impaired vi-
sion and also provide a reduced level of
protection. Store glasses in a clean, dust-
fee container to protect them from dam-
age in-between uses.
Essentially, care for your safety
glasses in the same manner that you
would care for your own prescription
lenses or sunglasses. OSHA requires eye
protection be worn in most worksites. Be-
cause safety glasses are an inexpensive
piece of PPE, it is always better to re-
place them than to weld or fabricate with
a damaged pair.
Safety glasses are a simple way to pro-
tect the eyes, and they should be worn
under a welding helmet in every welding
and fabricating situation. While some
workers may initially dislike the feeling
of wearing safety glasses, donning a pair
will eventually become second nature,
just another integral part of proper PPE
practices.
AUGUST 2012 60
Fig. 2 Safety glasses that feature
a 360-deg foam liner completely
shield the eyes, which makes them
useful for operations that create a lot
of dust such as cutting and grinding.
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Bulan Feature August 2012_Layout 1 7/10/12 10:58 AM Page 60
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miller electric_FP_TEMP 7/10/12 2:13 PM Page 61
COMING
EVENTS
GAWDA Annual Convention. Sept. 912. The Broadmoor, Col-
orado Springs, Colo. Gases and Welding Distributors Assn.
www.gawda.org.
IMTS 2012, Intl Manufacturing Technology Show. Sept. 1015.
McCormick Place, Chicago, Ill. Association for Manufacturing
Technology. www.IMTS.com.
6th Intl Quenching and Control of Distortion Conf. Sept. 1013.
Radisson Blu Aqua Hotel, Chicago, Ill. ASM International Heat
Treating Society. www.asminternational.org/content/Events/qcd/.
15th Annual Aluminum Welding Conf. Sept. 18, 19, Seattle,
Wash. Industry experts will survey the state of the art in aluminum
welding technology and practice. American Welding Society.
www.aws.org/conferences.
ICALEO, 31st Intl Congress on Applications of Lasers and
Electro-Optics. Sept. 2327. Anaheim Marriott Hotel, Anaheim,
Calif. Laser Institute of America. www.icaleo.org.
8th Annual Northeast Shingo Prize Conf.: Learning to Share.
Sept. 25, 26. DCU Center, Worcester, Mass. (617) 287-7630;
www.neshingoprize.org.
2012 Intl Conf. on Advances in Materials Science and Engineer-
ing. Sept. 27, 28. Bangkok, Thailand. Singapore Society of Me-
chanical Engineers. www.smss-sg.org/amse2012/ index.htm.
Sheet Metal Welding Conf. XV. Oct. 25, VisTaTech Center,
Livonia, Mich. This is the premier conference dedicated to ad-
vancing the science and technology of sheet metal welding. Spon-
sored by the AWS Detroit Section. www.awsdetroit.org.
2nd Intl Welding and Joint Technologies Congress and 19th
Technical Welding Sessions. Oct. 35. Civil Engineering School,
Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain. Sponsored by the Span-
ish Welding Assoication. www.cesol.es/jornadas2012.htm.
2nd Intl Conf. on Mechanical Materials and Mfg. Engineering.
Oct. 5, 6. Dalian, China. www.icmmme-conf.org.
TITANIUM 2012, 28th Annual Conf. and Expo. Oct. 710. Hilton
Atlanta Hotel, Atlanta, Ga. International Titanium Association.
www.titanium.org.
METALCON Intl 2012. Oct. 911. Donald E. Stephens Conven-
tion Center, Chicago, Ill. www.metalcon.com.
Aluminum Week 2012. Oct. 1518. Renaissance Chicago Down-
town Hotel, Chicago, Ill. Co-locating events for The Aluminum
Assn., Aluminum Extruders Council, and Aluminum Anodizers
Council. www.aluminum.org.
AWS/GSI Conf. on U.S. and European Welding Standards:
Structural, Pressure Piping, Pipelines, Railroad, NDT. Oct. 22,
23, Munich, Germany. www.aws.org/conferences.
NOTE: A DIAMOND ( ) DENOTES AN AWS-SPONSORED EVENT.
AUGUST 2012 62
continued on page 64
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
CE August_Layout 1 7/13/12 7:55 AM Page 62
For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
harris products_FP_TEMP 7/10/12 2:09 PM Page 63
EuroBLECH 2012, 22nd Intl Sheet Metal Working Technology
Exhibition. Oct. 2327. Hanover Exhibition Grounds, Hanover,
Germany. www.euroblech.com.
LME 2012, Lasers for Manufacturing Event. Oct. 23, 24, Renais-
sance Schaumburg Convention Center Hotel, Schaumburg, Ill.
Laser Institute of America. www.lia.org/lmesd.
Manufacturing with Composites. Oct. 23, 24, Charleston Con-
vention Center, North Charleston, S.C. Society of Manufacturing
Engineers. www.sme.org/mfgcomposites.
National FFA Convention and Expo. Oct. 2427. Indianapolis,
Ind. Future Farmers of America. www.ffa.org.
ASNT Fall Conf. Oct. 29Nov. 2. Rosen Shingle Creek Resort, Or-
lando, Fla. American Society for Nondestructive Testing.
www.asnt.org/events/conferences/fc12.htm.
EXPO IAS 2012, 6th Conf. on Uses of Steel, 19th Rolling Conf.
Nov. 68. City Center, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina. www.siderur-
gia.org.ar/conf12/Home.html.
20th National Quality Education Conf. Nov. 11, 12. Hyatt Re-
gency Louisville, Louisville, Ky. American Society for Quality.
(800) 248-1946; www.asq.org.
Advanced Visual Inspection Workshop. Nov. 12. Las Vegas Con-
vention Center, Las Vegas, Nev. American Welding Society.
www.fabtechexpo.com; www.aws.org/conferences; (800/305) 443-
9353, ext. 264.
ASME Section IX Code Clinic. Nov. 12, 13. Las Vegas Conven-
tion Center, Las Vegas, Nev. American Welding Society.
www.fabtechexpo.com; www.aws.org/conferences; (800/305) 443-
9353, ext. 264.
Brazing Symposium. Nov. 12. Las Vegas Convention Center,
Las Vegas, Nev. American Welding Society. www.fabtechexpo.
com; www.aws.org/conferences; (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 264.
FABTECH. Nov. 1214. Las Vegas Convention Center, Las
Vegas, Nev. This exhibition is the largest event in North America
dedicated to showcasing the full spectrum of metal forming, fab-
ricating, tube and pipe, welding equipment, and myriad manufac-
turing technologies. American Welding Society. www.fabtech-
expo.com; www.aws.org/conferences; (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 264.
Thermal Spray Basics Conf. Nov. 12. Las Vegas Convention
Center, Las Vegas, Nev. American Welding Society. www.fabtech-
expo.com; www.aws.org/conferences; (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 264.
Underwater Welding and Cutting Conf. Nov. 12. Las Vegas Con-
vention Center, Las Vegas, Nev. American Welding Society.
www.fabtechexpo.com; www.aws.org/conferences; (800/305) 443-
9353, ext. 264.
D1.1 Code Clinic (Spanish). Nov. 13. Las Vegas Convention
Center, Las Vegas, Nev. American Welding Society. www.fabtech-
expo.com; www.aws.org/conferences; (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 264.
Friction Stir Welding and Solid-State Processes. Nov. 13. Las
Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nev. American Welding So-
ciety. www.fabtechexpo.com; www.aws.org/conferences; (800/305)
443-9353, ext. 264.
AUGUST 2012 64
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continued from page 62
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
continued on page 66
CE August_Layout 1 7/13/12 7:56 AM Page 64
general corp_FP_TEMP 7/10/12 10:27 AM Page 65
AUGUST 2012 66
Underwater Welding and Cutting Conf. Nov. 13. Las Vegas Con-
vention Center, Las Vegas, Nev. American Welding Society.
www.fabtechexpo.com; www.aws.org/conferences; (800/305) 443-
9353, ext. 264.
RWMA Resistance Welding School. Nov. 13, 14. Las Vegas Con-
vention Center, Las Vegas, Nev. American Welding Society.
www.fabtechexpo.com; www.aws.org/conferences; (800/305) 443-
9353, ext. 264.
D1.5 Bridge Code Clinic. Nov. 14. Las Vegas Convention Cen-
ter, Las Vegas, Nev. American Welding Society. www.fabtech-
expo.com; www.aws.org/conferences; (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 264.
Trends in Nondestructive Testing Conf. Nov. 14. Las Vegas Con-
vention Center, Las Vegas, Nev. American Welding Society.
www.fabtechexpo.com; www.aws.org/conferences; (800/305) 443-
9353, ext. 264.
Welding Stainless Steel (Avoiding Weld Defects). Nov. 14. Las
Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nev. American Welding So-
ciety. www.fabtechexpo.com; www.aws.org/conferences; (800/305)
443-9353, ext. 264.
Indian Industrial Trade Fairs. Nov. 2124. India Expo Centre,
Delhi, India. Hannover Messe/CeMAT. www.cemat-india.com.
Power-Gen Intl Show. Dec. 1113. Orange County Convention
Center, Orlando, Fla. www.power-gen.com.
Intl Conf. on Advanced Material and Manufacturing Science
(ICAMMS 2012). Dec. 20, 21. High-Tech Mansion BUPT, Beijing,
China. www.icamms-conf.org.
LAM 5th Annual Laser Additive Manufacturing Workshop.
Feb. 12, 13, 2013. Hilton Houston North Hotel, Houston, Tex.
American Welding Society is a cooperating society in this event.
AWS members receive discounted registration. www.lia.org/con-
ferences/lam.
ILSC Intl Laser Safety Conf. March 1821, 2013. Doubletree
by Hilton, Orlando, Fla. Laser Institute of America.
www.lia.org/ilsc.
AeroDef Manufacturing Expo and Conf. March 1921, 2013.
Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, Calif. Society of
Manufacturing Engineers. www.sme.org; (800) 733-4763.
JOM-17, Intl Conf. on Joining Materials. May 58, 2013. Kon-
ventum Lo Skolen, Helsingr, Denmark. Institute for the Joining
of Materials (JOM) in association with the IIW. Cosponsored by
AWS, TWI, Danish Welding Society, Welding Technology Insti-
tute of Australia, University of Liverpool, Cranfield University,
Force Technology, and ABS (Brazilian Welding Assn.). E-mail
Osama Al-Erhayem at jom_aws@post10.tele.dk; www.jominsti-
tute.com/side6.html.
Educational Opportunities
First Wall Colmonoy India-based Brazing School. Sept. 11, 12.
Pune Marriott Hotel and Convention Centre, Pune, India.
Contact Lucy Williams, Wall Colmonoy, Marketing Manager,
Europe, lucywilliams@wallcolmonoy.co.uk,+44 (0) 1792 860251.
Fundamentals of Brazing Seminar. Sept. 19, Sheraton Chicago
OHare Airport Hotel, Chicago, Ill.; Sept. 2527, Wyndham
continued from page 64
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
CE August_Layout 1 7/13/12 7:56 AM Page 66
67 WELDING JOURNAL
Hotel San Jose, San Jose, Calif. Lucas Milhaupt, a Handy &
Harman Co. (800) 558-3856. www.lucasmilhaupt.com.
Best Practices for High-Strength Steel Repairs. I-CAR courses
for vehicle repair and steel structural technicians. www.i-car.com.
Canadian Welding Bureau Courses. Welding inspection courses
and preparation courses for Canadian General Standards Board
and Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission certifications. The
CWB Group, www.cwbgroup.org.
ASM Intl Courses. Numerous classes on welding, corrosion, fail-
ure analysis, metallography, heat treating, etc., presented in
Materials Park, Ohio, online, webinars, on-site, videos, and
DVDs; www.asminternational.org, search for courses.
Automotive Body in White Training for Skilled Trades and
Engineers. Orion, Mich. A five-day course covers operations,
troubleshooting, error recovery programs, and safety procedures
for automotive lines and integrated cells. Applied Mfg.
Technologies; (248) 409-2000; www.appliedmfg.com.
Basic and Advanced Welding Courses. Cleveland, Ohio. The
Lincoln Electric Co.; www.lincolnelectric.com.
Basics of Nonferrous Surface Preparation. Online course, six
hours includes exam. Offered on the 15th of every month by The
Society for Protective Coatings. Register at www.sspc.org/training.
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors Training Courses and
Seminars. Columbus, Ohio; www.nationalboard.org; (614) 888-
8320.
CWI/CWE Course and Exam. Troy, Ohio. A two-week prepara-
tion and exam program. Hobart Institute of Welding Technology;
(800) 332-9448; www.welding.org.
CWI/CWE Prep Course and Exam and NDT Inspector Training
Courses. An AWS Accredited Testing Facility. Courses held year-
round in Allentown, Pa., and at customers facilities. Welder
Training & Testing Institute; (800) 223-9884; info@wtti.edu;
www.wtti.edu.
CWI Preparatory and Visual Weld Inspection Courses. Classes
presented in Pascagoula, Miss., Houston, Tex., and Houma and
Sulphur, La. Real Educational Services, Inc. (800) 489-2890;
info@realeducational.com.
Consumables: Care and Optimization. Free online e-courses on
the basics of plasma consumables for plasma operators, sales,
and service personnel; www.hyperthermcuttinginstitute.com.
Crane and Hoist Training for Operators. Konecranes Training
Institute, Springfield, Ohio; www.konecranesamericas.com; (262)
821-4001.
Dust Collection Seminars. Free, full-day training on industrial
ventilation basics and OSHA, EPA, and NFPA regulations.
Presented throughout the year at numerous locations nation-
wide. Camfil Farr APC, (800) 479-6801.
EPRI NDE Training Seminars. Training in visual and ultrasonic
examination and ASME Section XI. Sherryl Stogner (704) 547-
6174; sstogner@epri.com.
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
CE August_Layout 1 7/13/12 7:56 AM Page 67
Environmental Online Webinars. Free, online, real-time semi-
nars conducted by industry experts. For topics and schedule, visit
www.augustmack.com.
Essentials of Safety Seminars. Two- and four-day courses held at
locations nationwide to address federal and California OSHA
safety regulations. American Safety Training, Inc.; (800) 896-
8867; www.trainosha.com.
Fabricators and Manufacturers Assn. and Tube and Pipe Assn.
Courses. (815) 399-8775; visit www.fmanet.org.
Gas Detection Made Easy Courses. Online and classroom cours-
es for managing a gas monitoring program from gas detection to
confined-space safety. Industrial Scientific Corp.; (800) 338-
3287; www.indsci.com.
Hellier Nondestructive Examination Courses. For schedules and
locations, visit www.hellierndt.com; call toll-free (888) 282-3887.
Inspection Courses on ultrasonic, eddy current, radiography, dye
penetrant, magnetic particle, and visual at Levels 13. Meet SNT-
TC-1A and NAS-410 requirements. TEST NDT, LLC, (714) 255-
1500; www.testndt.com.
Hypertherm Cutting Institute Online. Includes video tutorials,
interactive e-learning courses, discussion forums, and blogs. Visit
www.hyperthermcuttinginstitute.com.
INTEG Courses. Courses in NDE disciplines to meet certifica-
tions to Canadian General Standards Board or Canadian
Nuclear Safety Commission. The Canadian Welding Bureau;
(800) 844-6790; www.cwbgroup.org.
Laser Safety Online Courses. Courses include Medical Laser
Safety Officer, Laser Safety Training for Physicians, Industrial
Laser Safety, and Laser Safety in Educational Institutions. Laser
Institute of America; (800) 345-3737; www.laserinstitute.org.
Laser Safety Training Courses. Courses based on ANSI Z136.1,
Safe Use of Lasers, Orlando, Fla., or customers site. Laser
Institute of America; (800) 345-3737; www.laserinstitute.org.
Laser Vision Seminars. Two-day classes, offered monthly and on
request, include tutorials and practical training. Presented at
Servo-Robot, Inc., St. Bruno, QC, Canada. For schedule, cost,
and availability, send your request to info@servorobot.com.
Machine Safeguarding Seminars. Rockford Systems, Inc.; (800)
922-7533; visit www.rockfordsystems.com.
Machining and Grinding Courses. TechSolve, www.TechSolve.org.
NACE Intl Training and Certification Courses. National Assoc.
of Corrosion Engineers; (281) 228-6223; www.nace.org.
NDE and CWI/CWE Courses and Exams. Allentown, Pa., and
customers locations. Welder Training and Testing Institute, (800)
223-9884; www.wtti.edu.
NDT Courses and Exams. Brea, Calif., and customers locations.
Level I and II and refresher courses in PA, UT, MP, radiation
safety, radiography, visual, etc. Test NDT, LLC; www.testndt.com;
(714) 255-1500.
Online Education Courses. Topics include Introduction to Die
Casting ($99), Metal Melting and Handling ($99), Product
Design ($59), Energy Training ($19), Dross Training ($19),
Managing Dust Hazards ($19), Safety (free). North American
Die Casting Assn., www.diecasting.org/education/online; or call
(847) 808-3161.
Plastics Welding School. A two-day course for certification to
European plastics welding standards. Malcom Hot Air Systems;
www.plasticweldingtools.com.
Protective Coatings Training and Certification Courses. At vari-
ous locations and online. The Society for Protective Coatings;
(877) 281-7772; www.sspc.org.
Robotics Operator Training. Presented by ABB University at 13
locations nationwide. For course titles and locations:
www.abb.us/abbuniversity; (800) 435-7365, opt. 2, opt. 4.
Safety Training Online. Unlimited training on myriad industrial
safety course titles for $45/employee/year. Visit Web site for com-
plete information and previews of several courses;
www.safety99.com.
Servo-Robot Training Seminars. Two-day laser-vision seminars
held throughout the year at Servo-Robot, Inc., near Montreal,
Canada. Seminars include tutorials and hands-on practical train-
ing. For seminar schedule and costs, e-mail request to info@
servorobot.com.
Shielded Metal Arc Welding of 2-in. Pipe in the 6G Position
Uphill. Troy, Ohio. Hobart Institute of Welding Technology;
(800) 332-9448; www.welding.org.
SSPC Training and Certification Courses. Courses in protective
coatings, abrasive blasting, paint inspector, bridge coatings
inspector, surface preparation, NAVSEA inspector, and many
others. The Society for Protective Coatings; www.sspc.org.
Thermadyne Distributor Training. Year-around training at
Denton, Tex.; West Lebanon, N.H.; Bowling Green, Ky.; and
Chino, Calif.; (940) 381-1387; trainingteam@victortechnologies.com.
TIP TIG Manual and Automated Plate and Pipe Welding
Workshops. Held the third Thursday of every month. 1901 Kitty
Hawk Ave., Bldg. 68, Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Philadelphia,
Pa.; (215) 389-7700; www.tiptigusa.com.
Tool and Die Welding Courses. Troy, Ohio. Hobart Institute of
Welding Technology; (800) 332-9448; www.welding.org.
Unitek Miyachi Corp. Training Services. Personalized training
services on resistance and laser beam welding and laser marking;
(626) 303-5676; www.unitekmiyachi.com.
Vibration Training Short Courses. Presented at locations nation-
wide, customers site, and by correspondence. Vibration
Institute; www.vibinst.org.
Welding Courses. A wide range of specialized courses presented
throughout the year. The Lincoln Electric Co.; (216) 486-1751;
www.lincolnelectric.com.
Welding Introduction for Robot Operators and Programmers.
This one-week course is presented in Troy, Ohio, or at customers
locations. Hobart Institute of Welding Technology. www.weld-
ing.org; (800) 332-9448, ext. 5603.
Welding Skills Training Courses. Courses include weldability of
ferrous and nonferrous metals, arc welding inspection, quality
control, and preparation for recertification of CWIs. Hobart
Institute of Welding Technology. www.welding.org; (800) 332-
9448.
AUGUST 2012 68
CE August_Layout 1 7/13/12 7:57 AM Page 68
One Whale of
a Conference
THIS IS
GOING
TO BE
API Storage Tank Conference & Expo
October 24-25, 2012 | San Diego, California | USA
In conjunction with the
Safe Tank Entry Workshop | October 22-23, 2012
Scan me for more info or go to www.api.org/storagetank
Copyright 2012 American Petroleum Institute, all rights reserved. API and the API logo are either trademarks or registered
trademarks of API in the United States and/or other countries.
For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
amerian petroleum institute_FP_TEMP 7/10/12 12:59 PM Page 69
CERTIFICATION
SCHEDULE
Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)
LOCATION SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE
Bakersfield, CA Aug. 1217 Aug. 18
Charlotte, NC Aug. 1217 Aug. 18
Rochester, NY Exam only Aug. 18
San Antonio, TX Aug. 1217 Aug. 18
Miami, FL Exam only Aug. 18
Portland, ME Aug. 1924 Aug. 25
Minneapolis, MN Aug. 1924 Aug. 25
Salt Lake City, UT Aug. 1924 Aug. 25
Pittsburgh, PA Aug. 1924 Aug. 25
Seattle, WA Aug. 1924 Aug. 25
Corpus Christi, TX Exam only Sept. 8
Houston, TX Sept. 914 Sept. 15
St. Louis, MO Sept. 914 Sept. 15
New Orleans, LA Sept. 914 Sept. 15
Miami, FL Sept. 914 Sept. 15
Anchorage, AK Exam only Sept. 22
Miami, FL Exam only Oct. 18
Tulsa, OK Oct. 1419 Oct. 20
Long Beach, CA Oct. 1419 Oct. 20
Newark, NJ Oct. 1419 Oct. 20
Nashville, TN Oct. 1419 Oct. 20
Portland, OR Oct. 2126 Oct. 27
Roanoke, VA Oct. 2126 Oct. 27
Detroit, MI Oct. 2126 Oct. 27
Cleveland, OH Oct. 2126 Oct. 27
Atlanta, GA Oct. 28Nov. 2 Nov. 3
Corpus Christi, TX Exam only Nov. 3
Dallas, TX Oct. 28Nov. 2 Nov. 3
Sacramento, CA Oct. 28Nov. 2 Nov. 3
Spokane, WA Oct. 28Nov. 2 Nov. 3
Shreveport, LA Nov. 49 Nov. 10
Las Vegas, NV Exam only Nov. 14
Syracuse, NY Dec. 27 Dec. 8
Houston, TX Dec. 27 Dec. 8
Reno, NV Dec. 27 Dec. 8
Los Angeles, CA Dec. 27 Dec. 8
Miami, FL Dec. 27 Dec. 8
Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)
LOCATION SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE
Miami, FL Sept. 1014 Sept. 15
Norfolk, VA Oct. 1519 Oct. 20
CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites.
9Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI
For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet education
requirements without taking the exam. The exam can be taken
at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector.
LOCATION SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE
Orlando, FL Aug. 2025 No exam
Denver, CO Sept. 1015 No exam
Dallas, TX Oct. 1520 No exam
New Orleans, LA Oct. 29Nov. 3 No exam
Miami, FL Nov. 26Dec. 1 No exam
Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)
LOCATION SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE
Chicago, IL Sept. 1014 Sept. 15
Pittsburgh, PA Oct. 1519 Oct. 20
The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can
exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.
Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR)
CWSR exams will be given at CWI exam sites.
Certified Welding Educator (CWE)
Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified
Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code
Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).
Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)
WEEKS OF, FOLLOWED BY LOCATION AND PHONE NUMBER
Aug. 10, Nov. 9 at
ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 3918421
Aug. 20, Dec. 3 at
Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688
Oct. 22, Oct. 26 at
Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542
Oct. 15 at
OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800
Sept. 10, Nov. 5 at
Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736
On request at:
MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 297-6996
Certified Welding Engineer (CWEng) and Senior Certified
Welding Inspector (SCWI)
Exams can be taken at any site listed under Certified Welding
Inspector. No preparatory seminar is offered.
International CWI Courses and Exams Schedules
Please visit www.aws.org/certification/inter_contact.html.
AUGUST 2012 70
IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change without notice. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the sem-
inar/exam or exam. Applications received after that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application deadline
dates by visiting our website www.aws.org/certification/docs/schedules.html. Verify your event dates with the Certification Dept. to
confirm your course status before making travel plans. For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or to register
online, visit www.aws.org/certification or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars. Apply early to
avoid paying the $250 Fast Track fee.
AWS Certification Schedule
Certification Seminars, Code Clinics, and Examinations
Cert Schedule August_Layout 1 7/11/12 7:50 AM Page 70
digital wldg jrnl_FP_TEMP 7/11/12 8:42 AM Page 71
WELDING
WORKBOOK
The American Welding Society formed the A2 Committee on
Definitions and Symbols to establish standard terms and defini-
tions to aid in the communication of welding information. AWS
A3.0M/A3.0:2010, Standard Welding Terms and Definitions In-
cluding Terms for Adhesive Bonding, Brazing, Soldering, Thermal
Cutting, and Thermal Spraying is the major product of work done
by the Subcommittee on Definitions in support of that purpose.
Table 1 shows some examples of the most commonly misused
terms and the corresponding correct terms.
AUGUST 2012 72
Datasheet 334
Excerpted from A3.0M/A3.0:2010, Standard Welding Terms and Definitions Including Terms for Adhesive Bonding, Brazing, Soldering,
Thermal Cutting, and Thermal Spraying.
Do You Speak AWS?
Table 1 Examples of Correct and Incorrect Welding Terminology
Incorrect Correct
backup (except in flash or upset welding) backing
blowhole, gas pocket porosity
bonding brazing, soldering, welding
burn-through melt-through
burner* oxyfuel gas cutter*
burning oxyfuel gas cutting
butt weld (see Fig. 1) butt joint
coated electrode, stick electrode covered electrode
defect (unless indicating rejectability) discontinuity
diffusion bonding diffusion brazing,
diffusion welding
electrode gap arc length
filler wire welding wire
flame cutting oxygen cutting
full penetration complete joint penetration
fusion line weld interface
gas cutter* oxygen cutter*
hard solder brazing filler metal
joint opening root opening
lack of fusion incomplete fusion
lack of penetration incomplete joint penetra-
tion
land root face
locked-up stress residual stress
metal inert gas (MIG), CO
2
welding gas metal arc welding
(GMAW)
narrow gap welding narrow groove welding
overlaying surfacing
parent metal, base plate base metal
puddle weld pool
root gap root opening
root radius bevel radius
stick electrode welding shielded metal arc welding
(SMAW)
soft solder soldering filler metal
tungsten inert gas (TIG) gas tungsten arc welding
(GTAW)
welder welding machine
weldor welder*
* Refers to the individual, not to equipment or machines.
(A) Butt Joint
(B) Corner Joint
(C) T-Joint
(D) Lap Joint
(E) Edge Joint
Fig. 1 Joint types.
Welding Workbook August 2012_Layout 1 7/13/12 9:31 AM Page 72
The AWS Board has approved a matching
program for all new Named Scholarships and
all donations to existing Named Scholarships.
This is an excellent program to establish a
scholarship in your name, your companys
name, or your District or Sections name. Any
funds donated will be matched dollar for dollar!
Since 1991, we have awarded more than $5.3
million in scholarships, and this year will award
400 students with more than $390,000. Our
applicant numbers grow annually as the cost of
tuition continues to climb. We have to turn
away many qualified students due to the limited
numbers of scholarships we have available.
Help us do more. Establish your own National,
District or Section Named Scholarship and we
will match it dollar for dollar!
A Matching
Gift Program
for Endowed
Scholarships
FOR A LIMITED TIME
Contact Sam Gentry in the
AWS Foundation office at 305-443-9353 x331 or email to sgentry@aws.org.


























































































