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TK 2000.K36
Theoretical elements of electro-dynamic

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1924 022 816 296

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VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY. A.A. Associate BIember London Institution of Electrical Engineers. 1893. SPON. Vice-President American Institute op Electrical Engineers.. Vol. New Yoek: D. KENNELLY. I. E. STRAND. London: E.S.R.THEORETICAL ELEMENTS OP ELEOmO-DYMMIO MAOHINEEY. 125 & F. . F. N.

^'^^v £ .

.P R E F A. O npHIS -* E. The groundwork only can be said to have been completed within the limits of these covers. guished from the purely mathematical theory of this great and important subject. Tolnme is a collection of a series of articles recently pubHslied in the " Electrical Engineer " of New York. writer's desire The and intention has been to develop engineering the applied or as distin- for students of electrical arithmetical theory of electro-magnetism.

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electric currents. By . a particular kind of stress.THEORKTIOAL ELEMENTS OF ELECTRO-DYNAMIC MACHINERY.." but the term is commonly applied to the space which separates the poles of an electromagnet. 2. iron. ways 1. By the influence exerted on the molecular structure or molecular motion of a number of transparent substances whereby the plane of propagation of luminous waves is rotated in traversing them. and cobiilt. and magnets. The masrnetio metals. In other words they become magnetic and remain magnetized. stored there while the field is maintained. 4. and released at its subsidence. when submitted to this stress. Chapter I. : the magnetic attraction or repulsion of magnetized substances introduced within the field. but which or are at least accompanied by. This stress may reside in matter or in the air-pump vacuum. nickel. or region pervaded by magnetic stress is a " magneticfield. By the electromotive forces that are found to be generated in matter moved through the field. Magnetism is the science that deals with a series of phenomena whose ultimate nature is unknown. not only intensify it in their own substances. Any magnetized space. 3. The only known sources of magnetic action are three. By the electromagnetic energy which is found to be absorbed by the medium during the establishment of a magnetic field. viz. Magnetic Flux. The existence of stress in the field is evidenced in several result Irom. electrical charges in translatory motion. but are strained in such a manner as to sustain the stress independently to a greater or less degree after the existing cause has been withdrawn.

Flux in a magnetic circuit. g. and kept advancing from point to point in the direction it assumed at each instant. If a small compass-needle were introduced into a magnetic field. and were set circulating in a closed frictionle^s . The marked distinction.6 unit in the open cuuntry ar^juud pipe. but follows closed paths. if unchecked by resistance but regulated in quantity by other limitations and if water were itself f rictionless. . between the flow of magnetism. or coils of wire. and the flow of electricity or of fluid material. it would necessarily continue in perpetual motion. but the magnetic flux acts as electrical currents or material currents might act. s. or the flow of water in a closed pipe or re-entering channel. All that is essential to the conception of a magnetic flux is a continuous stress acting along a closed path or circuit. just as in a hydrostatic. a field of unit intensity will exert unit pull or one dyne. consideration left to the theory of the ultimate and fundamental nature and origin of magnetism. in any magnet. These experimental evidences point to the action of magnetic stress pervading the magnetized medium. The electric current and the moving liquid encounter resistance and develop heat in moving against that resistance. lies in the fact that no work is done and no energy exchanged in the passage of the magnetic current.3 Theoretical Elenenti of Electro-Dyiiamie Machinery. It of course by no means follows that any circulating motion of matter. upon an isolated unit magnetic pole introduced therein. The intensity of the earth's magnetic flux is approximately 0. system. its appurtenance to the category of fluxes. or let us say as the nearest representation in fact. one pole of a long bar magnet) were introduced into this path it would be continually urged round the circuit. actually takes place in a magnetic That there is a possibility of such motion is a circuit. A line of stress is a closed loop like an endless chain. absolute c. or of ether. however. there is a distribution of influence analogous to the flow of current in an electric circuit. or magnetized region. it would finally return to the position from which it started. such that a single magnetic pole (if such could exist alone. or electric circuit. This can only be shown in the case of fields established by electric currents in wires. and can therefore be completely specified by a According to the conventions established in the vector. as the needle could not complete its circuit through the mass of an iron magnet. possesses at each point intensity as well as direction. Moreover the stress never terminates at an intersecting boundary. The circuital distribution of the stress indicates That is to say.

For example.6 milligramme (a dyne being about 2 per cent. In ordinary language. The total quantity of flux that will pass through a given normal plane area. and is. from frequent misapplication is apt to be so ambiguous that it is advantageous to dispense with it in this sense. The north or blue end of a small compass needle points in the direction of the field surrounding it.6 dyne. and consequently. greater than the earth's gravitation pull on a milligramme of matter). multiplied into the area. The direction of a magnetic flux is the direction in which it would move or tend to move a free north-seeking pole. According to this convention it follows that the earth's flux is from the geographical south towards the geographical north pole. 3 New York. a vector denoting direction as well as magnitude. a plane area of say 150 sq. (jj >s^ -' I to follow the direction of a flux. it will contain 90 The word induction. If the intensity varies from point to point. If the plane area does not intersect the flux at right angles the flux enclosed will be the averaije intensity. multiplied by the area of the boundary as projected on a plane sity . a single north-seeking or unit pole suspended in that neighborhood would be drawn downwards in the direction of the dipping needle with a force of 0. is the product of that area and the inten- when the latter is uniform. Also. held near New York perpendicularly to the direction of the dipping needle will contain 150 x 0. or 90 units of flux. cms. which would represent the weight of nearly 0.6. thetotal flux will be the average intensity ovtjr the surface. but it is quite possible to measure the pull exerted by a magnetic field upon some definite system of electric currents or magnets.Tlieoretical Elements of Etectro-Dynamio Machinery. Practically it is impossible to obtain an isolated unit pole. strictly speaking. numerical intensity of the flux in the neighborhood of the point considered. while to oppose it is to move negatively. is to move along it in a positive direction. ever. Flux intensity is denoted by the symbol -B. and to deduce what the corresponding This would be the pull would be on a unit magnetic pole. howlines of force or of induction.

