TIGHT BINDING BOOK

CO
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> < OU164169 > DO ^

UJ

OSMAN1A UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
Call No.

b$0 '//^/

Accession No.

This
last

book should be returned on or before the date

marked below.

PUBLISHER'S

In
Sjt. J.

this

book

are

collected

the

speeches

of

C.

Kumarappa

dealing with

certain
is

aspects

of Rural

Re-construction.

The Foreword

from the
of the

pen

of

Sjt.

Babu Rajendra Prasad r President
Congress
(

Indian

National
is

4.8th

session).
all

Rural

Re -construction

nowadays attracting

the political
to

orces in the country.

Government seem
originator
of

compete
All India

with

Gandhijee,

the

the

Village Industries Association in the matter of village
uplift*

and

all

the political

parties in the

country

are thinking in terms of Rural Re- construction.
long,
it

Ere
pro-

will

become

the

common plank
parties.

in

the

gramme

of the various political

Time and

tide have

wrought a change in the
is

counsels of the

Government and that
are to-day

why, perhaps, the Government

entering

the lists with the Congress for

Rural Re construction.

Whatever be the motives

of

men and

parties, the angle of vision of the

political

minded Indians

of

all

complexions has undergone a
in the

welcome change which,

immediate future

pro*

grammes

for village uplift, will be placed before the

country for acceptance*
nutshell the

This book would give

in a

main ideas

about Rural Reconstruction

and with that
their

as the basis
for

leaders

may

think out

programmes
of

improving
with

the villages in the
better

way

providing

them

food, better

clothing,

better housing, better air

and water, better

education

and

better

communications.. .so that the
Rural
well

vast masses
at
least

residing in the

Areas

"creature

comforts''
offer

may have The provided,
thanks to
all

publishers

would

their grateful

those that helped
of the speeches

them

to bring

out this collection

and writings

of Sjt, J. C,

Kumarappa

on the subject.

My
which

sole object in compiling this

book has been work
to

to present matters connected with

Rural uplift
guide

might serve

as an

infallible

my

countrymen.

West

Kovvur, vur, Godavari avari

\

Dt., I ,
f |

(South India) 28th Dec. 1935c. 1935.

SANIVARAPU SUBBARAO,

/

Note;

I tender

my

apology

to the readers for the

presence of

many

mistakes
is

found

throughout

the

book,

The Errata given
I will see that all

not complete,

In the

next edition

mistakes

are corrected,

CONTENTS
Page.

Foreword by Babu Rajendra Prasad.
1.

The Inaugral

Address for the Rural
...

Re-construction Training Classes.
2.

i

Speech

at the Industrial Exhibition.

...

23

3.

A

talk to the

Andhra Rural Worker's
'

Conference.
4.

...

29

Reply

to

an

address of

Welcome

at
...

Rajahmundry.
5.

34
38

An

Interview
of Capitalism.

...

6.

The Tyranny

...

43 46

'/.

Internationalism and Ahimsa.

...

8.

Standardised production and

its evils;
...

Man:
9.

Slave to Machine.
of

50

What type we have ?

economic

order

shall
5<f

10.

"The Land
Ahimsa

of Villages

''

...

65
73

n.

in the

Economic World.

...

ERRATA
Page.
Line.
For,

Read

as.

townsfolk
fairly

tremendous havoc
should

was that
separates milk
butter.
fro...

In

like

manner

centralised

production separates

prove
except as
in

that

gallery

Matar
Cornering
i

make them
very

betle r

knows
purchase world
or that

2
Page.
Line.
For.

Read

as.

FOREWORD
India
transition.

is

passing through a period of Our thoughts and ideas are

in the

melting pot.

New

values are in

Old things and notions are changing fast. There is
the process of being evolvep.

a clear conflict in

ideals

visible

among

our people. Mahatma Gandhi has worked a revolution in our social and political
outlook.

He

has a

philosophy

of

life

which

is

different in

many
all his

current notions and

from activities and
respects
to

programmes
fundamentals

are
to

traceable

certain
fast.

which

he

holds

The

cult of

the spinning

wheel and the

revival of village industries are also based

on the same fundamentals. This little book is a collection of some of the speeches and writings of Sjt. J. C. Kumarappa
relating to the aims, objects

and methods

of

work

of the All India Village Indus-

tries

Association,

industrious

which Organiser and
of

he

is

the

The author has

Secretary. dealt with the subject in

a popular and yet comprehensive manner and may safely be taken as expressing
in his

He

is

the thoughts of Gandhiji. particularly fitted to deal with the

own way

subject not only by reason of the official

position he holds, but also

by reason of

study he brings to bear on any subject he takes up and his close association with Gandhiji in
critical

the careful and

this

work.

I

have no doubt
food

the reader

will get

much

for thought in these

pages.

Wardha,
the 2srd Dec.

\
'sS. )

RAJENDRA PRASAD.

An

Address delivered on the occasion of the Opening of the classes for Training Rural
Reconstruction

Workers in the Ramadas
Training
Institute
1931.

Co-operative
Ltd.

Rajahmundry

Friends,

One
is

of

the most
are

hopeful signs in India
in

to-day

that

people

thinking

terms

of

villages.

Since we came

into contact

with the West
is

we had

almost

forgotten
ninty

that

India
of

a land

of villages.
is

Nearly

percent
three

the

population

rural,

and over
producers.

seventy

percent are

raw

materials

One
root

of the great differences
is

between the

Western civilization and ours
takes V
its

that our civilization
life

from
of
in

rural
is

while

in

the

West
courts
$jp#r

the

mode

living

fashioned

by royal
life

situated

large

cities.

The

of

court tiickles

down from

the kings to the

feudal

lords and from the feudal lords to the squire and from the

squire to the yeomen.

Even in the republican days
city that called
is

of

ancient Greece

it

was the

the tune.

Therefore, to this day* Western civilization
civilization.

an urban

In India the centre of

life

has always

been the village.

Though we have had

monarchy

who have
have

lived in splendour in cities, yet the villages

never

yielded

up

their

independence.
the

The
and
and
and
were

monarch
patron
of

has
arts

always

been
culture.

only

defender

and

The

village ideal
all,

simplicity of life

commanded
sacred.

the respect of

farming was

held

Towns and
yet unknown.

cities

there only as distributing agents of village

products.

Urban

arrogance

was

as

With the

contact of the West, those of

us

who

call ourselves

educated gave up our
to super

line of evolution

and attempted

impose

Western

urban

civilization on the
result is the

rural foundation of India;

and the
of

mess

we

are

in.

The purpose
appears to

opening rural reconstructo be a clear

tion classes
of

me

indication

the recognization that we had taken

the

wrong

turning and of the desire to build
plan.

afresh on the old

In attempting to

rebuild,

it

is

incumbent on us

to study the plans laid

down by
I

the original builders.
specifications

Unless we
efforts will

follow

closely

their

our

be

in vain.

do not

mean

here that

we should follow
done
in the past,

slavishly everything
right or wrong.

that has been

While we accept
should
institutions

their foundation, the

architecture

be

ours.

Study of our past history
the fact that they

and

reveals

aimed at.**

1.

Assuring to every i, Dividual the minim -a of subsistence. This is shown by the mtthod of payment in kind to the artisans.

2.

Avoiding competition. This idea runs through
all

our

social

organization,

such

as the

caste system, the joint family system etc.
3.

Promoting

co-operation*

This

is

revealed

by the organization of the village unit*
4.

Levelling

down

inequalities in wealth.

The

Joint family sj^stem
tributor to this idea.
5.

has

been a great con-

Strengthening the solidarity of social life. This is indicated by the caste system,
though at present, we see
rated part~~of
it.

only the degene-

6.

Placing society on an idealistic and intellecand not on an economic basis. tual basis,

This
first

is

brought

out

by

the fact that the

lectuals rather than
rich the king

place in society was ^iven to the intelHowever to the king.

might have been he paid his homage to the itinerant and penniless sage
his
court.

at
7.

Glorifying

the idea of

service,

rather than

the tyranny

associated with

acquisition of

property.

We
to

notice this in

the

reverence

attached
possession.

renunciation

rather

than

to

In striking
the
is

contrast to these ideals, which formed
of our
civilization,
life

foundation

Western

society

founded on the

Court
it

as

mentioned already,
the
multiplicity of
life.

with the result

that

glorifies

possessions, rather than

simplicity of
be,

However
as he

ignorant

the person
it

may

as

long

has

wealth
it

makes

little

difference

how
if

he came by

he can

command
it

respect and

he has not got
rank, he

the claim by

reason of birth

to the first

can obtain
whole

by being

ennobled by the king.
organization
pivots

The
on
to

Western

economic

competition, which has encouraged

individualism
ties.

the extent our social

of even
life
is

weakening

family

While
public

maintained

by

force
to

of

opinion and

sanction, the
civil

West has

depend on

the force of

and criminal law
individual
life

to maintain order

and

regulate

the

of

the

citizen.
is

Unfortunately

the

glamour

of

power
in the

which

a

concomitanj: of Society as organised

West has

caught our

imagination and

we have

forsaken the

foundation laid

on the rock, to build

on sand.

The
and

Brahmin has abandoned the

privilege of learning

teaching and has taken
exploit the

to the of

profession of law to

quarrelsomeness
is

human

nature.

The

Kshatriya
his

fraternising
in

with the foreigner

to hold

own country-men

bondage

for pecuniary gains.

The Vaisya has
market

entered the international speculative

to the ruin of fcur farmer.

The Sudras have
menial departments
better themselves

joined Government service in the
or

have embraced

Christianity to

and have thus become alienated

from their country-

men by adopting

in toto

foreign ideals.

We
if

have thus fallen

we

are

principles

away from our ideals, and we have to regain the to rebuild again, Our degenethat guided our forefathers.
largely

ration js

due

to the

deterioration

in our

national character, and

to selfishness in individuals.

The Brahmin who was
custodian of the purity

originally intended to be the
of the race

and the
these
to

trustee

of national culture, misappropriated

privileges

and has contrived by various means
segregated from
his

keep himself
these

fellow-being.

By

means

the Brahmins are rapidly degenerating
tion of responsibility

from a posia

and leadership into

co*vnu-

nity of cooks.

It

is

similar to the case of a medical

man who abandons

his profession to avoid contagious

or infectious germs from the sick people and confines

6
himself in a germproof
of relieving society of
cell.

Such a verson, instead
is

danger,
to

a parasite himself.

Thus before

we begin

reform society we should
for

fully appreciate the purposes

which the

institu-

tions have been established in the past.

Therefore
should be a
I

a careful study of

our old institutions

prerequisite to courses in rural reconstruction.
particularly glad
to notice

was

from your syllabus that a
is

certain

amount

of

emphasis

laid on this aspect of

the training proposed to be given in this institution.
I

notice also that a
institutions

comparative
organizations

study
in

is

intended

of

and

countries like

Germany, Denmark, Italy etc. It must be remembered that however commendable a particular organization

may
cannot

be in a given
be

country

such

an organization
to

satisfactorily

transplanted

another

country unless the

environment and the human elethe two
countries.

ment are

identical in
for
is

What
ideal

is

good enough Russia; what
muster
in

America

cannot

be the

for

good enough

for Italy will not pass
less suit our

England, and 'much

purposes.

I

shall not

take up

your time

by going into a

detail examination of misfits

which have been brought
But
I

over bodily

into

this country.

shall content

myself to

drawing

your

attention

to

one

or

two

matters uhich bring our this neglect of rural interest
in the

finances of
are
is

the

Government.