A



fice at WS Foundation of ff AAW
Contact



or email to 305-443-9353 x331
in the Sam Gentry Contact



. sgentry@aws.org or email to



foundation_FP_TEMP 7/11/12 8:44 AM Page 73
awo fundamentals_FP_TEMP 7/11/12 8:54 AM Page 74
SOCIETYNEWS SOCIETYNEWS
75 WELDING JOURNAL
Exceptional AWS Student Members
Set Their Career Goals High
AWS Student Members Brittani Mask-
ley and T. J. Duke, graduating seniors at
William T. McFatter Technical Center,
Davie, Fla., distinguished themselves dur-
ing the centers May 22 Welding Project
Exhibition.
The judges on the assessment panel
were local business and industry profes-
sionals, including Gilly Burrion, South
Florida Section chair; Cassie Burrell, AWS
senior associate executive director; Andrew
Davis, managing director, Technical Serv-
ices; and welding instructor and CWI
James Scott. The students were evaluated
on three components: oral, written, and
multimedia, important elements of McFat-
ters graduation requirements
Rating high for originality and quality
of welding skills, Duke used his designing
and shop expertise to create a rugged cage
enclosure for his Jeep Fig. 1.
Maskley employed innovative welding
and joining methods and artistic talent to
create an ornamental tree Fig. 2. Ear-
lier, Maskley received honorable mention
in the Vocational Technical division for the
prestigious Silver Knight Awards spon-
sored by The Miami Herald to recognize
her contributions of significant service to
her school and the community and for her
consistently high grades.
Maskley, who has been accepted into
the engineering school at the University of
Florida, said, My understanding of math
and science combined with my dexterity
has led me to the conclusion that the right
major for me is Materials Science and En-
gineering. I will feel fulfilled when I earn
my doctorates degree. I picture myself
working in aerospace as a welding engineer
who can brainstorm, design, and construct
any project given to me.
Duke, who already has considerable ex-
perience as a racecar driver, said his objec-
tive is to pursue a professional career with
NASCAR. He also plans, after college, to
open his own custom fabrication shop to
capitalize on his welding, designing, and
BY HOWARD WOODWARD
woodward@aws.org
Fig. 2 Brittani Maskley and welding in-
structor and CWI James Scott are shown at
the William T. McFatter Technical Center.
Fig. 1 T. J. Duke displays the Jeep cage enclosure he designed and built.
fabrication interests.
The McFatter Technical Center is a
renowned institution in Broward County.
This public, postsecondary, magnet high
school has achieved a National Blue Rib-
bon School of Excellence award for its suc-
cessful training of high school and adult
students. It offers educational opportuni-
ties in 15 occupational areas, and encour-
ages its graduates to further their educa-
tions and seek rewarding and profitable
careers in industry.
AWS members who wish to nominate can-
didates for President, Vice President, and Di-
rector-at-Large on the AWS Board of Direc-
tors for the term starting Jan. 1, 2014, may
either:
1. Send their nominations electronically by
Oct. 1, 2012, to Gricelda Manalich at
gricelda@aws.org, c/o John L. Mendoza, Chair-
man, National Nominating Committee; or
2. Present their nominations in person at
the open session of the National Nominating
Committee meeting scheduled for 2:00 to
3:00 P.M., Tuesday, Nov. 13, 2012, at the Las
Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nev.,
during FABTECH.
Nominations must be accompanied by biog-
raphical material on each candidate, including
a written statement by the candidate as to his
or her willingness and ability to serve if nomi-
nated and elected, letters of support, plus a 5-
7-in. head-and-shoulders color photograph.
Note: Persons who present their nominations
at the Show must provide 20 copies of the bi-
ographical materials and written statement.
Nominations Sought for National Officers
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 1:11 PM Page 75
AUGUST 2012 76
Tech Topics
Interpretation
AWS D17.1/D17.1M
Specification for Fusion Welding
for Aerospace Applications
Subject: Visual Weld Inspectors
Edition: D17.1/D17.1M:2010-AMD1
Code Provision: Clause 7.1.2
AWS Log: D17.1-10-I01
Inquiry: In AWS D17.1:2010 Clause
7.1.2, the requirements on visual weld in-
spector have been changed from the pre-
vious 2001 version and has not been de-
fined clearly. What needs engineering au-
thority approval, the inspection person-
nel, test requirements, or training pro-
gram? Also AWS B5.2 becomes manda-
tory in this paragraph while it is optional
in the previous 2001 version. This will
have a huge impact on Honeywell and its
suppliers, especially if engineering au-
thority approval is required, which means
Honeywell has to force its suppliers to be
compliant and reapprove the visual in-
spector training program for all the weld-
ing suppliers.
Response: AWS D17.1/D17.1M:2010
requires certified personnel to perform
visual weld inspections. There are two ap-
proaches available. One approach uses
AWS QC1 certification. The other ap-
proach employs an Engineering Author-
ity-approved certification program based
upon three criteria: experience, training,
and testing. AWS B5.2 is to be used to de-
velop these criteria, as approved by the
Engineering Authority.
As specified in Clause 1.1 Scope of
AWS D17.1/D17.1M:2010, the Engineer-
ing Authority has the option to take ex-
ception or make additions to any require-
ment within this specification.
Ammendment Notice
AWS D17.1/D17.1M
Specification for Fusion Welding
for Aerospace Applications
The following Amendment has been
identified and will be incorporated into
the next reprinting of this document.
AWS Standard: D17.1/D17.1M:2010
Amendment #: 1
Subject: Table 7.1, Acceptance Criteria
in [mm], Face or Root Underfill (Groove
Welds), Individual defect-maximum
depth.
Errata
AWS D1.4/1.4M:2011
Structural Welding Code
Reinforcing Steel
The following errata have been iden-
tified and will be incorporated into the
next reprinting of this document.
Page 11, Figure 3.2, Correct all in-
stances of TO with to.
Page 27, Clause 6.1.2.2, Correct AWS
D12.1 reference to AWS D1.1.
Page 27, Clause 6.2.1.1, Correct Table
6.1 reference to Table 6.2.
Page 32, Table 6.1, Correct Maximum
Electrode Diametery to Maximum
Electrode Diameter.
Page 34, Table 6.3, Correct row three
by adding or 6.5(D)] and row four by
deleting (D) and replacing it with (E)
as shown below.
Page 35, Table 6.4, Correct row three
for Direct Butt Joint under the Fillet Joint
column to F, H, V as shown below:
Page 35, Table 6.4, Replace V in row
four of Direct Butt Joint under the Fillet
Joint column to OH as shown below:
Pages 40, 41, Table 6.5, Replace all in-
stances of L1 with L
1
.
Pages 4042, Tables 6.5 and 6.6, Re-
place all instances of LMIN with
L
min
.
Page 59, Annex B, Correct cross-
sectional area of bar size number 18
from 258 to 2581.
New Standard Project
Development work has begun on the
following revised standards. Affected in-
dividuals are invited to contribute to the
development of these standards. For in-
formation, contact the staff engineer
listed with the document. Participation
on AWS Technical Committees and Sub-
committees is open to all persons.
A5.8M-A5.8:2011-AMD1, Specifica-
tion for Filler Metals for Brazing and Braze
Welding. This specification prescribes the
requirements for the classification of
brazing filler metals for brazing and braze
welding. The chemical composition, phys-
ical form, and packaging of more than 120
brazing filler metals are specified. The
groups described include Al, Co, Cu, Au,
Mg, Ni, Ag, Ti, and brazing filler metals
for vacuum service. Also provided are liq-
uidus, solidus, and brazing temperature
ranges, and general areas of application
recommended for each brazing filler
metal. Additional requirements are in-
cluded for manufacture, sizes, lengths,
and packaging. Stakeholders: Manufac-
turers and consumers. Amendment stan-
dard. Call S. Borrero, ext. 334.
Revised Standard Approved by
ANSI
C4.5M:2012, Uniform Designation Sys-
tem for Oxyfuel Nozzles. Approved 6/5/12.
Standards for Public Review
AWS was approved as an accredited
standards-preparing organization by the
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) in 1979. AWS rules, as approved
by ANSI, require that all standards be
open to public review for comment dur-
ing the approval process. The following
standards are submitted for public review
with the expiration dates shown. A draft
copy may be obtained from R. ONeill,
roneill@aws.org, ext. 451.
B2.1-1-003:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuit-
ing Transfer Mode) of Galvanized Steel (M-
1), 18 through 10 Gauge, in the As-Welded
Condition, with or without Backing. Reaf-
firmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.1-1-004:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuit-
ing Transfer Mode) of Carbon Steel (M-1,
Group 1), 18 through 10 Gauge, in the As-
Welded Condition, with or without Back-
ing. Reaffirmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.1-8-005:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification
(SWPS)for Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short
Circuiting Transfer Mode) of Austenitic
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 3:11 PM Page 76
77 WELDING JOURNAL
Stainless Steel (M-8, P-8, or S-8), 18 through
10 Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with
or without Backing. Reaffirmed. $25.
8/6/12.
B2.1-1/8-006:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuit-
ing Transfer Mode) of Carbon Steel to
Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-1 to M-8, P-8,
or S-8), 18 through 10 Gauge, in the As-
Welded Condition, with or without Back-
ing. Reaffirmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.1-1-007:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Galvanized
Steel (M-1), 18 through 10 Gauge, in the
As-Welded Condition, with or without Back-
ing. Reaffirmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.1-1-008:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Carbon
Steel (M-1, P-1, or S-1), 18 through 10
Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with or
without Backing. Reaffirmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.1-8-009:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Austenitic
Stainless Steel (M-8, P-8, or S-8), 18 through
10 Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with
or without Backing. Reaffirmed. $25.
8/6/12.
B2.1-1/8-010:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Carbon
Steel to Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-1, P-1
or S-1 to M-8, P-8, or S-8), 18 through 10
Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with or
without Backing. Reaffirmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.1-1-011:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Galva-
nized Steel (M-1), 10 through 18 Gauge, in
the As-Welded Condition, with or without
Backing. Reaffirmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.1-1-012:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon
Steel (M-1, P-1, or S-1), 18 through 10
Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with or
without Backing. Reaffirmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.1-8-013:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Austenitic
Stainless Steel (M-8, P-8, S-8, Group 1), 10
through 18 Gauge, in the As-Welded Con-
dition, with or without Backing. Reaf-
firmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.1-1/8-014:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon
Steel to Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-1 to
M-8/P-8/S-8, Group 1), 10 through 18
Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with or
without Backing. Reaffirmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.1-1/8-227:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Carbon
Steel (M-1/P-1, Groups 1 or 2) to Austenitic
Stainless Steel (M-8/P-8, Group 1),
1
16
through 1
1
2 Inch Thick, ER309(L), As-
Welded Condition, Primarily Pipe Applica-
tions. Reaffirmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.1-1/8-228:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon
Steel (M-1/P-1/S-1, Groups 1 or 2) to
Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-8/P-8/S-8,
Group 1),
1
8 through 1
1
2 Inch Thick,
E309(L) -15, -16, or -17, As-Welded Con-
dition, Primarily Pipe Applications. Reaf-
firmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.1-1/8-229:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding followed by
Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon Steel
(M-1/P-1, Groups 1 or 2) to Austenitic
Stainless Steel (M-8/P-8, Group 1),
1
8
through 1
1
2 Inch Thick, ER309(L) and
E309(L) -15, -16, or -17, As-Welded Con-
dition, Primarily Pipe Applications. Reaf-
firmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.1-1/8-230:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding with Con-
sumable Insert Root of Carbon Steel (M-
1/P-1, Groups 1 or 2) to Austenitic Stain-
less Steel ( M-8/P-8, Group 1),
1
16 through
1
1
2 Inch Thick, IN309 and ER309(L), As-
Welded Condition, Primarily Pipe Applica-
tions. Reaffirmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.1-1/8-231:2002 (R20XX), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding with Con-
sumable Insert Root followed by Shielded
Metal Arc Welding of Carbon Steel (M-1/P-
1/S-1, Groups 1 or 2) to Austenitic Stain-
less Steel (M-8/P-8/S-8, Group 1),
1
8
through 1
1
2 Inch Thick, IN309, ER309, and
E309-15, -16, or -17, or IN309, ER309(L),
and ER309(L)-15, -16, or -17, As-Welded
Condition, Primarily Pipe Applications.
Reaffirmed. $25. 8/6/12.
B2.3/B2.3M:20XX, Specification for
Soldering Procedure and Performance
Qualification. Revised. $39.50. 8/6/12.
B5.2:20XX, Specification for the Train-
ing, Qualification, and Company Certifica-
tion of Welding Inspector Specialists and
Welding Inspector Assistants. New. $25.
8/6/12.
D14.9/D14.9M:20XX, Specification for
the Welding of Hydraulic Cylinders. New.
$34.50. 8/13/12.
G2.3M/G2.3:20XX, Guide for the Join-
ing of Solid Austenitic Stainless Steels. Re-
vised. $70. 8/6/12.
ISO Draft Standard for Public Review
ISO/DIS 5826 Resistance welding
equipment Transformers General
specifications applicable to all transformers
Copies of the above draft International
Standards are available for review and
comment through your national standards
body, which in the United States is ANSI,
25 W. 43rd St., 4th Fl., New York, NY
10036, (212) 642-4900. In the United
States, if you want to participate in the de-
velopment of International Standards for
welding, contact Andrew Davis, adavis
@aws.org, ext. 466. Otherwise contact
your national standards body.
Technical Committee
Meetings
All AWS technical committee meet-
ings are open to the public. To attend a
meeting, contact the committee secretary
as listed below. Call (800/305) 443-9353
at the extention shown. Visit
www.aws.org/technical/jointechcomm.html
to learn more about what technical com-
mittees do, membership requirements,
and to apply for membership online.
Aug. 1. International Standards Activ-
ities Committee, Burr Ridge, Ill. Contact
A. Davis, ext. 466.
Aug. 1, 2. Technical Activities Commit-
tee, Burr Ridge, Ill. Contact A. Alonso,
ext. 299.
Aug. 13, 14. D16 Committee on Ro-
botic and Automatic Welding. Dayton,
Ohio. Contact B. McGrath, ext. 311.
Sept. 19, 20. B4 Committee on Me-
chanical Testing of Welds. Charleston,
S.C. Contact B. McGrath, ext. 311.
American Welding Society members
will receive a discounted fee to attend the
Laser Institute of America (LIA) 5th An-
nual Laser Additive Manufacturing Work-
shop to be held Feb. 12, 13, 2013, at Hilton
Houston North Hotel in Houston, Tex. The
two societies have signed a cooperating so-
ciety agreement wherein AWS is listed as
a Cooperating Society for the event and
AWS members receive the LIA member
discount. For complete information, visit
www.lia.org/conferences/lam.
AWS Members Offered Discounted Fee for Laser Additive Manufacturing Workshop
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 3:14 PM Page 77
ifornia Science Center in Los Angeles.
They then visited the main transfer aisle
of the Vehicle Assembly Building to learn
how the twin solid-rocket boosters are
stacked and mated to the external fuel
tank and to the orbiter prior to being
rolled out to the launch pad. Finally, the
group toured Launch Complex 39A, one
of the two space shuttle launch pads. The
Launch 39A complex served all of the
Apollo moon mission launches.
Participating were Bob Cohen, Weld
Computer Corp.; Brent Williams, Miller
Electric Mfg. Co.; Bryan Worley, GE Avi-
ation, Elano Div.; Chad Carl, D17K chair,
NASA Kennedy Space Center; Dag Lind-
land, Pratt & Whitney; Dale Senatore,
Wulco Inc.; Dean Sheldon, Roll Forming
Corp.; Gary Coleman, The Boeing Co.;
George Rolla, Advanced Weldtec, Inc.;
Gregory Trepus, Boeing Commercial Air-
planes; J. T. Amin, Lockheed-Martin
Aeronautics Corp.; Jeff Bernath, RTI Intl
Materials, Inc.; Jeffrey Ding, NASA; John
Pearson and John Pearson Jr., LTK En-
gineering Services; Jon Carruth, Lock-
heed Martin Missile & Fire Control; Jose
Saenz, Ace Clearwater Enterprises; Lucie
Johannes, NASA Johnson Space Center;
Lyle Morris; Raytheon Integrated De-
fense Systems; Nathan Rindal, Exotic
Metals Forming Corp.; Peter Daum, Rolls-
Royce Corp.; Ralph Maust, Raytheon In-
tegrated; Randal Easterwood, Honeywell
Intl; Richard Carver, ATK Launch Sys-
tems; Richard Freeman, TWI; Ron Jones,
Jacobs Engineering; Scott Murray, D17
chair, NASA Kennedy Space Center; Wen
Guo, Honeywell; William Schell, D17D
chair, Boeing Research & Technology; and
Alex Diaz, AWS staff secretary to the D17,
D17D, D17J, and D17K committees.
AUGUST 2012 78
Four AWS technical committee mem-
bers were cited for their years of service
contributing to the preparation of AWS
standards and codes. Bill Brafford, Bill
Qualls, and Jim Dolfi received 20-year
service pins, and Menachem Kimchi re-
ceived his ten-year advisor member serv-
ice pin. Qualls and Kimchi serve on the C1
Committee on Resistance Welding. Dolfi
and Brafford are members of the D8 Com-
mittee on Automotive Welding.
The presentations took place during
the C1 and D8 committee meetings held
May 15 at the offices of RoMan Engineer-
ing Services in Livonia, Mich.
D17 Committees Make Memorable Visit to Space Center
Veteran C1 and D8 Committee Members Recognized for Their Service
In May, the AWS D17 committees held
their business meetings at NASA Kennedy
Space Center, Fla. Event organizer and
host Chad Carl, chair, D17K Subcommit-
tee on Fusion Welding, said the commit-
tee members were invited to tour the Or-
biter Processing Facility #2, home of the
space shuttle Endeavour, where it is being
prepared for permanent display at the Cal-
Nominate Your Candidate for the M.I.T. Prof. Masubuchi Award
November 5, 2012, is the deadline for
submitting nominations for the 2013 Prof.
Koichi Masubuchi Award.
This award is presented each year to
one person, 40 years old or younger, who
has made significant contributions to the
advancement of materials joining through
research and development.
Nominations should include a descrip-
tion of the candidates experience, list of
publications, honors, and awards, and at
least three letters of recommendation
from fellow researchers.
This award is sponsored by the Dept.
of Ocean Engineering at Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), this
award includes a $5000 honorarium.
E-mail your nomination package to
Todd A. Palmer, assistant professor, The
Pennsylvania State University,
tap103@psu.edu.
Shown June 28 at The Lincoln Electric Co. headquarters in Cleveland, Ohio, are (from left) AWS Executive Director Ray Shook; John Stropki,
chairman, president, and CEO, Lincoln Electric Holdings, Inc.; George Blankenship, senior vice president and president, Lincoln Electric North
America; Christopher Mapes, COO, Lincoln Electric Holdings, Inc.; and Sam Gentry, executive director, AWS Foundation, Inc. The AWS
officials recognized Lincolns contributions to the success of the Careers in Welding trailer exhibit.
AWS Recognizes Lincolns Contributions to the Careers in Welding Mobile Exhibit
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 1:11 PM Page 78
79 WELDING JOURNAL
New AWS Supporters
Sustaining Members
Cameron Manufacturing & Design
727 Blostein Blvd.
Horseheads, NY 14845
Representative: David Barton
www.camfab.com
Cameron Manufacturing & Design, an
ESOP company, is based in a 100,000-sq-ft
facility with more than 200 employees. Es-
tablished in 1983 by Frank Laviola Sr., it is
a leading supplier of sheet metal goods,
ASME code vessels, and engineering turn-
key projects.
Chouteau Fabricating
13620 Old Hwy. 40
Boonville, MO 65203
Representative: Chris Martin
www.chouteaufab.com
Chouteau Fabricating specializes in
structural steel fabrication and steel erec-
tion projects. The company, a licensed con-
tractor in about ten states, builds a wide va-
riety of steel structures.
Hodgson Custom Rolling, Inc.
5580 Kalar Rd.
Niagara Falls, ON L2H3L1, Canada
Representative: Sam Biglari
www.hcrsteel.com
Hodgson Custom Rolling performs a
wide variety of operations, including weld-
ing, plate rolling, brake forming, stress re-
lieving, saw cutting, cambering, flattening,
and warehousing.
Mac Process LLC
810 S. U.S. Old Hwy. 75
Sabetha, KS 66534
Representative: Jeremy Kearney
www.macprocessinc.com
Mac Process is a primary equipment
manufacturer of pneumatic conveying and
air-filtration systems. The company per-
forms all engineering, designing, and build-
ing as well as providing customer training
and 24/7 support and Baghouse Services.
Supporting Companies
Ametek
1085 Rte. 519, Eighty Four, PA 15330
Ardleigh Minerals, Inc.
24100 Chagrin Blvd.
Beachwood, OH 44122
Camfil Farr-Air Pollution Control
3505 S. Airport Rd.
Jonesboro, AR 72401
Caterpillar Work Tools - Waco Facility
2000 Texas Central Pkwy.
Waco, TX 76712
Electron Beam Welding, LLC
6940 Hermosa Cir., Buena Park, CA 90620
FECON
3460 Grant Dr., Lebanon, OH 45036
Heiden, Inc.
4624 Expo Dr., PO.Box 1477
Manitowoc, WI 54221
Kennametal Stellite
1201 Eisenhower Dr. N.
Goshen, IN 46526
Patti Marine Enterprises, Inc.
306 S. Pinewood Ln.
Pensacola, FL 32507
Spraymetal, Inc.
600 Hughes St., Houston, TX 77023
Technetics Group
10633 W. Little York, Bldg. 3, Ste. 300
Houston, TX 77041
Affiliate Companies
Caguas Mechanical Contractor, Inc.
Nebraska U-4, Caguas Norte
Caguas, PR 00725
Gemini Mfg. & Engineering, Inc.
1020 E. Vermont Ave.
Anaheim, CA 92805
Marblehead Services Corp.
548 Parkside Dr., Marblehead, OH 43440
MDF Industries, Inc.
1012 N. Marymount Rd.
Salina, KS 67401
NC Steel Services, Inc.
104 Manatee St., Cape Carteret, NC 28584
Welding Tech Consulting, S.A.C.
Jr. Manuel Hurtado de Mendoza
227 Urb Santa Luzmila, Lima, Peru
Educational Institutions
Minnesota Corr. Facility Stillwater
970 Pickett St. N., Bayport, MN 55003
South Central Louisiana Technical
College
900 Youngs Rd., Morgan City, LA 70380
Vigo County School Corp.
686 Wabash Ave., Terre Haute, IN 47807
District Director Awards Presented
John Bray, District 18 director, has nom-
inated the following Section members and
supporting establishments to receive the
District Director Award for their outstand-
ing service to the Society.
Shane Pennington Houston Section
Kevin Montgomery Houston Section
Logans Roadhouse Restaurant Lake
Charles Section
Dr. Rene de Luna Cuautitlan Izcalli,
Mexico Section
Reynaldo Ray Rivera Rio Grande
Valley Section
Tom Settle San Antonio Section.
The Craft Training Center of the Coastal
Bend Corpus Christi Section
Guadalupe de la Cruz El Paso Section
Bradys Landing Restaurant Houston
Section
La Cantina Deluxe Mexican Grill
Sabine Section
Trinity Industrial Services LLC Sabine
Section
The District Director Award provides a
means for District directors to recognize in-
dividuals and corporations who have con-
tributed their time and effort to the affairs
of their local Section and/or District.
Student Member Awarded
Eric Ockerhausen, advisor to the Illinois
Central College Student Chapter, District
13, has selected Isira Udara Abeyagunawar-
dana to receive the Student Chapter Mem-
ber Award.
Abeyagunawardana currently serves as a
teaching assistant. He has achieved the
Deans List the past two years and has been
awarded an AWS District scholarship. He
worked with the International Brotherhood
of Electrical Workers students to build an
artistic (black-cat theme) metal park bench
with a trellis that was donated to a local char-
ity, then assisted the students in building arc-
proof electrical boxes as part of their class
assignment.
Ordering AWS Documents
To order custom reprints of Welding
Journal articles in quantities of 100 or
more, or electronic posting of articles,
contact Rhonda Brown, Foster Printing
Services, rhondab@fosterprinting.com;
(866) 879-9144, ext. 194; www.market-
ingreprints.com.
Order AWS publications from World
Engineering Xchange, www.awspubs.com;
call toll-free in the United States (888)
935-3464; elsewhere call (305) 826-6192;
or FAX (305) 826-6195.
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 1:11 PM Page 79
AUGUST 2012 80
Member-Get-A-Member Campaign Final Tally 20112012
AWS Member Counts
July 1, 2012
Grades
Sustaining ......................................535
Supporting.....................................335
Educational ...................................601
Affiliate..........................................477
Welding Distributor........................54
Total Corporate ..........................2,002
Individual .................................58,743
Student + Transitional ...............10,716
Total Members.........................69,459
Shown is the final tally for the 2011
2012 Member Get a Member Campaign
ending May 31, 2012.
Congratulations to Eleanor Ezell for re-
cruiting the most new Individual Members
and Michael Pelegrino for recruiting the
most Student Members.
See page 81 of this Welding Journal for
a complete list of rules and a prize list, or
visit www.aws.org/mgm. Call the AWS
Membership Dept. at (800) 443-9353, ext.
480, with any questions about your mem-
ber-proposer status.
Winners Circle
Listed below are the sponsors of 20 or
more Individual Members per year since
June 1, 1999. The superscript denotes the
number of years the member has earned
Winners Circle status if more than once.
E. Ezell, Mobile
9
J. Compton, San Fernando Valley
7
J. Merzthal, Peru
2
G. Taylor, Pascagoula
2
L. Taylor, Pascagoula
2
B. Chin, Auburn
S. Esders, Detroit
M. Haggard, Inland Empire
M. Karagoulis, Detroit
S. McGill, NE Tennessee
B. Mikeska, Houston
M. Pelegrino, Chicago
W. Shreve, Fox Valley
T. Weaver, Johnstown/Altoona
G. Woomer, Johnstown/Altoona
R. Wray, Nebraska
Presidents Guild
Sponsored 20 or more new members
E. Ezell, Mobile 29
M. Pelegrino, Chicago 25
Presidents Roundtable
Sponsored 919 new members
R. Holdren, Columbus 9
A. Tous, Costa Rica 9
Presidents Club
Sponsored 38 new members
J. Walker, Blackhawk 6
D. Biddle, Milwaukee 5
T. Palmer, Atlanta 5
J. Vincent, Kansas City 4
D. Wright, Kansas City 4
G. Bish, Atlanta 3
J. Blubaugh, Detroit 3
B. Flynn, Indiana 3
B. Goerg, Fox Valley 3
D. Hale, East Texas 3
J. Mehta, San Francisco 3
J. Miller, Oklahoma City 3
G. Mulee, South Carolina 3
P. Phelps, Western Carolina 3
Presidents Honor Roll
Sponsored 2 new members
T. Baber, San Fernando Valley
T. Baldwin, Atlanta
M. Boggs, Stark Central
O. Burrion, S. Florida
P. Carney, Philadelphia
E. Carrion, Peru
J. Compton, San Fernando Valley
G. Fehrman, Philadelphia
J. Gordy, Houston
C. Hendzel, Fox Valley
G. Holl, Lexington
G. Jacobson, Cumberland Valley
G. Lawson, L.A./Inland Empire
J. Lopez-Padilla, Cuautitlan Izcalli
J. Mueller, Ozark
E. Panelli, Kern
G. Sanford, Houston
H. Suthar, Charlotte
M. Wheeler, Cleveland
T. White, Pittsburgh
C. Whitesell, Tulsa
Student Member Sponsors
M. Pelegrino, Chicago 90
D. Berger, New Orleans 55
G. Bish, Atlanta 50
D. Saunders, Lakeshore 43
N. Baughman, Stark Central 37
A. Alvarez, Houston 35
T. Palmer, Atlanta 35
R. Belluzzi, New York 34
M. Box, Mobile 34
R. Hammond, Birmingham 33
D. Schnalzer, Lehigh Valley 30
H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley 28
R. Richwine, Indiana 28
A. Stute, Madison-Beloit 25
M. Anderson, Indiana 24
J. Ciaramitaro, N. Central Florida 24
S. Siviski, Maine 24
W. England, W. Michigan 23
V. Facchiano, Lehigh Valley 23
M. Boggs, Stark Central 22
G. Gammill, NE Mississippi 21
B. Scherer, Cincinnati 21
D. Zabel, SE Nebraska 21
R. Huston, Olympic 20
J. Lopez-Padilla, Cuautitlan Izcalli 20
J. Theberge, Boston 20
T. Green, Central Arkansas 19
C. Daily, Puget Sound 19
J. Fox, NW Ohio 19
R. Hutchinson, Long Bch/Or. Cty. 19
S. Robeson, Cumberland Valley 18
R. Wahrman, Triangle 18
A. Baughman, Stark Central 17
J. Bruskotter, New Orleans 17
W. Davis, Syracuse 17
J. Dawson, Pittsburgh 17
C. Donnell, NW Ohio 17
R. Evans, Siouxland 17
R. Jones, Houston 16
S. Miner, San Francisco 16
E. Norman, Ozark 16
J. Gable, El Paso 15
B. Wenzel, Sacramento 15
H. Browne, New Jersey 14
J. Daugherty, Louisville 14
D. Pickering, Central Arkansas 14
J. Falgout, L.A./Inland Empire 12
M. Haggard, Inland Empire 12
G. Rolla, New Jersey 12
J. Johnson, Madison-Beloit 11
T. Geisler, Pittsburgh 10
E. Ramsey, Johnstown-Altoona 10
R. Simpson, Charlotte 10
C. Kipp, Lehigh Valley 9
J. Kline, Northern New York 9
R. Ledford Jr., Birmingham 9
R. Rummel, Central Texas 9
A. Webel, Central Michigan 9
G. Smith, Lehigh Valley 8
C. Bills, Mid-Ohio Valley 7
C. Hobson, Olympic Section 7
J. McCarty, St. Louis 7
T. Moore, New Orleans 7
C. Taylor, Charlotte 7
J. Boyer, Lancaster 6
M. DAndrea, Kern 6
S. Poe, Central Michigan 6
T. Shirk, Tidewater 6
W. Wilson, New Orleans 6
S. Colton, Arizona 5
J. Ginther, Pittsburgh 5
J. Satterland, Spokane 5
C. Schiner, Wyoming 5
J. Schmidt, Central Michigan 5
B. Amos, Mobile 4
A. Badeaux, Washington, D.C. 4
J. Crocker, N. Texas 4
G. Lawson, L.A./Inland Empire 4
A. Reis, Pittsburgh 4
H. Rendon, Rio Grande Valley 4
G. Seese, Johnstown-Altoona 4
J. Smith, Greater Huntsville 4
M. Spangler, J.A.K. 4
S. Delmore, Olympic 3
P. Deslatte, New Orleans 3
K. Gratton, Columbia 3
A. Holt, St. Louis 3
J. Meyer, San Francisco 3
D. Millan, Reading 3
B. Suarez, Houston 3
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 1:11 PM Page 80
83 WELDING JOURNAL
SECTIONNEWS
SECTIONNEWS
District 1
Thomas Ferri, director
(508) 527-1884
thomas_ferri@victortechnologies.com
Shown at the Maine Section meeting are (from left) Bob Bernier, Scott Lee, Russ Norris, Dale Gray, Chair Mike Gendron, Paul McClay,
Mark Legel, incoming Chair Jim Kein, Pat Kein, John Gallagher, and Mark Merry.
Shown at the District 2 conference are from left (front row) Mike Chomin, Ken Temme, Brian Cassidy, Terry Perez, and Ken Stockton;
(standing) Herb Browne, Tom Colasanto III, District 2 Director Harland Thompson,Tom Colasanto, Jesse Provler, Gus Manz, Dominick
Colasanto, Bill Naccash, Bob Waite, Tom Gartland, and Al Fleury.
Montreal Section Chair Michel Marier (left)
and Treasurer Gill Trigo are shown at the
District 1 conference with their appreciation
plaques.
Ray Henderson (left), Green & White Moun-
tains Section chair, is shown with Tom Ferri,
District 1 director, at the District conference.
District 1 Conference
MAY 5
Activity: Appreciation plaques were pre-
sented to Michel Marier and Gill Trigo,
Montreal Section chair and treasurer, re-
spectively; and to Ray Henderson for his
services as Green & White Mountain Sec-
tion chairman. The event was held at Fire-
side Inn and Suites in West Lebanon, N.H.
MAINE
MAY 17
Activity: Outgoing Chair Mike Gendron
conducted this Section business meeting
held at Run of the Mill Public House in
Saco, Maine. Participating were Bob
Bernier, Scott Lee, Russ Norris, Dale
Gray, Paul McClay, Mark Legel, Pat Kein,
John Gallagher, Mark Merry, and incom-
District 2 Conference
JUNE 2
Activity: The conference was held at
Snuffys Clambar, chaired by Harland
Thompson, District 2 director.
LANCASTER
JUNE 5
Activity: The Section held an executive
board meeting, hosted by Chair Michael
Sebergandio, to review the past years ac-
District 2
Harland W. Thompson, director
(631) 546-2903
harland.w.thompson@us.ul.com
District 3