4 Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Macliinery. or (4) over any conceivable surface into which the diaphragm c d e g could be expanded. intersecting perpendicularly. if due precaution be taken to attach signs to emerging -J. it is evident that q) =^ a JB cos 6 Finally if _B. the total flux could be found by dividing the areas into a sufficiently large number of small portions. (3) over a surface fctretohed tightly across the boundary. may be plane. This is shown in Fig. In other words the total flux would be the surface integral of the normal intensity all over the area as expressed by the equation H 9> = — / S. This general result is independent of the form of the surThis surface face round which the boundary is described. Then if this sphere does not enclose any — — S source of magnetism current or magnet we may follow out the plan above indicated and take the surface integral of flux: (1) over the lesser spherical area cdegh. Sn ds. 1 where a b c d represents an arbitrary boundary drawn on a plane surface whose normal e makes an angle d with the vector g h. consider the spherical surface represented in Fig.flux. Any element of flux not passing through the boundary must then — — — + . and the flux through each could then be determined separately. The total flux enclosed by a b CD will be the product of the length g h into the area a' b' c' d' which is the projection of A b c d on a plane normal to g h. and _B would be more and more nearly uniform within the limits of each. cp the total flux. 2. The result will in each case be the same total flux. warped. varies from point to point. and to an entering -|. Let this surface be definitely located in any permanent field in a flux that does not vary with time but which may be quite irregular in intensity. or convoluted. and JB the intensity. instead of being uniform throughout the space covered by the area. determining the values of d and for each. Draw any closed line c d e g round the sphere. (2) over the greater sphf-rical area c d e G k. By taking the area small enough.flux. The sum of these fluxes would be the total flux enclosed by the whole boundary area. and this vector represents the uniform flux intensity in direction and magnitude. "We may assume that the vector is known or can be determined for every point. whicli might be termed the equivalent normal area. Calling the area a b c n a. As an example.

expansion.Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Mncldnery. generation. is rate. In the above instance of Fig. . will cancel out from the re- This proposition. 5 cut the surface an even number of times. capable of indirect experimental veritantamount to the statement that magnetic flux neither expands nor condenses in its passage through bodies. unless at that moment. however its direction or intensity may vary. 2. half in entrances and half in emergeuces. In this respect magnetic flux behaves like the flow of an incompressible fluid. ments having opposite signs sult in pairs. 2. it is evident that the flux which enters the area c d e g in the direction of the arrows must be issuing from the volume c d e g K at the same rate if accumulation or dissipation is not at work within. and the summation of these cle- FiG. or annihilation be taking place within the confines. condensation. must have come in through the boundary c d e g. Because the flux which is steady in regard to time must be entering into and emerging from any portion of spaoe at the same fication. and the quantity which in any given time issues from the spherical surface without having also eatered there.

Chapter II. That is to say. the steepness of the grade being the flux intensity. just as in the case of contour lines on a map of levels . signs are here appended in order to preserve the convention that the direction of the flux shall be down grade. Ant steady distribution of magnetic flux is subject to a potential except within the substance of conductors carrying electric currents. each point being invested with its approThe direction of maximum priate magnitude and sign. and the whole flux will be normal to it. we therefore erect everywhere an imaginary numerical scaffolding. the closer will be the successive equipotential surfaces. The plane normal to the direction of maximum gradient will also be the local plane of no gradient or of level potential. they will be equipotential surfaces. gradient in the scaffolding at any point. If surfaces are formed by the colligation of all points having equal potentials. it is possible to assign to each point of the field a numerical value. The negative . the intensity is the reciprocal of the distance between adjacent surfaces whose potential differs by unity. spreading apart again where the intensity is low. In recognizing a distribution of potential in space. so that where the flux density is great the surfaces follow in rapid succession. There will be no flux in the plane tangential to such a surface. In fact. shall represent the corresponding component of flux intetisity in that line. or rate of change in any direction. a condition condensed into the notation where P B = — VP. such that its gradient. Magnetomotive Force and Potentials. It is also evident that the steeper the grade. or the direction in which the potential falls. is the direction of the flux. as represented by the equation : is the potential and n the distance measured along the normal to the equipotential surface.

not at the axis itself. in other words. 500 units (ergs) per centimetre of distance. or 7. and they have no exterior boundary. The current is supposed to be passing upwards through the wire from the plane towards the reader. They commence. The simplest instance is probably that of an indefinitely long straight wire of circular section carrying a steady -A-r current. terminate at infinity. lines per square centimetre.958 c. units (79. The traces of 10 or. 3 represents a plane drawn perpendicularly . say. G. we shall proceed to examine its distribution in a few cases. since the absolute unit of current in the electromasinetic system is 10 amperes). but at the surface of the wire. however.58 amperes. The equipotential surfaces for such a wire are radial planes through the axis.r.Theoretical Elements of Mectvo-Dynmnio Macldnery. s. such radial planes are shown equidistant in the diagram. s. because v/ithin the substance of the conductor there is no potential. through such a wire. The reason for selecting this particular current strength is merely to secure graphical simplicity. t If the maximum gradient of potential at a given point is at the rate of. the flux density at the point will be 500 c. As the conception of magnetic potential has important practical applications. g. carrying a current of 100 / 4 . Fig.