While

large
of tax-

amounts
ation

drawn from the villages by way
returned
to

little

them by way
villages

of
is

benefits*

Money

that

is

drawn from the

mostly

spent on towns and cities,

while there are not even

mud
our

tracks in

villages,

asphalted

and tarred roads

are provided for in

towns and their vicinity.
to

While

untouchable* brethern have
in

draw water from
tanks,

cesspools and ditches dug

the dry beds of
for in pipes

chlorinated water

is

provided
in

in^owns
primary

and

cities.
is

While

most

of
of,

the villages

education

not even heard

Universities, colleges
for

and high
According

schools are
to our

provided

the townsfolk
of villages

ancient

organization

each village was self-contained.
villages

The people
for

of

the

co~operted

in

providing

the

needs of
in council

the village.

The

elders of the village sat

and

settled disputes.

These
by

local

activities

helped

to develop their character

placing

responsibility
to

on their shoulders.
lost

At present, we

appear

have
by

a large proportion of the

initiative displayed

our village people in the past.

For decades, our villages have been disintegrated
as regards
their

administration.

There

is

a great

8

deal said in favour

of,

as well

as

against, village
to

Panchayats.

These institutions helped

keep public

affairs in the forefront.

Since they lost in power the

administration of Justice has

become very expensive
lost

and slow,

and the villages have

prestige.

At

one time each village
by
its

was a republic presided over
notice from

Panchayat.

I

the

syllabus,
in

as

well as from the report of the

work done

the past,
effort

that you

are

concentrating

considerable
In this
the
rules

in

resuscitating village Panchayats.
it

connection,

will

be

interesting to quote

suggested

by Gandhiji for the guidance of village workers,

1.

Panchayat

should, in the

first

instance,

be

elected by a public

meeting, called for the

purpose beat to drum,
2.

It

should

be recommended

by

the Tahsil

committee.

3.

Such

Panchayat

should

have

no criminal

jurisdiction.
It

4.

may

try

civil

suits,

if

the

parties to

them
5.

refer their disputes

to

the Panchayatt
refer any,

No

one

should be

compelled to

matter to the Panchayat.

(),

No Panchayat
impose
fines;

should have
the
its

any authority to
behind
its civil

sanction

decrees -being
impartiality

moral
willing

authority,

strict

and

obedience

of the

parties concerned.
y.

There should *be no social
for the time being.

or other boycott

8.

Every Panchayat

will

be expected to attend to:-

(a)

The

education

of

boys

and

girls

in its

village,
(b)
(c)

Its sanitation.

Its

medical needs.
cleanliness
of

(d)

The

upkeep and wells and tanks.
of

village

(e)

The upHft

and the daily

wants of the

so called untouchables.
g.

A Panchayat

that

fails,

without just cause,

to attend to the requirements

mentioned in

clause 8 within six months of its election, or
fails

otherwise

to retain

the

good-will of

the villagers or

stands

self-condemned for
be disbanded and

any

other

cause

may
its

another elected in

place*

10
Gandhi ji goes
impose
fine or

on to

remark "The disability
is

to

social boycott

a necessity

of the

case in the

initial

stages.

Social boycott in villages

has been

found to be a

dangerous

weapon

in the

hands of ignorant and unscrupulous men.
of fines

Imposition

too

may

lead to

mischief
a

and defeat the
is

very end in view.
pular and increases

Where
its

Panchayat

really po-

popularity by the constructive
clause 8,
it

work
its

of the kinds suggested in

will find

judgment and
moral prestige,
any

authority

respected by
surely
is

reason of

its

and

that

the greatest

sanction

one can

possess,

and

of

which one

cannot be deprived."

The
concerned

central
itself

government
with

of

those days merely

defence

and internal order.
were carried out by

Other functions of
officers

Government
intimate

who had an
Itt

knowledge of the local

needs.
of the

this again

we defer widely from democracy
rule often signifies a rule
in effect,

West.

Democratic

ol the majority and,

the rule

of the

few

who

control the finances and public opinion.

It is a

mild form of
believing that

tyranny which opiates
it

the public into
it

governs

itself,

while in reality,
few.

is

being governed by the interested

11

When we speak
cracy
is

of

Swaraj, this

kind of demo-

farthest from our view.

We

do not want any

form of tyranny of one class over another, of capital
over working
classes or
classes or a fascism
of

the

middle

Bolshevism

of the proletariate.

An

ideal
it

system of Government should have
all

a place in

for

sorts

and

conditions of people.
the

This was

in a

measure achieved under

system which regulated

our society until the greed of
ential classes

power of a few
of

influ*

introduced the idea

status into the

caste system which has brought to a

head impurities
problem

inherent in such a society in the nauseating
of untouchability.

As the unit of

Indian society has

always been a village,
at political,

any reconstruction that aims

social

and

economic
its

solidarity of

the

country, has to have as

central purpose the rebuil-

ding of this unit, and training workers with this
in view, is a true

end
each

preparation

for Swaraj.
its

If

village

is

educated into looking after

own

affairs,

no power
long as

on earth can
are unable to

hold

it

in

slavery,

but as

we

manage our
any one

own

affairs

we

leave the

door open
of

for

to step

in

with

high

pretences

trusteeship and

service to the

country, and walk

away with the taxes as

the consi*

deration for "services" rendered,

In these

parts

considerable

amount

of public

work, such as building, village communication, drainages, improving

tanks,

and

organizing

Panchayats
I

appears
received
.

to
I

have

been done

from

reports

have

have been anxious

to visit these places

before to-day, but unfortunately

my

other engagements
so;

have prevented
hoping that
it

me
will

from

doing

but

I

am
am
I

still

be possible for

me

to see these
I

activities for myself, in the next few days

glad
libe-

to notice that the
rally

Government has given

fy^'yfcr

towards the

cost of these activities.
still
if

should

have been happier
given

the

Government had not
and
yet

any

grant
it

whatever,
out

the

people

had carried
themselves.
tituted

all

by

co-operation
it

amongst
is

Because, the Government, as
is
it

cons-

to-day,
it

an

irresponsible

Government,

whatever

giv^s,

gives with a patronizing air and

hopes by

its

paltry contribution, to hold the receiver

under an obligation and thus

control his

activities,

and

restrict his

freedom.

In this way,

many

of our

schools, colleges

and

other public

institutions

have

had

a nose-string put on to
I

them under the guise df
grant 3'ou

a grant.
will not

trust

that the

have received
Otherwise, the

curb

your

independence.

grants would be public bribes to buy out your birthright.

Many

a Christian mission

has had

its

shut because of having taken these bribes.

We
may

hope
take

the day

is

not far

off

when the
yet,

people

government grants and

retain their self-respect.

As long
finances

as,

there

is

no

popular

control over the

of

the

government,

any

grant

from at

irresponsible executive government savours of charitji

and favours conferred,
in our village folks the
is

It is very

necessary to develop

feeling that the government

their servant

and the

has,

belongs to

the people.

money that the government And they should be
the

taught to take a keen
their

interest in

way

in

which

own money

is

being spent.
it

The people
full

of eact
returr
II

village should see to
for the

that they get a

money they have

paid by way
rupees

of taxes.

a village pays

twenty-thousand
etc.,
it

by way
medical

of

land-revenue, incometax

should receive by waj
ai'd,

of services such as, schools, sanitation,

water supply, postal service
thirds of that amount, that

etc.,
is,

at least

about two-

about

fourteen thou-

sand rupees. At present, hardly a tenth is spent on the village itself. It will be the duty of the workers

who go

forth trained

from this institution to

install

a sense of

'responsibility

in the village people.

Tc
like

pay taxes when you receive
giving
protest,

no return for
to a

it,

is

over your
it

property

robber

without a
I see

is

cowardice and lack of manliness.

14
in

your
is

syllabus a

little

information

on

public

finance

included. I should like to see a little

more
of

emphasis
Public
citizen,

given

to
is

this

subject.

A knowledge

Finance

a

necessary

equipment

for every

and much

more so

to village reconstruction

workers.

It

is

said, variety

is

the spice of

life.

This
life

is

true even in the organization of the

economic

of

a nation.
fairly

Until the eighteenth century, India

had

a

sound

co-ordination between

the

arts, crafts,

agriculture,

and

industries,

India's wealth, which

attracted the

cupidity of other nations, was largely

due

to this co-ordination,

which has now been upset

by the advent

of

machinery

and the lack

of will in

the Government to aid in the adjustment consequent

on the advent of mechanical power,
been that a larger percentage

The

result

has

of the population has
agriculture.

had

to be

accommodated by

With the
as well
else

extention of cultivation, the yield
as per head, has gone down.
If

per acre,

nothing

had
With

happened,

this in

itself,

would

have been

sufficient

reason to account for poverty in our country.

the disappearance of arts and crafts the earning per

'head would have also necessarily gone down as

it

is

a shifting from a skilled industry to unskilled labour.

15
In addition to
especially
tariff

this,

machine made goods
aided

of the

West,

cotton- textiles,

by

the protective

of

Great

Britain,

found their

way

into the

villages

and displaced cottage industries which occuour farmers, leading to from

pied the spare time of
thirty to fifty percent

underemployment.
to

Our farmers

more used
little

to barter

economy than
that

realized

them.

the damage They enjoyed, what

money economy, was being done to
to be, leisure,
at

appeared

but what turned out to be underemployment

the

cost of their capital by giving up their cottage industries,

and obtaining their clothing, from foreign

mills.

A Government which
the people,

had an eye

for the welfare of

could

have

introduced

or encouraged
of ones

other cottage

industries to take

the place

supplanted by machinery.

This had not been done,
to the place

hence

it

is,

we have

to

go back

where

we bifurcated
over again,
afay provision
I

on to the wrong do not see from has been

path and
your
to

start all

syllabus that

made

equip

your rural

workers with a knowledge of some cottage industries.
It

may be

that the

syllabus I
I

have seen

is

not a

comprehensive one, for

hardly

think that such an

important subject would bave been over-looked. Even
our national flag
is

a

constant reminder of the need
if

for cottage industries,

we

are to have Swaraj.

If,

by any chance,
trust,

this subject
will

has been overlooked,
in rectifying the

I

no time

be lost

mistake.

As regards,
part of
India,
I

the agricultural

conditions

in this

am

hardly

qualified

to offer

any

suggestions apart
rule the

from remarking

that as a general

tendency of our

farmer has

been to shift

towards money crops, to the detriment of food crops. He has been tempted by the chances afforded by
the international market,
little

realizing

the speculayears, this

tive character of such market.

Of recent

change over

to the

money

crops
of

has also harmed
the Government.
part to the
sufficient

I

him through the exchange policy have already referred in an
in yield per acre.
is

earlier

decrease

The

lack of

manure

also a contributory

cause,

The farmer

should be taught to

make

the best use of the farm

yard manure by the simple process of careful preserWe are losing a considerable amount of vation.
fertilizers

by the export of oilseeds and animal bones

not to mention the prejudice against nightsoil.

No

training of a Rural worker is

com^kte

with-

out a course in rural

Economics.

Thq

literature on\

and tbi-s subject available at present, is both meagre Most of the' publication* -have beta one sided.
<

17
either

by

Government

servants

or

undertaken

by

students under the supervision of professors in govern-

ment

colleges,
to

know how

Every worker in rural area should make an economic survey of his field.

