Navotas Polytechnic College Education Department Bachelor of Secondary Education major in English English 107: The Second Language

Research

A Mini-Research of Learner Autonomy of 2nd Year BSE, English Major Students at Navotas Polytechnic College

Submitted to: Prof. Marco Meduranda

Submitted by: Arbolado, Kevin Clavero, Lucille Junco, Emie Lerona, Argentina Mendoza, Noreen Sese, Shela Mae

October 20, 2012

Levels of Learner Autonomy If we cannot now end our differences, at least we can help make the world safe for diversity. --John F. Kennedy

I.

INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Approximately there are 9 billion people around the world. Each of them is

identified by their uniqueness. There are no two persons in this world with the same finger print. And none of these 9 billion people is same capability as to other. The natural capacity of every organism to adapt to its environment is the reason of its existence. Scientifically speaking, human or Homo Sapiens are born also according to its adaptation to the environment. That’s why human was able to survive for thousands of years. In the field of Sacred Theology and Philosophy, man is born according to Devine’s image, therefore, unique among the other creations. Individual differences serve as our identity to one another. Thus, promotes uniqueness among people of the globe. But there is one question lies within these differences. What is individual differences and how it affects to autonomy of a student/pupil learning ability? Psychology has its own definition; it is the Differential Psychology, studies the ways in which individuals differ in their behavior*. It is a truly remarkable way of nature, to have everyone in this world its own distinctive characteristic. Each one differs in many different ways. Our body structure, height, weight, comprehension, ability, talent, personality, motivation, intelligence, ability, IQ, interests, values, self-concept, selfefficacy, and self-esteem (to name just a few). In the field of Pedagogy and Normal

Institution, we are most concern not only to what is/are the differences of every students/pupils to one another. But, how do their differences affect that acquisition of lesson and the learning of the subject. The peculiarities of every student in learning might be one of the most effective ways to catch the attention of students. Many of these differences might affect both intrinsic and extrinsic, students’ capabilities of learning; most especially in language. In every lesson plan there should be at least three objectives, which cover each domain, namely cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Teachers should develop students’ talents to adopt in every situation. Thus, by promoting a student centered class room environment, the latest trend in 21st century, students will developed not only peculiarities but also their initiative in learning and cooperation; through respect of the individual differences. Education is looking forward to developed many strategies, methodologies and techniques to ensure student learning. But, one’s development lies within its prerogative. With many researches and studies that makes our 21st century unique from other. Student’s capacity to learn and to know is depending to its autonomy- willingness to acquire every thought.

B. THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS I Learning Styles We accepted the mere fact that every human exist in this world is differ from one another, as stated in the introduction. In this last theory, learning styles differ from every individual as Howard Garner’s multiple intelligences and Individual differences according to pedagogy and psychology. Learning styles differ to every individual as per what charter is dominated. Moreover, if the individual autonomy to learn is developed, it will not be beneficial to the student but also lift its self esteem. The following are the learning style to be developed among individual according to the website: http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/ [ The Seven Learning Styles Visual (spatial): You prefer using pictures, images, and spatial understanding. Aural (auditory-musical): You prefer using sound and music. Verbal (linguistic): You prefer using words, both in speech and writing. Physical (kinesthetic): You prefer using your body, hands and sense of touch. Logical (mathematical): You prefer using logic, reasoning and systems. Social (interpersonal): You prefer to learn in groups or with other people. Solitary (intrapersonal): You prefer to work alone and use self-study.