The potential of any plane is thus capable of an indefinite number of values successively differing by 100. Since the flux density is the rate of fall of potential. It is evident from the figure that the distance between any pair of equipoteutial planes increases uniformly with the distance from the axis and since the flux is inversely . and that it must be at each point normal to the radial plane or tangential to the circle drawn through The flux will the point and concentric with the wire. we find. it is clear that b must have the direction down grade. negative. the unit planes. and complete a circle round the wire. Also. for any number of turns. P— P— . P. the potential is cyclic and multiijlex. The gradient is definite. . If we follow the potential down grade from plane to plane. and a few of these whose number is unlimited are represented in the figure by free north.8 Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Macliinery. no determination of its absolute numerical value from the conditions of the problem. and so on. now assumes the potential 100. proportional to the distance of these planes. then the conditions deterthat of 10 mine that the potential of o C will be 20 and so on. and vte may therefore assign to this plane any numerical value we please. it would of course be possible to insert nine equidistant and intermediate planes whose potentials would differ by one unit in succession. it follows that the intensity varies inversely as the distance from the axis. we find that the plane o b. or zero but having once selected it. Between any two succeso D will be sive planes here represented. a second oircuitation finds this potential changed to 200. This cyclic property is characteristic of magnetic potentials. In other words. and on each of these the potential has a constant value. positive.seeking polo brought to the dotted lines. Call the potential of o b. which are typically radial-planed. representing definite intermediate fractional potMitials. Selecting any one plane as o b. while any number of other planes might again be crowded between . which are typically represented by successive envelopes round a common nucleus. but the absolute elevation above datum is indeterminate. as opposed to electric or giavitational potentials. any point of the field would be carried by the flux round the circle passing through that point in the direction of the A arrows. as shown by the arrows. which at the outset had the potential P. however. thus be confined to concentric circles. the whole system immediately assumes definite numerical configuration. P— P— .

P _ we have : P. it is possible to have flux where no system of ])Otentials can exist. = P— 2 c 0. For example. f. current-conveying wire. or by 2 c per radian (A 7C \ oOU per degree of common measure. M. d and r the polar co-ordinates of any point a. m. and consequently there must be m. except on the axis itself. magnetomotive force is that which produces flux. and in all these cases the m. but just as in the voltaic circuit. yet there is flux within it at every point. the m.. and P^ the potential at o a. M. f. and its recognized symbol b. d. In the great majority of cases with which we are familiar. f.Tlieoretical Elements of Electro. it is clear that the potential varies by 4 . F. m. straight. The m. in imitation of the analogous term electromotive force in ihe voltaic circuit. This important quantity.Dynamic Mitchincry. f. or tangential to the circle. or total p. m. G. the flux is subject to a potential such as we have above traced. units is 4 TT c. is that the magnetomotive force in any loop surrounding a steady current of c c. or to be the equiAalent of the difference of potential itself . Outside the wire. f. and it is advisable to observe that potential differences are only a sub-class of motive force. It is conveuient to represent it for brevity by the initials m.r c for one complete circuitation. Then having the potential assumed for o b. and since the potential at any point is dependent only on the angle contained between the radial planes through that point and some point of reference. (potential difference) is 4 . applicable to the case of a long current-conveying wire. between any two points is essentially and numerically. and flux standing to each other in the relation of cause and effect. may be stated as producing the difference of potential. s.r c for each revolution of 2 tt. m. we have only to differentiate the potential there in the direction along the path of flow. one cannot exist without the other. we have observed that no system of magnetic potentials exists within the substance of the long. but no such distribution that its space gradient corresponds to the flux. 9 MAGNETOMOTIVE FOECE. the difference of potential existing between them. f. thus Again. m. m. to find the flux intensity at a : . The simple law of potential. I I Let the plane through o b be the plane of reference.

and carrying a current of 20 amperes (2 c. Suppose the needle suspended horizontally about its axis directly over and 40 centimetres away from a very long horizontal wire lying in the magnetic meridian. f. while P is constant and T c. one along the meridian plane due to the earth's m. m.Dynamic Macldnery. k of current. the others at right angles to the meridian plane.2. Each pole of the needle will therefore be acted upon by two horizontal component fluxes. and 0. is everywhere equal in intensity and normal to these planes within the limits of the distribution. tan~i 0.01 = i/o^uB make an angle tan~i -^ — = 0. The gradient being everywhere <. The direction of deviation will.2 c. we can readily determine the deviating influence of such a current-conveying conductor. current strength divided by half the distance from the axis of the wire in centimetres. in the same manner that the rotation of a nut is related to its retreat or advance upon an ordinary right-handed screw. The flux intensity due to the current at the position occu- From this it follows that the o pied by the needle will be — = —V— = /I 2 2 - 0. G.qual and in the same direction. units). As a practical application of this result. concentrically with the wire.S6. •. m. s. g. This condition is termed a uniform field.04 4. the earth's horizontal component of flux being 0. Also. The resultant of these rectangular components will be = = V'O. 6 — ^— r . s. on account of its geometrical simplicity. B. but the deviation of the north pole will always be related to the direction of the current. and is directed tangentially to a circle drawn through the point. in the normal plane. and also of its practical applications.0. and must necessarily be confined to limited portions of a-n^ B . G. and its direction will . depend on the direction of the current in the wire. The case in which the magnetic equipotential surfaces are parallel. on n.5 = 26° 34' with the magnetic meridian.1. small magnet suspended in its vicinity.. of course. and deflect through this angle on the establishment of the current. The needle will assume the local direction of resultant flux. equidistant planes is of con aider able importance. -^ as = — r . g.10 Theoretical Ele-irients of Electro. due to the ii. flux at any point near a long straight wire carrying a current is equal to the c. s.1.22. and 0.