No
of

such practical training appears to be contemplaRural work does not merely consist ted at present. road bunding sanitation, medical aid, and provi-

ding libraries.
vitally

The

economic

life

of

a

village is

connected with the welfare of the people, and

every

worker

who

wishes

to

know
be able

the economic
to

conditions of
for himbelf the

his area should

diagnose
in

cause of

difficulties

which stand

the way of economic progress of the village.
of one or two villages

A

survey

undertaken under the superviperiod under training,
to the student in giving

sion of a teacher

during the

would be

useful both

him

confidence in his work and to the public by sunnlving
it

with first-hand information.

One
sense of

of our great

weakness

is

the

lack of a

communal cleanliness. As regards personal we could stand comparison with any cleanliness, But when it comes to a question of sanitanation.
tion,

we pay very

little

regard to the

rights

of our

neighbours. Sanitation
intensive

is

a problem in which sustained
to

propaganda has

be carried on,

if

we are

18
to

make

our villages

fit

habitation for human-beings.

Few months
appeared
section of the

ago, considerable

amount
the

of criticism

in the

papers,

because

third class
built far

Bomhay

Central Station
trui

was

away from the
class passengers

platform, while

first

and second

had easy access

to the trains.

Any

one who has had any intimate knowledge of the ways
of the third A*

class passengers

cannot reasonably be
Until we train

expected to support
our people into
of health

such criticism.

observing the* elementary principles
it

and hygiene,

is

most

unreasonable to
to observe

expect persons who have been brought up

public decency and under -tand something of bacterio-

logy to feel
bettle
leaf

comfortable with
juice all

persons

who

will spit

round and

clear their throats

are only due to ignorance
for others.
It

and noses wherever, they happen to be. These habits and lack of consideration

may

be

difficult to
if

reform the present

grown up
is

generation, but
in

the younger generation

taken

hand, we shall not be long in seeing the
trouble taken*
I

benefits of the

am

glad to notice

that this

institution is alive to the
If

need of latrines
be educated into

in villages.

the farmers could
as

using

night

soil

manure f
soil

considerable fertility

could be
resources*

added

to the

with

even the present
with

Prejudices die-hard; but,

continued

19
efforts these difficulties could

be overcome.
is

Lack

ot

attention to elementary rules of hygiene

one of the

chief reasons for the high mortality in a country like

ours

blessed with

plenty of

fresh air

and purifying

sunlight.

It is^a

happy
of
first

idea to
aid and

give

the

students some
deal

knowledge
with

few medicines to

common
power.

ailments.

Even

simple

avoidable

disease like malaria has caused a tremendous

W^Sn

human

If

even these simple
it

diseases could

be tackled by your workers,

will

be a great service

to the people of the villages.

It is

very essential that village industries should
first

receive the

support by the people of the village,

and what cannot
brought
in

be

made

in the

village should be

from other parts of India.
in

This

spirit of

Swadeshi should be inculcated

every man,

woman
and

and child.
starvation
in

While there
the

is

so

much

poverty

country we cannot take the bread
it

of our brethren

and give

to foreigner

who

i*

much

better of.

Although
our classes

I

have

mentioned

in

passing that

all

and castes should

be treated as equal f
is

yet, the case for the

untouchables

so strong thai

it

needs

special

mention.

As

long:

as we

hold a

section of our brethern to be not

worthy

of contact,

we do not deserve
nations,
visitation

to be

treated differently by other

Our present political bondage is a righteous of Gods judgment on a people who have
Until

used their privileges to enslave their brethren.
this blot is

removed from amongst

us in vain shall

we

cry for Swaraj.

For with the same measure that
shall

we mete

withal

it

be measured

to us again.

In some places the treatment

of the untouchables is

worse
I

even than
seen

the

treatment
troughs

given

to animals'

have

beautiful

built for

cattle in

villages and several wells

for the caste

people, while,

the untouchables had to get their water from ditches

dug

in the

ground and into

which water

from the
be
the

cattle well

was allowed
country

to run.

What

will

state of the

given

over into

the hands of

people who could so t)rannise over their own brethern!

We
If

are

supposed

to

be a religiously minded nation.
in

you do not see God
religiosity
is

the needs of our

brethern

our

pure humbug.

A Brahmin who
to call

hesitate to touch an cast of
society

untouchable, 5**>uld be an outit

and

is

a

blasphemy
lays

him

a priest. True Brahmin
in service

is

he who
in

down

his life

of

God
the

as

revealed

the needs of the

helpless

and

down-trodden.

In this sense, I

21
sincerely trust that every one of your trained workers
will

be a Brahmin.

At

this stage
is

of our country's

history our

greatest need

for workers,

who

will

spread themselves out into the villages,
our people
fallen.

and awaken
they have
for

from the

stupor into
a

which

In laying

down

programme
the

village

volunteers,

Gandhiji

suggests

following as the

duty of a volunteer.

1.

He may
'

gather the village children and teach

them Takli and carding and give them a
knowledge
purpose a
evolved.
of

the

alphabets.

For this
latter

small

scheme

may

be

2.

He may

supervise the sanitation of the village

or do the

work himself.
to

3.

He

may

try
if

remove

disunion

in

the

villages
4.

there be any.

He

may

distribute

medicines

to the sick.

He may
ables

relieve the distress of the untouch-

and
etc.,

make
if

facilities

for drinking
it,

water
5.

there be any want of

He may

make

the

village

self-supporting

regarding Khadi.

6.

He may
beat
cattle

take the

census of villages
of the

in his

and make a note
under
different

number of
take the

heads,

census of the

untouchables,

describing at

the same time their conditions. Also
a note in his

make

book

of the details regardvillage,
its

ing

the

area
its

of the

crops

revenue,

industry etc.
to be given in this insti-

If the training that

is

tution,

succeeds

in

fitting

our young

men

to serve

the country in the various

ways adumbrated
that
is

here,

it

would be
usher
in

fulfilling a function

calculated to

Swaraj

at

an early date.

Abstract of a speech

delivered by

Sjt:

J. C.

Kumarappa
occasion

at

Rajahmundry

on

the

of opening the Industrial Exhibition on 124 8$. (Evening]

Exhibitions have their

own

value.

They have an
a suggestive
Industries

educative value to the lay
value
to

man and has

the producer.

In the Village

Association

museum.
yard of a

Quarters we want to establish a The ordinary idea of museum as a gravepast
said
civilisation
to
is

Head

totally wrong.

But a

museum

is

be a permanent exhibition or an

exhibition a

temporary

musuem.

At

this

time we

are at the beginning of things.
fine exhibits

Now we
to

have a few
have

and
is

in

time we

hope

many.

An
I

exhibition

also a

clearing house of knowledge.
to

would ask every one

go round and

try to
I

improve
declare

on what has hitherto been done and before
the

Exhibition

open,

I

should

like to deal

with a
I

point raised in

the presidents speech.

Although

do not

understand

Telugu,

I

gather from what our
as the Prince of

president has been telling you that

Wales
so
I

is advocating the Buy British goods movement* we too should support the ''By Indian League."

am

afraid

I

do not agree with
rise

this
it.

narrow national-

ism*

We

should

above

The underlying

conception

of the Village

Industries

Association

is

not that kind of patriotism.
that of Universal Brotherhood.

Gandhiji's teaching is

Although we named
Village
is

our association as the All
Association the universal

India

Industries
the motive

brotherhood

behind

it.

Charity

begins at

home.

Therefore, we

start with

an All India Village Industries Association
time
I
I

and

in

hope

we
back

shall

have

an

all

World

Association.
is

want

to explain to 'you thai this idea

not

merely

"A

to

the

simple

village"

movement.
At
the
present

time
is

that

which

holds our

attention in the world
nistic organisation.

the capitalistic and

commuI

In justaposition to these
Village

would

place the

All India
After

Industies Association.

Capitalism,

the

Industrial

Revolution,

has
it

developed

itself

into

three set forms.

One who

of

is

the financial

type
it

found
this;

in the

British Isles.

The
sits in

outcome

of

is

the

financier
in India,

London exploits
elsewhere.

the

millions

China and

The

instrument
After

by which
battle

he draws out
of

blood

is

finance.

the

Plassy the

Indian Gold

left for

England

and that helped the

financial type to take root in Europe.

The
is

other capitalism
in

is

that of the machine.
to
political,

It

found

America.

Owing

rehgioua

and economic

oppression in the Middle Ages in Western Europe people left their countries and found But they carried with them the shelter in America.
idea of feudalism which had
blood.

Then new
first

environments

been ingrained in their were encountered.

They

of all
all

crossed

the unchartered seas,

and

surveyed

unexplored lands.
to tackle

These

experiences
with that

gave them a practical turn of

mind
their

and

mind they
infinite

began

problems and set

about the conquest of Nature, where employment was

and

labourejs were

few,

and to-day we find

them
find a

full

of all kinds of labour saving devices.

We

new age where

production

is

taking place on
regardless of

a large scale and markets

are glutted

demand.

Materials of vital

importance are lacking

while luxury

goods are

being produced.

With the

financial heritage of

England and

feudal background

thse two types

of capitalism were

moulded.

The

third

is

of capitalisms.

an offshoot of the above two types termed a rationalised It may be
in

capitalism.

This we find

Russia to-day.

What

happened there was the
under the
exacting
revolted and have

labourers

who were crushed

the aristocrats of despotism evolved from that a system that
of capitalism.

has removed some of the evils

They

Wished

to socialise the motivating force.
in

They
and

succeeded
not by

guiding production by
but
to

social ideals

profit

this

they

have

added

and

retained the system of centralised production.

What

they have added on to

it

is

a subject mentality which

may be passed
of discipline as
Still

off
it

under the euphamistic designation
is

called

to-day in

Germany,
methods.

the

evils

are there

in the three

The

production is in the

hands

of the few,

We

have

to liberate the producer.

In centralised

production

the labourer has no independande and no soul.

The

producer

is

allowed to do

according to his whims.

To-day

in

America,

with

ready

made

walls and

windows a house can be
and windows were
ding a house.

built overnight,

Those walls

built before
of

you

thought of builbuilt

Many
plans etc.

you "have

houses,

planned

houses

and troubled
Yet
in

yourselves
will

over

the

contractor^

you

rather have a
to

ready

made

house as

America

in preference

mud hut that you may What we want is to have the joy of creation. Both capitalism and communism have standardised activity The production is very and reduced life to a rut.
even a
build
for yourself.
fcreat

and markets have
occupy the

to

be found and armies have

to be marched to guard them.
for

War and

preparations

war

minds

of such

nations*

No

amount

of

onf'"

>

s
!/ v

':

'

-v-*
'

i

-'^ ^
'*

as haj, Lean app.^r-iu

>>

.ar,nan

n

conference; no amount
in the least.

o

r

>>'ou*

resolutions will help
is,

Wher!

the

carcass
there
is

there will the

vultures be also.
will

Where
for

capitalism, ther*

be

the motive

war.

Communistic people

have

removed

profits.

But they

know
they

the hungry

wolves of capitalism are watching to see

whom
have

they

may devour
plan.

next

and

therefore

huge

armies for defence and as a sanction to enforce their

The

Soviet Russia has had to resort to violence.

Apart from this there

is

another
war.

cause for war.

War

is

itself
is

the
a

cause for

The armament
Turkey declares

production

profitable business.

war on Egypt and England supplies armaments. This
is

good business.

As long

as there are such communistic and capi-

talistic organisations

war cannot be removed, because have world If we wish to of greed and suspicion.
peace,
of

we have

to decentralise

production.

Several

that separates you have seen centrifugal machinery

the gto&t from tho

produce ^vJt<^u>^

U^e^

In the Village Industries
decentralising production

Association we aim at

thus to leave the fruits of

28
labour to the producer.

