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Aayush Chopra 09itmg1001cse
My experience of this project has been successful, thanks to the support of many friends & teachers with gratitude. I wish to acknowledge all of them. However, I wish to make special mention of the following. First of all we are thankful of our project guide+ Ms.Usha Batra under whose guideline we were able to complete our project. I am wholeheartedly thankful to her for giving me her value able time & attention & for providing me a systematic way for completing my project in time. I would thank to our H.O.D. Mrs. Prabha Sharma & all other teacher for proving me assistance in various problems encountered during course of my project.
Certificate I certify that this student(Aayush chopra-09ITMG1001CSE) has met the requirements for format contained in the University format manual. Ms. and that this project is suitable for credit to be awarded for the project.Prabha Sharma (HOD-CSE) .
2 3 6 7 10 13 14 15 20 . 3. 8. 6.Table of contents S. Acknowledgment Introduction Characteristics History Service Models Deployment models Architecture Issues Bibliography Topic Page no. 2. 7. 5. 9. 4.No 1.
Cloud application providers strive to give the same or better . software. It has a lot of overlap with software as a service (SaaS). services with your data. Cloud computing entrusts. software. whereby shared resources. End users access cloud based applications through a web browser or a light weight desktop or mobile app while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. typically centralized. and computation on a published application programming interface (API) over a network. and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility over a network.Cloud computing Cloud computing logical diagram Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product.
and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. police and secret intelligence services.service and performance than if the software programs were installed locally on end-user computers. This type of data centre environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence or Converged Infrastructure and shared services. typically bulk data processing such as census. industry and consumer statistics. and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand. with easier manageability and less maintenance. and financial transaction processing. Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications." Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination. Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with: Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of selfmanagement. such as computation and storage. enterprise resource planning. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. such as electricity. with participants being at the same time . Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). storage. Grid computing — A form of distributed and parallel computing. Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources.
as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service. PC. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Virtualization technology allows servers and storage devices to be shared and utilization be increased.g. Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. mobile phone). Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. .This is purported to lower barriers to entry. As infrastructure is off-site. Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources.both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model).. Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control. Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure.
which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. and the lack of security for stored kernels. However. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the . In addition. Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. self-service basis near real-time. without users having to engineer for peak loads.. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. etc. electricity.) o Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) o Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised. Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems. Performance is monitored. increased security-focused resources. Security could improve due to centralization of data. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. etc. Applications can be easily migrated from one physical server to another. Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: o Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used.
provided as a utility. government. who no longer have need for expertise in. and community forms. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility. Details are abstracted from endusers. or control over. online. The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. low cost computers and storage devices as well as the widespread adoption of virtualisation. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. The Challenge of the Computer Utility. autonomic. . and utility computing have led to a tremendous growth in cloud computing. private. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer and can be accessed from different places. Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. illusion of infinite supply)." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. The ubiquitous availability of high capacity networks. History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book. infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. service-oriented architecture.
like most computer networks. which. After the dot-com bubble. and for the federation of clouds. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. resulting to a real-time cloud environment. just to leave room for occasional spikes. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project.The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. In early 2008. By mid-2008. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. OpenNebula. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers. those who use IT services and those who sell them" and observed that organisations are . The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. In the same year. In early 2008. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost.
and networks.switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing. Local area networks including IP addresses are part of the offer.. cloud providers offer computers – as physical or more often as virtual machines –. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) In this most basic cloud service model. platform as a service (PaaS). will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. raw (block) storage. firewalls. and software as a service (SaaS) where IaaS is the most basic and each higher model abstracts from the details of the lower models. load balancers.. IaaS providers supply these resources on demand from their large pools installed in data centers." Service Models Cloud computing providers offer their services according to three fundamental models: Infrastructure as a service (IaaS). For the wide area .
This eliminates the need to install and run the application on the cloud user's own computers simplifying maintenance and support. the underlying compute and storage resources scale automatically to match application demand such that the cloud user does not have to allocate resources manually. cloud users then install operating system images on the machines as well as their application software. Application developers can develop and run their software solutions on a cloud platform without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. To deploy their applications. programming language execution environment. With some PaaS offers. cost will reflect the amount of resources allocated and consumed. This can be achieved by cloning tasks onto multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet the changing work demand. database. and web server. Platform as a Service (PaaS) In the PaaS model. Cloud providers typically bill IaaS services on a utility computing basis. Load balancers distribute the work over the set of virtual machines. This . The cloud users do not manage the cloud infrastructure and platform on which the application is running. cloud providers deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack typically including operating system. the Internet can be used or . that is. cloud providers install and operate application software in the cloud and cloud users access the software from cloud clients. In this model.connectivity. it is the cloud user who is responsible for patching and maintaining the operating systems and application software. What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. Software as a Service (SaaS) In this model.in carrier clouds dedicated virtual private networks can be configured.
cloud applications can be multitenant. It is common to refer to special types of cloud based application software with a similar naming convention: desktop as a service. business process as a service. tablets and smartphones. Many cloud applications do not require specific software on the client and instead use a web browser to interact with the cloud application. Some cloud applications. With Ajax and HTML5 these Web user interfaces can achieve a similar or even better look and feel as native applications. such as desktop computers.cloud clients . Examples are thin clients and the browser-based Chromebook. The pricing model for SaaS applications is typically a monthly or yearly flat fee per user. .g. Some of these devices . laptops. Some legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screensharing technology. however. that is. Cloud clients Users access cloud computing using networked client devices. any machine serves more than one cloud user organization. communication as a service. Test Environment as a Service..rely on cloud computing for all or a majority of their applications so as to be essentially useless without it. To accomodate a large number of cloud users. support specific client software dedicated to these applications (e. virtual desktop clients and most email clients).process is transparent to the cloud user who sees only a single access point.