Michael Wiswesser, director
(610) 820-9551
mike@welderinstitute.com
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 1:11 PM Page 83
AUGUST 2012 84
tivities and plan for the upcoming season.
John Ganoe was selected to attend the In-
structors Institute, the first to be held at
the new AWS headquarters building in
Doral, Fla. Also participating in this Lan-
caster Section meeting were David Wat-
son, Tim Siegrist, John Boyer, Mark Mal-
one, and Justin Heistand.
DAYTON
MARCH 13
Activity: The Section hosted its annual stu-
dents night program at Hobart Institute
of Welding Technology in Troy, Ohio.
Welding consultant Jim Hannahs dis-
cussed welding in NASCAR.
APRIL 17
Activity: Bryan Worley, welding engineer,
led the Dayton Section members on a tour
of the GE Aviation Dayton-Elano facility
in Dayton, Ohio.
Central Piedmont C. C.
Student Chapter
MAY 17
Activity: The Student Chapter members
went on a service-learning trip to Virginia
Beach, Va. They toured Nucor Steel,
Colonnas Shipyard, and spent a day work-
ing for Habitat for Humanity where they
participated in renovating a home for Mrs.
Shirley. Participating in the days work
were Advisor Ray Sosko and Student
Chapter members President Justin Eudy,
Secretary Michelle Green, Treasurer
Matthew Peacock, Larry Hoke, Mike Fel-
ton, Travis Lambert, and Morgan Howell,
and faculty members John McPherson and
Greg Bellamy.
Shown at the Lancaster Section meeting are (from left) David Watson,Tim Siegrist, John Boyer, John Ganoe, Mark Malone, Justin Heis-
tand, and Chair Michael Sebergandio.
Shown at the Central Piedmont C. C. Student Chapter activity are from left (kneeling) Larry
Hoke, Michelle Green, and Mike Felton; (second row) Travis Lambert, Morgan Howell,
Matthew Peacock, Mrs. Shirley, and Advisor Ray Sosko; (third row) John McPherson, Colin
Severns, Greg Bellamy, and President Justin Eudy.
AWS President William Rice (right) receives
a speaker gift from Carl Smith at the Tri-
State Section meeting.
Bill Jones discussed unique welding tech-
niques for the Dayton Section members.
District 4
Roy C. Lanier, director
(252) 321-4285
rlanier@email.pittcc.edu
District 5
Carl Matricardi, director
(770) 979-6344
cmatricardi@aol.com
District 7
Don Howard, director
(814) 269-2895
navigatorlost@hotmail.com
District 6
Kenneth Phy, director
(315) 218-5297
kenneth.phy@gmail.com
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 1:11 PM Page 84
85 WELDING JOURNAL
District 8
Joe Livesay, director
(931) 484-7502, ext. 143
joe.livesay@ttcc.edu
District 9
George Fairbanks Jr., director
(225) 473-6362
ts@bellsouth.net
May 8
Speaker: Bill Jones, welding engineer
(ret.)
Topic: Unique welding techniques used at
the Mound Nuclear Defense Facility in Mi-
amisburg, Ohio
Activity: The Dayton Section held its an-
nual past chairmens night event at Asian
Buffet in Dayton, Ohio.
TRI-STATE
JUNE
Speaker: William Rice, AWS president
Affiliation: OKI Bering Supply, CEO
Topic: Update on national AWS events
Activity: Chair Carl Smith presented Rice
a speaker appreciation gift.
Central Alabama C.C.
Student Chapter
MAY 11
Activity: The Student Chapter members
met at the Sportplex in Alexander City,
Ala., to man a booth and participate in the
Relay for Life fund-raising event spon-
sored by the American Cancer Society.
MAY 19
Activity: The Central Alabama C.C. Stu-
dent Chapter participated in training Boy
Scouts in the skills and knowledge required
to earn the welding merit badge. The in-
structors included Chapter Advisor Joseph
D. James and Chris Stiver from Lincoln
Electric Co. Others participating included
Thomas Lovett, Robin Holt, Russell
Fields Jr., Jackson Graham, Dakota
Blythe, Walter Whatley, Spenser Morris,
Chris Harvell, Eric McDaniel, Ryan Ben-
ton, Connor Hall, and Danny Whatley.
Lawson State C.C.
Student Chapter
JUNE 11
Speaker: Ron Martucci
Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co.
Topic: GMAW-pulse welding techniques
Activity: Following the presentation, the
group moved to the lab where Martucci
demonstrated how to set up and operate
the Invertec 350, GMAW-P power
source. The attendees then had a chance
to make some welds using the pulse set-
tings. The event was held at Plumbers
and Pipe Fitters Union Local 372 in
Tuscaloosa, Ala.
Central Alabama C.C. Student Chapter members shown at the May 11 Relay for Life event are (from left) William Butt, Daniel Dalton,
Michael Martin, Andrew Hall, Katelyn Hawkins, Winfred Fleetion, Eric McDaniel, Chris Harvell, Crystal Harvell, Robin Holt, Walter Law-
ton, and Brian Tate.
Boy Scouts and members of the Central Alabama C.C. Student Chapter are shown at the
May 19 event.
Lawson State C.C. Student Chapter members are shown at the June 11 event.
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 1:11 PM Page 85
AUGUST 2012 86
District 10
Richard A. Harris, director
(440) 338-5921
richaharris@windstream.net
MOBILE
MAY 17
Activity: The Section held its business
meeting at Saucy Q BBQ in Mobile, Ala.,
Brenda Amos received a plaque of appre-
ciation for her services as chair. Jackie
Morris and Jerry Betts received District
Director Awards for their outstanding
services from George Fairbanks, District
9 director. Among the 34 attendees were
Tim DeVargas, a welding instructor at T.
L. Faulkner Vocational School and weld-
ing student Jake Terry who won a welding
machine donated by Kevin Cuevas of Vic-
tor Technologies.
MAY 22, 29
Activity: The Mobile Section tutored seven
Troop 28 Boy Scouts to help them earn
their welding merit badges at T. L.
Faulkner Career Technical Center in
Prichard, Ala. Assisting were instructor
Tim DeVargas, welding student Amanda
Callahan, and Section members Jerry
Betts and David Neely.
Shown at the Mobile Section Boy Scout training session are from left (front row) Tim De-
Vargas, Sammy Kelley, Clay Spaulding, Will Vaughn, and Amanda Callahan; (back row)
Jerry Betts, Kyle Odle, Zack Bray, Boone Reeves,Thomas Haring, and David Neely.
Shown at the Mobile Section May event are (from left) Tim DeVargas, Jake Terry, Jerry Betts,
District 9 Director George Fairbanks, Chair Brenda Amos, and Jackie Morris.
Northern Michigan Section members are shown during their tour of National Vacuum
Equipment.
All dressed up to work on their welding merit badges at the Northern Michigan Section sem-
inar are (from left) Hayden Northrup, George Townson, Cameron Nagy, David Werner,
Riley Dowling, and Jeremiah Johnson.
Boy Scout Clay Spaulding demonstrated his
welding skills at the Mobile Section event.
Outgoing Mobile Section Chair Brenda
Amos receives her appreciation certificate
from George Fairbanks, District 9 director.
District 11
Robert P. Wilcox, director
(734) 721-8272
rmwilcox@wowway.com
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 1:11 PM Page 86
87 WELDING JOURNAL
District 12
Daniel J. Roland, director
(715) 735-9341, ext. 6421
daniel.roland@us.ncantieri.com
District 13
W. Richard Polanin, director
(309) 694-5404
rpolanin@icc.edu
NORTHERN MICHIGAN
MAY 24
Speaker: Ken Hall, general manager
Affiliation: National Vacuum Equipment
Topic: Industrial vacuum equipment
Activity: The Section members met at Na-
tional Vacuum Equipment in Traverse
City, Mich., for the talk and tour of the fa-
cilities.
JUNE 11, 12, 14
Activity: The Section held a three-day sem-
inar to train six Troop 30 Boy Scouts in
order to earn their welding merit badges.
The event was held at Maxal International
in Traverse City, Mich. The participants
were Hayden Northrup, George Townson,
Cameron Nagy, David Werner, Riley Dowl-
ing, and Jeremiah Johnson.
District 12 Conference
MAY 25
Activity: The Racine-Kenosha Section
hosted the event at Northeast Technical
College in Marinette, Wis. Participating
were District 12 Director Dan Roland, Dan
Crifase, Heidi Headman, Roger Warren,
Karen Gilgenbach, Tony Stute, Todd
Christian, Phil Simmons, Craig Wentzel,
David Ramseur, Nick Freiberg, Ken Kar-
wowski, and Dale Lange. The AWS staff
representative was Rhenda Kenny, direc-
tor, membership services.
LAKESHORE
MAY 11
Activity: The Section worked with
Lakeshore Technical College to present a
welding career day. Included were demon-
strations of submerged arc welding, plasma
cutting, gas metal arc welding, as well as
operating a virtual reality paint booth and
learning about machine tool operations.
The event attracted 126 students. Schol-
arships were presented to Cullen Higgins,
Glen Huley, and Jack Ploederl by Section
Treasurer Nick Freiberg and welding in-
structor Brian Strebe.
MILWAUKEE
MAY 15
Speaker: Dr. Pradeep Rohatgi, professor
Affiliation: University of Wisconsin at Mil-
waukee, Composite Center
Topic: Welding advanced lightweight metal
matrix and nanocomposites
Activity: The Section awarded scholar-
ships to Preston Lipsey, Donnell McCarty,
Wenford Brown, Dean Robaczek, Preston
Harris, Terrell Henderson, Kyle Humer,
Demetri Jackson, Anthony Stalewski, Ben-
jamin Patulski, Ulysses Jones, Ben Ma-
jeske, and Christine Knops.
CHICAGO
MAY 21
Activity: The Section dedicated a plaque
in memory of Hank Sima at the College of
DuPage in Glen Ellyn, Ill. The memorial
is located on the entry wall outside the
welding lab office. Officiating were Chair
Craig Tichelar, James Filipek, and Bar-
bara Zahrieh.
Shown at the District 12 conference are (from left) Dan Crifase, Heidi Headman, Roger Warren, Karen Gilgenbach, Rhenda Kenny, Tony
Stute, Todd Christian, Phil Simmons, Craig Wentzel, David Ramseur, Nick Freiberg, Ken Karwowski, Dale Lange, and Dan Roland, Dis-
trict 12 director.
The Milwaukee Section scholarship recipients are (from left) Preston Lipsey, Donnell Mc-
Carty, Wenford Brown, Dean Robaczek, Preston Harris, Terrell Henderson, Kyle Humer,
Demetri Jackson, Anthony Stalewski, Benjamin Patulski, Ulysses Jones, Ben Majeske, and
Christine Knops.
Shown at the Lakeshore Section event are (from left) instructor Brian Strebe, student Glen
Huley, Treasurer Nick Freiberg, and students Cullen Higgins and Jack Ploederl.
District 14
Robert L. Richwine, director
(765) 378-5378
bobrichwine@aol.com
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 1:11 PM Page 87
AUGUST 2012 88
Shown at the St. Louis Section outing are (from left) Mike Kamp, Mark Anderson, Garner Kimbrell, Don Kimbrell, Bob Palovscik, Kevin
Corgan, Tully Parker, Rick Suria, and Steve Fults.
Kansas Section members are shown at the May program.
Shown at the June 19 Kansas Section baseball outing are from left (standing) Jenny Siepert, Mike Gfeller, Carl Gray, Gene Hammett, Court-
ney Cauble, David Damasauskas, Royce Altendorf, Bob Simon, Sandy Altendorf, Ashley Darlymple, and Nick Altendorf; (seated) Wyatt
Swaim, Duane Gish, and Chair Diane Steadham.
Shown at the dedication of the Hank Sima memorial plaque are (from left) James Filipek,
Barbara Zahrieh, and Craig Tichelar, Chicago Section chair.
ST. LOUIS
MAY 12
Activity: The Section held its past chair-
mens appreciation outing at Fairmont
Park race track. The event included an
AWS-sponsored race and dinner. Attend-
ing the event were Mike Kamp, Mark An-
derson, Garner Kimbrell, Don Kimbrell,
Bob Palovscik, Kevin Corgan, Tully
Parker, Rick Suria, and Steve Fults.
District 15
David Lynnes, director
(701) 365-0606
dave@learntoweld.com
District 16
Dennis Wright, director
(913) 782-0635
awscwi1@att.net
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 1:11 PM Page 88
89 WELDING JOURNAL
Shown at the District 17 conference are from left (front) Peter Wenninger, Jamie Pearson, Jim Birdwell, Dennis Pekering, and Paul Stanglin;
(standing) Paul Wittenbach, Richard Hoffman, Bill Drake, Jerry Knapp, Martica Ventura, Cary Reeves, District 17 Director J. Jones, Bill
Hall, Bryan Baker, Dwight Grayson, Donnie Williams, and Candace Ortega.
Lucky door prize winners at the District 17 conference are (from left) Donnie Williams, Dwight Grayson, District 17 Director J. Jones, Mar-
tica Ventura, Ryan Rummel, Peter Wenninger, Bryan Baker, and Bill Drake and family.
Mike Gfeller (left) is shown with Duane Gish
and son at the Kansas Section baseball event.
Jamie Pearson (left) chats with J. Jones, Dis-
trict 17 director, at the Tulsa Section event.
District 17 Conference
JUNE 8
Activity: The North Texas Section hosted
the District 17 conference in Arlington,
Tex., with J. Jones, District 17 director, pre-
siding. The AWS representative was Mar-
tica Ventura, director, operations, Educa-
tion Services. The door prizes were cre-
ated and donated by metalworking artist
Casey Cordell.
CENTRAL TEXAS
MAY 29
Activity: The Section held its election of
officers at Buzzard Billys Swamp Shack
in Waco, Tex. The incoming officers are
Joseph Francia, chair; Danny Rejda and
Bryan Parson, vice chairs; Veronica Covey,
secretary; and Carr Dupuy, treasurer.
TULSA
APRIL 24
Speaker: J. Jones, District 17 director
Affiliation: Victor Technologies
Topic: AWS promotion of national weld-
ing month
Activity: Todd Fradd and Jan Fradd each
received Section Meritorious Awards.
Dale York received Section and District
awards for his outstanding performance in
welding and inspection activities. The
event was held at Leons Restaurant in
Broken Arrow, Okla., for 42 attendees.
KANSAS
MAY 12
Activity: The Kansas Section held its elec-
tion of officers at Air Capital Grill in Wi-
chita, Kan. Elected were Greg Siepert,
chair; Royce Altendorf, vice chair; Marc
Childs, treasurer; and Courtney Cauble,
secretary. The program was conducted by
outgoing Chair Diane Steadham.
JUNE 19
Activity: The Section combined a general
business meeting and a picnic dinner while
attending a Wichita Wingnuts vs. Amar-
illo Sox baseball game at Lawrence Du-
mont Stadium in Wichita, Kan.
District 17
J. Jones, director
(940) 368-3130
jjones@victortechnologies.com
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 1:11 PM Page 89
AUGUST 2012 90
District 18
John Bray, director
(281) 997-7273
sales@afliatedmachinery.com
The big winners at the Houston Sections Clay Busters event are (from left) Karl Eberhart,
Chad Payne, Daniel Acosta, and Terry Wells.
Shown are some of the attendees at the organizational meeting for the Brigham Young UniversityIdaho Student Chapter, hosted by the
Idaho/Montana Section.
Houston Section scholarship winners are (from left) Aaron Bibbs, Hugo Aquino, Justin
Gordy, Leslie Lambert, and Samantha Pollicove.
Creighton Moore (left) is shown with Rod
London, Alaska Section chairman.
HOUSTON
MAY 16
Activity: Vice Chair Derek Stelly pre-
sented eight scholarships totaling $8500.
Major award winners were Aaron Bibbs
(Ron VanArsdale Scholarship), Hugo
Aquino (Dennis Eck Scholarship), Leslie
Lambert and Samantha Pollicove (Ronald
S. Theiss Scholarships), and Justin Gordy,
(Houston Section scholarship).
GERMANY
Notice: The Germany Section will hold its
annual meeting Sept. 18 during the DVS
Annual Conference in Saarbruecken, Ger-
many. E-mail Chair Christian Arens,
ahrens@gsi-slv.de, to receive details.
MAY 19
Activity: The Houston Section hosted its
annual Clay Busters tournament. Top scor-
ers were Karl Eberhart, first place; Chad
Payne, second place; and Terry Wells took
third place. Daniel Acosta won the raffle.
ALASKA
MAY 23
Activity: Creighton Moore, Section treas-
urer, received the District 19 Director Cer-
tificate Award in recognition for his serv-
ices to the Society.
IDAHO/MONTANA
JUNE 11
Activity: The Section hosted a Student
Chapter organizational meeting at
Brigham Young UniversityIdaho in
Rexburg, Idaho.
District 19
Neil Shannon, director
(503) 201-5142
neilshnn@msn.com
District 20
William A. Komlos, director
(801) 560-2353
bkoz@arctechllc.com
District 21
Nanette Samanich, director
(702) 429-5017
nan07@aol.com
District 22
Dale Flood, director
(916) 288-6100, ext. 172
d.ood@tritool.com
International
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 1:11 PM Page 90
91 WELDING JOURNAL
Guide to AWS Services
8669 Doral Blvd., Doral, FL 33166; (800/305) 443-9353; FAX (305) 443-7559; www.aws.org
Staff extensions are shown in parentheses.
AWS PRESIDENT
William A. Rice
brice@oki-bering.com
1411 Connell Rd.
Charleston, WV 25314
ADMINISTRATION
Executive Director
Ray W. Shook.. rshook@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(210)
Sr. Associate Executive Director
Cassie R. Burrell.. cburrell@aws.org . . . . . .(253)
Sr. Associate Executive Director
Jeff Weber.. jweber@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(246)
Chief Financial Officer
Gesana Villegas.. gvillegas@aws.org . . . . . .(252)
Executive Assistant for Board Services
Gricelda Manalich.. gricelda@aws.org . . . . .(294)
Administrative Services
Managing Director
Jim Lankford.. jiml@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(214)
IT Network Director
Armando Campana..acampana@aws.org . .(296)
Director
Hidail Nuez..hidail@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . .(287)
Director of IT Operations
Natalia Swain..nswain@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(245)
Human Resources
Director, Compensation and Benefits
Luisa Hernandez.. luisa@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(266)
Director, Human Resources
Dora A. Shade.. dshade@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(235)
International Institute of Welding
Senior Coordinator
Sissibeth Lopez . . sissi@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(319)
Liaison services with other national and international
societies and standards organizations.
GOVERNMENT LIAISON SERVICES
Hugh K. Webster . . . . . . . . .hwebster@wc-b.com
Webster, Chamberlain & Bean, Washington, D.C.,
(202) 785-9500; FAX (202) 835-0243. Monitors fed-
eral issues of importance to the industry.
CONVENTION and EXPOSITIONS
Jeff Weber.. jweber@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(246)
Director, Convention and Meeting Services
Selvis Morales.....smorales@aws.org . . . . . .(239)
ITSA International Thermal
Spray Association
Senior Manager and Editor
Kathy Dusa.kathydusa@thermalspray.org . . .(232)
RWMA Resistance Welding
Manufacturing Alliance
Management Specialist
Keila DeMoraes....kdemoraes@aws.org . . . .(444)
WEMCO Association of
Welding Manufacturers
Management Specialist
Keila DeMoraes....kdemoraes@aws.org . . . .(444)
Brazing and Soldering
Manufacturers Committee
Jeff Weber.. jweber@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(246)
GAWDA Gases and Welding
Distributors Association
Executive Director
John Ospina.. jospina@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(462)
Operations Manager
Natasha Alexis.. nalexis@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(401)
INTERNATIONAL SALES
Managing Director, Global Exposition Sales
Joe Krall..jkrall@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(297)
Corporate Director, International Sales
Jeff P. Kamentz..jkamentz@aws.org . . . . . . .(233)
Oversees international business activities involving cer-
tification, publication, and membership.
PUBLICATION SERVICES
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(275)
Managing Director
Andrew Cullison.. cullison@aws.org . . . . . .(249)
Welding Journal
Publisher
Andrew Cullison.. cullison@aws.org . . . . . .(249)
Editor
Mary Ruth Johnsen.. mjohnsen@aws.org . .(238)
National Sales Director
Rob Saltzstein.. salty@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . .(243)
Society and Section News Editor
Howard Woodward..woodward@aws.org . .(244)
Welding Handbook
Editor
Annette OBrien.. aobrien@aws.org . . . . . .(303)
MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS
Director
Ross Hancock.. rhancock@aws.org . . . . . . .(226)
Public Relations Manager
Cindy Weihl..cweihl@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . .(416)
Webmaster
Jose Salgado..jsalgado@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(456)
Section Web Editor
Henry Chinea...hchinea@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(452)
MEMBER SERVICES
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(480)
Sr. Associate Executive Director
Cassie R. Burrell.. cburrell@aws.org . . . . . .(253)
Director
Rhenda A. Kenny... rhenda@aws.org . . . . . .(260)
Serves as a liaison between Section members and AWS
headquarters.
CERTIFICATION SERVICES
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(273)
Managing Director
John L. Gayler.. gayler@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(472)
Oversees all certification activities including all inter-
national certification programs.
Director, Certification Operations
Terry Perez..tperez@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(470)
Oversees application processing, renewals, and exam
scoring.
Director, Certification Programs
Linda Henderson..lindah@aws.org . . . . . . .(298)
Oversees the development of new certification pro-
grams, as well as AWS-Accredited Test Facilities, and
AWS Certified Welding Fabricators.
EDUCATION SERVICES
Director, Operations
Martica Ventura.. mventura@aws.org . . . . . .(224)
Director, Education Development
David Hernandez.. dhernandez@aws.org . . .(219)
AWS AWARDS, FELLOWS, COUNSELORS
Senior Manager
Wendy S. Reeve.. wreeve@aws.org . . . . . . . .(293)
Coordinates AWS awards, Fellow and Counselor
nominees.
TECHNICAL SERVICES
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(340)
Managing Director
Andrew R. Davis.. adavis@aws.org . . . . . . .(466)
International Standards Activities, American Coun-
cil of the International Institute of Welding (IIW)
Director, National Standards Activities
Annette Alonso.. aalonso@aws.org . . . . . . .(299)
Manager, Safety and Health
Stephen P. Hedrick.. steveh@aws.org . . . . .(305)
Metric Practice, Safety and Health, Joining of Plas-
tics and Composites, Welding Iron Castings, Welding
in Sanitary Applications, Personnel and Facilities
Qualification
Senior Manager, Technical Publications
Rosalinda ONeill.. roneill@aws.org . . . . . . .(451)
AWS publishes about 200 documents widely used
throughout the welding industry.
Senior Staff Engineer
Rakesh Gupta.. gupta@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(301)
Filler Metals and Allied Materials, International Filler
Metals, UNS Numbers Assignment, Arc Welding and
Cutting Processes
Staff Engineers/Standards Program Managers
Efram Abrams.. eabrams@aws.org . . . . . . . .(307)
Thermal Spray, Automotive Resistance Welding, Oxy-
fuel Gas Welding and Cutting
Stephen Borrero... sborrero@aws.org . . . . .(334)
Brazing and Soldering, Brazing Filler Metals and
Fluxes, Brazing Handbook, Soldering Handbook,
Railroad Welding, Definitions and Symbols
Alex Diaz.... adiaz@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(304)
Welding Qualification, Sheet Metal Welding, Aircraft
and Aerospace, Joining of Metals and Alloys
Brian McGrath .... bmcgrath@aws.org . . . . .(311)
Methods of Inspection, Mechanical Testing of Welds,
Welding in Marine Construction, Piping and Tubing,
Friction Welding, Robotics Welding, High-Energy
Beam Welding
Matthew Rubin.....mrubin@aws.org . . . . . . .(215)
Structural Welding, Machinery and Equipment
Notes: Official interpretations of AWS standards may
be obtained only by sending a request in writing to An-
drew R. Davis, managing director, Technical Services,
adavis@aws.org.
Oral opinions on AWS standards may be ren-
dered, however, oral opinions do not constitute offi-
cial or unofficial opinions or interpretations of AWS.
In addition, oral opinions are informal and should
not be used as a substitute for an official interpreta-
tion.
AWS FOUNDATION, INC.
www.aws.org/w/a/foundation
General Information
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 212, vpinsky@aws.org
Chairman, Board of Trustees
Gerald D. Uttrachi
Executive Director, Foundation
Sam Gentry.. sgentry@aws.org. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (331)
Corporate Director, Workforce Development
Monica Pfarr.. mpfarr@aws.org. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (461)
The AWS Foundation is a not-for-profit corporation es-
tablished to provide support for the educational and scien-
tific endeavors of the American Welding Society.
Promote the Foundations work with your financial sup-
port. Call (800) 443-9353 for information.
Society News August_Layout 1 7/13/12 1:11 PM Page 91
PERSONNEL
AUGUST 2012 92
Wall Colmonoy Fills Four
Key Posts
Wall Colmonoy, Madison Heights,
Wis., has named Ed Ridge COO for its
Aerobraze Engineered Technologies divi-
sion; and Ed Kanters as CFO and Cindy
Vario as corporate human resources man-
ager at its world headquarters. Kevin
Nolan was appointed European managing
director, based at the companys Euro-
pean headquarters in Pontardawe,
Whales, succeeding Norman Allnatt who
has retired. Previously, Ridge led an inter-
national engineering company servicing
the aerospace, industrial gas turbine, and
automotive markets. Kanters previously
served at an aerospace tooling company,
and Vario directed human resources at
Peerless Steel Co. Nolan previously served
13 years with the Doncasters Group in the
Turbine Airfoils Div. in Worcestershire,
UK.
Aluminum Association
Appoints Standards VP
The Aluminum Association, Arling-
ton, Va., has named John Weritz vice pres-
ident of standards and technology. Since
2007, Weritz was metallurgy manager at
Wise Alloys. Previously, he served 25 years
with Reynolds Metals Co.
Beckwood Press Hires
Structural Engineers
Beckwood Press Co., St. Louis, Mo., a
provider of hydraulic press and automated
systems, has hired Adam Strein and Dan
Stortz as structural engineers. Strein and
Stortz are graduates of Missouri Univer-
sity of Science and Technology with de-
grees in mechanical engineering with cer-
tifications in SolidWorks computer-aided
design software.
Carestream Hires Western
Sales Manager
Carestream, Inc., Nondestructive Test-
Our Specialities include:
Alloy Powders
for Welding
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Contact us today for more information
and great customer service.
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Fax: +86 416 4593100
Metal Material has been
a professional raw material
supplier to global welding
industry for more than ten
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For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
Ed Ridge
Ed Kanters
Cindy Vario Kevin Nolan
Dan Stortz Adam Strein
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
continued on page 94
Personnel August_Layout 1 7/13/12 8:35 AM Page 92
welder member_FP_TEMP 7/10/12 10:37 AM Page 93
ing Group, Rochester, N.Y., a supplier of
X-ray products for the nondestructive test-
ing market, has hired Chris Woodard sales
manager for digital products in the south-
eastern region of the United States, based
in Houston, Tex. Woodard has several
years of experience in nondestructive test-
ing and engineering consulting in the area.
American Weldquip Names
District Manager
American Weldquip, Inc., Sharon Cen-
ter, Ohio, a supplier of semiautomatic and
robotic torches and
peripherals, has ap-
pointed Charles
Quillen district sales
manager southern
region, servicing Ten-
nessee, Kentucky,
southern Missouri,
Mississippi, and Ala-
bama. He previously
held positions with
BOC Gases, Airgas,
Tregaskiss, and Holston Gases.
Dynamic Materials
Announces COO
Dynamic Materials Corp., Boulder,
Colo., a provider of explosion-welded clad
metal plates, has appointed Kevin Longe
executive vice president and COO, newly
created positions on the companys execu-
tive management team. Longe previously
was vice president and general manager of
Sonocos protective packaging division.
TRUMPF Appoints Laser
Tech Center Manager
TRUMPF, Inc., Farmington, Conn., has
appointed Christof
Lehner general man-
ager of the Laser
Technology Center in
Plymouth, Mich.
Lehner most recently
served as director of
international sales,
western Europe, at
the TRUMPF Group
headquarters in
Ditzingen, Germany.
ThyssenKrupp Names CEO
ThyssenKrupp Stainless USA, LLC,
has appointed Michael Wallis CEO of the
company in Calvert, Ala. He will also be in
charge of the coordination of Inoxums
operations in the NAFTA region. Wallis
succeeds Ulrich Albrecht-Frueh, who has
returned to Europe to serve as COO of
ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, in Krefeld,
Germany. Wallis has 30 years of experi-
ence in the stainless steel and aluminum
business in Europe and North America.
Taylor-Wharton Names
Central U.S. Sales Manager
Taylor-Wharton
Cryogenics, LLC,
Theodore, Ala., has
appointed Jerry Reid
central U.S. regional
sales manager. Previ-
ously, Reid held posi-
tions at Praxair and
BOC Gases, amass-
ing more than 20
years of experience in
the field.
General Sales Manager
Named at Kaman
Kaman Industrial Technologies Corp.,
Bloomfield, Conn., has appointed Matt
Schatteman general sales manager of its
Catching Fluidpower division, succeeding
Rich Guminski who has retired. Prior to
joining the company, Schatteman was hy-
draulic and connector territory manager
for Parker in Rockford, Ill.
RMT Robotics Appoints
Group Director
RMT Robotics, Grimsby, Ont.,
Canada, has appointed Bill Torrens direc-
tor of its ADAM Systems Group. Prior to
this promotion, Torrens served the group as
director of sales and marketing for 14 years.
Executive Director
Appointed at NIMS
The National Institute for Metalwork-
ing Skills (NIMS), Fairfax,Va., has ap-
pointed James A.
Wall executive direc-
tor. He succeeds
Stephen C. Mandes
who served in this po-
sition since 1999.
Wall, who served as
deputy director of
NIMS since 2002,
previously directed
the statewide metal-
working program at
The Pennsylvania State University.
CYL-TEC Adds Customer
Service Engineer
CYL-TEC, Inc., Aurora, Ill., a provider
of high-pressure steel, aluminum, acety-
lene, and cryogenic
cylinders, has added
Elliot Levine to its
Expert Customer
Service Dept. Levine,
with a background as
a field engineer, pre-
viously served as cus-
tomer service man-
ager at Digital Wave
Corp., a supplier of
ultrasonic cylinder
testing equipment.
Obituaries
John F. Hinrichs
John F. Hinrichs, 78, an AWS Fellow,
died June 5 following a long illness near
Milwaukee, Wis. He received his bache-
lors degree in me-
chanical engineering
from Marquette Uni-
versity and masters
in metallurgical engi-
neering from the
University of Wis-
consin. He was a reg-
istered Professional
Engineer in the state
of Wisconsin, and a
Certified Manufac-
turing Engineer. He
was the owner and principal consultant for
The Welding Link since 1995, offering
counseling on the use of welding processes
including gas metal arc welding, energy
beam processes, and solid-phase joining,
as well as robotics using welding and cut-
ting processes in flexible manufacturing.
He was the founder of the Friction Stir
Link, Inc., which specializes in FSW robot
software and friction stir spot welding
equipment for use with aluminum. He was
affiliated with A. O. Smith for more than
40 years where he served as director of
manufacturing engineering at its Automo-
tive Products Co. Earlier, he served as
manager of manufacturing technology. In
the late 1970s, he was manager of engi-
neering for the Programmed Manufactur-
ing Systems division and served as an En-
gineering Fellow in the A. O. Smith Cor-
porate Technology Center in the early
1990s. Hinrichs was granted 15 U.S. and
three foreign patents related to welding
processes, and received the Golden Robot
Award at the Tokyo Symposium of Indus-
trial Robots. He served as an AWS direc-
tor-at-large (1979 to 1982), chaired the
AWS Safety and Health and Technical Pa-
pers Committees, and served on numer-
ous AWS technical committees. He was
the founder of the National Robotic Arc
Welding Conference, and active with
ASME, ASM International, RIA-SME,
AUGUST 2012 94
continued from page 92
continued on page 236-s
James Wall
Elliot Levine
Charles Quillen
Jerry Reid
Christof Lehner
John Hinrichs
Personnel August_Layout 1 7/13/12 8:35 AM Page 94
welding handbook_FP_TEMP 7/11/12 8:57 AM Page 95
buyer's guide_FP_TEMP 7/10/12 10:26 AM Page 96
Hosted by:
A distinguished panel of aluminum-industry experts will survey the state of the art
in aluminum welding technology and practice during this two-day conference.
September 18
th
- 19
th
/ Seattle, W
Register early and save.
Early Bird Attendee
Member Rate $575 / Non-member Rate $705
For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site at
www.aws.org/conference or call 800-443-9353, ext. 264.
Earn PDHs toward your AWS recertification when you attend the conference.