The

profit

motive

is

curbed
in the

and the

producer takes a

personal

interest

product and finds

his joy in his creation.

There

is

no use for violence.
Village Industries

Hence you

will

see that the

Organisation sets out to solve the

problems that are raised

by capitalism,
challenge

communism
out by

and

war.

It

is

a

bold

thrown
it

Gandhiji

to the voracious

world to bring
It
is

back to

brotherhood, peace and prosperity.
nation of Gandhiji's message
to the

the culmi-

economic world*

Address given by Sjt. J. C, Kumarappa in the Andhra Rural Workers Conference held on 13th April 1985. (After-noon.)
1

The purpose
hear from

of

our

coming 'together

is

not to
I

me

merely how you should work. As
surroundings
it

am
be

not acquainted with your
possible for
S.

will not

me

to give

Subbarao

and

When Messers N. Satyanarayana wrote to me I
any advice.

readily accepted their invitation with the

main pur-

pose of getting to know the conditions of your country. So you will have to teach me in return.
It is

one of the main functions of the All India
Industries

Village

Association
all

to

co-ordinate
of"

the

knowledge obtained from
Till

parts

the

country.

now each province has been working

in watertight

compartments,

The Gujarat workers hearing
prepared from

that sugar

is

being

palmyra trees
the process.

in

Andhra and Bengal
our workers went to

wanted

to

know

The Ranipuraj people
Imme-

were toddy drinkers and one of

know how
diately

to convert this poison into food,

two boys were

sent to

Bengal for studying

the process. When they go back they will prepare from toddy wholesome gur or sugar* So QUJ function

30
is

to

know

the

various

conditions

*hnt

prevail in

different paits OT

the country,
it.

gather che available

knowledge and disseminate

The
is

object of the Village Industries

Association

not to produce on our own.

We

are not going to

invest in
centres.

machinery,

etc

,

to establish

production

What we aim
how

at doing is to help people to
I

solve their
ries a sto

own problems.
In

have had several enqui-

to dispose of carcasses of

dead animals

in villages.

many

places, they simply throw

them

away
While

and the

Harijans

cut

them

up
skin
is

for eating.

dragging the

vultures foul the air,

damaged, and the bones are being wasted.
presented a problem which had

carcase the

This state of

affairs

to be faced immediately.

One
researches.

of

our national

workers

is

carrying

on

He has
all

taken a contract from a Municiis

pality to take

the carcasses. This research
the

being
the

carried on

to help

Harijan
it,

boys.

When
is

carcasse comes the Harijans flay

the skin

salted

and removed

to a tannery,

The

entrails are

emptied

and cleaned and

the flesh and

bones

are boiled in

water 7 or 8 hours.

This separates the fatty matter.
can be used
for lubricating

The
and

fat thus separated

industrial

purposes and

any amount

of fat 13

31
being purchased in the market.

Well boiled bones

and

flesh is dried in the

sun and pounded into powder.
is

When
The

the fat

is

removed completely there

no smell.

flesh is like

white powder*

brown powder and the bones become Up to now this powder as manure

has been imported by the Tea planters of Darjeeling.

This

in the is now stage and the experimental manures are sent for chemical analysis and they will

be graded.

While cutting up the carcasses the Hariin

jans are given lessons

anatomy.

The plan

is

to

make

the

disposal of

the

carcasses as clean as a

surgical operation,

This
the
there

is

the

problems.
is

way in which we are trying to tackle As regards production whereever
bench there
produce
will

a blacksmith's anvil or the potter's wheel or

the

carpenter's
is

be our workshop.
village
requires.

Our idea

to

what
is

the

Whatever individuality
by the
villagers.

there has to be expressed

We

do

not want

to

reduce big

machines
to

to small ones.

You have had demonstrated
The gramaphone we saw may
But even then
it

you how

a magic lantern and a gramaphone could

be made

in a village.

-fcadcrcd useless even fo* fuel.
is

more useful than a

B.A. degree.

Hera the maker

has been thinking hard to solve a problem.

He

has

produced

something and
it

if

he
If

works steadily

at

it

he may improve

greatly.

every villager could
into a beehive

be made to think and he
of activity

worked up

then we can drive out poverty*

In your

younger days you have played with transfer pictures.

What we
fers,

are doing in our life

is

just like the trans-

from western productions.
transfers

The
is

difference betin the

ween the

and

what

produced
brought

Rama
in the

Rao's nl jt nernllr -hrmlrl be

about

economic world.

You

will

have

to solve your

problems and work to the betterment of the villages.
If

you merely imitate

the west we
its

shall be failures.

India has been famous for

own designs and ideas
but develop those
I

and

arts

and they should not copy
But we

ideas and designs.
imitation.
into

That does not mean

discourage
If

any shop

may begin with it. to-day many innumerable
which
are

you go

suggestions

can be had

by even reproducing
here,

for things that

can be done

now
of

being imported.
idleness in

We

should

dispel the

stupor
into

the

village

and awaken

them

activity

and

if

we

achieve this, then our activity
success.

can be said to be of
productive
but

We

are

becoming

less

we
is

are increasing our consumption.

A

consumer who

not

also a producer
is

is

an

economic
is

monstrocity.

There

a saying *The worker

worthy of his

meat*

33
It

as well
this

conveys the idea that the worker is a producer as a consumer. If we do not function in

two fold way

we

shall be gliding

'do^n

in the

economic world.

The main
we have
If

idea

is

not to
If

exploit the masses by
to use

centralised production.

we have
for the

machinery

to see that they are not used for exploitation.
is

a

machinery

meant

cottage, the price

and other things
cottager.

should" be within

the reach of the

A

small instrument
in a

of Rs.

50 to 60 that
I

can be

accommodated

cottage can be used.

have given you

my

idea of what

Village Industries
I

Association should contribute from our side.
told you the purpose with which

we

are working

have and

our goal e.g.

the
to

awakening
the
in

of the villages.

Our

purpose
village.

is

utilise

economic
converting

waste of the

Whatever we do

an idle mo-

ment

into one of activity,

we

are adding to the National
will

Wealth.

The

association
like

be dependent on the
I

men on
met

the spot

you

and

would
are
is

like

you to

explain to
with.

me what
In
all

difficulties

actually being
of the essence.

progress

venture

Abstract of a Speech delivered by Sjt. J. C.

Kumarappa

at

Rajahmundry
4
85.

In a public

meeting on IS

(Evening.)

Dr. P. Gurumurthy read the address of the Ancihra*

Rural
after

Workers
receiving

stating

that
class

Sjt J. C.

Kumarappa
abroad for
practice at

a

first

education

several years

and leaving
obedience
land worked

a promissmg
call of

Bombay

in

to the

Gandhiji and

our mother

in the Gujarat

Vidyapeth.

He

carried out an economic survey of

Ma/tr Taluk.

Dr. Gurumurthy recalled his services rendered on the
Select Committee appointed by the Karachi Congress to enquire
into

the

financial

obligations

between

Great

Britain and

India and

told the audience of

the part he had

played during the Civil Disobedience
to the

Movement and ended up by praying
for

Almighty
revival

the

fruition of his noble efforts for the

of the dying industries of our villages as the Secretary
of the

All India Village Industries Association.

Mr. Kumarappa
by the

in his reply to the

address 'given

Andhra

Rural Workers analysed the form of
that

economic

organisation
in

had

been evolved by
to the conclusion/

Indian genius

the Past and

came
a

that production

took place

in

decentralised

way

but certain

services to the

country

such as

canal

construction, road
collectively.

building,

tank digging were done
the capitalistic

He
its

further contrasted

organisation as found
Briton and

to-day in

America

and Great
In
all

counterpart in Soviet Russia.

these he traced the enslavement of the worker.
initiative

The

was

left

with the

capitalist

even
/

to the

The goods were directing consumption. produced on a large scale and they were made to be consumed by high pressure salesmanship. The markets
extent of

had
that
evils

to be 'found with the aid of

armaments.

He
only

said

communism
and
the

shares

with capitalism some of the
out
of

way

them

can
in

be

found by

process of decentralisation

production.

Under capitalism
individual was
to be best

and under

Soviet

communism

the

subordinated to

what was conceived
community.

for the capitalist or the

The

Individual
cally or

became a drudge and real freedom politieconomically was not to be found in western
was standardised, was H waste
has

organisations excepting to the chosen few at the top.
All production
this

of

humanity, as the talents of each individual
been fully utilised by society and
in life

not

was

running

groves and routine

rirtes

the day.

To

avoid these

evils
of

and

to give the

economic organisation a chance

being moulded by the National genius

and

as a

means

of obtaining freedom in the fullest sense

and
the

incidentally to abolish

violence

from

amongst

nations and ushering

an era of

Universal

brother-

hood, Gandhiji has ushered in the present programme
for the village
industries.
is

By

decentralisation

of

production the power that

weilded by Throgmorten
is

Avenue, and Wall Street or Moscow,
transferred to the

sought

to

be
a

masses;

thus

bringing

about
the

complete democracy and true freedom to
gers of India.

villa-

To

this

end

the

Village

Industries

Association has been organised to serve the villagers,

taking upon

itself

the

centralised

functions

which
or

have

to

be performed either by

co-operation

by

state aid or by other collective effort.

He

explained

to

them that some public

utility

services

such

as

distribution of motive power, transport communications

such as telephone and telegraph are
nature monopolistic and therefore are
collective action.

by

their

very

earmarked for
these,

With the exception of

pro-

duction should be decentralised.
art

As

it

is,

even pure
to
its

which by
devices

its
is

very nature should

be

left

own

being produced under

Wesetrn

orga-

nisations in a centralised fashion.

Cornering in what
the
private

should be the right of the inillons into
purse of

Holywood

stars,

Capitalism has

prostituted
is

the fine arts by

standardisation,

which

its

one

37
^contribution to efficiency.
duality, initiative
It

has offered

up indivialtar of
effi-

and originality on the

ciency and cheapness.

He

appealed to those present

that i.h.y will have to co-operate with the Association

inculcating the ideals of freedom and brotherhood

by

promoting

decentralisation of production

and

thus

enabling every individual to
the

make him

contribute to

sum

total of

human

happiness.

Interview

with

Mr.

J.

C.

Kumartoppa

6;

Mr. Sanivarapu Subba Sao
14
4

(in the Train.)

85

Q-i.

What

sort of

economic freedom that people

ol Indian need?

A.
at is the

The economic freedom
freedom
of

that

we

are
to
is

aiming
-produce

the

individual
talent.
is

according

to his genius

and
it

It

not merely
countries.

a freedom of contract as

in "western

The
for a

labourer of the west

sells

away

his birth

right
till

mess

of pottage.

He
it

works from morning

night.

Although he may

receive in return
is

compara-

tively high remuneration,

as nothing, as
to the

human

element

is

totally

subordinated

wishes and

averice of the capitalist.

Under our

conception of
to

economic

freedom,

men should

not be reduced
tools.
If

drudges or mere
producer
is

controlers of

machine

a
no

unable to put

his personality
it

into his

product

for

what-ever reason

may

be, there is
is

economic freedom.
profit

When

production

controlled

by
at

motives or social

motives

only the ones

the top have power to

decide what they should do.
suggest

Q.

2.

Can

you

any plan for Village

and Town

Industries?

39
A.
It

is difficult

for

me
The

to

answer'Ja general
each
its

question of this nature.

case of

village
merits*

and

town

has

to

be

decided on
rests

own

Laying out an
for the locality.

economic plan

with our agent

Q.
Italy,

3.