Strictly speaking the term only applies to a series of equal and parallel conducting rings arranged in close successive order round a tjommon axis. when it is considered that all flux lines are closed curves. the equipotential surfaces being planes normal to the axis. g. 4 represents a plane section through the axis of a solenoid A o b. If these could be rotated about the axis a o b. Fig. and cannot follow straight lines for even one-half of their total circuital length. the flux. Oq the other hand. and the distance between the successive integral equipotential planes will be 1/(4 71 nc) cms. The flux emerging from the extremities completes the external circuit by indefinitely extending contours. and dividing the interior of the solenoid into equal compartments. and is constant (at any one moment.. its representative. and the c. a very close approximation to uniformity is secured from solenoids of convenient practical dimensions if their length is great compared with their diameter. Elements of Electro. current circulating in the solenoid. will be 1-^1/(4 ttwc) or A Ttnc units of flax per square centimetre. and n the number of turns per centimetre of length. the limits of practical uniformity are retracted and narrowed to the centre of the coil. and as the length of the helix is reduced. The flux becomes divergent in such cases towards the extremities. but the difference between a closely wound spiral and the hypothetical arrangement is The field within an infinitely usually negligible in action. even the most irregular and sharply curved fields can be divided into so great & number of small elements that each may be considered separately as a uniform field. uniform helix of wire was named by Ampere a solenoid. beyond the range of iron or iron ore) within several hundred feet of any locality so far as the most sensitive instruments can discern.Theoretical. The earth's magnetic field represented over the surface of a small model globe would appear to be far from uniform. and the ovals are the traces of a few of the equipotential surfaces that govern the external flux. s. a dumb-bellsbaped system of equipotential envelopes would be formed. £ A . the total flux within it will be 4 ^ nca. 11 magnetic circuit. s. While theoretical uniformity of field would only be attainable within an infinite solenoid. and if the crosssectional area of the solenoid be a square centimetres. If c be the c. The gradient being one erg in this distance.Dynamic Machinery. nc will be the current turns per unit of length. g. but on the actual scale uniformity appears to exist. long Bolenoid carrying a current is uniform. The length a b being taken as 100 cms.

taken as one path at random out of the infinite number possible.12 Theoretical Elements of Eleetro-Dynamia 2Iiichinei~ti. making 2u0 turns in all. diameter of the sphere be 20 cms. The diagram if rewould generate a system of volved about the axis age equipotential surfaces forming planes within the hollow If the sphere. being that of zero potential. Another form of conducting surface which produces a uniform field within the entire space it envelops is Maxwell's ellipsoid. the central plane through o c. and spheroidal envelopes external to it. 4. Fig. The proposition applies to a sphere as a particular case. as indicated by a single dotted line a c b. and the surface be wrapped with ten turns of wire per centimetre of axis. and the surface between each consecutive pair be uniformly wound with the same number of turns of conductor. the surfaces are very nearly planes. and generally . s. will establish to scale the surfaces represented. a current of 0. The sectional area of the solenoid is also assumed to be one square centimetre for convenience. Within the FiG. normal to the axis. If an ellipsoid be divided into slices by equidistant planes normal to one of the axes. G. solenoid. The flux is always at right angles to these surfaces on its passage down grade from b to a. so that the current turns round each slice are equal. current turns 100 per centimetre. 5 represents a plane section through the centre of such a sphere and gives the traces of a few equipotential curves.002357 c. the successive integral surfaces would be represented to scale from 5 ergs positive to 5 ergs negative. and the field very nearly uniform from the centre o to within ten diameters of the ends. the field within the ellipsoid will be uniform.

It is curious to observe that while in Fig. and a continuity of numerical value.ery. another and useful point flux intensity. having any assigned finite magnitude a perfectly uniform field.Theoretical Elements of Electro. have defined the potential as that quantitative property of a point in space. in Fig. 0. and this will everywhere within the sphere. whose gradient is the vector There is. there is a discontinuity of direction only. will then be The gradient -— nc o ergs per cm.Dynamic Macliin. however. the centre. at the surface of the sphere. 13 nc be the current turns per axial centimetre. will be if tial gTT -— o ncx. the potenof any plane through the sphere parallel to the windings. of view from which the conception of potential can be regarded. be the value of This case of the uniformly wound ellipsoid seems to be the only one yet known that will produce throughout the £ Fig. distant x centimetres from. surface continues with a sudden change in shape. The geometrical interior of a conducting surface difficulties in the way of its accurate practical construction appear to have excluded its application from the purposes of measurement. 4 there is an absolute discontinuity at the surface of the solenoid between the internal and external potential surfaces except at the centre o where the zero planes coincide without and within. and which has in reality prior claims to considera- The We . a value independent of the diameter of the sphere. 5.