September 18

/ Seattle, W
th
- 19
th
September 18

/ Seattle, W

For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site at

aws org/confe wwww
For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site at

or call 800-443-9353, ext. 264 .aws.org/conference
For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site at

or call 800-443-9353, ext. 264
For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site at

For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site at

Earn PDHs toward your

WS recertification when you attend the conference. A Earn PDHs toward your
.aws.org/confe wwww.

WS recertification when you attend the conference.
or call 800-443-9353, ext. 264 .aws.org/conference

WS recertification when you attend the conference.
. or call 800-443-9353, ext. 264

WS recertification when you attend the conference.
aluminum conf_FP_TEMP 7/12/12 2:56 PM Page 97
www.AmericanWeldingOnline.com
Online Welding Safety Certificate Course
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
ventilation, fire protection, handling of gases, and much more.
Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/safety
OSHAestimates that
4 out of every 1,000
welders will
experience a fatal
injury or accident over
their working lifetime
Online W g Safety Certificate Course eldin Online W g Safety Certificate Course
injury or accident over
experience a fatal
welders will
4 out of every 1,000
estimates that OSHA
g Safety Certificate Course g Safety Certificate Course
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
their working lifetime
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
their working lifetime
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
their working lifetime
injury or accident over
their working lifetime
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/safety Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/safety Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/safety
awo safety_FP_TEMP 7/11/12 8:42 AM Page 98
Gloves Feature Protective
Guard Coverage
The ToolHandz series of Black Stal-
lion mechanics gloves include the
GX100 clad with orange protective
guards spanning the back of the hand. It
features strategically placed heavy-duty
reinforcements. Sufficient padding in the
palm aids in dampening vibration. The
glove also introduces the companys ex-
clusive BumpPatch to protect the hand
against side impact. The new GX105
(pictured) is designed for the oil, gas, and
mining industries. These gloves offer
protection from bang-ups and falling de-
bris with protective guard coverage on
the back of the hand, fingers, and thumb.
The high-contrast yellow-on-black design
makes it easy to spot fingers.
Revco Industries, Inc.
www.revcoindustries.com
(800) 527-3826
System Objectively Tests
Earplug Noise Reduction
The EARfit validation system as-
sists in achieving optimal fit through hear-
ing protector selection and employee
training. In less than 8 s per ear, the sys-
tem generates a personal attenuation rat-
ing that indicates a workers noise reduc-
tion for a given fitting and hearing pro-
tector. The in-the-ear testing procedure
uses proprietary algorithms to analyze
sound levels in the ear when the earplugs
are worn. A performance outcome screen
displays the personal attenuation rating
along with a pass/fail indication for the
workers noise exposure level. It includes
the hardware and accessories needed, in-
cluding a speaker, software, stand, dual-
element microphones, cables, and trial
quantity of probed test plugs.
3M
http://e-a-rfit.com
(800) 328-1667
Eriez Publishes
Commemorative Brochure
The 12-page, full-color Dedicated Peo-
ple Exceptional Results brochure has been
issued to commemorate the companys
70th anniversary. Included are numerous
photographs illustrating the companys
history from its beginnings in 1942 to its
present status as a major supplier of sep-
aration, material-handling, and inspection
equipment used throughout the process
industries. The five sections are titled our
company, legacy of innovation, teamwork
& dedication, community commitment,
and global reach. The brochure is avail-
able in hard copy and PDF. To obtain a
copy, send an e-mail to eriez@eriez.com
to request Brochure B-41.
Eriez
www.eriez.com
(888) 300-3743
Bending and Forming
Machines Pictured
The full-color, well-illustrated Eagle
Bending Machines 2012 Product Catalog
has been updated and designed to serve
as a tool to assist potential machine buy-
ers in determining the most appropriate
machine types and sizes to match their
roll-bending and forming needs. Illus-
trated are tube, pipe, section, profile, and
ornamental bending machines. Detailed
are section benders, ring rolling ma-
chines, coiling machines, and CNC pro-
file benders. To receive the catalog
delivered via e-mail as a PDF, send your
request to sales@eaglebendingma-
chines.com or call (251) 937-0947.
Eagle Bending Machines, Inc.
www.eaglebendingmachines.com
(251) 937-0947
Air Collector Holds
8 to 12 Nozzles
The Vortex System creates a circular air-
flow to capture and filter the ambient air in
a plant. It uses 8 to 12 nozzles that can be
adjusted directionally to maximize the effi-
ciency at which air is collected and filtered.
It is engineered to create a plant-wide en-
vironmental vortex that moves the air at a
consistent, steady rate. It is effective when
source capture of airborne contaminants is
not possible due to large or unusual manu-
facturing operations or when overhead
cranes limit available ceiling space. No
ductwork is required, improving sight lines,
and it reduces collector noise levels by de-
creasing static pressure.
RoboVent
www.robovent.com
(888) 762-6836
99 WELDING JOURNAL
PRODUCT & PRINT
SPOTLIGHT
continued from page 27
P and P August 2012_Layout 1 7/13/12 7:43 AM Page 99
SERVICES
Oxygen Analyzers,
Purge Dams, Flow Meters

www.OrbitalWelding.com
for Pipe Welding
408-567-0232
AUGUST 2012 100
CLASSIFIEDS
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES
The world's first and only completely
online NDT & CWI training program!
NDT Training to meet global standards
including SNT-TC-1A, ISO 9712, etc.
Visit www.worldspec.org today and save
$100 instantly by entering the discount
code: aws59c2
Call toll free: 1-877-506-7773
CERTIFICATION
& TRAINING
CWI PREPARATORY
Guarantee Pass or Repeat FREE!
80+ HOUR COURSE
MORE HANDSON/PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
Pascagoula, MS Sept. 1021 & Nov. 25Dec. 7
Houston, TX Sept. 24Oct. 5 & Nov. 417
Houma, LA Aug. 1324
Ellijay, GA Oct. 1526 & Dec. 921
56+ HOUR COURSE
EXTRA INSTRUCTION TO GET A HEAD START
Pascagoula, MS Sept. 1321 & Nov. 28Dec. 7
Houston, TX Sept. 27Oct. 5 & Nov. 717
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FOR DETAILS CALL OR E-MAIL:
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Also offering: 9Year CWI Recertification,
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CWS, SCWI, Advanced Inspection Courses
2012