What

is

your
of

opinion

about Facism of
of

Communism

Russia,

Nazism

Germany

and National Recovery plan
A.

of America?
of social orga-

As regards the various forms

nisations that have developed recently in Europe one

may

safely say they are

all

adaptations

of
in

capata-

Hstic organisations according to the class

power,

middle

class, the proliteriate

or

the

intellectuals.

They

all

share in

common

centralised

control
rest

and

dictation from the top, the duty of the

of the

populus

is

but to do and die.

They have

not

suc-

ceeded

in giving people freedom,

on the other hand,

and

in

most cases, the

result

has been one of greater

subjection.

Q

4.

If

the

government

budget goes on as at
year,

present Enhancing

Taxation every

what

result

would you expect?
A.

Taxation

is

tending

more and

more

to be

detached

from production; no

country can progress-

with

Taxation
is

falling:

heavily

and increasingly on
Taxation
I

capital as

the case with land revenue.
of our

has

to be high because

army expenditure.

see nothing but bankruptcy before us.
r Q. g.

What

opinion will you give

if

the governcrore of

ment ask your

advice in spending
?

the one

rupees for rural uplift

A

When
it

the time

comes when the Government
the wishes of
for

of India stoop low enough to consult

the public,
the public

will

be time
their

enough
opinton.

members
it

of

to

offer

As

is,

the

Government resents Uiough
of opinion even

not expressly, expression
as the Legislative

by such a body

Assembly.
Q.
6.

Will

you suggest
to

any

scheme
All

for the

co-operative

movement

help in your

India

Village Industries Association?

A.

Progress of every Industry requires

financial

backing and marketing.
ctions open to the

These are the

obvious fun-

co-operative societies tojorganise
of

and supervise.

They can be
certain

immeasurable help

to the All India Village Industies Association. Apart

from this there are

public

utility

services

which

can

only

be

rendered

collectively such as

41
transportation, fupply
tions etc.
of

motive power, communica-

Q.

7.

What

is

your

advice to government and
relief

to the people in spending
relief

funds

like

famine

funds etc?
I

A.

shall not

presume
I
rr

to

advise to the govern-

ment or the

public but
relief

ay

say

that evtiy one

who
ful

is

in

charge of

funds cannot
pauperization

be oveicareof
.sufferers.

in

trying to
is

avoid

Then;

a

great danger of relief taking the foirh of

indiscriminate chaiity.

We

should
tyetfer

try

to leave

the

people,

richer,

moially and

make thtm
than

tfttwt

able to
find

take care of themselves economically

we

them.
Q. 8.

Will

you

approve

in

establishing trade

and labour unions?
A.

Labour unions are necessary
t

evils as long as
is

the bargaining power of
ted.
It is

he capitalists
about

overweightake con-

necessary for the
to

labourers to

certed action
unions,
will

bring

equilibrium.

These

stay

with

us

as

long

as

capitalism

functions.

Q. 9.
in the

What

sort of

Education

will

you

suggest
or

system

of present

elementary

or

higher

college education?

42
A,

both tend
system
school
is

Our education whether elementary or higher us from life. The present to detach
not so moulded as to coordinate the child's

home life and social life. Our an individual a better member education should make
life

and

of society in every way.

youth

is

not

developed on

So long as every individual right lines the time and
loss.

energy spent in education will be a total

ELLORE,

15th April 1935.

TYRANNY OF CAPITALISM,
Addressing
the

audience

Sjt.

J. C.

Kumarappa

explained the basic principles underlying the Village
Industries Association.

In doing so he dwelt at length

on the two main economic
world, Capitalism

systems obtaining

in

the

and Socialism.

Speaking

about

Capitalism
its

Sjt.

Kumarappa
inven-

stated that Capitalism took

birth in the Industrial

Revolution, in Europe which resulted from the
tion of the machine.

Capitalism absorbed the main

principles

of the

Feudal

system then

prevalent in
of Capitalism

Europe,

The

sole idea at the

back

was
and

profit,

to the

complete exclusion of utilitarian
motives.

humanitarian

The main
i

channel

in

centralised

which capitalism gradually developed e. the highly and mass production necessitated wide

markets.

To

obtain and

retain

which, nations as
vast

well as individuals were maintaining

armaments
to the

and

fighting

with

one

another.

This led

economic maladjustment

and the

phenomena

of the

existence of wide spread starvation side by side with

a

glut in the

market of foodstuffs.

44
This tyranny of capitalism
exploitation of the multitude
to

which stood

for the

by the few

was sought

be

destroyed by the

Socialists
in

of Russia,

who
about

after

manifold sufferings succeeded

bringing

a change in their society from capitalism to socialism.

This they

sought to

do

by

destroying
it

the

profit

motive of production and
utilitarian motive.

by replacing

with the
in this

Though they
the main

succeeded

they

still

retained
i.e.

feature of capitalistic
of

production

the

centralised production
in

goods.

This again

placed vast power

the hands of few.

They might have succeeded
and supply by replacing the
motive, that
of the
is,

in co-relating the
profit

demand

motive with need

they began producing the necessities
instead of luxuries.
the basic

people

But

in

all

this
i.e.

they retained

principle of capitalism

centralized production.

They have thought

it

nece-

ssary to guard themselves from the capitalistic wolves

surrounding them and are arming themselves heavily.

The

result is both the capitalists
to

and the

socialists

arm themselves and are ready

adopt violence.

UTILITARIANISM.
The
brain of one of

the greatest propounders to

utilitarianism

and perhaps the greatest propounder of

45
Ahimsa, Mahatma Gandhi
and the
result is the
set out to solve the

problem

All

India Village

Industries

Association.

The
A.
is

great principle
to

advocated by the
produc-

A.

I.

V.

I.

foster

decentralised
distributed

tion.

Let
the

the production be

throughto

ou f

l^nd
with

and
no

it

will

adjust

itself

the

demand
tition.

over

production

and
for

compeentire

That

was

why

no

single plan

India was formulated
locality

by the Central Board.
in
its

Every
needs*

had

to

develop

own way

its

No
The

Five Year Plan
;

was

set

up

by the Association.
reaping
all

^> Dividual
<

producer was a free man,

the fruus

nis labour himself

and he had no need
retain a market as
existing.

to resort to violence to find

and

he ad]\ sted himself to the

demand already

The
had

A. I. V.I. A. recognised also that certain functions
10

be centralised

because of

their nature,
,

such

as ic j-.~ch,

transport, communicatious eic

and the

Centra' Board of the A. I. V.I. A, tried to handle those
functions.
K en

Sjt.

Kumarappa

t

explained the progress; of

the

A

1. V.I. A.

since it* inception
its

and appealed to

the audience to take up

work and bring prosperity

to *he country.

INTERNATIONALISM AND AHIMSA.
PHILOS'JPHV OF THE A.I.V.I.A.
Sjt. J.
(7,

Kumarappa's Address
16th April 1935.

at 0-untur.

Sjt.

Kumarappa

in the

course

of his adress

on

the objects of Village Industries Association and the

philosophy

with which
this

the apostle said that

of

non-violence
real
spirit

has started

scheme

the

behind

it

was universal

love.

After tracing the evolution of capitalism, he went

on

to

say

how

decentralisation
in

of

production was

needed everywhere
lems might
the
at

order that the

economic prob-

once be

solved

Production was in
while the
actual

hands

of fcvery

few people,
It

consumers

were

millions.
all

was the liberation of
at.

these millions they were

aiming

In central!**

sed production the producer had no

voice,

no inde-

pendence and no

soul.

He became

a machine.

His

creative faculty was

killed.

In Russia

to-day one

found

that

in order to

avoid the

evils of
profit

capitalism

and

with a view to

/cmrve the

motive they

of control over production the

profits of

had adopted a kind which went

4?
to the state.
according;

Here also

goods were
a few

manufactured'

to the

tastes of

individuals that

guided them but not what the poor labourer required.

They were working
capitalist

on the same
difference

lines as
this,

any other
one was a

but the

was

capitalist and the other an

idealist.

Both were step

brothers tr>mg to cut each other's throats.

The
violence

nation that produced
to find

much had
its

to resort to

market for

surplus

production

capitalism appeared before them to knock away their

purse just like a gangster puts the pistol at the throat

and demands the
For

purse.

guarding

against this

danger they had to

maintain huge armies.

Production of armaments was

another outlet for capital.

They produced arms and
nation was set up against
for the

made money
another
just

out of

it.

One

to provide

market

production of

arms

of a third nation,

But to-day the

apostle of

peace

was giving a
all

new philosophy which
of the existing

would overcome

the

evils

systems.

PHILOSOPHY OF THE SCHEME.
The was
that

philosophy
it

of

the

scheme

of A.I.V.I.A,.

should do

away with

the profit motive*

43
the centralisation of
of the capitalist.

production and the exploitation
not

But that did

mean

we

are

against

power

machinery
of

for

speed.

But we are
by the use of

against exploitation

man by man

machinery. All that the Association wanted was that

no capitalist should
poor.

profit

by the exploitation

of

the

In some cases things

had

to

be

done by
research

centralisation, for instance, a laboratory f^r

could not be had
production
of

all

over the country.
or
electricity.

So ;Jso the

power

A

centialised

production and distribution would be more benificial,

than decentralised individual production.
of

These knds
Village

production

must be

taken

by

several

Industries Associations.

Three
production.

kinds of

minds were

necessary

for the

The

business mind, the technical expert

who grows the details for producing and a drudge. The first two have become very rare ana the third The first two had been is flourishing in millions.
bought
by the

Government
clerks,

under
less

the

capitalist
their

system as their
departments,

more or

slaves in

Now
all

Gandhiji has started
those scattered
first

this associ-

ation to gather

two kinds of

people and
their brains

send them
for the

welfare of humanity.

back to the villages to use That is*

49
why
Satish Chendra

Das Gupta,

formerly

of

the

Bengal

Chemical

and

Pharmacuetical

Works was

asked by Gandhiji to use his brain in preparing Ayurvedic medicines for the villages, carry on researches in methods of Tanning etc.
Finally he
to
join

appealed
village

to

every

one

of

the

industries

association

them and
they

make

discriminative

purchases.

Whenever

bought a thing they must bear in

mind and consider

whether the

village

was

becoming rich or poor by

that purchase

STANDARDISED PRODUCTION

AND ITS EVILS. MAN: SLAVE TO MACHINE.
Attempt of A.LV.I.A.
to give

him creative faculty.
18th April 1985.

Vinayasramam of Kalyanakavur.

"The A.I.V.LA.

is

the panacea

for

the world

struggle in trying to end

which the world has failed
said.

over and over again/' he
ciation
is. not

"The
The
entirely

central asso-

the working body.

responsibility
rests

of working
local leaders,
institutions

out the problems
like

on the

Mr. G. Seetarama Sastri and his
This association
is

and on you.

not born

out of the brain of

Mahatma Gandhi
or social

or out of the
It is
a.

brain

of philosopher

reformer.

reaction

of

many

counterforces

and

\&LO*-

problems/'

CAPITALIST CENTRALISED PRODUCTION.
Continuing he said **The capitalist came on the
scene with
the

advent

of the machine.

He

has
is

existed for the last two

centuries.

Capitalism

a

growth out
articles

of Feudalism.

The

capitalist

supplies
in

on a large scale f
of time.

much cheaper and with
is

a short space

Here production

not guided.

51
by what
capitalist.
is

profitable

to the

producer

but to the

The

rapidity of production increases the

burden of controlling and retaining the market, which
gives rise to competition.