Why Learning Styles? Understand the basis of learning styles Your learning styles have more influence than you may realize. Your preferred styles guide the way you learn. They also change the way

you internally represent experiences, the way you recall information, and even the words you choose. We explore more of these features in this chapter. Research shows us that each learning style uses different parts of the brain. By involving more of the brain during learning, we remember more of what we learn. Researchers using brain-imaging technologies have been able to find out the key areas of the brain responsible for each learning style. ]

[ Memletic Learning style is composed of:    Social – conscious Solitary – subconscious (subtle) Learning style to developed are: o Aural together with Verbal o Visual o Logical o Physical ]

Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Interpersonal intelligence and Intrapersonal Intelligence) by Howard Garner

Among 9 intelligences (Existential, Naturalistic, Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Musical, Bodily-kinesthetic, Linguistic, Spatial, Logical-mathematical) the most applicable to learners’ autonomy are Interpersonal intelligence and Intrapersonal intelligence. Intrapersonal intelligence entails the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations. In Howard Gardner's view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives. And Interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counselors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence.

If an individual be able to cooperate with others, he/she can use effectively the interpersonal intelligence. Some might think that learners’ autonomy is more ego centric in nature. However, we have to understand as well that even though we are promoting the holistic development of an individual. Interpersonal intelligence is still applicable because an individual with well developed autonomy can still adapt to its environment to facilitate what is happening. An individual who can cooperate itself to the environment is an effective individual who can adjust. Because the developed character of is well applicable to any environment.
Society Environment

Individual (inborn capacity to adapt)

Institution (School, country etc.)

Likewise, we cannot disregard the fact that intrapersonal intelligence is the most important among other intelligences, if we talked about learners’ autonomy. It is because this is the intelligence concerning about one’s natural ability to its self. It is a fact that according to many definitions Intrapersonal defined as understands one's own interests, goals. These learners tend to shy away from others. They're in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a strong will, confidence and opinions. They can be taught through independent study and introspection. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy and time. They are the most independent of the learners.

It is like developing a person for whom and what they are. It is developing the individual’s learning capacity by knowing himself and its strength and weakness. It is further developed if an individual learn how to integrate everything about him. Also it is very important to help the student to have internal realization because this intelligence is important for a learner in order to initiate its individual character towards autonomy in learning.

Individuals’ Individual (conscious state) Can be developed only if the teacher helps the students to integrate these two separate being of an individual Character Talent and self reflection/ realization (Subtle state)

However, extrinsic motivation still needs to be integrated by the individual in order to understand that it real purpose which is competent, related and autonomous. Without these purpose these external factors may contribute and regarded as negative implication to ones holistic development. These should be regulated in order to set the autonomy among individual, and also for them to facilitate the said characteristic. In order to find meaningful purpose and under lying positive rewards of these factors that will lead to their strength. Along with their natural capacity, consist of external and internal well motivated as individual of new century.

A Priori Knowledge

God

Recollection

reincarnation

Recollection

Man

A priori knowledge is independent of all particular experiences. According to the Plato, humans are born with their knowledge from the Supreme Being. Because of the continuous complex process of reincarnation, this knowledge is subject for forgetting. Thus, the only to retrieve this given knowledge is through recollection. In order to promote students autonomy

in acquiring knowledge, teachers of 21st can be use this ancient philosophy. Introducing to students the recollection can be helpful as well not only to promote students learning but also to promote a positive attitude towards real life experiences i.e. “working with grace under pressure”. This process of recollection needs the proper guidelines and supervision of the authority in order to come up with the meaningful results. This might cause a misunderstanding among students and the facilitator without the guidelines from people in authority. This idea is the oldest documentation of students’ autonomy, most especially in the field of education. Engaging the student in deep meditation it will help students’ realize the life’s purpose and existence. Through this simple activity the maturity of students mind is promoted. Thus, autonomy of students integrated. This ancient philosophy together with A Posteriori is the root of other studies and researches in the field pedagogy as form of arts and sciences.