CUSTOH
RPRINTS






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F S V T P Q Y & M B J S






















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P U J E & S V P ::P O F Q 0











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F S V T P Q Y & M B J S











DELTA COLLEGE
Welding Engineering Technology
Instructor Tenure-Track
Student success is Delta Colleges mission
all day, every day. Delta College faculty are
proud of their students and proud to have
a role in helping them reach their goals. If
youd like to be part of this distinguished
group, we invite you to take a look at our
full-time faculty opening.
Visit http://www.delta.edu/humres/career-
opportunities.aspx for more information.
Delta College is an Equal Opportunity
Employer.
SUPER STEEL
in Milwaukee, is growing at a rapid pace so
we are looking for qualified and motivated
individuals to join our winning team.
Open Positions:
Welders Setup - Up to $19/hr
Welders Craftsman - Up to $24/hr
Up to $1000 signing bonus available! Other
benefits include: Health Insurance, Tuition
Reimbursement, 401K, PTO, Wellness
Program and more!
Apply at www.supersteel.com
AUG 2012 WJ CLASSIFIEDS_Classified Template 7/13/12 8:15 AM Page 100
JOE FULLER LLC
We manufacture tank turning rolls
3ton through 120ton rolls
www.joefuller.com
email: joe@joefuller.com
Phone: (979) 277-8343
Fax: (281) 290-6184
Our products are made in the USA
EQUIPMENT FOR SALE OR RENT
For sale or rent
The worlds very
best portable end
prep tools and
abrasive saws
800-343-6926
www.escotool.com
101 WELDING JOURNAL
MITROWSKI RENTS
Made in U.S.A.
Welding Positioners
1-Ton thru 60-Ton
Tank Turning Rolls
Used Equipment for Sale
www.mitrowskiwelding.com
sales@mitrowskiwelding.com
(800) 218-9620
(713) 943-8032
SS WELDING STRIP
AND FLUX FOR SALE
Sandvik EQ309L, 60 mm x .5 mm
packaged on 700 lb coils, 30,700 lbs,
$6.95/lb. Sandvik 47S Flux, 27,000 lbs,
$1.45/lb. Prices are FOB destination in
North America. All materials new condi-
tion. Will sell partial quantities.
Contact Ray Secrest at Voith Hydro, Inc.,
York, Pa. (717) 578-2726
Place Your
Classified Ad Here!
Contact Frank Wilson,
Senior Advertising
Production Manager
(800) 443-9353,
ext. 465
fwilson@aws.org
AUG 2012 WJ CLASSIFIEDS_Classified Template 7/12/12 2:59 PM Page 101
AUGUST 2012 102
American Petroleum Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
www.api.org/storagetank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(202) 682-8114
ArcOne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
www.Arc1Weldsafe.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 223-4685
Arcos Industries, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC
www.arcos.us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 233-8460
AWS Education Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74, 97, 98
www.aws.org/education/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353
AWS Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
www.aws.org/foundation/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353
AWS Membership Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65, 93, 96
www.aws.org/membership/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353
AWS Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71, 95
www.aws.org/publications/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353
Bug-O Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
www.bugo.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 245-3186
Camfil Farr Air Polution Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
www.camfilfarrapc.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 479-6801
Champion Welding Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
www.championwelding.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 321-9353
Coleman Cable, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
www.colemancable.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 323-9355
Commercial Diving Academy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
www.commercialdivingacademy.com . . . . . . . . . . .(888) 974-2232
Cor-Met . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
www.cor-met.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 848-2719
CWB Conference/Canadas Premiere Welding Conference . . .28
www.cwaconference.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 844-6790
Diamond Ground Products, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
www.diamondground.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(805) 498-3837
Divers Academy International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
www.diversacademy.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 238-3483
ESAB Welding & Cutting Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
www.esabna.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 372-2123
FABTECH 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-15
www.fabtechexpo.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 297
Flex-Cable, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
www.flexcable.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 245-3539, ext. 114
Fronius Perfect Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
www.fronius-usa.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(810) 220-4414
Gedik Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
www.gedikwelding.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+90 216 378 50 00
Genstar Technologies Co., Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
www.genstartech.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(909) 606-2726
Greiner Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
www.greinerindustries.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 782-2110
Harris Products Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
www.harrisproductsgroup.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 733-4043
Hobart Inst. of Welding Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
www.welding.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 332-9448
Industrial Maid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
www.industrial-maid.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(877) 624-3247
Intercon Enterprises, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
www.intercononline.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 665-6655
Jinzhou Institute of Metal Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
www.jzmm.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+86 416 4675064
KMT Saw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
www.kmtsaw.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(269) 321-8860
Lincoln Electric Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBC
www.lincolnelectric.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(216) 481-8100
Mercer Abrasives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
www.mercerabrasives.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 221-5202
Midalloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
www.midalloy.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 776-3300
Miller Electric Mfg. Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
www.MillerWelds.com/hero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 426-4553
OTC Daihen, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
www.daihen-usa.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(888) 682-7626
Revco Industries, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
www.blackstallion.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 527-3826
RoboVent World Class Industrial Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
www.robovent.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(888) 762-68368
Schaefer Ventilation Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
www.schaeferfan.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 779-3267
Select Arc, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IFC
www.select-arc.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(937) 295-5215
Special Metals Welding Products, Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
www.specialmetalswelding.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 624-3411
Superflash Compressed Gas Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
www.oxyfuelsafety.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(888) 327-7306
Thermal Arc/Victor Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
www.victortechnologies.com/3in1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .(866) 279-2628
Triangle Engineering, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
www.trieng.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(781) 878-1500
Weld Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
www.weldengineering.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(508) 842-2224
Weld Hugger, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
www.weldhugger.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(877) 935-3447
IFC = Inside Front Cover
IBC = Inside Back Cover
OBC = Outside Back Cover
Visit the AWS Interactive Ad Index: www.aws.org/ad-index
ADVERTISER
INDEX
AUG 2012 WJ CLASSIFIEDS_Classified Template 7/12/12 2:58 PM Page 102
Introduction
Ferritic stainless steels are gaining
more interest because they exhibit good
corrosion resistance and lower cost com-
pared to austenitic stainless steels. Low-
chromium grades have fair corrosion
resistance and low cost fabricability, and
they have been widely used in automotive
exhaust systems. The fact that a fully fer-
ritic structure has poor low-temperature
toughness and poor high-temperature
strength compared to austenite led these
steels to be considered as low-weldable
steels, and they have mostly been used for
applications that do not require welding.
In recent years, there has been an in-
creased use of fusion welding in such in-
dustrial applications, hence the welding
metallurgy of ferritic stainless steels has
drawn more attention. However, in join-
ing ferritic stainless steels, a grain-coars-
ening problem occurs at the weld zones
and, consequently, low toughness and duc-
tility due to the absence of phase transfor-
mation. The performance potential of lean
alloyed chromium stainless steels has been
increased with the tight control of compo-
sition that can provide extremely low lev-
els of carbon and nitrogen with the
consequent improvement in the as-welded
heat-affected zone (HAZ) properties, as
well as the reduction of chromium car-
bides, which degrade corrosion perform-
ance (Refs. 117).
In some predominantly ferritic steels, a
small amount of austenite forms at high
temperatures and may transform to
martensite on cooling. With this idea, 12%
Cr transformable stainless steels, poten-
tially with better weldability than either
ferritic or martensitic steels, were devel-
oped with tight control of the carbon con-
tent and martensite/ferrite balance to
avoid the extremes of completely ferritic
or martensitic structures. These structured
stainless steels with low carbon and inter-
stitials have been finding increasing engi-
neering applications (i.e., vs. S355 steel),
depending on the improvements in weld-
ability. The first generation of these fer-
ritic steels is 3Cr12 stainless steel, which
was developed in the late 1970s with a car-
bon level of 0.03%. It is produced by sev-
eral steel suppliers and is named in ASTM
A240 as UNS S41003 and in European
Standards as Material Number 1.4003.
This 3Cr12 is variously described as ferritic
or ferritic-martensitic 12% Cr stainless
steel with good corrosion resistance in
many environments and provides consid-
erable economic advantage over austenitic
stainless steels (Refs. 1, 4, 11, 12, 1828).
Although 3Cr12 has excellent corrosion
resistance in many environments, its lim-
ited weldability and relatively low impact
toughness at the HAZ have restricted its
use where nonstatic loads are concerned.
SUPPLEMENT TO THE WELDING JOURNAL, AUGUST 2012
Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council
Effect of the Consumable on the Properties
of Gas Metal Arc Welded
EN 1.4003-Type Stainless Steel
The properties of a modified 12% Cr ferritic stainless steel were evaluated
when welded with three different consumables
BY E. TABAN, A. DHOOGE, E. KALUC, AND E. DELEU
KEYWORDS
12% Cr Stainless Steel
EN 1.4003 Steel
Gas Metal Arc Welding
Microstructure
Impact Toughness
Corrosion Resistance
E. TABAN (emel.taban@yahoo.com,
emelt@kocaeli.edu.tr) and E. KALUC are with
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of En-
gineering, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey,
and Welding Research Center, Kocaeli University.
E. TABAN was a PhD student at the Research
Center of the Belgian Welding Institute, Ghent,
Belgium at the time this study was conducted. A.
DHOOGE is with Dept. of Mechanical Con-
struction and Production, Faculty of Engineering
and Architecture, University of Ghent, Ghent,
Belgium. E. DELEU is with Research Center of
the Belgian Welding Institute, Ghent, Belgium.
ABSTRACT
In this study, modified 12% Cr stainless steel with very low carbon level (0.01%) to
improve the weldability and mechanical properties, still conforming to EN 1.4003 and
UNS S41003 grades, was joined by gas metal arc welding. Plates 12 mm thick were
welded with ER309LSi, ER308LSi, and ER316LSi austenitic stainless steel consum-
ables. Several samples extracted from the joints were subjected to mechanical testing by
means of tensile, bend, and Charpy impact toughness tests, while tensile fractographs
were examined. Toughness after the postweld heat treatment (PWHT) for 30 min at
720 and 750C was also examined. Microstructural examinations, including macro- and
micrographs, grain size analysis, hardness, and ferrite measurements, were conducted.
Salt spray and blister tests for corrosion testing were applied. Considering all data ob-
tained, good strength and satisfactory ductility results were determined, while mi-
crostructure-property relationship was explained. It can be recommended to use 309
and 316 welding wires for better corrosion resistance compared to 308 welding wires.
More encouraging impact toughness properties related with finer grained microstructure
were also obtained for the welds produced by 309 and 316 wires. Postweld heat treatment
of the GMA weld with ER308LSi showed good improvement for toughness due to the
tempering of the martensite at the coarse-grained heat-affected zone. Increasing heat
treatment temperature from 720 to 750C made additional improvements in toughness.
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Taban 8-12_Layout 1 7/11/12 9:40 AM Page 213
The correct balance between ferrite- and
austenite-forming elements is very impor-
tant, and this can be controlled using cer-
tain relationships based on the ferrite- or
austenite-forming tendencies of alloying
elements, depending on both alloying and
heat treatment conditions (Refs. 6, 19,
2536). A modified 12%Cr stainless steel
was fabricated conforming in composition
to Grade EN 1.4003 with quite low
(<0.015%) carbon levels, improving weld-
ability and mechanical properties with
modern production facilities. Initial appli-
cations of this steel were limited to mate-
rials handling equipment in corrosive
environments, but the 1.4003 steel is now
used commonly in the coal and gold min-
ing industries, for sugar-processing equip-
ment, road and rail transport, power
generation, and in aerospace engineering.
This 1.4003 steel is considered a link be-
tween carbon steels and corrosion-resis-
tant alloys since it displays both the
advantages of stainless steels for corrosion
resistance and the engineering properties
of carbon steels. For the long-term main-
tenance costs, this modified low-carbon
12Cr stainless steel requires less coating
renewals, offering substantial economic
and considerable environmental advan-
tages. For other applications, when com-
pared with higher-alloyed stainless steels,
the use of this steel with improved weld-
ability would be more economical (Refs.
12, 1619, 23, 25, 3549). Modified lower-
carbon 12Cr stainless steel (0.01%) is in-
tended to be used for structural
applications, so welding and weldability of
this alloy gains more importance.
This study aims to investigate the weld-
ability properties of this steel. The prop-
erties of gas metal arc welded modified
12% Cr ferritic stainless steel joints with
various types of consumables (ER309LSi,
ER308LSi, and ER316LSi) were investi-
gated. Microstructural, mechanical, im-
pact toughness, and corrosion testing were
carried out to determine the gas metal arc
weldability of this steel, and the results
were compared to evaluate the effect of
consumable type on the properties of the
welded joints.
Material and Experimental
Procedure
Material
The chemical composition and trans-
verse tensile properties of the 12-mm-
thick modified base metal are given in
Table 1. Chemical composition data were
obtained by glow discharge optical emis-
sion spectrometry (GDOES), and nitro-
gen was determined by melt extraction.
Welding
Three types of gas metal arc welded
joints (B9, B8, and B6) of modified EN
1.4003 steel with various types of consum-
ables were produced. Matching welding
electrodes and 17% Cr welding wires are
available for welding of EN 1.4003 steel.
However, in applications where impact, fa-
tigue, or any other form of nonstatic load-
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Fig. 1 Photo macrographs of welded joints. A B9; B B8; C B6.
Table 1 Chemical Composition and Tensile Properties of the Base Metal
Chemical Composition (wt-%) (data from chemical analysis)
(a)
C Si Mn P S Cr Ni
0.01 0.32 0.97 0.033 0.003 12.2 0.52
[ 0.030] [ 1.00] [ 1.50] [ 0.04] [ 0.015] [10.512.5] [0.301.00]
N (ppm) Cu Mo Ti V Al Nb
90 0.39 0.14 0.001 0.039 0.027 0.031
[ 300]
Yield strength Ultimate tensile strength Strain at fracture
(MPa) (MPa) (%)
362363 500502 3032
(a) Values between square brackets are as specified in EN10088.
A
A
B
B
D
C
C
Fig. 2 Photomicrographs of GMA weld with 309 filler metal (B9). A BM, 200; B WM+HAZ,
50; C HAZ, 200; D WM, 200.
Taban 8-12_Layout 1 7/11/12 9:40 AM Page 214
ing is anticipated, mainly austenitic weld-
ing wires are recommended. Reported
weldability studies have shown that
austenitic stainless steel consumables can
be used to produce arc welds to minimize
the risk of HAZ hydrogen cracking and to
ensure deposition of tough weld metal to
yield adequate properties required for
structural purposes (Refs. 12, 15, 18, 19,
23, 35, 4149). Weld B9 was prepared with
a solid ER309LSi wire of 1-mm diameter
protected by a slightly oxidizing EN 439-
M12(2) gas and by using pulsed arc. The
plate preparation consisted of a V-groove
with an opening angle of 50 deg. Four
passes were used to complete the weld,
supported by a copper backing strip. No
preheat was applied, while the maximum
interpass temperature was 100C. The
heat input varied from 0.41 to 1.73 kJ/mm.
The same conditions were applied for
GMAW with ER308LSi and ER316LSi
solid wires respectively for Welds B8 and
B6. The heat input in these cases changed
respectively from 0.68 to 1.90 kJ/mm and
from 0.53 to 1.73 kJ/mm. The maximum
interpass temperatures were 115 and
118C. Welding details of the joints are
given in Table 2.
Microstructural, Mechanical, and
Corrosion Testing of the Welded Joints
For the chemical analyses of the weld
deposits, longitudinal sections were pre-
pared perpendicular to the plate surface
and entirely located at the weld metal. At
least two measurements were done by
GDOES, and nitrogen was again deter-
mined by melt extraction. Welded joints
were cross-sectioned perpendicular to the
welding direction for metallographic
analyses. Specimens were prepared, pol-
ished and etched with Vilellas reagent.
Photomacro and photomicrographs of the
weld zones were obtained by light optical
microscope (LOM) with magnifications of
50 and 200.
Notch impact test samples were ex-
tracted transverse to the weld with notches
positioned at the weld metal (WM) cen-
ter, at the weld interface (WI), at the HAZ
2 mm away from the WI (WI+2 mm).
Testing was carried out at 20, 0, and
20C. The impact test samples were also
tested at 20C after PWHT for 30 min re-
spectively at 720 and 750C. The ASTM
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Table 2 Welding Details Applied for Gas Metal Arc Joining the 12-mm-Thick Base Metals
Weld Welding Type of Protection Plate Backing Welding Welding Heat Preheat Interpass
Joint Position Consumable Preparation Material Parameters Speed Input Temp. Temp.
(V/A) (cm/min) (kJ/mm) (C) (C)
B9 (1mm diameter) 20.024.5/
ER309LSi 100153 30/13 0.41/1.73 100
Pulsed arc
PA 63Ar/
B8 4 passes (1mm diameter) 35He/ V / 50 Cu 23.029.0/
ER308LSi 2CO
2
(c= 24 mm) 100178 25/16 0.68/1.90 115
Pulsed arc
B6 (1mm diameter) 22.027.5/
ER316LSi 90185 30/18 0.53/1.73 118
Pulsed arc
Table 3 Chemical Compositions of the Weld Deposits Made for the GMA Welds
Weld C Si Mn P S Cr Cu Ni Mo Ti V Al Nb N
Joint (%) (%) (%) (ppm) (ppm) (%) (%) (%) (%) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm)
B9 0.02 0.79 1.80 180 70 23.6 0.04 12.9 0.04 80 1100 280 <10 524
B8 0.02 0.76 1.51 210 70 20.0 0.10 9.79 0.10 50 790 280 10 653
B6 0.03 0.72 1.56 230 120 18.6 0.15 11.9 2.52 40 820 260 <10 474
A B
D
C
Fig. 3 Photomicrographs of GMA weld with 308 filler metal (B8). A WM+HAZ, 50; B HTHAZ,
200; C HAZ, 200; D WM, 200.
Taban 8-12_Layout 1 7/11/12 9:40 AM Page 215
grain size numbers were measured at po-
sitions sampled by notches located at WI
and WI+2 to investigate for a possible
correlation between toughness and mi-
crostructure.
Ferrite content of the weld metal was
calculated and predicted by chemical
analysis results, then was determined by
Feritscope measurements across the
weld metal. Vickers hardness measure-
ments under 5-kg load were carried out
over the weld cross sections in accordance
with the EN 1043-1 standard. Transverse,
full-thickness, rectangular tensile test
specimens were extracted from the welds
and testing was performed with a 600-kN
capacity servo-hydraulic test machine at
room temperature. The width at the pris-
matic section was 25 mm, while the excess
flush of the weld metal was removed in
order not to overestimate the weld metal
strength. Cylindrical test samples, com-
pletely positioned at the weld metal were
prepared in the longitudinal direction.
Moreover, transverse face and root bend
test specimens with a nominal specimen
width of 30 mm were prepared. Bending
was executed to 180 deg unless severe
cracking was observed before.
To assess the resistance against atmos-
pheric attack, salt spray and blister corro-
sion tests were executed. Salt spray tests
were done on the corrosion test samples,
which were coated with a two-layer pro-
tection system used in the industry. Test-
ing was applied in a 5% NaCl aqueous
solution with a fog volume of 24 to 28 mL
per 24 h, a pH of 6.5 to 7.2, and at a tem-
perature of 35C. The samples were pro-
vided with a scratch in the shape of a cross
over the entire test surface across the weld
metal surface to estimate the resistance of
the welds when the coating is accidentally
damaged prior to or during operation and
also with paraffin at the sawed and ma-
chined surfaces. Samples with a dimension
of 150 75 mm were positioned at 60 deg
with the weld horizontal. Blister tests were
executed on coated samples prepared sim-
ilarly as those for salt spray testing. Sam-
ples were exposed to real atmospheric
conditions at the center of Gent/Belgium
with their test surface oriented to direct
sunlight.
Results and Discussion
Chemical Analysis
Chemical composition of the weld de-
posits of gas metal arc welded joints are
given in Table 3. Data were obtained by
the experimental analysis (GDOES and
melt extraction) from the top passes of the
weld metal.
More chromium and nickel were meas-
ured at the weld metal of Weld B9 com-
pared to the welds produced with 308 and
316 filler metals. On the other hand, more
Mo was determined at the B6 weld due to
the increased alloying elements of the re-
lated wire.
Microstructural Analysis
A microstructural investigation was
carried out on the metallographic speci-
mens from the joints. Relevant macropho-
tographs obtained from each joint are
given in Fig. 1. All welds show a reason-
able weld profile.
An investigation of the weld zones was
performed from base metal (BM) across
the HAZ to weld metal (WM) (Figs. 2, 3,
and 4, respectively, for B9, B8, and B6
joints).
The base metal used in this study is
often described as a ferritic or
ferritic/martensitic stainless steel since it
includes both ferrite and martensite in the
base metal structure Fig. 1A. Unlike
the HAZ for plain carbon steels, the HAZ
for 12%Cr stainless steels has two visually
distinct zones: the high-temperature HAZ
(HTHAZ) and the low-temperature HAZ
(LTHAZ) Figs. 1B, 2A, 3A. The steel
is heated close to the liquidus and trans-
forms completely to ferrite and rapid
grain growth occurs. On cooling, the
HTHAZ frequently consists of coarse-
grained ferrite with islands of marten-
site at the grain boundaries. On the
micrographs, martensite islands can be ob-
served, and adjacent to the weld interface
some grain coarsening at the HAZ of the
stainless steel was observed Figs. 1C,
2B, 3B. When the material temperature
reached 1050C within 12 s, no reversion
to occurred, and the ferrite structure
was maintained at room temperature.
However, material that was heated be-
tween Ac1 and Ac5, and contained signif-
icant fractions of , transformed to
martensite, resulting in a tough fine-
grained structure (Refs. 19, 28). The base
metal had the tendency for grain coarsen-
ing at the HAZ close to the weld interface
where temperature cycles occur with peak
temperatures above 1200C if the heat
input during welding is not properly con-
trolled. This is due to the transformation
to ferrite in the HTHAZ of fusion welds.
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Fig. 4 Photomicrographs of GMA weld with 316 filler metal (B6). A WM+HAZ, 50; B HAZ,
200; C LTHAZ, 200; D WM, 200.
A
B
C D
Table 4 Full-Thickness Transverse Tensile Properties of the 12-mm-Thick GMA Welds
Welding Process Type of Consumable Specimen Code R
m
(MPa)
ER309LSi B9TT1 484
B9TT2 504
GMAW ER308LSi B8TT1 491
B8TT2 492
ER316LSi B6TT1 490
B6TT2 499
Taban 8-12_Layout 1 7/11/12 9:40 AM Page 216
Impact Toughness Test Results
Curves of Charpy impact energies vs.
test temperature for the 12-mm-thick
GMA welded joints (B9, B8, and B6) with
309, 308, and 316 consumables are given
in Fig. 5. Considering 27 J as the required
mean toughness, it could be concluded
that all welds proved adequate for low-
temperature impact toughness (achievable
down to 20C, which is very encourag-
ing). Each point in the figure represents
an average value of three samples. How-
ever, only the samples with weld interface
(WI) notch position of B8 weld tested at
low temperatures failed. The PWHT of
the B8 weld for 30 min at 720 and 750C
showed good improvement for HAZ
toughness. With increasing the heat treat-
ment temperature from 720 to 750C, re-
sults improved Fig. 5. Similar Charpy
impact toughness test results were ob-
tained for WM notched samples, while
samples removed from welds notched at
the WI and WI+2 positions possessed less
impact energy results compared to WM
positions. In general, better impact tough-
ness results were obtained at the weld pro-
duced with 316 welding wires for all test
temperatures. As the alloying elements in-
crease in 309 and 316 filler metals, the al-
loying of the weld metal improved, and
more encouraging results were obtained in
B9 and B6 welds.
Grain Size Analysis
Grain coarsening in the fusion welds of
this steel results in deterioration of me-
chanical properties, in particular of tough-
ness, as also observed in earlier research
(Refs. 12, 4150). Considering this, ASTM
grain size numbers
were measured on
the existing macro-
sections at the HAZ
close to the weld in-
terface to investigate
for a correlation be-
tween impact tough-
ness and grain size
of the welds. It is
emphasized that
fine-grained mi-
crostructures have
high ASTM grain
size numbers (i.e.,
610), while coarse-
grain microstruc-
tures are identified
by small ASTM grain size numbers (i.e.,
13). In general, poor weld interface
toughness corresponds with coarse grains
(i.e., 1 or 2). Grain size analysis of the
GMA welds of 12-mm-thick 12Cr stainless
steel revealed there was considerable grain
coarsening, in particular at the HTHAZ,
with ASTM grain size numbers between 1
and 3, resulting in lower toughness data
compared to those at the LTHAZ. The
grain coarsening of the HAZ originating
from the B6 joint was determined to be
lower than the other welds (B9 and B8)
Fig. 3A. Less grain coarsening at B6 HAZ
provided better toughness results at low
temperatures compared to B9 and B8.
Studies show that ferrite grain size has a
marked effect on the impact properties of
the HAZ, and ductile-to-brittle transition
temperatures (DBTT) of 12% Cr steel in-
crease with ferrite grain size (Refs. 12, 35,
51). In accordance with the literature,
fine-grained structures enhance toughness
properties. Grain coarsening can be re-
stricted to microstructures with ASTM
grain size numbers of 6 or higher with
more proper control of the heat input.
Ferrite Content Results
When the chemical composition data
of the base metal obtained by GDOES
(Table 1) is taken into account, approxi-
mately 12.8 and 1.00 are calculated as Cr
eq
and Ni
eq
. According to the Balmforth and
Lippold diagram (Ref. 3), the steel used
here seems to consist of 80% ferrite and
20% martensite. Cr
eq
of approximately
24.0, 20.5, and 23.9, and Ni
eq
of 14.7, 11.8,
and 13.9 for B9, B8, and B6, respectively,
are calculated from the Balmforth and
Lippold diagram, using all-weld-metal
chemical composition data from Table 3,
and the representative points are situated
in austenite + martensite + ferrite region.
Martensite islands as dark areas within the
ferrite grains and some grain coarsening at
the HAZs of the welds can be noticed
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Fig. 5 Notch impact toughness of the GMA welded joints (B9, B8, and B6).
Table 5 Cylindrical All-Weld-Metal Tensile Properties of the Welds
Welding Process Type of Consumable Specimen Code R
p
R
m
Elongation Reduction of Area
(MPa) (MPa) (%) (%)
ER309LSi B9TW1 329 565 44.5 51
GMAW B9TW2 360 575 38.8 64
ER308LSi B8TW1 336 595 47.0 62
B8TW2 316 589 47.2 65
ER316LSi B6TW1 483 573 ? 53
B6TW2 337 566 25.8 44
Taban 8-12_Layout 1 7/11/12 9:40 AM Page 217
Figs. 1C, 2B, 3B. Again using data from
Table 3 and the Schaeffler diagram (Ref.
1), Cr
eq
of approximately 24.82, 21.24, and
22.20, and Ni
eq
of 14.4, 11.1, and 13.48 for
B9, B8, and B6, respectively, were calcu-
lated. With this diagram, between 5 and
10% ferrite is expected for the weld metals
of B9, B8, and B6 joints, respectively. De-
pending on the ferrite content investiga-
tion by Feritscope, weld metal ferrite
content was measured at approximately
between 9.5 and 12.7% for B9, while the
results changed between 8.2 and 9.9% for
B8, and between 7.9 and 11.8% for B6
(Fig. 7) due to the 309, 308, and 316
austenitic-type stainless steel filler metals
used. The measured ferrite-% data are in
general compatible, but a little higher than
those predicted using the diagram.
Hardness Test Results
Relavant hardness measurements under
5-kg load over the weld cross sections of 12-
mm-thick GMA welds made with
ER309LSi, ER308LSi, and ER316LSi weld-
ing wires were taken. A representative hard-
ness distribution is given for Weld B9 in Fig.
7. For each sample, HAZ measurements in-
cluded two indentations 0.7 mm above and
below the line of indentations for the left
HAZ and for locations 0.7 mm below and
above the line of indentations for the right
HAZ. Weld metal hardness of the welds
varied between 170 and 235 HV5. Maxi-
mum hardness values 275, 290, and 278
HV5 were measured at the HAZs of B9,
B8, and B6 joints, respectively.
Transverse Tensile Test
Transverse tensile test results are given
in Table 4. Test specimens prepared from
each joint showed an overmatch with R
m
values between 484 and 504 MPa. Fracture
of the welds occurred at the base metal.
Splitting of the base metal was observed
close to the fracture surfaces parallel with
the plate surface in accordance with the
literature and is attributed to intergranular
decohesion along ferrite-martensite grain
boundaries (Refs. 13, 23).
All-Weld-Metal Tensile Test Results of
Cylindrical Test Samples
Cylindrical test samples completely po-
sitioned at the weld metal and extracted
from the respective welds in longitudinal
direction were tested. The room-temper-
ature tensile test results for the 12-mm-
thick GMA welds made in modified 12%
Cr stainless steel are given in Table 5.
Bend Test Results
None of the face and root bend sam-
ples failed during 180-deg bending. Harm-
less undercuts were observed.
Corrosion Properties
Uncoated and coated salt spray sam-
ples, respectively, after an exposure of 350
h and 1000 h are illustrated in Figs. 8 and
9. As a rule of thumb, damage caused in a
salt spray test after 1000 h of exposure
time may be extrapolated to about five
years of atmospheric attack.
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Fig. 6 Ferrite content measurements of B9, B8, and B6 welds obtained by
Feritscope.
Fig. 8 Uncoated salt spray test samples after 350 h. A B9; B B8; C B6.
Fig. 7 Hardness measurements on the cross sections of B9 joint.
A B C
Taban 8-12_Layout 1 7/11/12 9:53 AM Page 218
After an exposure of 24 h, uncoated
salt spray test samples revealed red and
brown attacks with drains from the weld
metal. Drains increased when the expo-
sure time increased. After an exposure
time of 167 h, an increase of drains from
welds was observed, with black-brown
drains seen. A maximum increase was ob-
served after 350 h. The test was ended for
the related duration, since increasing the
exposure time did not lead to an increase
in corrosion. In the uncoated condition
and after 350 h of exposure, Weld B6 re-
vealed less deterioration than Welds B9
and B8. Weld B8 had the highest attack at
the weld metal due to the least alloying el-
ement context compared to B9 and B6