Hybrid cloud . so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized. compliance. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.). Google etc owns all Infrastructure at their Data Center and the access will be through Internet mode only.Deployment models Cloud computing types Public cloud Applications. jurisdiction. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model. No direct connectivity proposed in Public Cloud Architecture. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud). and other resources are made available to the general public by a service provider. etc. storage. Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. There are limited service providers like Microsoft.
Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. Elastic provision implies intelligence in the use of tight or loose coupling as applied to mechanisms such as these and others. . Architecture Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud architecture. build. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. Private cloud Private cloud is cloud infrastructure operated solely for a single organization. They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". community or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together.
lawfully or unlawfully. thus. or in the same data center or even within the same provider's cloud. working with AT&T. security. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. platform. risk. The point is that because of CSP operations. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. Instances such as the secret NSA program. information. developing. performance. can monitor at will. While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal .The Intercloud The Intercloud is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds" and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. Issues Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control. and quality engineering. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. customer or tenant data may not remain on the same system. software. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. and Verizon. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. standardisation. web. and governance in conceiving. This can lead to legal concerns over jurisdiction. Using a cloud service provider (CSP) can complicate privacy of data because of the extent to which virtualization for cloud processing (virtual machines) and cloud storage are used to implement cloud service . Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing.
users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA.environment. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. 2011 defining how federal agencies should use FedRAMP.S. may access the data that is on the cloud. Providers typically make this information available on request. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info. Federal CIO Steven VanRoekel issued a memorandum to federal agency Chief Information Officers on December 8. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA" and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance. and SOX in the United States. FedRAMP consists of a subset of NIST Special Publication 800-53 security controls specifically selected to provide protection in cloud environments. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. U. HIPAA. Federal Agencies have been directed by the Office of Management and Budget to use a process called FedRAMP (Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program) to assess and authorize cloud products and services. A subset has . Many providers also obtain a SAS 70 Type II audit." Cloud computing poses privacy concerns because the service provider at any point in time. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. under non-disclosure agreement.
The JAB is responsible for establishing accreditation standards for 3rd party organizations who will perform the assessments of cloud solutions. In November 2007. The federal agency consuming the service will still have the final responsibility for final authority to operate. Employment By the year 2015. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. The FedRAMP program has also established a Joint Acceditation Board (JAB) consisting of Chief Information Officers from DoD.been defined for the FIPS 199 low categorization and the FIPS 199 moderate categorization. cloud computing may contribute to the creation of two million computerized jobs worldwide. Open standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically welldocumented (often under a Creative Commons license) but also . there may be a significant increase in new jobs as this technology allows to distribute and store data across various servers. Worldwide. The JAB will also review authorization packages and may grant provisional authorization (to operate). everything from trademark infringement.. Open source Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. This increase in jobs is expect to be long-term rather than short-term. DHS and GSA. Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework. certain legal issues arise.
case of "applied security" and that similar security principles that apply in shared multi-user mainframe security models apply with cloud security. The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. Security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. accountability. An alternative perspective on the topic of cloud security is that this is but another. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model can differ widely from those of traditional architectures. bug exploitation. privacy. Physical control of the Private Cloud equipment is more secure than having the equipment off site and under someone else’s control. management console security. malicious insiders. Security issues have been categorised into sensitive data access. although quite broad. . recovery. private or public. and multi-tenancy issues. Physical control and the ability to visually inspect the data links and access ports is required in order to ensure data links are not compromised. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services. from cryptography. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services.unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors' unease surrounding the external management of security-based services. account control. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability. that promote external management of provided services. data segregation. Solutions to various cloud security issues vary. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model.
are trying to attract cloud computing data centers. to use of multiple cloud providers. a small compromise on energy consumption reduction could result in high carbon footprint reduction. standardisation of APIs. a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the malware. Citing the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. in the case of distributed clouds over data centers with different source of energies including renewable source of energies. Sweden and Switzerland. there is no published study to substantiate this assumption.) Thus countries with favorable conditions. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services. However. Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". Abuse As with privately purchased hardware. In 2009. Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energy-aware scheduling and server consolidation. and improving virtual machine support and legal support. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers. crackers posing as legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes. such as Finland. the environmental effects will be more moderate. . In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available.particularly public key infrastructure (PKI).
ibm.BIBLIOGRAPHY Wikipedia http://en.com/cloud-computing/us/en/ .wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing http://www.
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