but would have absorbed work. or by. developed negative energy during the passage . The energy will be stored in the system potentially. the pole would commence to retreat and develop kinetic energy that would find its complete value in a culminating velocity only after having receded to an infinite distance. the potential of a magnetic element or system at a point is the potential energy between that system or element and a free unit north or positive pole there deposited . g. "Whatever energy might be exchanged between the pole and its environment under those As a consequence of this move our ideal free north . while another course diverged to execute one complete turn. and equivalent to.pole would not have retreated.4 n c ergs. If. or in other words that the path could be drawn tight into a straight line without cutting through any current or magnet. however. units. s. the sign depending on the direction of circuitation and of this current. That final kinetic energy would be the potential of the starting point. say. tion so far as regards the historical development of the subject. The definition which follows can.14 Iheoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Mdchinery. we shall have to expend 25 ergs of energy in the process. For if a rectilinear path expended 25 ergs. to one whose potential is -|75 ergs. i. the -f. assuming thajt no other magnetic forces are active on the pole during the journey except those exerted by the body or system considered. the preceding.. on the contrary. due to any mag body or system. Also it is evident that no work would be expended magnetically on. in cowoeying a free unit north pole from an infinite distance up to that point. e. it would have been attracted by the body exercising potential infiuence and not repelled. relation. if left free to move in obedience to magnetic forces. the work done in this passage would be 25 -j. round some current of c c. The magnetic potential at any point. the potential had been negative. netio In other words. for. it is evident that if we unit pole from a point whose potential is. The amount of energy is independent of the path selected between the points. in addition. That is on the supposition that the potential of the point was positive. a pole constrained to move exactly over an equipotential surface. provided that it is not linked with any current or magnet. and will be liberated on a return journey. is the worlc which would have to he mechanically performed solely against vfiagnetic forces. SO ergs -f. be readily proved to be involved by.

for we have seen that the motion would be confined to some equipotential plane. and difiicult to represent graphically or numerically. On this account a pole does no magnetic work in directly approaching or leaving an infinite rectilinear current alone in space. so that a closed current-conveying helix. An important system of flux and potential distribution is that established within an endless solenoid. interior of the ring. f. but confined entirely to the The m.2 c. 6 and 7. unless the axis of the solenoid lies upon a circle. as shown.r times the current turns linked with it. such as ad. q k s. or what is Such practically a helix with its two extremities united. G. but it will be complex. 15 conditions would be altogether independent of the magnetic Bystenij and would take place equally if that system had been suppressed. m. no matter how tortuous the curve its axis may follow. a proceeding which will cancel out the axial component except at very close range. however closely wound. unless before the extremities of the coil are joined. and moved round the wire. Within this closed solenoid there will be a distribution of magnetic potential. In such a system the equipotential surfaces are planes drawn radially through the axis of revolution. The solenoid will then assume the form of an anchor ring. It therefore has no external magnetic potential. But work would commence to be done. and yz. and t u v. will exercise some attractive influence upon a magnetic needle. active within the ring is 4. straight current-conveying wire does not attract a pole. as also the flux it controls. attention has sometimes to be paid to the departure from the strict definition of a solenoid. or 0. one wire be led back to its starting point parallel to the axis. a solenoid completes its magnetic circuit entirely within itself and has no exterior flux. In the practical application of this case. represented in plan and diametral sections by Figs. and a current of 2 amperes circulating. for a helix is virtually a solenoid plus a conductor along the axis. In this case the distribution is simple. and a long. . where n o p is the axis of revolution. and nearly uniform. wx. and energy commence to enter or leave the system so soon as the pole departed from the straight line of approach. just as motion along a spiral is circular plus a translatory advance in the axial line .Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. s. If there were 180 turns of wire on the ring. the closed helix will then be deprived of external magnetic influences. and thus evidence an external flux. sections of the helix surrounding the coil axis G h k. At all ordinary distances.

represent- X X ing a rate of change of potential of 0. f.r per unit pole. the m. m. implies ergs expended on or by a unit pole. pole per degree of revolution round the axis nop. 180 0.16 Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. and when expressed in ergs. The dimensions m .25 ergs units. but the potential at any plane is T-i. M^ L^ T—^ and energy M L^ 1. would be 4 .1257 erg on unit LP Figs. magnetic pole of magnetic potential being afM r-».2.' This will be the total difference of potential for one complete circuitation within the ring. it is important to observe that potential is equivalent to energy -h pole. This gradient is definite. or 45. ti and 7.

and increases or diminishes hj 4: Ttno ergs in each revolution. where r is the radial distance of the point considered from the axis of revolution. page 9. necessarily perpendicular to all the successive equipotential planes must follow circles concentric with the axis of revolution nop. produces throughout its interior exactly the same distribution of potential and flux that a current of no units flowing along the ring's axis of revolivtion indefinitely prolonged would produce throughout all space. but it might be square. and may be selected at will as a starting point. while at any point in the winding space the potential will be that due to the layers outside. having the equivalent straight wire for its axis. provided that its surface was a surface of revolution. 17 arbitrary. that the radial planed system of potentials and circular distribution flux is not dependent upon the cross-section of have thus far supposed it to be circular.Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamio Machinery. the flux . This analogy suggests what is in fact. The field due to the equivalent current along the infinite axis would Prom the results obtained on still reside within the coil. The circular solenoid produces within the finite limits of its interior the condition that an infinite conductor would conductor. JB is nearly uniform in intensity. according to the direction of cirouitation. Once chosen. elliptical. concerning the field surrounding an infinite straight evident that any steady current c making ring of wood or other nonmagnetic material. In a solenoid whose cross-section is of small dimensions compared with the radius of revolution. and each layer be uniformly wound. the potential is evidently cyclic. one for each layer. Within the anchor ring. or . those within the point's axial radius having no influence beyond their surface. varying inversely as the radius of revolution. it is n uniform turns round an anchor establish in infinite space. With reference to what has appeared on page 7. or of any arbitrary shape. but it would be different in circles of different radii. being weakest at the outer side d e r. the flux. the system may be considered as a combination of independent solenoids. the solenoid. the magnitude of _B would be there represented by We . readily proved. If there is more than one layer of wire on the ring. and strongest at abc. The potential in the interior will be that due to the sum of the solenoids. and will be equal for equal circles. and if the cross-sectional area be denoted by a. The intensity will be uniform along any one circle.