Self-Determination Theory –Motivations and Orientations

One of the theories that can associate with students’ autonomy is The SelfDetermination Theory. Actually as what is stated in the frame work, autonomy is just one of other factors affecting the Self-Determination Theory. There are just some important factors that Self-determination Theory has which can give high regards to Autonomy as one of the factors affecting the Self-Determination Theory. The following are elements of autonomy that fulfill the SDT namely, Motivations and Orientations. Motivations generally define as a force, stimulus, or influence to encourage being motivated. There are two kinds of motivation, namely intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation seeks out new possibilities and changes it is closely related to cognitive and social development of a student. This is also the urge of a learner to seek for the growth and maturity. Form of motivation can be attained only if there is realization from an individual in order to cope with environment. This is usually happened when there is a treat that is outside the environment of an individual. However, this motivation would be only use full if the student is clear for what he really want to attain. Also, this is only effective when the external factor will not be considered by the individual as demotivating factor. Therefore, teachers’ support is necessary.

Competition, opportunities, environmental factors etc. are some external factors that affect students. Likewise, internal factors such psychological and physiological problem etc. is internal factors that can affect intrinsic motivation. Individual’s Intrinsic Motivation
Competition Psychological and Physiological etc. Environmental Factors

Opportunities

In contrast to intrinsic motivation, the extrinsic motivations are external factors that force an individual to reach a goal. According to Wikipedia.com, external motivation still needs to internalize in order to integrate to individual’s goal. There are four types of extrinsic motivation according to the article Self-determination Theory of Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-determination_theory).

1. Externally regulated behavior: Is the least autonomous, it is performed because of external demand or possible reward. Such actions can be seen to have an externally perceived locus of control. 2. Introjected regulation of behavior: describes taking on regulations to behavior but not fully accepting said regulations as your own. Deci and Ryan claim such behavior normally represents regulation by contingent self-esteem, citing ego involvement as a classic form of introjections. This is the kind of behavior where people feel motivated to demonstrate ability to maintain self-worth. While this is

internally driven Deci and Ryan say introjected behavior is on an externally perceived locus of control because they aren’t perceived as part of self. 3. Regulation through identification: Is a more autonomy driven form of extrinsic motivation. It involves consciously valuing a goal or regulation so that said action is accepted as personally important. 4. Integrated Regulation: Is the most autonomous kind of extrinsic motivation. Occurring when regulations are fully assimilated with self so they are included in a person's self evaluations and beliefs on personal needs. Because of this, integrated motivations share qualities with intrinsic motivation but are still classified as extrinsic because the goals that are trying to be achieved are for reasons extrinsic to the self, rather than the inherent enjoyment or interest in the task.

Externally regulated behavior (Having high score in test of a student because of luck or because considering a teacher is good)

Introjected regulation of behavior (Showing talents to individuals’ peers and get their respect and attention and regards)

Individual

Regulation through identification Integrated Regulation (Vow to sectarian rules and morals because of the punishment or rewards according to doctrine) (Following rules and regulation that will serve as their identification, in order to accept by others, e.g. racial identifications )

C. OBJECTIVES This research aims to answer the following queries: 1. To further understand the meaning and essence of these differences that lead to student’s autonomy of learning. 2. 3. To offer solution, if there is a problem to student’s autonomy of learning. To know the different learning strategies of students that lead to their autonomy. 4. 5. To see different perspective to students understanding to their autonomy. To let students know their ideas and causes of learning autonomy.

D. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY In effect, successful or expert or intelligent learners have learned how to learn. They have acquired the learning strategies, the knowledge about learning and the attitudes that enable them to use these skills and knowledge confidently, flexibly, appropriately and independently of a teacher. Therefore, they are autonomous. --Wenden (1991) 1. Students  Learners will accept the idea that their own efforts are crucial to progress in learning, thus behave accordingly.  Learners will be conscious in monitoring their won progress and make an effort to use available opportunities to their benefit,.

2. Language Teachers  “Students’ willingness to act independently depends on the level of their motivation and confidence; students’ ability to act independently depends on the level of their knowledge and skills”. Teacher’s can incorporate strategy practice into their techniques especially if the teacher wants to train his/her learners to become autonomous, it is very important to know something about students’ interests, motivations, and learning styles.  To foster learner autonomy, teachers clearly need to develop a sense of responsibility and also, encourage learners to take an active part in making decisions about their learning to prepare them for tasks and help them become more autonomous.