weld metals. Thus, it was concluded that
Weld B6 showed improved resistance with
regard to B8 and B9.
Photographs after 1000 h of salt spray
corrosion testing of coated samples are il-
lustrated in Fig. 9. Short-term behavior
(24 h) of coated samples heavily scratched
across the welds, revealed small spots of
corrosion at the scratched part of the
welds. Damage systematically worsened in
the course of testing till about 140 h of ex-
posure. Long-term behavior of coated
samples revealed some corrosion at the
scratch in case of all welds. The applied
coating provided a good protection, as in
general only scratched regions deterio-
rated. The influence of the type of con-
sumable is very detectable and confirmed
on the samples after the test, as Weld B6
proved to be the most resistant and Weld
B8 the least resistant Fig. 8AC and
Fig. 9A and B. After 1000 h, the GMA
welds on modified 12% Cr stainless steel
were found resistant enough for mild
environments.
Some ranking between welds has been
given, but this should be treated with great
care as interpretation of such type of obser-
vations is often distorted by personal bias.
The purpose, therefore, is not to distinguish
between good and bad combinations but
rather between resistant and less-resistant
welds. Each data describes the changes in
observations, i.e., any worsening or new ob-
servations, with regard to the former period.
Taking this into account, Fig. 10A summa-
rizes the damage factor due to the weld
combinations after 24 and 350 h of salt spray
testing of uncoated samples. Figure 10B
represents the mean damage factor of short
and long time exposure after 24 and 1000 h
of salt spray testing of coated samples. Most
damage was observed at Weld B8 as ob-
served in Fig. 10.
Coated samples after 3120 h of blister
testing are illustrated in Fig. 11. At each
observation for the blister sample, air tem-
peratures were noted, ranging from mini-
mum about 0 to maximum 42C, as this
parameter can have a great effect on cor-
rosion response. Only Weld B8 showed
some small spots at the scratch already
after 360 h, then the sample succeeded
practically in preventing further damage
to occur. Weld B6 was totally resistant
against atmospheric attack over a period
of 2500 h even when damaged by a severe
scratch across the entire welded joint.
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Fig. 9 Coated salt spray corrosion test samples after 1000 h. A B9; B B8; C B6.
Fig. 10 Damage factor during salt spray corrosion test. A After 24 and 350 h for uncoated samples; B after 24 and 1000 h for coated samples.
A
A
B
B
C
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From the blister test samples, it is con-
cluded that Weld B6 made with 316LSi
consumable was again the most resistant
against atmospheric attack over periods
that cover both winter and summer sea-
sons. In general, corrosion behavior is af-
fected by the type of consumables
certainly in protected condition and artifi-
cially damaged across the entire weld. In
these cases, 316LSi filler metal improves
the corrosion resistance of the whole sys-
tem with regard to 309 or 308 filler metals
that, due to its lower alloying, demonstrate
an inferior corrosion behavior.
Conclusions
The following conclusions of this re-
search work concerning the GMAW of 12-
mm-thick modified 12% Cr stainless steel
conforming to EN 1.4003 and UNS
S41003 were drawn:
Modified X2CrNi12 ferritic stainless
steel complying with EN10088 can be fab-
ricated with a low level of carbon and im-
purities. In general, defect-free joining of
12-mm-thick X2CrNi12 stainless steel is
feasible by GMAW. The weld metal in the
present welds without exception was over-
matched in tensile strength. The 180-deg
bending of the face and root bend samples
revealed no defects except harmless small
undercuts.
Welds B6 and B9 produced with
316LSi and 309LSi austenitic welding
wires, respectively, have proven that ade-
quate low-temperature impact toughness
is achievable down to 20C, which is very
encouraging. Only Weld B8 produced with
308LSi consumable failed at low tempera-
tures because of insufficient mean tough-
ness at the weld interface notch position.
However, HTHAZ toughness at subzero
temperatures has been improved by
PWHT for 30 min at 720 and 750C,
which is promising.
The major challenge of the stainless
steel is the tendency for grain coarsening
at the HTHAZ. Grain coarsening had no
negative effect on tensile and bend prop-
erties, but the HTHAZ impact toughness
may be disappointing, which depends on
the amount of grain-coarsened mi-
crostructures. Microscopic investigations
have shown that if the grain coarsening
could be restricted to microstructures with
ASTM grain size numbers of 6 or higher
with a more controlled heat input range,
welds would be much tougher. The corre-
lation between microstructure and impact
toughness was defined as less substantial
grain coarsening and was determined for
Weld B6, which exhibited higher tough-
ness values. Considerable grain coarsen-
ing was found for B8, which failed in
toughness at low temperature. Hardness
at the HAZs of this steel can easily be lim-
ited to 300 HV5.
Atmospheric corrosion resistance of the
welds is also very promising even when eval-
uated under severe circumstances, such as
artificial damage. Under pure atmospheric
conditions, all welds demonstrated the pos-
sibility to prevent further development of
corrosion once initiated. Weld B8 was clas-
sified as less corrosion resistant than the
welds B9 and B6 with 309 and 316 consum-
ables. In particular, 316 filler metal provides
the best corrosion resistance.
Interpreting all data gathered within
this work, the effects of the consumable
are mostly observed for the toughness and
corrosion properties. Taking this into ac-
count, it can be recommended to use 309
and 316 austenitic consumables for gas
metal arc welding of 12-mm-thick modi-
fied 12Cr stainless steel conforming to EN
1.4003 grade in the areas where impact or
shock is anticipated and adequate atmos-
pheric corrosion is required.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to acknowledge
the help of all colleagues at the Belgian
Welding Institute. In addition, the support
of IWT, ArcelorMittal Belgium, University
of Ghent, WTCM, and Bombardier Euro-
rail are very much appreciated and ac-
knowledged for their contribution and
technical support.
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18. Greef, M. L., and du Toit, M. 2006. Weld-
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19. du Toit, M., van Rooyen, G. T., and
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35. Meyer, A. M., and du Toit, M. 2001.
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38. Marini, A., and Knight D. S. 1994. Corr
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43. Taban, E., Deleu, E., Dhooge, A., and
Kaluc, E. 2006. Mechanical and microstructural
properties of welded X2CrNi12 ferritic stainless
steel. DVS GST. Schweissen und Schneiden.
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Kaluc, E. 2009. Welding in the World 53(9-10):
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Kaluc, E. 2008. Welding Journal 87(12): 291-s to
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46. Taban, E., Deleu, E., Dhooge, A., and
Kaluc, E. 2009. Materials and Design 30(10):
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47. Taban, E., Dhooge, A., and Kaluc, E.
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Kaluc, E. 2009. Materials and Design, 30(4):
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49. Taban, E., Deleu, E., Dhooge, A., and
Kaluc, E. 2008. Welding and Cutting 7: 354359.
50. Lakshminarayanan, A. K., and Balasub-
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51. Krauss, G. 1989. Steels: Heat Treatment
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Robotic and Automatic Welding
The D16 Committee on Robotic and
Automatic Welding seeks general interest
and educators to help revise its documents.
Contact B. McGrath, bmcgrath@ aws.org;
ext. 311.
Soldering; Joining Nickel Alloys
The G2C Subcommittee on Nickel Al-
loys to review B2.3/B2.3M, Specification
for Soldering Procedures and Performance
Qualification. Contact S. Hedrick, steveh@
aws.org; ext. 305.
Local Heat Treating of Pipe Work
The D10P Subcommittee for Local
Heat Treating of Pipe seeks members.
Contact B. McGrath, bmcgrath@aws.org;
ext. 311.
Magnesium Alloy Filler Metals
A5L Subcommittee on Magnesium
Alloy Filler Metals to assist in the updating
its document. Contact R. Gupta,
gupta@aws.org, ext. 301.
Thermal Spray
C2 Committee on Thermal Spraying
seeks educators, general interest, and
users to update its documents. Contact E.
Abrams, eabrams@aws.org; ext. 307.
Oxyfuel Gas Welding and Cutting
C4 Committee on Oxyfuel Gas Welding
and Cutting seeks general interest and ed-
ucators to help review its documents. Con-
tact E. Abrams, eabrams@aws.org; ext.
307.
Surfacing Industrial Mill Rolls
D14H Subcommittee on Surfacing and
Reconditioning of Industrial Mill Rolls to
revise AWS D14.7, Recommended Prac-
tices for Surfacing and Reconditioning of In-
dustrial Mill Rolls. Contact M. Rubin, mru-
bin@aws.org, ext. 215.
Automotive Welding
The D8 Committee on Automotive
Welding seeks members to help prepare
standards on all aspects of welding in the
automotive industry. Contact E. Abrams,
eabrams@aws.org; ext. 307.
Resistance Welding Equipment
The J1 Committee on Resistance Weld-
ing Equipment seeks educators, general
interest, and users to help develop its doc-
uments on controls, installation and main-
tenance, calibration and resistance weld-
ing fact sheets. Contact E. Abrams,
eabrams@aws.org; ext. 307.
Welding Handbook
Volunteers with experience in welding
copper, lead, zinc, and titanium are
sought to help update the Welding Hand-
book. Contact A. OBrien, aobrien@
aws.org; ext. 303.
Opportunities to Contribute to AWS Welding Standards and Codes
NOTE: LEARN MORE ABOUT TECHNICAL COMMITTEES AND APPLY FOR MEMBERSHIP ONLINE AT WWW.AWS.ORG/TECHNICAL/JOINTECHCOMM.HTML.
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Introduction
Recent technological advances have
necessitated the development of new ma-
terials as well as new methods for joining
them. An example of such a material is the
metal matrix composite (MMC), which is
essentially a structure consisting of a com-
bination of two or more macro compo-
nents that dissolve within one another.
Metal matrix composites, which both have
a high elastic modulus of ceramic and high
metal ductility, are used with conventional
metallic materials in fields such as aircraft
and aerospace engineering, as well as de-
fense and automotive industries. Ratios
such as strength/weight and strength/den-
sity play an important role in metal matrix
composites, and in so doing, they add
something novel and innovative to the
scope of structural materials (Refs. 1, 2).
As the demand for these new materials
grows, studies related to the production
and mechanical properties of composite
materials have become a focus of re-
search. Additionally, many studies about
the production processes and estimation
properties for this kind of material are
continuing. Furthermore, investigations
on practical applications of secondary pro-
cessing technologies (such as machining,
joining, plastic forging, etc.) are also re-
markable. Currently, research related to
joining science and technology for the
metal matrix composites (in particular,
aluminum alloy matrix composites) also
becomes one of the key-point issues for
their potentially successful engineering
applications.
There are still many problems with
joining metal matrix composite materials
(in particular, for the ceramic-reinforced
aluminum alloy matrix composites) used
in fusion welding processes (Ref. 3).
In the welding stage, existence of the
difference between the chemical potential
of the matrix and reinforcement material
shows there is no thermodynamic balance
between the two. Under the welding con-
ditions, undesirable chemical reactions
occur between the aluminum and SiC. The
result is an inferior-quality welded joint.
Uncontrolled solidification is another
problem that one may encounter in fusion
welding. This process occurs in the weld-
ing pool as cooled down; that is, the rein-
forcement phases such as SiC particulates
were strongly rejected by the solidification
front and normal solidification processes
of the welding pool were broken down that
consequently led to microsegregation or
inhomogeneous distribution of reinforce-
ment material. As a result, there would be
many micro and macro defects in the
welded joint (Refs. 3, 4). As there are a
number of problems that may occur in the
process of fusion welding, the friction
welding method (a solid form welding
process) proves to be more effective.
Friction welding is a method that does
not cause melting in the welded zone, and
it works through applying friction-induced
heat on the surfaces of materials. The fric-
tion welding process is entirely mechani-
cally powered, without any aid from elec-
trical or other energy sources (Refs. 5, 6).
In friction welding, the surfaces that cre-
ate the friction during the welding process
are maintained under axial pressure,
known as the friction stage (Ref. 7). When
the appropriate temperature is reached,
the rotation movement is stopped, and the
upset pressure is applied. The welding
zone is thus subjected to a type of thermo-
mechanical process that prevents grain
structure deterioration (Refs. 8, 9). Fric-
tion welding is a method that can be used
in materials that have different thermal
and mechanical properties.
Midling and Grong (1994) were con-
Continuous Drive Friction Welding of
Al/SiC Composite and AISI 1030
After examining the joining of a SiC particulate-reinforced A356 aluminum alloy
and AISI 1030 steel, the outcome shows an aluminum matrix composite
and AISI 1030 steel can be joined by friction welding
BY S. ELIK AND D. GNE
KEYWORDS
Friction Welding
Weldability Testing
Metal Matrix Composite
Carbon Steel
S. ELIK (scelik@balikesir.edu.tr) and D.
GNE are with Balikesir University, Faculty of
Engineering and Architecture, Dept. of Mechani-
cal Eng., Cagis Campus, Balikesir, Turkey.
ABSTRACT
In conventional welding methods, such as those used in joining ceramic-reinforced
aluminum matrix composites, a variety of problems occur. For instance, the element
used for reinforcement, which increases the viscosity in the melting stage, makes the
mixing of matrix and reinforcement material difficult, and this causes inferior joining
quality and makes the establishment of welding difficult. Also, chemical reactions and
undesirable phases are observed because there is a difference between the chemical
potential of the matrix and reinforcement material. In this study, joining a SiC partic-
ulate-reinforced A356 aluminum alloy and AISI 1030 steel by continuous drive friction
welding was investigated. The integrity of the joints was also investigated by optical and
scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the mechanical properties of the welded
joints were assessed using microhardness and tensile tests. The results indicate that an
aluminum matrix composite and AISI 1030 steel can be joined by friction welding.
.
.
AUGUST 2012, VOL. 91
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cerned with the development of an overall
process model for the microstructure and
strength evolution during continuous-
drive friction welding of AI-Mg-Si alloys
and AI-SiC metal matrix composites. In
Part I, the different components of the
model are outlined and analytical solu-
tions presented, which provide quantita-
tive information about the heat-affected
zone (HAZ) temperature distribution for
a wide range of operational conditions. In
Part II, the heat and material flow models
presented in Part I are utilized for the pre-
diction of the HAZ subgrain structure and
strength evolution following welding and
subsequent natural aging. The models are
validated by comparison with experimen-
tal data and are illustrated by means of
novel mechanism maps (Refs. 10, 11).
In their study, Pan et al. (1996) investi-
gated the microstructure and mechanical
properties of dissimilar friction joints be-
tween aluminum-based MMC and AISI
304 stainless steel base materials. The in-
terlayer formed at the dissimilar joint in-
terface was comprised of a mixture of
oxide (Fe(Al,Cr)
2
O
4
or FeO(Al,Cr)
2
O
3
)
and FeAl
3
intermetallic phases. The notch
tensile strength of dissimilar MMC/AISI
304 stainless steel joints increased when
the rotational speed increased from 500 to
1000 rev/min, and at higher rotation
speeds there was no effect on notch tensile
strength properties (Ref. 12).
Zhou et al. (1997) examined the opti-
mum joining parameters for the friction
joining of aluminum-based, MMC materi-
als. The notch tensile strengths of
MMC/Alloy 6061 joints are significantly
lower than MMC/MMC and Alloy
6061/Alloy 6061 joints for all joining pa-
rameter settings. The fatigue strengths of
MMC/MMC joints and Alloy 6061/6061
joints are also poorer than the as-received
base materials (Ref. 13).
Uenishi et al. (2000) investigated spiral
defect formation and the factors affecting
the mechanical properties of friction
welded aluminum Alloy 6061 T6 and
6061/AI
2
0
3
composite base materials. Spi-
ral defects are flow-induced defects
formed when material and reinforcing
Fig. 1 Tensile strength values of welded samples. Fig. 2 Hardness variations on horizontal distance.
Fig. 3 Macro picture of the sample with friction
welding.
Fig. 4 Optical microstructures of weld zones with
different parameters (50). A Experiment 2; B
experiment 3; C experiment 4; D experiment 5;
E experiment 6.
A
C D
E
B
Celik Supplement August 2012_Layout 1 7/11/12 4:04 PM Page 223
particles transfer to and are trapped in spi-
ral arm regions located near the stationary
boundary of friction welded joints. The
tensile strengths of postweld heat treated
MMC/MMC joints produced using a fric-
tion pressure of 280 MPa were signifi-
cantly stronger than as-received MMC
base material (Ref. 14).
In their study, Lin et al. (2002) were able
to successfully conduct friction welding be-
tween two composite materials with the
same matrix but a different reinforced ma-
terial. Composite materials are SiC and
Al
2
O
3
reinforced A7005 aluminum alloy.
For composite materials, the following were
used: size 6 and 15 m, SiC particulate vol-
ume percentage of 10%, and 15 m Al
2
O
3
ceramic particulate of the same volume per-
centage. Consequently, the use of a SiC par-
ticulate led to a concentration of reinforce-
ment particulate in the HAZ. This results in
an increase in hardening values in the plas-
tic region, weakening welding strength, and
narrowing HAZ (Ref. 15).
Lee et al. (2004) were able to achieve
friction welding between a TiA1 alloy and
AISI 4140 for a friction time of 3050 s,
upset pressure varying in a range of 300460
MPa, and upset time of 5 s at a rotating
speed of 2000 rev/min. On the AISI 4140
side, they observed that the hardness values
increased to the range of 600900 HV, and
no change in the TiA1 hardness value. How-
ever, the tensile strength value was deter-
mined to be as low as 120 MPa (Ref. 16).
Reddy et al. (2008) were able to success-
fully weld AA6061 and AISI 304 austenitic
stainless steel by means of the continuous
rotating friction welding method. Direct
welding of this combination resulted in brit-
tle joints due to the formation of Fe
2
Al
5
. To
alleviate this problem, welding was carried
out by incorporating Cu, Ni, and Ag as a dif-
fusion barrier interlayer. The interlayer was
incorporated by electroplating. Welds with
a Cu and Ni interlayer were also brittle due
to the presence of CuAl
2
and NiAl
3
. Ag
acted as an effective diffusion barrier for Fe
avoiding the formation of Fe
2
Al
5
. There-
fore, welds with an Ag interlayer were
stronger and ductile (Ref. 17).
In the study by Fauzi et al. (2010), the ex-
amination of the interface with
ceramic/metal alloy friction welded compo-
nents is essential for understanding the
quality of bonding between two dissimilar
materials. Optical and electron microscopy
as well as four-point bending strength and
microhardness measurements were taken
to evaluate the quality of bonding alumina
and 6061 aluminum alloy joints produced by
friction welding (Ref. 18).
In this study, the joining capability of
SiC
p
-reinforced A356 aluminum matrix
composite and AISI 1030 steel was stud-
ied by continuous-drive friction welding.
Therefore, after welding of samples, ten-
sile and hardness experiments were car-
ried out. For metallographic investiga-
tions, optical microscope and SEM have
been used. Energy-dispersive spec-
troscopy (EDS) analysis was carried out
for chemical composition investigations
on welding and HAZs.
Experimental Procedure
In this study, SiC
p
-reinforced A356
aluminum matrix composite and AISI
1030 steel were used. A SiC particulate-re-
inforced A316 aluminum matrix compos-
ite was prepared using the vortex method.
In the Al/SiC composite material, some
reactions take place between the matrix
and reinforcement material during cast-
ing. The Al
4
C
3
, which formed as a result
of these reactions, renders the welding
very brittle. Very high heat input makes
Al
4
C
3
even more pronounced. The com-
pound takes form at a temperature be-
tween 700 and 1400C (Refs. 1, 19). To
prevent brittleness of the composite mate-
rial caused by the Al
4
C
3
compound, the
vortex method that does not require very
high heat input is used. The casting was
carried out using the stir casting method at
700C.
The chemical composition of the A356
aluminum alloy is presented in Table 1. It
should be noted that the SiC particulate
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Table 1 Chemical Composition of the A356 Material (wt-%)
Al Fe Si Ti Mn Zn Cu Mg Ni Cr
92.28 0.12 7 0.2 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.28 0 0
Table 2 Chemical Composition of the AISI 1030 Steel (wt-%)
C Ni Cr Si Mn P Cu Mo Nb Fe
0.297 0.100 0.082 0.143 0.636 0.011 0.167 0.011 <0.002 98.511
Table 3 Mechanical Properties of the Base Materials
Materials Yield Strength Tensile Strength Elongation Hardness
(MPa) (MPa) (%) (HV50)
AISI 1030 477.68 725.46 5.20 232.3
6% Al/SiCp 103.76 149.57 0.025 64.5
Fig. 5 Optical microstructures of the weld zone and HAZ of the experiment 3 (200). A HAZ (side
of MMC); B weld zone; C HAZ (side of AISI 1030).
AUGUST 2012, VOL. 91
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volume percentage of 6% in 44 m di-
mensions were used in the study. Looking
to the related literature (Ref. 20) and the
results of a number of preliminary cast-
ings, it was assumed that 6% SiC would be
the appropriate particulate ratio to use.
The chemical composition of AISI 1030
steel is shown in Table 2. Mechanical prop-
erties of this steel are presented in Table 3.
The samples were processed at 20 80
mm dimensions for friction welding.
The study was conducted using a con-
tinuous-drive friction welding machine at
3000 rev/min at the Engineering and Ar-
chitecture Faculty of Balikesir University.
Surfaces of the joining parts were ground,
cleaned, and then fixed to the machine.
The welding parameters, which were de-
termined after consulting the relevant lit-
erature (Refs. 15, 20, 21) and preliminary
experiments, are shown in Table 4.
Tensile properties of the welded sam-
ples were prepared according to the EN
895 standard by leaving the welding zone
in the center. When running tensile tests,
4-mm/min tensile rates were used. Hard-
ness tests were carried out in the cross-sec-
tion interface of the Al/SiC composite and
AISI 1030 steel friction welded joints. The
microhardness values were measured on
both sides of the welded specimens with
the Vickers method using a 50-g load.
The microstructural features of the
friction welded joints are investigated by
using optical and scanning electron micro-
scopes. The samples were ground by using
SiC sandpapers and polished with a 0.3-
m Al
2
O
3
powder, then AISI 1030 and
MMC sides were etched by using different
solutions. The AISI 1030 was etched for 4
s by using 4% nital, while the %6 Al/SiCp
material was etched for 2 min using a
Keller reagent (2.5 mL HNO
3
, 1.5 mL
HCI, 1 mL HF, and 95 mL distilled water).
Results and Discussion
Tensile Test Results
Friction welding experiments were con-
ducted using the aforementioned welding
parameters. In the tensile test samples,
fractures occurred on the side of the MMC
material in the HAZ. The occurrence of
fractures in the MMC zone was apparently
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Table 4 The Process Parameters Used in the Friction Welding Experiments
Experiment Friction Pressure Friction Time Upset Pressure Upset Time
No. (P
f
) (MPa) (t
f
) (s) (P
u
) (MPa) (t
u
) (s)
Experiment 1 40 4 40 4
Experiment 2 40 6 40 4
Experiment 3 40 10 40 4
Experiment 4 20 6 40 4
Experiment 5 20 12 40 4
Experiment 6 20 4 60 4
Experiment 7 20 6 60 4
Experiment 8 20 8 60 4
Fig. 6 The points where SEM images were taken. Fig. 7 SEM image of point A.
Fig. 8 SEM image of point B. Fig. 9 SEM image of point C.
Celik Supplement August 2012_Layout 1 7/11/12 4:03 PM Page 225
caused by a deficiency of connection, which
is a reduced microjoining interface be-
tween SiC
p
and A356 aluminum. On the
other hand, the reason that a fracture took
place in the welding zone could be attrib-
uted to the presence of intermetallic phases
such as Fe
2
Al
5
and FeAl
3
, which resulted
from the diffusion of materials. This was
caused by mechanical locking of the MMC
and AISI 1030 materials, but it could also
be the impact of SiC
p
, which prevented dif-
fusion of the materials, the fact that Al and
Fe promote the intermetallic phases (Refs.
12, 17, 22, 23).
The tensile test results of the friction-
welded joints are given in Fig. 1 in a bar
chart format. According to the results of
the tensile tests, the tensile strength of the
sample from experiment 3 (99.05 MPa) is
33.7% less than the tensile strength of
MMC (1349.57 MPa), while the tensile
strength of the sample used in experiment
4 (53.99 MPa) is 63.9% less than the ten-
sile strength of MMC. In general, the ten-
sile strength of materials used in friction
welding must be close to that of the mate-
rial with the lowest tensile strength. In the
tests, the tensile strength of the welded
zone was determined even lower than that
of MMC material, which has the lowest
strength. This can be explained that the
lack of strong interface connection
strength between the reinforcement mate-
rial and matrix material, and acting of SiC
p
as a gap in the welding zone reduces the
welding strength.
It can be concluded that the friction
welding parameters are effective on joint
strength. With a long friction time, zones of
diffusion containing brittle intermetallic
components were formed. A connection
could not be established with a short period
of friction time and low friction rate with
upset pressure. To obtain high strength, the
friction time must be as short as possible,
while friction and upset pressure levels re-
main high. In short periods of friction time,
a very small diffusion area forms, and this
zone is removed from the
joining interface by
means of pressure during
the welding process in
which upset pressure is
exerted. The results
matched the data in pre-
viously conducted studies (Refs. 21, 23).
Microhardness Test Results
When looking at the hardness graph in
Fig. 2, it is clear that hardness values change
when moving away from the welding zone
and toward the main materials. This change
continues until the hardness values of the
main materials are reached. On the MMC
side, where particle fracture occurred, the
increase in hardness values begins as a more
particulate concentrate in the unit area, and
it reaches its maximum level on the steel
side of the weld zone. Five of the test sam-
ples with high tensile strength were exam-
ined for microhardness, and the results are
provided in Fig. 2.
In experiments 2, 3, and 5, high pres-
sure and a long period of friction led to an
increase in intermetallic phases with re-
sulting deformation. This created an ex-
pansion of the weld zone. It is observed
that deformation hardening, intermetallic
phases originating from iron, aluminum,
and fracturing of SiC increased the hard-
ness in the region that deformed and near
to the weld zone (Ref. 24). It is possible
that there were particle transitions in the
viscose structure of these samples due to
the upset and heat. It should also be noted
that a part of Fe passes to the side of MMC
during welding, while Al and Si pass to the
side of AISI 1030 and accumulate in the
weld zone, causing an increase in hard-
ness. These transitions were determined
by an EDS analysis, which is explained in
a subsequent section. Due to the fact that
the friction time of test samples was less
than 10 s, the occurrence of higher hard-
ness values, which could cause weaker
welding strength, was prevented.
In experiments 4 and 6, it was ob-
served that the friction and upset pres-
sures were low while the weld zone be-
tween MMC and AISI 1030 materials was
narrower than it ought to be. Because of
this, diffusion between the materials
could not be achieved. This was due to
the fact that the friction pressure and
time were not sufficient for the materials
to diffuse, and the joint between the two
materials was very slight. The highest
hardness values of the weld zone were
measured at the sample of experiment 3,
while the sample from experiment 4
showed the lowest microhardness values.
It was observed that friction time and
pressure values have a direct effect on
microhardness values.
Macro- and Microstructure Results
The structural changes taking place
when welding two different materials can be
classified into three different areas. The
first of these shows the partially deformed
section of MMC, while the second shows
the fully deformed section in the weld cen-
ter, and the third shows the partially de-
formed zone of AISI 1030 Fig. 3.
In examining the microstructure, it was
observed that there were changes in the
particle structure of the MMC material,
whereas not much change took place in
the AISI 1030 material. The reason no
change occurred on the AISI 1030 side
was the low friction pressure and time.
In general, due to the effects of friction
and upset pressure, fracture in the SiC par-
ticulate was observed in the MMC material
when approaching the weld zone. This phe-
nomenon led to deposits of SiC in the weld
zone. Uenishi et al. (Ref. 14) reported that
reinforcing Al
2
O
3
particles in the MMC
base material are fractured in the zone close
to the weld interface. After samples were
examined under an optical microscope, it
became easier to explain why the hardness
values in the weld zone increased at higher
pressure and time. Moreover, the occur-
rence of Al-Fe intermetallic phases is ex-
pected as a result of heat generated by the
friction as well as upset pressure. In the lit-
erature (Refs. 12, 17, 22, 23), it has been
claimed that intermetallic phases between
Al and Fe such as Fe
2
Al
5
and FeAl
3
can take
place after the diffusion of the materials
under high pressure if a sufficient amount
of heat (at higher than 400C) is provided.
The subject materials intermetallic phases
adversely affect the weld strength because
they form a brittle structure. To prevent this,
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Fig. 11 Linear EDS analysis results of the weld zone.
Fig. 10 EDS analysis line and points on experiment 3.
Celik Supplement August 2012_Layout 1 7/11/12 4:03 PM Page 226
there must be high friction and upset pres-
sure, as well as sufficient friction time men-
tioned before.
Figure 4 depicts the microstructure im-
ages of samples in five different experi-
mental conditions. In examining samples 4
and 6, it can be observed that the welding
is like a line, and the zone of transition
where the materials diffuse into each
other is not revealed. In visual and micro-
scopic examinations of the samples, it was
observed that flange and weld zones were
not formed. It was also observed that the
materials were connected only by means
of mechanical locking, and there was no
diffusion between the materials due to the
fact that the necessary friction tempera-
ture could not be achieved with the insuf-
ficient friction pressure and time.
The joining quality of the samples from
experiments 2, 3, and 5 was very good, es-
pecially as the width of the weld zone can
easily be seen. It can further be seen from
MMC that the materials are sufficiently dif-
fused to ensure joining. The diffusion be-
tween the materials as well as the formation
of the weld zone was adequately achieved
due to the high pressure and sufficient fric-
tion. Detailed microstructural images be-
long to the zones 1, 2, and 3 depicted in Fig.
3 are shown respectively in Fig. 5AC.
In the friction welding process, circular
velocity is zero at the center. As the diam-
eter and distance from the center in-
creases, this velocity increases. In connec-
tion with this, friction and temperature
rise. Moreover, the width of the HAZ gets
larger (Refs. 2426). These changes were
investigated throughout the welded area
at various recorded distances from the
welding center. Deeply assessed points of
A, B, and C in the welded joint are de-
picted in Fig. 6, and SEM images of these
points taken from the welded joint zone
are shown in Figs. 79. Following the SEM
investigation, a linear EDS analysis of
zone C was carried out. In Fig. 10, the lines
and points used in the EDS analysis are re-
vealed, and Fig. 11 depicts the results. In
Table 5, values ob-
tained from point
analysis can be seen.
Examining the SEM
images and EDS re-
sults, the distribution
of Al, SiC
p
, and Fe can
be seen in the weld zone. In the weld zone,
it can be observed that the Fe element is
more diffused on the side of the MMC
while Al and SiC
p
were not very diffused
on the AISI 1030 side. On the side of
MMC, as the weld zone is approached, the
size of the SiC particulate became smaller;
in other words, they were broken. As was
previously explained, microhardness val-
ues in the weld zone increase as the