the area must be multiplied by the average ji to give the total flux. If. Electricity and Magnetism. or some multiple of 4 n. Vol. within the solenoid will then be 9? = Ba = -. will be the point's potential. or by the flux intensity existing at the centre of gravity of the area. Plaie xviii. or. for the solid angle subtended by the circuit will vanish at any point upon it. The rule for determining the magnetic potential of any circuit at any point is as simple as it is often difficult to numerically apply. J. and let a straight line commencing at this point centre move round the circuit considered. the potentials of superposed loops are superposed. Clerk Maxwell. II. 8 represents a plane section through the axis cod of a circular loop of wire a b carrying a current ' and the 1. This shows that for electric circuits comprised in one plane. Tne trace of its path cut on the unit sphere will form some closed curve and the area of the spherical surface enclosed will be the solid angle subtended at the point by the circuit. Fig. it is usually simpler to calculate the distribution of potentials where it exists. how- ever. in the direction of the current. considered as a thin material lamina. The difficulty in either case is essentially one of summation. This. . for each small element of a current-conveying conductor contributes its own share to the potential or flax at a point independently of all the others. if two or more loops in a circuit stand behind one another when viewed from a point. and deduce the flux from the gradient. is everywhere zero. Also. than to compute the general value of JB directly. so that the radius vector makes reentrant loops on the unit sphere in contouring them. the potential of that plane outside the limits of the circuit. the cross-section of the solenoid be of such shape and dimensions that the intensity varies considerably in different parts of it. Yet in order to determine the distribution of flux existing through space in the vicinity of a given system of conductors.18 Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Maclilnery. and the geometric Biim of all these elementary potentials or intensities is the resultant at that point. the overlapping areas must be added to the total surface T\ithin the boundary. in other words. multiplied by the strength of the current. The general case of potential distribution round a current has been only determined in a comparatively small number of instances of which the foregoing are the simplest examples. Let a sphere of one centimetre radius be described round that point as a centre.

1 ampere?!. units or 19.91. The case applies practically to a single-ring tangent galvanometer. down grade in the direction of + — the arrow. or 24 ergs per unit pole. s. these lines will generate the corresponding system of lenticular equipotential surf aces. and are all finite except the plane a o b which may be extended indefinitely.Theoretieai Elements of Blectro-Dynamia Machinery.r X 1. or total p. . If the diagram be rotated about the axis cod. D. 19 traces of 24 equipotential lines. M. in the magnetic circuit will be 4 . The M. the current in the ring must be 1. and the surfaces are marked from 12 to 12. These commence at the surface of the wire. G. p.91 c. circulating clockwise as viewed from c. and in order to make the particular equipotential surfaces here indicated correspond to successive integer?.

and the potential 2 7ic 2 71 X 1. and just after d being the same. Tlie sum of the solid angles multiplied by their currents for all these elementary rings will give the resultant potential. Starting from any point p on the plane a o b outside the ring. without any discontinuity in the gradient on either side of fer sensibly. The vertical distance of the line D c E above or below. an elementary magnetic circuit or individual line of flux such as p Q E in Fig. At the point o corresponding to the interior plane aob of Fig. The potential is now positive and -). its area of projection on a unit sphere angle. marks the potential at each point of the circuit. At the passage of the median plane. so that the solid angle and potential are here both zero.20 Tlieoretical Elements of Ekclro-Dyiiamic 2Iacldnery. the potential rises abruptly from e to d through 4 TT e units. the surface of the ring vanishes to the eye of an observer at this point. the potential is negative. it is necessary to suppose the ring divided up into a suitably large number of smaller and filamentary circles. each carrying its due share of the current. The same reasoning applies to a coil of any shape made up with separate turns of insulated or uninsulated wire. and the current appears to circulate counter-clockwise. the ring. 9. The instant. 8. it needs modification for those points nearer the ring where the solid angle subtended by its outer edge and inner edge dif- At these shorter ranges. 8. a b c is the perspective view of a horizontal loop. the gradient just before e. opens into view.r c. "We have already seen that each equipotential surfa -e must be so described.12 (the solid angle being still 2 tz). — — — =— =— the ascent. there has been an abrupt cyclic elevation of potential of 4 . The gradient of the line d c e has everywhere a definite value. . making the solid angle 2 n. howevfr. but the direction of the current appearing clockwise. that from any point in it the solid angle subtended by the ring is the same. While this rule accurately defines the potential at any distant point from which the ring appears as a mere circular filament.91 12. when its projection will embrace just half the surface of a unit sphere. As we proceed down grade along the dotted line of b cutting the successive equipotential surfaces at right angles. the aspect of the ring changes. This distribution of potential is depicted diagrammatically in Fig. and the solid increases. It continues to increase numerically until the interior plane a o b of the ring is reached. and numerically equals the intensity J3. that the central plane is passed.

but by pursuing this course. while the average gradient is twice as steep as in the preceding case. and would fall in one circuitation to 2 ti c volts at the zinc pole. with a battery oi 4 tt c volts at o. each carrying a current of units. 10 represents a similar elementary path of flux a b c — — — Fig. It will be noticed that all discontinuity might be avoided if the potential line at r continued along the dotted line towards G instead of rising to the new level. f. threading two rings of wire.2 tt o volts. except that galvanic circuits are usually closed through insulated wires of uniform cross-section and conductivity. Fig. of potential. and at d . that im- pose a uniform gradient or drop in electric potential. at b. assuming that the internal resistance and consequent drop of potential in the battery were negligible. The m.Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. m.r c ergs per unit pole. it would continue to generate a spiral whose successive con- . Tliere would be a cyclic elevation of potential in the battery oi 4 n c volts. in the circuit will here be 2 X 4 tt c There are two discontinuities or 8 . 10. If the circuit were metallic not completed through the ground the potential would start at the copper pole of the battery with a value oi -{. 31 This is precisely analogous to the conditions that would be established if a b c were a galvanic instead of a magnetic circuit.