In centralised production

the labourer

does,
to do.

what

some

others have thought
is

out for

him

His creative faculty

killed.

PROSTITUTION OF ART.
In olden days

every article
If

every man's taste.
to the

was produced for wanted a thing one went one
a

workman, gave him
and
in

model according
of
it

to one's

own

taste

the use

one

derived the

pleasure of one's

own
is

creation.

Now

to-day

we

find

the foreigner

who

ignorant of our tastes, producing
talent

articles for us

and we have forgoten what

and

art our country possessed.

Thus our

art

and culture

are slowly deteriorating.
for the things

To-day tastes are cultivated

things being
is

manufactured by machines, instead of This manufactured to suit the tastes.
of
it

not

propagation of art but the prostitution
of prostitution is
life.

The same kind
every walk of

being carried on

in

Education and religion too have
the west.

been centralised
is

in

In America every art
of in

standardised

and spoken

terms of dollar*

worth/'

52

RUSSIA,

Speaking on the

difference

between capitalism
production by
but they have

and

socialism
is

he said,

"in Russia
ideas,

capital

guided

by

social

retained the system of centralised production.

The pro-

duction
of

in all parts of the

country

is

guided by the whip

Moscow

leaders.

The guiding

forces change with
is

the change of

the leader.

There
if

a great danger

of Russia becoming capitalistic

in

place

of Lenin

Rockfellor were to come into power.'*

A.

I.

V.

I.

A.

The

A.I. V.I. A.

took

us back to the olden days
contribute his mite

where every
to society
It

individual used to
in return
it

and

gave him what he deserved.
production.

aimed

at decentralised

This scheme

gave an impetus

to every creative brain,

and trained

and educated the people, thus giving rise to a higher
standard of
life

and culture

which no university in
far.

the West was capable of doing so

Finally

Sjt.

Kijrnarappa
crops
in

criticised the

growing

of tobacco and cotton

this district (Gunfqr)

in place ot

tood crops so as to export them to foreign

countries and

make money/

''These crops do not feed
thirst
it

your hunger or quench your
of

and

so every one

you should

try to counteract

in all possible

way.

Gandhiji
start

may conceive new
institutions but

ideas,
all

new schemes, and
will

new

these

be futile

without the co-operation of every one of you.*'

WHAT TYPE OF ECONOMIC ORDER
SHALL WE HAVE
Sjt.
J.
?

C.

KUMARAPPA.
the

Before we can decide on
tion best suited to our

form of organisato

country, we have

examine

the ones that already hold the day.
tant forms
are

The two impor"that

Communistic

System

has been

evolved

in Soviet

Russia and Capitalism
shall

of

England

and America.

We

scan

rapidly

the salient

features of these two
of merit in either.

and

then choose what we find

While examining these
in relation to the

systems

we must consider them
in

environment

which they were evolved and by which they were

influenced.

Capitalism

is

built

upon
in

the foundation of FeuIt is

dalism that
predatory

prevailed

mediaval Europe.

and
it

self-centred

by

tradition,

and as a

consequence

has developed militarism side by side.

While Communism
cracy of the
list*

is

the

resultant of the auto-

aristocrats

and

exploitation of capita-

and the

incidental revolt

has led to violence

just as in the case of capitalism.

The achievement*

55
of the Russian people are admirable.

Although their

methods may

not appeal to us.
to sit in

In observing this r

we do

not presume

judgement
travail

over the

means adopted existence a new order
like

by a nation in
of things,
its

to bring into

especially

a nation

Russia which had

cup

of sorrow filled to the
If

brim under
hurry,
it

the Tzarist

regime.

they were in a

is

not for us to blame.
it

Whatever
criticise

we may

have to say

is

said not

to

the Russian

people but merely to consider the Russian experiment

from the view point of one who
the experience of others and
for the

is is

out to benefit by

who

seeking a solution
India.

problems that confront us

in

We

should never lose sight of the fact that what
people and their genius

might have suited one

may

not necessarily suit another.
situation in

Whatever may be the
our country.

Russia, we have to take into consideration

the conditions that prevail in

We

are

not starting
superstition

with a clean

slate.

Our country has

and prejudices running in its blood. It has certain ideals and characteristics which have been
for generation 3.

handed down
his skin

An Ethiopian may change
spots.

and a leopard
shake
off

its

But an ancient

nation cannot
overnight*

its

traditions

and
to

genius
salvage

We

ought

to

be

nreoared

56
whatever
bad.
is

good

in

any system

and

reject

what

is

It is

with this approach that we have to

look

both
evils

at capitalism

and communism.

Both have their
profit-

and strong points.
is

Under

capitalism,

motive

given free play and individuals are allowed
situation to their gain, even at the
society.

to exploit every

cost

of injuring
is

The
gets

advantage
an

of

this

system

every

individual

opportunity to In trying

exercise his talents and energy as he likes.
to check this, the

communists have gone

to the other

extreme
motive.

of

doing

away

alltogether with the profit

Under
work

their

system

a small idealistic group

plan the
to reason

for the nation,
theirs

and individuals "are not do and die
'.

why

but to

Here

initiative of the individual is suppressed.

While the

individualistic outlook of capitalism is bad, the social

sense should not be developed into an instinct. While

we do not need
to see

to

become

prowling animals looking

whom we may
like

devour,

we should not become
engaged
in

automatons or
activities.

the bees

unthinking
In
in

We
the

should avoid the two extremes.
outlook
the

the

first

individulistic

appears

an

exagerated form.
the individual
is

In the

other,

personality of
first

utterly crushed.
selfish

While the
greed,

is

based on

uncontrolled

the other is

based on class hatred.

('Daily Pratap'

LahoreJ

57
Therefore, we have to

devise a system in which
profit

men may be guided

to

some extent by

motive

and yet will not exploit the weaker members ruthlessly, We need to develop the personality of each individual and every
talents.
ties to a
If

one should be

free

to exercise his

we can

limit the production of

commodithen

small

unit

by

decentralising

it,

we

shall avoid great

many

evils that follow in the

wake

of capitalism

and

yet preserve

freedom of thought
In the
past,

and action

to the individual.

we had
of

decentralised production but
its

not being conscious

merits,

we had

run after large scale
of

production

and
feel,

are in the slough

despondent present.
is

Some
clock

advocating decentralisation,
Decentralised production

setting the

back.

might have been a

commonplace a century ago, but that does not prove
that
it

is

without

its

merits, even at the present time.

A

century ago, under decentralised production violence
basis*

was not organised on a national

Then

battles

were fought with mercenenes^ 9At present, the producer seeks markets
battles.

and

recruits

patriots to fight his

To-day by a process

of centralised education

children are being taught that

they are born in this
ftor this

world to die for the king and country,
exist as mere producers*

iney

We

contend that in both

8

53
under capitalism and communism, human values are not taken into account. Every individual has the
personality which,

when

properly developed

has

its

contribution to

make

to society.

We

have no right

to look upon the

common
under

run of the

human

beings,

as either

gun

fodder

under

capitalism / or a cog(

wheel

in a

machine
wholly

communism.
nor
reject

We

should
wholly

not reject
private

centralisation

reject

ownership;

we cannot

wholly profit

motives and we cannot advocate complete decentralisation.

What

we want

to find is

a

mean between
and both ha\e
find

capitalism and communism.
to bring out the

Both systems have failed

best in individuals,
to

led to group violence, Capitalism

markets

and Communism
enforce
its

to keep out

the

foreigner
to

and

to

plan.

Hence we have

have modifica-

tion of these

While we do not
to curb the
profits

reject profit motive,
indivi-

we may attempt

capacity of the

dual to accumulate

and wealth.

We human
For
to

beings are so built that
possible with the

human
of

progress can only be

advance

each individual.
it

the advance of each individual,

is

necessary,

allow certain amount of self interest.

This
a

is

fully

demonstrated in every day

life*

When
is

man works
post, the

fot a fixed salary as say in a

Government

Contribution

he makes to

society

generally of a

59
routine nature.
ries

The

greatest inventions and
results of

discovespirits

have

been the
to

venture,
to

some
their

attempting
urge.

give

expression
of
of

inner

(Decentralisation
the

production
his labour.

ensures the

producer

product

Therefore,

if

group production has disadvantages the alternative
decentralised production.

is

While

it

group activity

has a contribution to
it is

may make

be granted
within a

limited community,

open
is

to serious

doubt whethe r

on a national
time.

scale

it

possible

for any length of

A
or

few idealists may get together and run an
other

Ashram

philonthropic

institution

on the

basis of service but

whether

such principles can be
civilisations

applied at

the present
basis f
it

state of varied

on a whole world
even Russia finds

may

be
to
its

questioned.

For

necessary

be

shut

out from

the outside world to carry out
riments.

communistic expestate

Foreign

trade

is

the
is

monopoly.
restricted.

Intercourse with foreign nations

highly
is

Thus
in a

the communistic experiment
laboratory.

carried on almost carried on

Experiments

may be
it

under controlled
that govern

circumstances to

find out the laws
is

the

movements

but

too

much

to

think that humanity as a whole will function in like

manner under normal conditions witha*^ such led environment

control-

60
Etttcentralised production under Capitalism directs

labour from the supply of primary needs to luxuries,

from food

to face

powder, hence

it

is

that

we

find

a world facing starvation and

overproduction

at the

same

time.

Centralised production whether under Capitalism
or under

Communism

will in

the long
is

run,

lead to

national deterioration as there

only a limited scope
ability.

for the exercise of the enterpreneur's
little of

Not a
is

the unbusinesslike habits

of

our
in

people

due

to the lack of responsibility

both

business and

Government.
for oneself,

Unless one
there

is

allowed
healthy

to strike

out

can

be

no

growth.

We

cannot have a nation of a

stalwarts

on

centralised

methods.

Both
JU|X>

political

and economic freedom needs

decentralisation to germinate.

The

right place of a

machine is^tn instrument

in the

hands

of

man
not

but

when man
*

is

turned into a machine-feeder, the whole
is

urganisation

up-side-down.

Man

does

exists

the machine*

Under Communism, society
and individuals
sink

is

made a

fettish of

into insignificance.

However
with by
loses his

much

of comforts a person

may be provided
him
if

society,

what

shall

it

profit

he

personality?

Although we
duction,
utilities
it

have a place
only for
the

for centralised pro^

will

be

purposes of public
either
collective or

which

would be under

co-operative control.
telegraphs,

Undertakings such as telephones,
service,

reads, postal

supply of water,

exploitation of forests

and mines
the state.
in

will naturally ^corne

within the
private

scope of

We

cannot

allow

exploitation

these

undertakings.

The
for

objection to social ownership

and

management
social

commodity production
progress will be

is

that

under such conditions
if

retarded.
size

And

control can

take care of the

and

capacity

of the units of

production, exploitation
as

can be minimised.
it

As long

human

nature

is

what

is,

it

will

be impracticaExploitation

ble to abolish exploitation altogether.

and violence

in

some form

or other will be there.
violence'

Our

eating and breathing is full of Our purpose should be tion.

and exploitain

to

minimise these

keeping with human
conditions

existence and progress.
will

Under the
limit

we propose there

be a natural
to

to the capacity

of an individual

produce.

And
the
indiwill

this in its turn will limit

maldistribution

of wealth.

So long as individuals

differ

one from

another,

quantity and the quality of production of

the

vudual
differ.

will

also

differ.

That

is,

the income

Put the range pf difference Vjll

be

limited,

62

We

can think of

differences

in

income

ranging in

hundreds or thousands but we cannot
running into millions without

have
an

incomes

involving

unhamtrading,

pered exploitation of thousands.