3. School Administrator and Curriculum Planners A major goal of the education is the development of the student as an independent, self-directed life-long learner. In other words, to help students develop as autonomous learners, with the appropriate skills, concepts, and attitudes necessary for their journeys is to promote learner autonomy through the curriculum and make it an important and explicit goal of a learning programme and to integrate the principles of autonomy into: the learning goal; the learning process; tasks; learner strategies; and reflection on learning.

E. SCOPE AND LIMITATION The scopes of this research are the 2nd Year BSE, English Major Students of Navotas Polytechnic College. The limitations of this research are only those students that are currently enrolled at NPC and is having the prescribe study load for a given semester. Only those undergraduate students are allowed to participate in the research.

II.

METHODOLOGY A. RESEARCH DESIGN

1. Descriptive Research, also known as statistical research, describes characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied and gives factual, accurate and systematic data. However, it does not answer questions about eg: how/when/why the characteristics occurred, which is done under analytic research.  Can involve collecting quantitative data that describe events and then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data into patterns that emerge during analysis.  Can describe categories of qualitative research which has the aim of description, and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are.  Uses description as a tool to organize. Often uses visual aids such as graphs and charts to aid the reader.

2. Surveys represent one of the most common types of quantitative, social science research. In survey research, the researcher selects a sample of respondents from a population and administers a standardized questionnaire to them. The questionnaire, or survey, can be a written document that is completed by the person being surveyed, an online questionnaire, a face-to-face interview, or a telephone interview. Using surveys, it is possible to collect data from large or small populations (sometimes referred to as the universe of a study).

Different types of surveys are actually composed of several research techniques, developed by a variety of disciplines. For instance, interview began as a tool primarily for psychologists and anthropologists, while sampling got its start in the field of agricultural economics (Angus and Katona, 1953, p. 15).

Survey research does not belong to any one field and it can be employed by almost any discipline. According to Angus and Katona, "It is this capacity for wide application and broad coverage which gives the survey technique its great usefulness

B. INSTRUMENT Learner Autonomy Questionnaire provided by Mr. Marco Meduranda. C. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS OF THE STUDY 2nd Year BSE, English Major Students at Navotas Polytechnic College

D. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS GIAPEL LEARNING STYLE TEST Result of GIAPEL LEARNING STYLE TEST No. of cases. (N) = 17 students To get the percentage: Formula: X/17= ( _% )

While studying the grammar of a language, it is better…

I identify myself with the following statements

If I have to make an activity to learn a language,

If I have to write a text in a foreign language, I identify myself with the following statements

To study a grammatical topic and to put it in a practices by writing sentences or text. To study a grammatical topic and to carry out the exercises given by the professor To study the same structure in

8 (47%)

7 (41%)

7 (41%)

different texts and to extract the rule To have a source book (grammar) and consult when I (need) want That the professor should give me the rule and many examples That the professor should give me many examples and I try to discover the rule 4 (24%) 5 (29%) 6 (35%)

I don’t like the grammar The grammar should be amusing like a puzzle If it necessary to study grammatical rule, I prefer to do quick exercises of application of that rule I prefer to learn the grammar with simple sentences that are example of that rule I prefer to learn the grammar by using real texts If it necessary to study

1 (0.06%) 4 (24%)

10 (59%)

11 (65%)

4 (24%)

7 (41%)

grammatical rule, I prefer to be allowed to guess and to prove if I have understood the rule though I can make a mistake

I want it to be brief I want to know the result of my performance at once (whether I did well or bad) I want it to be complex and to be allowed to guess the answers I want to have been given all the information from the beginning to do the activity I want to have access to all the information that I need I don’t care that the activity is long, what is important it interests me To spend half an hour for the same activity tires me