The apparent anomaly ia due to the continuous superposition of small cyclic elevations. 13 and 13. within the solenoid and sphere. 4 and 5 appears to move up grade. This explains why the flux. In passing along a magnetic circuit through the spires of a coil or solenoid conveying a current c. 4 tt ti c. a b. instead of being abrupt. the line of elevation. The potential is therefore P=2: \ Vx' -f r'J' . similar apparent reversal of current against potential takes place in a series of cells supplying a galvanic circuit. n loe'mg the number of turns per centimetre of circuit. but for the fact that all electric potentials are conventionally measured relatively to that of the ground in the vicinity. the solid angle at any point on the axis COD distant x centimetres from the centre o. there is a cyclic elevation of potential equal to 4 . Tlie potential would then be continuous but multiplex. for a larger number of closely ElK. 12. and the cross-section of the wire being so small that the current may be considered filamentary without practical error. contrary to rule. in Figs. which precludes multiplex values and makes cyclic discontinuity the necessary alternative. and the potential may be considered to descend uniformly. is readily A found to be 2 tt ll \ Vx^ + r'l V r being the radius of the circle a o b.Theoretical Elements of Eleatro-Dyuamic Macliinery. would appear to have a definite gradient. Similar conditions would apply to the galvanic circuit.r c at the plane of each spire. associated turns.r e units apart. volutions would be 8 . Engineer Figs. Fig. 11. For two spires the elevation would evidently be of the type shown in Fig. Returning to Fig. 8. 1 1 . but to be increased hj 4 7t7ic per centimetre of coil. namely.

Phil. that on the median plane a o b. within the ring. the distance between the equipotential surfaces will everywhere be doubled. 13. or the surface integral of B. 23 The gradient of this or equals the intensity the centre o where a. Let be the radius of a circular wire over whose cross-section a o b. is also a complex expression. the interior of a current-conveying conductor. It is worth passing attention to notice the distribution of flux in a case where there is no system of potential. the current is uniformly distributed. — — and numerically {x'-[-r)i is 77^. Mag. Fig. dx . halving li everywhere.Tlieoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic 2Iiichi. £ at any point on ^ becomes is 0. yet as regards the axis. At the axis o. is a maximum at o. and employed as a tangent galvanometer superposes on the earth's intensity in the line a o n. but from this point outwards the flux steadily increases. however. JS being the c =: '- earth's horizontal from which the usual tangent galvanometer formula. for along o c or od the surfaces separate out as they recede from the median plane. leaving the aggregate flux twice as great. Although there are several methods for evaluating them. '91. cod. Dec. Professor Perry. The total flux threading the wire. as already mentioned. the intensity at o directed along cod. mum at the centre o for the and +11 are furthest apart at — ^ R — — 1. The solid angle and potential of the ring cannot be so simply expressed for a point not situated on the axis of the ring. there is no flux.. all involve the use of convergent series whose terms have to be summed until the desired approximation is attained. •' the line . It increases directly with the linear dimensions of the loop. At A ring set in the magnetic meridian. and a small its magnetic needle placed there will set along the resultant of these two rectangular the angle of deviation we must have coil's intensity fluxes. the intensity is a mini- equipotential surfaces 11 that point. . magnetic axis If be 2 TT c r earth's intensity 11 intensity. At any point p.* It is evident from the figure. for by doubling the scale of the diagram. but quadrupling the area through which it flows.nery.

the current in the external cylindric shell of radii and r.34 Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. m. The m. potentially so that the . f. produces no influence. and the intensity is that which would be produced at the surface of a wire of radius r having the same current density. distant r from o. in any circle of flux 4 'ii\ but this cannot be distributed gradient shall coincide with S. This intensity from what we have seen on page 9 would be R 2c/r"V The 2cr with the axis is flux takes place in circles all concentric of the wire.

difficulty. by determining the total reluctance in the circuit.. which are uniform cylinders or are considered as such. it very frequently fails in practical application. insulator. while reluctance acts as a regulator of flux only. the determinations of reluctance and resistance substance would have unit specific are essentially alike. m. and Permeance. This is incidental to the fact that there is no known magnetic the M. the gradient B. whose lengths are variable. of resistance in the galvanic. almost always divergent and irregular. R F=M a -=-. proceed to find the distribution of potentials (assuming that such existed). might.Chaptee Reluctance III. F. on the contrary. in accordance with results thus far obtained. owing to the difficulty in detail with the calculation of reluctances. But there is another method more direct and comprehensive. gives the flux as quotient. The problem of finding the reluctance of a circuit is generally similar to that of finding the joint resistance of a bundle of metallic wires all connected in parallel. Magnetic paths are. for they commonly belong to wires. M. f. A . it exchanges the electrical into thermal energy. ideally at least if not practicably. Reluctance is thus the analogue in the magnetic circuit. This reluctance. divided into the m. M Resistances in the galvanic circuit are usually easy to determine numerically. that while resistance checks the flow of current. "We are now enabled to apply Ohm's law to the mag- In order to determine the we B netic circuit in the form the reluctance of the circuit. with the distinction already referred to in Chapter I. and Simple as is the rule. which will enable the flux to be found. and then calculate the surface integral of over an area drawn once across the circuit. from this.. flux in a magnetic circuit. and that is. and whose individual cross-sections Apart from this numerical differ from point to point. and easy of recollection by its analogy to the fundamental law of the galvanic circuit. where F is the flux.