Finance,
in a

marketing

etc. f

can also function

co-operatively

managed organisation and

therefore

there

need

be

no fear of unlimited private wealth.

Communistic

production

takes

the

form

of

military discipline in an economic

sphere
Soviet

and

too

much
nism

discipline is
is

bad

for growth.

Commuit

also based on class hatred.

Indeed,

is

an outcome of class hatred.
distinctly

Even
in

to-day there are
treatment
of

marked

differences
If

the

peasants and workers.
violent

what we hear about
to

the
bour-

methods undertaken

suppress
it,

the

geois class has any iota of

truth in

no lover of
in

human
group*

progress can advocate such methods

any

Because

if

we nosL-gaiter a wind
class hatred.

we reap a

whirlwind.
stone of a

We

cannot afford to lay

our foundation

new order on
if

It is

argued that

we

are

to

have any form of

Government, violence

is

essential.

As

I

have already

pointed before, certain

amount

of violence will always

be there

in

any state

control but

what matters

is

the degree and the spirit behind what aooears to be

63
violence.

Even

a loving father chastises

his

child.
is

If there is violence in

such chastisement then, there
violence also
in a

bound
as

i

to

be

such
it.

government
control

we conceive we

Under the form
the

of state

which

advocate,

transition

may
will

not be

sudden and spectaculor but our methods

be slow

and

will

take their

own
to

time to

permeate through
patience
if

the nation.

We

have

have

we

are

aiming

at

permanence.

While disestablishing private

property

by a stroke of the pen by legislation

may
con-

be violent, gradual curtailment of private

ownership

by limiting the productive capacity under state
trol

will

not necessarily
in

spell

violence.

In our

own

country

the past as

well in

the

present, great

many

functions are under social cotrol.

And

society

decides on the merits and

demerits of certain cases.
it

Though

there

may

be abuses in this system,

indi-

cates possibility of subjecting our people to a
discipline by social control*

group

Indian tradition has been one of decentralisation

even

in the

political sphere.

If

we attempt

to super-

impose a foreign structure on the ancient foundation,
the result will

come down

like a

pack of cards.

A

plant that flourishes in Russia under hothouse conditions

mayinot thrive

if

supplanted

in this country*

While Gandhiji's aim

is

a

humble one

of increa

sing the productivity of the villager

and giving him

a healthier habitation
civilisation

it

touches

the main spring of

and introduces a fundamental principle of
transcending

social

organisation

even communism.
to

A

programme

that

seeks

restore

the

villager to health, strength

and self-respect possesses
organisation essenaim''.
If it

a fundamental principle of social
tially*

because
in

of this very

"humble

succeeds

restoring to the villager his

self-respect

and dignity

directing production

from face powder

to food articles,

may

it

not transcened even

Commu-

nism?

The

possibilities are there.

The A. I. V.I. A.
a part of the layout
production.

only represents under this scheme
the part relating to

commodity

('Daily Pratap' Lahore) Nov. 1935.

THE LAND OF VILLAGES,
SJT.
J.

C.

KUMAKAPPA.
is

It

is
is

often said

'India

a

land of

villages*.

There

more
an

in

this statement than

what appears
that
society

on the surface.
itself
is

Sociologists
i.e.

tell

us

organism,

an entity

with manifold

activities

having a separate existence.
is

A

village is

such an entity and India
live units
If
it

a conglomeration of such
alive
full

India

is

to be

then the units
of
life.

composing
collection

have

also to

be

What

infuses life into

that

which
a

appears a nondescript
along old

of insanitary

huts distributed

cowpaths
answer
into its

and makes

it

homogeneous whole?
analyse
the

To

this,

one has to

village itself

component parts and examine the constituent

elements of such units.

Each
and these

village
in

is

made up

of a

number

of families

their turn

can be

split into individual

human
of a

beings.

So, ultimately

we

are led to a study

man, a woman

or a child*

many phases many sides well developed,
part
is

to his life

and the

Every person has one who has the
if

functions normally;
to pathological

any
con-

undernourished

it

leads

8

ditions.

The main
and
Social*

lines of interest

of a person can

be divided
Spiritual

into four

parts

Physical,

Economic,

PHYSICAL.
For the physical
requires to

development, the human form
ideal

be

launched under

conditions and

nourished by food that repairs wastage, that supplies
materials
activitiy

for building

up

energy

for maintaining

and

resistence to desease.

When we

pass

through villages what do we find?
into this world

Children brought

by boys and

girls

who have hardly

attained

we

Can physically and mentally. expect a healthy progeny from these immature
full

stature

parents

who

are in their

turn

still

economically

dependent upon the grand parents?

Besides this handicap of

heredity, the nourishis

ment with which the child will be brought upon
ably defective.
the parent

invari-

The economically dependent position of makes it impossible for them to provide
even
if

nutritious food,

such were

available.

With
fruits*

the advent of speedy

communications

milk,

vegetables

etc.,

are

drawn

away

into cites

by the

attractive prices

and the villages are starved
natural

of these

health

giving

foods

and they turn

to the

3?
substitutes such as

Tea,

Pickles etc., which satisfy

the palate but undernourish the body.

Under these

conditions

can

we

expect

specimens of humanity

sturdy in body,

mind and

soul?

According to a survey of over 1200

families in

Martar Taluk, more than 70% of farmers? expenditure
is

incurred in providing the meagre food

and clothing,
For

leaving

hardly
this is

anything for

cultural requirements.

Even

much

below

subsistance

level.

normal healthy and wholesome food
in

alone a farmer

Gujarat requires
while
the

about

Rs.

iog

per

head
is

per

annum

annual

income

about

Rs, 14 per head.
or nothing
living.

Can

the reader imagine the little

on which

a villager

has

to eke out a

ECONOMIC.
If

we look

at the

map

of any prosperous country

we

shall

find all

economically
radiating

important cities as

the foci of
Prosperity

many
is

lines of

communications.
co-ordination of

the resultant

of the

the efforts of many.
unless
it

No

village can

be prosperous

has many converging lines of activity. Prosrun on a single track.

perity does not

At present,

most

of our villages

have become

dependent purely

on agriculture and the old artisan families have lost Will Laxmi smile on such villages? their cunning.
Just as one cannot get
diet
all

one's bodily needs from a

which

consists of rice

and

rice only,

we need a
economic
even
in

varigated
health

unity of occupations

to infuse

and

independence.

Unfortunately,

agriculture, our farmers have run after the of

butterflies

money crops and

are fast

abandoning the sustain-

ing food

crops to the

detriment of themselves and

their children.

There

is

a crying

need for the

resuscitation of

of

dead and dying industries and for the introduction new ones to provide a variety of occupations if
villages as live units.

we would have our
In

many
two

parts

there

is

underemployment

for

over three months in the year and under employment
for

over

months.
in idle

This

demands
of

subsidiary

industries to

fill

moments

farmers

whose

occupation
in India.

is,

by the very nature of things, seasonal

This enfrced idleness has to be converted

into well

employed

leisure for

cultural

purposes

or

turned into economically
this is

productive

hours.

Unless
led,

done

it

will lead,

and and

it

has

already

to

deterioration in character

to the

quick

sand of

Ja^iness which will ruin our villages for all time.

Our

villages should give

tant markets over which

we

have

up producing for no control

dis-

and

concentrate on supplying their
their near neighbours.

own needs and
ill

that of

Our

villager is

equipped to

enter the heavy sea of international market

and

in

the past, whenever he has attempted such a

venture

he has invariably come out worst.
its
it

Speculation

has
but

legitimate place in
is

commerce and
and

marketing

not for the penniless
of launching

the destitute.

Let us

beware

beyond our depths.

SPIRITUAL.

In this sphere

we

shall confine ourselves
of

to

an

examination of the

development

character
is

and
aided
to

personality in so far as such development

by economic
the effect

activity.

We

have already
has

alluded
the

enforced

idleness

on

villager.

Every act of ours affects us for
is

good
time'
is

or evil.
in

There

no such

thijag

as

'marking

character
in

building.

Each decision we take
It is

brick

the

structure of our personality.
truly laid' or
it

either

'well

and

is left

to bring

down the
struggle
to

edifice at

the

first

shake.

Every upward

express

ourselves has muscle building qualities.

In so far as
struggle

our crafts and industries have

decayed the

70
has been given up, no decisions have been taken or even called for. Villages have been flabbily floating

down stream and have been
This
is

carried with the current.
of the
resist

rapidly destroying the moral strength

country.
evil

We

have almost

lost the

power
spells

to

and we lack the

vitality

which

progress

and prosperity.
'Self

Reverence,

Self

Knowledge,
life

Self Control,
1

These three alone lead
If

to Sovereign power.

we dream

of a nation

selfrespecting,

enligh-

tened, robust and independent

we

have

to

educate

our people, not

in the three

"R"s

only, but

what

is

more important,

to utilise their time

and

talents

in

healthy pursuits and banish idleness for ever.

SOCIAL.

Man
where we

is

a gregarious animal but in his

degradacountry,

tion he has lost his social sense.
find superstitions

In

our

and traditions have yielded

place to knowledge

and clear thinking, the villagers
unity.

are quickly losing their sense of

Unhealthy

individualism

is

spreading and

is

driving
large
all

away
over

the

community

spirit.

We

see writ

the

world today *'every
the hindermost"

man

for himself

and

Devil take proof

Our land

has

not

proved

against
globe.

this

malignant

spirit

that

pervades

this

We

have forgotten the dignity of
it

labour and

have substituted

with the idea of

high

and

low

callings resulting in a devastating line of demarcation

between brother and brother.
of

We

tried to steer clear

economic and social distinctions
but we have
fallen into a

based
blind

on

finan-

cial status

well

of

castes and subcastes tapering into untouchability

and

unapproachability. This, in
nic

its turn,

led us into inhygieof affairs has

and insanitary conditions. This state

affected the health of the villagers

and

we do not

expect a sound
still

mind

in a

wrecked body, Our people
cleanliness
care.

retain traces of personal

but

have

lost all feelings of

communal

Our actions have
reaches

been compared to ever widening ripples that

everybody and everybody else's action affects us. Unless we realise this and fashion our lives accordingly

we

shall not succed in rebuilding our nation.

Let us, therefore! take up the spade and shovel

and clear the land

of all filth

and

dirt,

both

literally

and figuratively, with a grim
cease until

determination never to
goal.

we have achieved our

To

help to carry out
fashion,

the above objective in an
Village Industries

organised

the All India

Association was formed last December with
quarters at
to

its

head-

Wardha.

The

Association
it

does not seek
helping

be a producing

centre but

aims at

villagers to their feet

by dissemination

of information

organising marketing facilities,
advice.
It invites

and offering technical
all,

co-operation from

irrespective

of colour, castes,

creeds, status or political opinion,

('The social order* Nov.

Rafcan Electric Press, Rajahmutidty.

AHIMSA IN THE ECONOMIC WORLD.
SJT.
J.

C.

KUMARAPPA.

When two

material things are

rubbed together

friction comes into play and generates heat. Similarly divergent interests have to clash in order to produce

Himsa. Conversely, if conflict of rival interests could be avoided we shall have non-violence in the passive
sense.

That

is

Ahimsa which

is

brought about by the
if

absence of circumstances which,
in

present, will result
for

Himsa.

There

is

no credit claimed here
the
natural
result
of

any

virtue*

It is just

the nonthere
is

existence
friction,
if

of certain causes.