amount of particulate in each unit zone in-
creases, which in itself is caused by the
fracture of SiC particulate that accumu-
lated in the weld zone. In the SEM images,
SiC
p
clustering in the weld zone was not
observed. This supports the results that
the weld strength in this sample is high.
When examining the fracture surfaces
more closely, we can see smooth and
bright surfaces that mean it is a brittle frac-
ture. In Fig. 12, it can be observed that
there were many indentations on the sur-
face in the form of white braids that re-
sulted from the tensile force that was ap-
plied. Also, there were large dents with
ductile fractures prevalent in these sec-
tions of the material.
To be able to understand the Fe, SiC
p
,
and Al status on the fracture surface, a lin-
ear EDS analysis was taken on the AISI
1030 Fig. 12. The results of the linear
analysis are shown in Fig. 13. The fact that
SiC, Al, and Fe materials are on the same
surface and also that there are remains of
MMC material on the fracture surface indi-
cate the fracture took place on the MMC
side close to the welding zone.
Conclusions
1. In the tensile tests applied to the
welded samples, it was observed that exper-
iment 3 had the highest tensile strength
(99.05 MPa), whereas experiment 4 had the
lowest tensile strength (53.99 MPa). It was
observed that friction pressure and friction
time were important for welding strength.
Friction pressure has to be at the optimum
value where it does not cause high defor-
mation but still allows for diffusion.
2. In the examinations of hardness per-
formed on the welded samples, hardness
values are not linear, also they increase
while moving away from the welded zone
toward the main materials. The increase in
hardness values in the welded zone is the
result of intermetallic phases such as
Fe
2
Al
5
and FeAl
3
, internal stress generat-
ing by high temperature differences, de-
formation hardening, and fracturing of
SiC
p
because of high pressure in the zone.
3. In the microstructural examinations
performed on the weld zone, three sepa-
rate zones were encountered: the HAZ
side to the MMC; the weld zone (de-
formed after being exposed to high tem-
perature values); and the HAZ side to
AISI 1030. Substantial structural change
was not observed in the HAZ side to AISI
1030. This is due to the fact that the tem-
perature did not reach sufficient values for
the deformation of AISI 1030 during fric-
tion welding.
4. In investigating the SEM images, the
diffusion of SiC
p
, Al, and Fe were ob-
served in the weld zone. It was also noted
that as SiC was located closer to the weld
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Fig. 12 SEM image of fracture surface on the side of AISI 1030 material
and EDS analysis line.
Fig. 13 Linear EDS analysis results of fracture surface on the side of AISI
1030 material.
Table 5 EDS Analysis Values Obtained from Points in Fig. 10
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Element wt-% wt-% wt-% wt-%
C K 4.763
O K 8.770
Al K 56.328 78.551
Si K 34.902 5.702 0.193
Fe K 15.747 100.000 94.326
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AUGUST 2012, VOL. 91
zone, it fractured, and its size diminished
due to the effect of upset pressure. This, in
turn, caused an increase in plastic defor-
mation and to rise in the hardness value.
5. According to the tensile and hard-
ness tests and the microstructure, SEM
and EDS investigations, the best welding
parameters were in experiment 3 (P
f
= 40
MPa, P
u
= 40 MPa, t
f
= 10 s, t
u
= 4 s). At
locations where MMC and AISI 1030 have
to be used together, the use of friction
welding as a joining method resulted in the
realization of the welding in a very short
time by working below melting tempera-
tures. More specifically, it has shown that
SiC-reinforced A356 aluminum alloy can
be successfully joined to AISI 1030 steel by
friction welding.
References
1. Zhu, Z. A. 1988. Literature survey on fab-
rication methods of cast reinforced metal com-
posites. Edited by S. G. Fishman and A. K.
Dhingra. ASM/TMS Committee, World Mate-
rials Congress, Sept. 2430, Chicago, Ill.
2. Han, N. L., Yang, J. M., and Wang, Z. G.
2000. Role of real matrix strain low cycle fatigue
life of a SiC particulate reinforced aluminum
composite. Scripta Mater. 43: 8015.
3. Zhang, X. P., Quan, G. F., and Wei, W.
1999. Preliminary investigation on joining per-
formance of SiC-reinforced aluminum metal
matrix composite by vacuum brazing. Compos-
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4. Zhang, X. P., Ye, L., Mai, Y. W., Quan, G.
F., and Wei, W. 1999. Investigation on diffusion
bonding characteristics of SiC particulate rein-
forced aluminum MMC. Composites Part A 30:
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5. Meshram, S. D., Mohandas, T., Mad-
husudhan, and Reddy, G. 2008. Friction weld-
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6. 1980. Resistance and solid-state welding
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7. Spindler, D. E. 1994. What industry needs
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8. Boyer, H. E., and Gall, T. L. 1988. Join-
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9. Jenning, P. 1971. Some properties of dis-
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10. Midling, O. T., and Grong, O. 1994. A
process model for friction welding of A1-Mg-Si
alloys and Al-SiC metal matrix composites I.
HAZ temperature and strain rate distribution.
Acta Metall. Mater. 42(5): 15951609.
11. Midling, O. T., and Grong, O. 1994. A
process model for friction welding of A1-Mg-Si
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HAZ microstructure and strength evolution.
Acta Metall. Mater. 42(5): 161122.
12. Pan, C., Hu, L., Li., Z., and North, T. H.
1996. Microstructural features of dissimilar
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13. Zhou, Y., Zhang, J., North, T., and
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Bendzsak, G. J. 2000. Spiral defect formation in
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15. Lin, C. B., Chou, C., and Ma, C. L. 2002.
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16. Lee, W. B., Kim, M. G., Koo, J. M., Kim,
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Al
5
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Introduction
The Fe-Cr-C alloy, well known for its
high hardness and excellent wear and cor-
rosion resistance, has been widely applied
in harsh working conditions. Many impor-
tant workpieces, such as hammers in min-
ing and mineral processing, squeezing
rolls in cement production, and abrasion-
resistant plates in the manufacturing and
metallurgy industries, are manufactured
from Fe-Cr-C alloy (Ref. 1). The excellent
abrasive wear resistance results primarily
from the type, morphology, amount, di-
mension, and distribution of the carbides,
while the toughness of the matrix also con-
tributes to the wear resistance (Ref. 2). Fe-
Cr-C alloys have been classified into hy-
poeutectic, eutectic, and hypereutectic
structures (Refs. 35). Compared with the
hypoeutectic one, the hypereutectic Fe-
Cr-C alloy is regarded as having better
wear resistance, because its microstruc-
ture consists of primary M
7
C
3
carbide and
eutectic (+M
7
C
3
) (Ref. 6). While the
primary carbides in the hypereutectic mi-
crostructure maintain their forms as
coarser and larger blocks, this in turn de-
creases the cast ability (Ref. 7). In general,
Fe-Cr-C alloys with hypoeutectic mi-
crostructures are applied in engineering
by the casting method.
Workpieces made of Fe-Cr-C alloy fail
through excessive wear over a period of
time. Failed workpieces can be remanu-
factured using a hardfacing method. Nor-
mally, the hardfacing layers are expected
to be hypereutectic microstructures for
obtaining higher hardness and better wear
resistance (Ref. 8). Much attention has
been focused on improving the wear re-
sistance of hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloys
(Refs. 812).
Tungsten carbide (WC), acting as an
advanced ceramic material with wear re-
sistance and good thermal shock resist-
ance, has been widely used for wear-
resistance applications. Kambakas tried to
use a double casting technique to produce
a WC-particle-reinforced high-Cr white
cast iron, and informed that the wear re-
sistance of the high-Cr white cast iron with
WC particle reinforcement was signifi-
cantly better than that without the
strengthening phase. For hardfacing con-
sumables, WC particles are not suitable
for reinforcing Fe-Cr-C alloy due to the
high temperature of the weld pool (Ref.
9).
The applications of rare earth (RE) ele-
ments have been of much concern recently
because of their excellent properties. By
adding RE elements to steel, the crystal
grain can be refined. Hao explored the ef-
fect of RE oxides on the morphology of car-
bides in hardfacing metal of high-chromium
cast iron. In his studies, the volume fraction
and roundness of the carbides were gradu-
ally increased, while their area and perime-
ter were gradually reduced. The carbides
were refined and spheroidized, with the RE
oxide additions increasing. Nevertheless,
the relationship between the volume frac-
tion of carbides and the wear resistance of
the hardfacing metal was not established in
Effect of Titanium Content on Microstructure
and Wear Resistance of Fe-Cr-C
Hardfacing Layers
By adding different amounts of ferrotitanium into flux cored wire, a hardfacing
layer with good performance was obtained, and the M
7
C
3
carbide refinement
mechanism is discussed
BY Y. F. ZHOU, Y. L. YANG, D. LI, J. YANG, Y. W. JIANG, X. J. REN, AND Q. X. YANG
ABSTRACT
Layers of Fe-Cr-C hardfacing material containing various amounts of titanium
were deposited on ASTM 1045 steel base metal. Optical microscope (OM), field emis-
sion scanning electron microscope (FESEM) with energy-dispersive spectrometer
(EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate the effect of titanium
content on the microstructural characteristics of Fe-Cr-C hardfacing layers. The so-
lidification sequence calculation and lattice misfit theory were employed to discuss the
M
7
C
3
carbide refinement mechanism. The experimental results show the microstruc-
tures of Fe-Cr-C hardfacing layers consist of primary (Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
carbides and the eu-
tectic phases (-Fe+(Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
). In the solidification process, the formation and
growth of the primary (Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
carbides occur along their long axis, which parallels
the direction of heat flow. With the increase of titanium content, the primary (Cr,
Fe)
7
C
3
carbides are refined. However, it is not proper to increase titanium content
without limits. When titanium content reaches 1.17 wt-%, its microstructure changes
from a hypereutectic form to a hypoeutectic one. The thermodynamic calculation
shows MC carbide precipitates prior to M
7
C
3
carbide from Fe-C-Cr-Ti alloy. More-
over, the lattice misfit between (110)
TiC
and (010)
Cr7C3
is 9.257%, which indicates that
TiC acting as heterogeneous nuclei of the Cr
7
C
3
is medium effective. Therefore, M
7
C
3
carbide can be refined significantly.
KEYWORDS
Carbides
Hardfacing
Microstructure
Nucleation
Titanium
Y. F. ZHOU (yef.zhou@gmail.com), Y. L.
YANG, D. LI, J. YANG, Y. W. JIANG, and Q. X.
YANG (qxyang@ysu.edu.cn) are with State Key
Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science &
Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao,
China. LI is also with School of Material Science
and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University,
Chengdu, China. X. J. REN is with School of En-
gineering, Liverpool John Moores University, Liv-
erpool, UK.
Zhou Supplement August 2012_Layout 1 7/11/12 3:04 PM Page 229
his work (Ref. 10).
Vanadium (V), niobium (Nb), and tita-
nium (Ti) are strong carbide-forming ele-
ments, and are of benefit for refining the
microstructure and improving the wear re-
sistance of the Fe-Cr-C alloy. Qi investi-
gated the effects of vanadium additive on
structural properties and tribological per-
formance of high-chromium cast iron
hardfacing metal. In his study, V was a
benefit element of the Fe-Cr-C alloy. With
the addition of V, vanadium carbide was
formed as a secondary carbide of Fe-Cr-C-
V alloy. The microstructure of the alloy
was obviously refined with the increase of
V additive, and the amount of bulk pri-
mary carbide was reduced with an increase
in refined eutectic carbide (Ref. 8). While
the carbides in the Fe-Cr-C alloy appar-
ently could also be refined with the Nb ad-
dition, the shape of the primary M
7
C
3
car-
bides became isotropic. Via the XRD and
EDS analyses, NbC carbide was identified
when the Nb element was added into the
Fe-Cr-C alloy (Ref. 11).
The contribution of Ti to the Fe-Cr-C
alloy also can be found in the literature, but
the views contained therein have not yet
fully become the consensus. Chung found
the added titanium in the Fe25wt-%Cr
4wt-%C alloy did not act as an inoculant to
rene primary M
7
C
3
carbides (Ref. 12). In-
stead, it was just the reverse, as Zhi ex-
plained that the heterogeneous nuclei role
of TiC in the Fe-Cr-C
alloy (Refs. 13, 14).
Moreover, the wear re-
sistance of Fe-Cr-C
alloy related to the
mass fraction of the
carbide with added Ti
was not quantified as
described in previous literature.
Based on the above study, the effect of
titanium on hardfacing metal of Fe-Cr-C
alloy is reinvestigated in this work. The
variation of microstructure, phase trans-
formations, and wear resistance are ob-
served, the carbide refinement under dif-
ferent Ti content is described
quantitatively, and the carbide refinement
is discussed.
Experimental Procedures
The base metals (100 80 10 mm)
for hardfacing were prepared from ASTM
1045 steel plates. Before welding, the base
metals were ground and cleaned with ace-
tone. Flux cored wire, which consisted of
an outer steel strip and wrapped powder,
was prepared. H08A was selected as the
steel strip due to its good toughness. In ad-
dition, the composition of the wrapped
powder was adjusted by adding different
raw materials. The graphite (2 wt-%), fer-
rochrome (25 wt-%), ferrosilicon (3 wt-
%), ferromanganese (3 wt-%), and fer-
rotitanium were uniformly mixed and
prepared. Moreover, to investigate the ef-
fect of titanium on the microstructures of
the hardfacing layers, 0, 1, 2, and 4 wt-%
ferrotitanium, respectively, were also
added to the powder. After the powder
was prepared, the forming roller was used
to roll the steel strip into a U-groove, and
then, before the steel strip was rolled into
a tubular shape, the well-mixed powder
was filled into the U-groove. Furthermore,
the required dimension of the flux cored
wire was achieved by rolling or wire draw-
ing methods. The diagram of flux cored
wire fabrication is shown in Fig. 1A, B.
The bead-on-plate technique with flux
cored arc welding (FCAW) was used to de-
posit the layers via an automated system in
which the welding torch was moved back
and forth above the base metal at a constant
speed in a multitrack overlapping process.
The length of the single track was 50 mm,
and the overlap width was 4 mm. To reduce
the effect of base metal on the microstruc-
ture and property of the hardfacing metal,
the hardfacing claddings were welded in
three layers. Table 1 presents the range of
welding conditions, and the hardfacing
equipment and process used in this research
are shown in Fig. 1C, D.
The center of the hardfacing layers was
selected as the analytical region. Speci-
mens were machined into cuboids (10
10 18 mm) by a wire cutting machine for
analysis. The chemical composition of the
layers was determined by a SPECTRO-
MAXx optical emission spectrum (OES),
and the data are listed in Table 2. Both the
horizontal and vertical faces of the speci-
mens were treated with rubdown and pol-
ishing processes, and then etched with 4%
nitric acid. The microstructures of speci-
mens were observed through an Axiovert
200 MAT optical microscope and a Hi-
tachi S4800 field emission scanning elec-
tron microscope (FESEM). The morphol-
ogy, size, and grade of the primary
carbides, and transfer of matrix structures
were measured with Image-Pro Plus Ver-
sion 6.0 software. In addition, 10 OM im-
ages were selected randomly from each
layer in the horizontal direction at 200
magnification to describe the statistical
nature of the maximum diameter and area
of each M
7
C
3
carbide. The inclusion com-
positions were analyzed by an EMAX en-
ergy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS).
D/max-2500/PC X-ray diffraction (XRD)
with Cu K radiation was used to analyze
the constituent phases of the top surface
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Fig. 1 A, B Diagram of flux cored wire fabrication; C hardfacing
equipment; D hardfacing process.
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of analysis layer.
Table 1 FCAW Condition
Parameter Wire Voltage Current Travel Speed Welding Layer
Diameter Layers Thickness
Value 3.2 mm 2224 V 240260 A 300 mmmin
1
3 8 mm
A
B
C D
Zhou Supplement August 2012_Layout 1 7/11/12 3:04 PM Page 230
of the hardfacing layers. A wear resistance
test was conducted on an abrasive belt-
type wear testing machine in dry friction.
SiC of 80 mesh was selected as the abra-
sive material, and the wear velocity of the
abrasive belt was 1.8 10
4
mm/min. Elec-
tronic balance was used in the wear test to
weigh the specimens loss of mass per
hour. To decrease experimental error and
maintain accuracy, six samples of each
chemical composition were prepared for
the wear resistance test.
The NETZSCH STA 449 C differential
scanning calorimeter
(DSC) was used to
study the phase trans-
formation of the hard-
facing metal. The
heating and cooling
rates were 40 and 10C/min, respectively.
The Thermo-Calc software was used for
phase mass fraction calculation of Fe-Cr-
C-Ti alloy with temperature.
Experimental Results and
Discussions
Microstructure and Phase Characteristics
of the Fe-Cr-C Hardfacing Layers
Figure 2 illustrates the three-dimen-
sional microstructure schematic of the Fe-
Cr-C hardfacing layer. The XRD results of
surface layers with and without titanium
are shown in Fig. 3. From the microscope
image of the vertical face, it can be con-
cluded that the specimen can be divided
into the hardfacing zone, dilution zone,
heat-affected zone (HAZ), and substrate
in sequence. With the aid of X-ray diffrac-
tion, the hardfacing microstructure with
free Ti addition is found to consist of two
phases: the primary (Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
and the
eutectic (-Fe+(Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
). Besides, after
Ti was added into the hardfacing layer, TiC
carbide can also be detected in the hard-
facing microstructures. Moreover, the mi-
crostructure of the dilution zone can be an
admixture of -Fe, (Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
and ferrite.
The microstructure of the HAZ consists of
the coarse grain caused by the heat input
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Fig. 4 OM photographs of Fe-Cr-C-Ti layers in horizontal direction with
different titanium contents: A 0 wt-%; B 0.28 wt-%; C 0.63 wt-%;
D 1.17 wt-%.
Fig. 5 Microstructure of Fe-Cr-C-Ti layers with different titanium additions.
Fig. 3 XRD of hardfacing layer with and without titanium contents: A 0 wt-% Ti content; B 0.28 wt-% Ti content.
Table 2 Chemical Compositions of the Hardfacing Layers and Base Metal
Composition (wt-%)
Layer C Cr Mn Si Ti Fe
Base metal (1045) 0.43 0.23 0.65 0.21 bal
Specimen a 3.82 16.35 2.24 2.09 0
Specimen b 3.79 15.97 2.27 2.11 0.28
Specimen c 3.85 16.14 2.18 2.14 0.63 bal
Specimen d 3.77 16.27 2.22 2.03 1.17
A
B
A B
C D
Zhou Supplement August 2012_Layout 1 7/11/12 3:04 PM Page 231
energy, and the substrate contains ferrite.
The solidification morphology and the
growth pattern of the layer are controlled
by the thermal conditions in the weld pool.
The formation and growth of the primary
(Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
carbides occur along their long
axis, which parallels the direction of the
heat flow. The primary (Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
is the
hexagonal-columniation structures. Due
to different angles, it is an acicular or
blade-like morphology on the vertical
faces, and a hexagonal-shaped morphol-
ogy on the horizontal.
Effect of Titanium on Microstructure of
the Fe-Cr-C Hardfacing Layers
For the hardfacing application, the
wear resistance is mainly determined by
the morphology and distribution of pri-
mary (Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
carbides in the horizon-
tal direction. The OM photographs of the
layers in the horizontal direction are
shown in Fig. 4.
As shown, the microstructure of the
hardfacing layers consisted of primary
(Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
carbides and eutectic (-
Fe+(Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
), while the carbides and,
in particular, the primary carbides, are re-
fined gradually with the increase of Ti con-
tent. However, in Fig. 4D, -Fe dendrite
can be observed. Too much carbon is con-
sumed with the formation of TiC domains
when titanium content reaches 1.17 wt-%,
resulting in a change in microstructure of
the alloy from the hypereutectic form to a
hypoeutectic one. Therefore, it is not
proper to increase the titanium content
without limits.
The schematic diagram of the mi-
crostructural changes is illustrated in Fig.
5. As shown, the morphology of primary
(Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
carbides changes from a bulk
form to a refined one and the size of pri-
mary (Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
carbides becomes much
smaller. Besides, matrix microstructures
transform from eutectic (-Fe + (Cr,
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Fig. 6 Quantitative analysis of M
7
C
3
carbide.
Fig. 8 Differential scanning calorimeter curves of Fe-Cr-C alloy with 1.17
Ti content.
Fig. 7 Mass loss and hardness of Fe-Cr-C layer with different titanium con-
tents.
Fig. 9 Phase mass fraction calculation of Fe-Cr-C-Ti alloy with temperature.
Table 3 Planar Lattice Misfit between Orthorhombic Cr
7
C
3
and TiC
Matching Interface (110)
TiC
// (010)
Cr C
7 3
[uvw]
TiC
[001] [110] [111]
[uvw]
Cr C
[001] [100] [101]
7 3
0 0 12.1
d
TiC
(nm) 0.432 0.610 0.747
d
CrC
(nm) 0.453 0.701 0.834
7 3
,% 9.257
- -
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Fe)
7
C
3
) to dendrite -Fe +eutectic (-Fe
+ (Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
).
Because the M
7
C
3
carbide is the major
reinforcing phase in Fe-Cr-C alloy to re-
duce friction and wear, the refinement of
the carbide was analyzed quantitatively,
which is shown in Fig. 6. As shown, the
area of M
7
C
3
carbide is gradually reduced
with the increasing Ti content. When the
Fe-Cr-C alloy is Ti-free, the area of M
7
C
3
carbide is nonuniform from 200 to 900
m
2
. With higher Ti content, the unifor-
mity of M
7
C
3
carbide is enhanced. With
0.28 wt-% Ti content, a majority of M
7
C
3
carbide area are distributed between 200
and 600 m
2
and in the case of 0.63 wt-%
Ti content, the M
7
C
3
carbide area fell to
the range of 100~300 m
2
. As the Ti con-
tent increased to 1.17 wt-%, the area of
M
7
C
3
carbide reduced further, which re-
mained constant at less than 200 m
2
. Be-
sides, the maximum diameter of the M
7
C
3
carbide declined markedly as the Ti con-
tent increased.
Effect of Titanium on Wear Resistance
and Hardness of the Fe-Cr-C Hardfacing
Layers
Figure 7 presents the wear resistance
and hardness of the hardfacing layers. As
illustrated, the wear resistance of the Fe-
Cr-C alloy increases and then declines
with respect to the amount of added Ti.
Meanwhile, the changes in hardness are
associated with the wear resistance be-
havior. When the titanium content is 0.63
wt-%, the Fe-Cr-C hardfacing layer pres-
ents the best wear resistance and the
highest hardness. There are two factors
that lead to the variation in wear-resis-
tance property. TiC carbide, which has a
high micro-hardness of 32003800 HV
(Ref. 15), is present in the Fe-Cr-C alloy
as added Ti. However, the high micro-
hardness of TiC carbide may not work to
contribute to the improvement in wear
resistance. When the Ti content is 1.17
wt-%, the wear resistance behavior is the
worst and the
hardness has re-
duced dramati-
cally. Therefore,
the TiC carbide it-
self may not have
the main role in
the variation of
wear-resistance
behavior.
Nevertheless,
the morphology
and distribution of
M
7
C
3
carbide is
changed when Ti is
added to the Fe-
Cr-C alloy. Partic-
ularly when com-
pared with the
large block car-
bide, it has been
confirmed that the
refined carbide,
which has much
more contact area
with the matrix,
causes a better antistripping ability.
Therefore, the wear-resistance is better
when the carbide is refined and well dis-
tributed. However, the M
7
C
3
carbide is
not only refined but changes its phase
structure when too much Ti is added.
When the Fe-Cr-C alloy contains 1.17 wt-
% Ti, more carbon is consumed to form
TiC carbide. The loss of carbon reduces
the formation of chromium carbide and
causes the hardfacing layer to change from
the hypereutectic microstructure to a hy-
poeutectic one. It is well known that the
wear resistance of hypoeutectic Fe-Cr-C
alloy without coarse primary carbide is not
as good as the hypereutectic alloy, which
would lead to a decline in hardness and re-
duced wear resistance.
Furthermore, the hardness of the hard-
facing metal increases from 58 to 61 HRC
with the increasing titanium content from
0 to 0.63 wt-%, while the hardness de-
creases to 55 HRC when the titanium con-
tent reaches 1.17 wt-%. The variation in
the hardness is consistent with that of the
wear resistance results.
Effect of Titanium on Phase Transforma-
tion of the Fe-Cr-C-Ti Alloy
The differential scanning calorimeter
(DSC) results for the Fe-Cr-C hardfacing
alloy with 1.17 wt-% Ti content are shown
in Fig. 8. There are, respectively, two en-
dothermic peaks in the heat process and
two exothermic peaks in the cooling
process shown in the curves.
The first peak in cooling curve at
1284.6C is due to the formation of M
7
C
3
carbide and -phase. And, then, the liquid
disappears. At lower temperature, the sec-
ond exothermic peak can be seen at
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Fig. 10 Effect of Ti on phase mass fraction calculation of Fe-Cr-C-Ti
alloy.
Fig. 11 FESEM morphology and line scanning results of hardfacing layer.
Fig. 12 Correspondence condition of (110)TiC and (010)Cr
7
C
3
.
Zhou Supplement August 2012_Layout 1 7/11/12 3:04 PM Page 233
764.6C, corresponding to the transforma-
tion from -phase to -phase.
Nevertheless, the MC carbide, whose
melting point is higher, cannot be observed
in the DSC result. Therefore, the computa-
tional thermodynamics method is used to
analyze the phase transformation of the Fe-
Cr-C-Ti alloy during the equilibrium state.
The calculation result is shown in Fig. 9.
The primary phase precipitates from
liquid at 1570C is MC carbide. With the
temperature dropping, the MC content is
almost invariable and remains at about
0.015 wt-%. At 1280C, a small quantity of
M
7
C
3
carbide precipitates from the liq-
uid, and then austenite is expected to form
below 1270C together with some addi-
tional precipitation of M
7
C
3
. At 1260C,
the liquid disappears and the mass frac-
tion of M
7
C
3
still increases with a little re-
duction of austenite. Thereafter, M
7
C
3
starts to be transformed from the austen-
ite. When the temperature falls to 780C,
the transformation of austenite to marten-
site occurs and leads to exotherm in the
cooling process. The temperature of
exothermic peaks in DSC result (Fig. 8) is
close to the calculation, which verifies the
exactness of the calculation model.
The influence of titanium on phase
mass fraction is shown in Fig. 10. The mass
fraction variation of each phase is not ob-
vious during the changes in Ti content.
With Ti content increasing, the mass frac-
tion of MC rises slightly. Meanwhile, the
mass fraction of M
7
C
3
declines because
some carbon has been consumed by the Ti
content to form the initial MC carbide.
Martensite in Fe-Cr-C-Ti alloy ascends
slightly due to the rising of austenite at a
high temperature.
M
7
C
3
Carbide Refinement Mechanism
The results described previously sug-
gest that the improvement in wear resist-
ance is mainly dependent on the refine-
ment of the carbide in Fe-Cr-C-Ti alloy by
added Ti content. As an effective element,
Ti is widely used in metallurgy of iron and
steel for partition to the matrix as well as
modification of the carbides (Ref. 14).
How it works for refining the Cr
7
C
3
car-
bide is discussed in this section.
Figure 11 shows the field emission
scanning electron morphology of the
hardfacing layers. From Fig. 11A, it can be
seen that square particles are surrounded
by (Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
carbides. According to the
EDS analysis and line scanning results of
the square particle shown in Fig. 11B and
D, the main compositions are titanium
and carbon, which indicates that the
square particle is TiC carbide. Besides, the
more clear morphology of the TiC carbide
can be seen in Fig. 11C.
Therefore, it can be said that the re-
fined primary (Cr,Fe)
7
C
3
carbides are re-
lated to TiC carbides. During the hard-
facing solidification process, the faster
cooling rate results in smaller dimensions
and greater number of nuclei. The resist-
ance of heterogeneous nucleation mainly
depends on the interfacial energy be-
tween nucleation basement and crys-
talline phase. And the interfacial energy
is constituted by its chemistry item and
structural one. The chemistry item in-
cludes bond strength, bond energy, and
bond types between atoms, and the struc-
tural item is mainly decided by lattice dis-
tortion energy, which is caused by the
atomic misfit. Misfit is the major factor of
the interfacial energy in higher lattice dis-
tortion energy.
The value of the two-dimensional lat-
tice misfit is used to estimate whether
some inclusions can act as the heteroge-
neous nuclei. A mathematical model of
the two-dimensional lattice misfit is as fol-
lows (Ref. 16):
Where
(hkl)
s
is a low-index plane of the matrix;
[uvw]
s
is a low-index direction in (hkl)
s
;
(hkl)
n
is a low-index plane in the nucleated
solid;
[uvw]
n
is a low-index direction in (hkl)
n
;
d
[uvw]n
is the interatomic spacing along
[uvw]
n
;
d
[uvw]s
is the interatomic spacing along
[uvw]
s
;
is the angle between the [uvw]
s
and
[uvw]
n
(90 deg).
Bramfitt (Ref. 16) proposed a theory
regarding the heterogeneous nucleation
process. The nuclei with <6% is the
most effective, and that with between 6
and 12% is medium effective, while that
with >12% is ineffective.
The crystal lattice of TiC is face-cen-
tered cubic, and its lattice parameter is a
= 0.432 (nm). Orthorhombic Cr
7
C
3
is
one mode of (Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
, and its lattice
parameters are a = 0.701 (nm), b = 1.214
(nm), and c = 0.453 (nm) (Refs. 17, 18).
The atom correspondence condition of
those two planes is shown in Fig. 12. Table
3 lists the calculated result of the lattice
misfit between (110)
TiC
and (001)
Cr7C3
.
It can be seen that the lattice misfit be-
tween (110)
TiC
and (001)
Cr7C3
is 9.257%.
According to Bramfitts two-dimensional
lattice misfit theory, TiC acting as het-
erogeneous nuclei of the Cr
7
C
3
is middle
effective and the primary Cr
7
C
3
carbides
are refined. These results are appropriate
supplements that some works (Ref. 13)
also point out that titanium and/or nio-
bium can refine the microstructure of the
Fe-Cr-C alloy.
Conclusions
A series of Fe-Cr-C hardfacing layers
with varying amounts of titanium was de-
posited by the FCAW process. The mi-
crostructure and wear resistance of the Fe-
Cr-C hardfacing layers were determined
and correlated to the varying titanium
contents. Meanwhile, the carbide refine-
ment mechanism and the phase precipita-
tion rule were discussed. Following are the
major conclusions that can be drawn from
this work:
Microstructures of the hardfacing layers
consisted of the primary (Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
and the eutectic (-Fe+(Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
).
The existence of M
7
C
3
-type carbide
maintains a high hardness and good
wear resistance of the Fe-Cr-C alloy.
Primary (Cr, Fe)
7
C
3
carbides are refined
gradually with the increase in titanium
content. The morphology changes from
a bulk form to a refined one. Mean-
while, the increase in hardness and wear
resistance improve until the titanium
content is increased to 0.63 wt-%. When
the titanium content is 1.17 wt-%, too
much carbon is consumed by titanium
to form TiC carbide. This leads the mi-
crostructure of the Fe-Cr-C alloy to
change from a hypereutectic form to a
hypoeutectic one. In addition, the hard-
ness decreases and wear resistance be-
comes worse. Therefore, it is not proper
to increase the titanium content unlim-
itedly, and the x%Fe-16%Cr-3.8%C
alloy with 0.63 wt-% titanium content is
more appropriate.
The M
7
C
3
carbide refinement is related
to the complex metallurgical reactions.
According to the thermodynamic calcu-
lations, the MC carbide is found to pre-
cipitate prior to the M
7
C
3
carbide. This
provides the MC carbide with the
chance to act as the heterogeneous nu-
clei of M
7
C
3
carbide. Moreover, the lat-
tice misfit between (110)
TiC
and
(010)
Cr7C3
is 9.257%, which indicates
that TiC acting as heterogeneous nuclei
of the Cr
7
C
3
is medium effective due to
Bramfitts theory. Therefore, the M
7
C
3
carbide can be refined.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to express their
gratitude for projects supported by Pro-
gram for 100 excellent talents of Hebei
Province of China (SPRC 021) and key
project of science and technology of Hebei
Province (09215106D).
References
1. Jacuinde, A. B., Correa, A. R., and
Quezada, J. G. 2005. Effect of titanium on the
as-cast microstructure of a 16% chromium
white iron. Materials Science and Engineering A
398(1-2): 297308.