4 (24%) 8 (47%)

3 (18%)

10 (59%)

8 (47%)

2 (12%)

0 (0%)

I want it to arouse interest in the

7 (41%)

reader I feel myself uncomfortable when my peers see my writings After writing the text, I read it to assess my performance I need constant approval from the professor while writing the text I take risk by trying out newly learned structures and vocabulary I get bored when I revise my writings To write better texts, I need to be in collaboration with others (sees writing as a collaborative work) I believe that I need external feedback to shape progress I believe that I would be overwhelmed working on the same text 1(0.06%) 5 (29%) 3 (18%) 0 (0%) 3 (18%) 4 (24%) 6 (35%) 2 (12%)

Interpretation of the Gathered Data

Out of 17 respondents, the 2nd Year BSE, English major students of Navotas Polytechnic College prefers the following:

1. While studying the grammar of a language, it is better… Rank 1. (47 %) To study a grammatical topic and to put it in a practices by writing sentences or text Rank 2. (41 %) To study a grammatical topic and to carry out the exercises given by the professor Rank 2. (41 %) To study the same structure in different texts and to extract the rule Rank 3. (35 %) To have a source book (grammar) and consult when I (need) want Rank 4. (29 %) That the professor should give me the rule and many examples Rank 5. (24 %) That the professor should give me many examples and I try to discover the rule

2. I identify myself with the following statements Rank 1. (65 %) I prefer to learn the grammar with simple sentences that are example of that rule Rank 2. (59 %) If it is necessary to study grammatical rule, I prefer to do quick exercises of application of that rule Rank 3. (41%) If it is necessary to study grammatical rule, I prefer to be allowed to guess and to prove if I have understood the rule though I can make a mistake Rank 4. (24 %) The grammar should be amusing like a puzzle Rank 4. (24 %) I prefer to learn the grammar by using real texts Rank 5. (0.06%) I don’t like the grammar

3. If I have to make an activity to learn a language Rank 1. (59 %) I want to have been given all the information from the beginning to do the activity

Rank 2. (47 %) I want to know the result of my performance at once (whether I did well or bad) Rank 2. (47 %) I want to have access to all the information that I need Rank 3. (24%) I want it to be brief Rank 4. (18 %) I want it to be complex and to be allowed to guess the answers Rank 5. (12 %) I don’t care that the activity is long, what is important it interests me Rank 6. (0 %) To spend half an hour for the same activity tires me

4. If I have to write a text in a foreign language, I identify myself with the following statements Rank 1. (41 %) I want it to arouse interest in the reader Rank 2. (35 %) After writing the text, I read it to assess my performance Rank 3. (29 %) I believe that I need external feedback to shape progress Rank 4. (24 %) I need constant approval from the professor while writing the text Rank 5. (18 %) I take risk by trying out newly learned structures and vocabulary Rank 5. (18 %) To write better texts, I need to be in collaboration with others (sees writing as a collaborative work) Rank 6. (12 %) I feel myself uncomfortable when my peers see my writings Rank 7. (0.06 %) I believe that I would be overwhelmed working on the same text Rank 8. (0 %) I get bored when I revise my writings

III.

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

Features of Dependent and Autonomous Learner Dependent learners   rely heavily on the teacher cannot make decisions about their learning  do not know their own    Autonomous learners are self-reliant can make informed decisions

about their learning are aware of their strengths and weaknesses  are able to transfer classroom learning with the real world is  take responsibility for their own learning  possess awareness   plan their learning and set goals are intrinsically motivated by and metalinguistic

strengths and weaknesses  do not connect classroom learning with the real world  think that the teacher

wholly responsible for their learning  do not possess metacognitive and metalinguistic awareness  are not able to plan their learning  need extrinsic motivators 

making progress often reflect on the learning

such as grades or rewards

process and their own progress

do not reflect on how well they are learning and the reasons

possess the ability to self-assess

are not able to assess their learning

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