Even

where

heat

is

not

generated by

the exercise of
in

higher qualities in
sense.

man, we have Ahimsa

the active

Here circumstances

are such as to produce

violence but, by self-control and
natural
order,

conquest

over the

superior power
In the

Ahimsa is maintained; but for such Himsa would have been generated.
of every

humdrum
much

day economic
form and
in

life

it

would

be too

to expect the last

it is

passive

non-violence that

we

shall

have

mind

in dealing

with Ahimsa in the Economic World.

10

It

does not require any high degree of perception

to recognise the fact that to-day the

economic atmoswith violence.
snarling at
neutrality in

phere the

world over
are gnashing

is

surcharged

Nations

their teeth

and

each other
enjoying

under the

cloak

of
is

armed

"peace".

There

hidden

hatred

and

enmity

in every

hand stretched out

in ''brotherhood"is

All talk of

championing
greed and

weak

nations

motivated

by selfishness,
desire to
light

averise.

Professions of a

civilise

backward nations
to those

and
in

to bring

and learning
excrescence

who

sit

darkness are

the

of Imperialism.

In short,

we

see
is

wolves stalking the
to consider

land as lambs.

Our enquiry

how

these rivalries are

caused and how
directions

they can be averted.
of

This

will

show us the
for violence

economic activity and reason

and thus

enable us to tackle the problem.

When
dumb

we go below

the

human

family to the
of those

birds and beasts,
creatures
is

we

notice that

movements

are conditioned by search for

food,

and hunger

the

urge behind their labours.
not;
is

They
without

reap where they sowed
producing.
ratio as

they

consume

Their ferocity
the
if

increased
Or,

in the
in

same

scarcity

of

food*

economic

language,

such could be used, the intensity of the

75
demand
causes violence
as
is

supply

is

limited
is

and

competition for that

which

available

sharpened.

The
to
is

position
in the

is

not very different when
stage.

we come

man

nomadic

He,

like the animal,

not able to increase

supply to meet

the

demand
and any

but moves

about from

scarcity to plenty,
falls a

one who stands in his way

prey to his wrath.

His production,
sumption
victim.
is

if

any,

is

very

limited and his con

predatory, nature
directive

being

generally

the
his
in a

The
sense

force

which
to be

fashions

movements could again
larger
i.e.

be said

hunger

his very
his

elementary

and savage
compe-

needs.

He

also finds

demands

are not always

met by nature and when tition and violence.

this is so, there is

From
for the

this

we

pass on to the Agriculturist

who f

first

time, tries to equate supply with
i

demand
Thus he
even

by aiding nature
is

e.

by

his production.

able to control supply.

He

is

able to meet

his greater needs in the shape of
shelter.

food, clothing and

He

produces what he needs and consumes
In this stage, as
is

to his satisfaction,

the diversity

between demand and supply
is

not great, competition
pressure
to

curbed.

There

is

no

unwholesome
artificially

increase

consumption

and

hence,

76
the

generation

of

violence

U

lessened*

Under

this state supply follows
is

demand and

the

production
satisfying

to order

i.e.

definitely directed

towards
it

an existing need.

We

economic

order".
fit

may A man needs

call

a

w ^pnlion
and
it

a shoe

is

made

to

his particular feet

and their shape. Only
be fully satiated.

in this case

can the demand

The

with ability or the ingenuity of the producer expands the exacting nature of the demand and leads to

development
ducer

of

the skill and
to

personality of -the procultures
rises

contributes
as

the

of

the
to

age.

As

long

the

prodccer
it

equal

the
for

demand
violence.
his
fig

and

satisfies

there
of

is

no

room
and
of

Every
tree

one

eats

his

vine,

of his

and
is

drinks

the

waters

cistern

and there

peace in the land.

The

idea of

Private Property in land
side with leisure

and

cattle develops side

by

and

culture.

Leaving this
the giddy
life

idyllic

picture

we come on now to

of the
is

machine age.
forgotten.
is

The nomad's
agriculturist's

dependence on nature

The

attempt to suppliment nature

carried to the extreme

and man celebrates his 'conquest' over nature. Nature's Various devices forces are harnessed to serve man.
to aid

man

in his activities

have been invented

bitf

77
here

again he has over
that was

reached

himself

and the

machine
itself the

intended to

be a

servant, finds

master, thus reducing the bulk of mankind

to subject slavery by its needs.

Supply

has made

larger strides than

demand.

In the earlier stages the

struggle was
tion

to increase the supply,
calls

now overproduc*
in

loudly

for

an

increase

demand.
scale

Machinery
production.

spells

standardisation

and

large

Even

then

this

does

not

meet the

demand
Bombay.

correctly.

A man wants
into a

a pair of shoes in
is

He

goes

shop and he

presented

with large numbers of footwear

made
set

in

Northampton
eyes

by a shoemaker
customer.
sizes

who had never

oa the

The shoe manufacturer
without trouble

makes standard
multiplies the

and

he easily

numbers.

He
and
sale.

does not stop to wait for orders.

Like
fast

Pat-a-cake the Bakers
as he can

man, he makes them as
to

ships them

various -parts of the

world for

The supply
Again f
in

comes

into
it

existence

without knowing the demand and
the demand.

then

seeks

out

an

industry like
interests

the steel

industry

powerful
to

vested

influence

the

Government

find outlets

for their products.

The

Government seeks out "backward" peoples and build
railways and bridges for
'

them while the children

of

'backward'* peoples are starving physically and

mentally.

All these

standardised
quantities

products can be

turned
cost

out in large

without

much

extra

and so

markets

have to
things

be found for these
naturally

supplies.

This state of
Still

leads to

violence.
of

worse
is

is

the case of the manufacturer
interested in nurtu-

armaments, who

obviously

ring belligerent

conditions

which
is

make
the

for

boom
which

period in his business.
of his success.

Violence

very essense

In the past,

directive forces

stimulated economic
the savage

activity were natural

hunger of

and the nomad

and the

discomforts of

the sensitive body of the agriculturist.
nature's urge or goad.
to increase

These

were

But now we have

artificially

demand by

habits cultivated by imitation

or custom, so that

the excess of production

may

be

absorbed.

Food, clothing and shelter were nature's
lipstick, rouge

demand, but tobacco,
are examples of

and face powder
imitation and

demand

cultivated by

custom.
indifferent,

In

many
the

cases

even

if

the

consumer

is

producer,

by

modern methods
of propaganda,

of

advertisement and other means

per-

suades the public to use that

which has
and

no

utility

and makes business

for himself

sells his

goods.

Thus we
economic

notice that

the

forces

that directed

activity

have shifted

from making good

79
shortage of
or,

supply to meeting

shortage of

demand

in other words,

over-production.

This

last situation

has created a complexity of

circumstances.

To

dispose of the excess production

markets have to be found.
a keenness

Competition has assumed
known.
it

never
i.e.

before

To

increase the

consumers

the demand,

was

necessary to com"Civilize
'*

plicate the lives of

simple
capture

folks

them.

The eagerness
backward

to

markets
to

and

"civilize"

peoples

has

led

jealousies

between

industrialised nations and resistence

among

the victims

and

in

both

cases

it

has

led

to

armaments and
pro-

violence on a scale in keeping with large scale
duction,

the root

of

the

trouble.

In this turmoil

there can be no
are

room

for real culture as all energies

concentrated in
it.

either

feeding

violence

or in

combating

A
people's
culture
arise

study

of history
is

teaches us

that,

when a
their

demand

too difficult
dies.

of satisfaction,

and
either

civilisation

This
to

situation

may
as in

by
the

their

inability

produce
America,
as
is

the
in

case
the

of

Red
of

Indians
the

of

or

degeneration
fall

race,

seen in In the

the

down

of

every

great

empire.

latter

case,

supply

is

increased

by
races

booty,
as

loot

and the

exploitation of

captured

slavest

actually or constructively,
tory

To consume such
of life

preda-

wealth

the

standards

are artificially

increaeed.
tion.
it

Consumption takes place without producback-bone.
not

Before long such a civilisation will collapse as

has no

Predatory

corruption
the

is

conducive to growth but undermines
the people.
its

stamina of

A, nation can flourish be met by
its

only as long as

demand can
is

productivity.

When

disparity between demand and supply the nation advances culturally. India, China and Egypt

there

not

much

have

to look

back

to their

days of agricultural civilizaIn the West, the

tion for the

heyday

of their cultures.

Industrial age produced a transitory culture during the

midvictorian era, but

it

was not long before the supply
wherein
of
is

went ici ahead of the demand and steeped the world
in that

barbariasm and

despair

we
not

find

ourselves to-day. Indeed,

we can boast
that
is

knowledge
true

and the advance
culture.

of

Science but

The

pressure of life to-day
is

not conducive

thereto.

There

no true

leisure.

We

have to equate
Until

our supply and

demand

but

not artificially.

we

are able to do this,

violence will stalk the land*

At present we are

in a state of unstable

equilibrium

and our "civilization", such as any moment-

it

is,

will topple

over

What

then are the correctives we heve to apply?
inevitably check

We

must

the artificial creation of
all

demand.

This cuts at

the root of

imperialism.

People have to

evolve their

own

culture after their

own fashion without any attempt on
Avarice,
as a motive
for

the part of the

outsider to ''bring civilization to backward peoples".

production,

has

to

be

curbed and

the extent

of each

person's

economic
that

activity has to

be limited to his
are not
is

capacity, so

the weaker
lism,
profit

members
motive

exploited under capitaplay,

allowed free

without

regard to any other consideration.
for

Goods

are produced

immediate

gain and

in

a

manner

which gleans

the profits into a few

pockets only.

This leads to

a shortage of necessaries,

over production of luxuries

and maldistribution of
reduced
state

wealth, while the masses are

to undernourished
affairs

machine feeders.

This

of

has

generated class consciousness

resulting in the

conflict of Capital

and Labour.

On

the other hand,
the profit

Soviet

Communism
has intensified
initiative

has given up
class hatred.
is

motive but

The workers

have

little

which

a prere-

quisite for the formation of

any culture.

We

hou,W

82
not aim
at

producing a Rabot

by a man

with

all

bis inconsistencies

and incongruities. Material advance-

ment

is

nothing

when

it

is

obtained

at the

cost of

the individuals' personality.

In both capitalism and

communism we

find

room

and the need
of

for violence

and a great concentration
in

power

in

few hands.

Because of these failures

an attempt to establish healthy
supply and demand,

equilibrium between

we

are led to

advocate indivi-

dual units of production

rather than collective units.

This adjustment
supplies.

in itself will

reduce the excess of
localised

The markets should be
after satisfying

and only
ought to

the surplus,

local needs,

find distant markets.

The

present

economic

system

is

like the old

time steamers which could be sunk by springing one
hole in the hull but the

modern methods

of

having

water-tight compartments saves
if

the whole ship even

a part were damaged.

Similarly
are

when

over pro

duction

and

the

market

not

centralised the

dangers of the
are few.

system, as a whole,

coming

to grief

In such a cecentralised

system the danger

of violence is minimised.

It is this

purpose that

is

the background against
Industries

which the All India

Village

Association

83
was
started

under a resolution

passed

at the last

Congress,
tion,

By encouraging

decentralisation of produc-

we hope

to reduce the maldistribution of of the villagers

wealth

develop the personality
their inborn talents

and release
If

for the

good

of

humanity.

we succeed
and

in this, jealousy,

cut throat competition
will

voracious

search for

markets

cease, thus

taking away the basis for violence amongst

nations,

and ushering

in

peace

and goodwill among men,
1935.)

(Bombay Chionicle December

Kazan

Electric Press,

Rajahmundry.

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