hkl
hkl
d d
s
n
uvw s
i
uvw n
i
( )
( )
=

cos // / d
uvw n
i
i

3 100 (1
1
3
))
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235-s WELDING JOURNAL
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Do You Have a Story to Tell?
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Zhou Supplement August 2012_Layout 1 7/11/12 3:04 PM Page 235
and the IIW. His many awards include the
AWS Honorary Membership, National
Meritorious, Safety and Health, and the
Robotic and Automatic Arc Welding.
Hinrichs is survived by his wife Patricia
and family members. The AWS Milwau-
kee Section has established the John Hin-
richs Memorial Endowment Scholarship.
To contribute to to this memorial, contact
Vicki Pinsky, vpinsky@aws.org, (800/305)
443-9353, ext. 212.
James M. Sawhill Jr.
James M. Sawhill Jr., 71, an AWS Fel-
low, died suddenly June 1 in James City
County, Pa. A native of Baltimore, Md.,
he was a Maryland
state champion
wrestler in 1959 and
ran the New York
City Marathon in a
time of 3:30. He re-
ceived his degree in
materials science
from North Carolina
State University in
Raleigh where he
was named Out-
standing Engineering Senior with a 4.0
average. He received his masters in 1966
from Lehigh University and PhD in ma-
terials engineering from Rensselaer Poly-
technic Institute in 1972. Sawhill, active
with AWS and ASM International, made
numerous contributions to the welding
and metallurgical fields. He received one
patent and published more than 20 tech-
nical papers. Because of his passion for
the children he befriended while working
through Rotary International with the
Refugio de los Sueos in Quito, Ecuador,
the family requests memorials be made to
benefit the Jim Sawhill Memorial Project,
Yorktown Rotary Foundation, PO Box
142, Yorktown,VA 23690. Sawhill is sur-
vived by his wife, Mary, two daughters,
two sisters, and a grandson.
Frank D. Pigage
Frank D. Pigage, 78, died April 6 in
Fort Myers, Fla. He
served on the execu-
tive board of the
AWS Philadelphia
Section for many
years. Pigage was a
welding distributor
sales person for more
than 20 years with E.
R. Joseph Co., in
Norristown, Pa. He
also worked for the
Fisher Tank Co. in Chester, Pa., and BOC
Airco in Reading, Pa. Pigage is survived
by his wife, Phyllis, three sons, four grand-
children, and a sister.
James Sawhill Jr.
Frank Pigage
continued from page 94













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