As an example. In other words. the total reluctance will be -JE1_ a The 4: M. . when a block of it one centimetre cube. flint. already discussed in Chapter II. and an area of a square centimetres. and the reluctance . would establish unit intensity in the interveninar space. M.2832. unit reluctance is that of one centimetre cube of space in the airpump vacuum. and since the 2 4 . let the ring have a mean radius of 50 cms. and r to be so large compared with the ring's thickness that the intensity which we know to be greater at the inner and lesser at the outer circles. let us consider a closed circular solenoid of the anchor-ring type. g. In reality the difference between the reluctance of space in the exhausted air-pump receiver. and a section of 5 square cms. separating two opposed parallel faces one centimetre apart. .26 Theoretical Elements of Ekctro-Dyruimic Macliinery. copper.. times the current turns on the ring.016.200 = 3.. Also suppose the mean radius of the ring to be r centimetres.. or 71 JSIc. there will be a square centimetres in parallel.r total length of circuit (a circle of radius r) is tt r. resistance or resistivity. may be taken as uniform through the ring without sensible error. would oiler oue unit of resistance between two metallic plate electrodes pressed against opposite faces. and nearly all substances except the magnetic metals. and the flux — —2 7T = r r the result obtained in Chapter II.r X 1^0 X 1. If uniformly wound with 1. . 2 TT X 50 — G. As an example of applying the principle of reluctance to magnetic circuits. for which one c. k will be 4 -.200 turns of thin wire carrying a current of two amperes. M. giving a reluctance per centimetre A N of path = — is . Let the cross-section of the ring have any shape. s. or 0. m. g. ^ .2 c. because the gradient of potential would evidently be one erg on the unit pole per centimetre. the m. Then for each centimetre of magnetic circuit. F. The winding is to have turns. is so small that it may be practically left out of consideration. s. F. M. and that of wood. line of flux will be accorded to every square centimetre of surface. of unity. and through these a current of c units is to circulate.

with sides parallel to the axis of revoluand r.^ The two are mutually Reluctance having its galvanic analogy in reciprocal. 14. we may consider the case of a closed. "The Electromagnet. tion. is. multiplied by the permeance. Thompson. to the determinations of magnetic circuits. because the flux ia denser at the inner portions of the section. m. &o that P= J_. often very useful. The mean path of the flux will be greater than 2 tt r and less than 'A n j but it will not be the arithmetical mean of these two limits. (mhos). f.d p we may find the permeance of each separately. Also. The flux in a circuit is the m. and then sum them all for the total permeance. Silvanus P. circular solenoid whose cross-section is too large. the permeance has to be found by supposing the actual channels divided into a large number of short columns. and after- wards compounding them in series. or ii li' == — P The permeance of a conducting channel in which the lines of flux are parallel. The permeance of the thin ring indicated will be its area h d p divided by its length or 2 tt p. will be 4 n c. By dividing up the section into a large number of thin rings such as that represented between the radii p and p -\. for the assumption of a uniform intensity everywhere will suppose that its section is rectangular. and the height h. m. As before. F= — ^ M P. determining the permeance of each lamina separately.Theoretical Mlements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. the m. comprised between successive equipotential surfaces. divided by the length in centimetres . instance of the application of permeance and its principles. would be the area of the channel in square centimetres. . is another. 27 The flux will thus be — ^ = 480. p. permeance. permeance represents conductance resibtance (ohms). shown in Fig. and we have to sum As an We R N R 1." page 173. relatively to its radii of revolution. as within. Let the radii be let the winding layer be so thin that the amount of flux in the substance of the conductor need not be considered. and if we represent the latter by the symbol P. but as such uniform channels are rarely encountered. and the mean intensity 5 Closely related to the conception of reluctance.

—= r 2 JVch log. . with c 1 ampere or 0. — r Fig.1 N= = = = = .1 unit . This will be the formula to employ for a closed circular solenoid of rectangular section. J/= 4 . is these terms between the radii r and li.3 X 500 X 0.33 all Tlieoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Macldnery. and 500. As an illustration. let -K 15 cms. this the integral given by R dp _ jLlog. r 10 A 5 . when the simpler expression already given is not sufficiently accurate for the purpose in view. 14. 2 ^ r Ttjr representing the total The flux in the solenoid P permeance is 2 7Z F= 4: TclSTc 27t ^ log.r 628. = .

The conditions for the maximum total flux are often adverse to the development of a high intensity. roughly speaking. £9 The permeance P= SO that — -— I^= MP = 6. with the linear dimensions of a geometrical system of conductors. will be definitely circuits. or combination determined. and that a steady current is flowingthrough them. For a given besides that due to a longer exterior path..3 X x 25 loa.Theoretical Elements of Electro. cms. we should have obtained -p^ 2 X 500 X 0. m. It we imagine all theequipotential surfaces properly described. Although the difficulties that beset the numerical determination of reluctances are generally prohibitive. Suppose that any arrangement of coils or wires is fixed in sp. 12 5 or we would have underestimated the flux by about 1^ per cent.Dynamic Jlachinery. with a mean radius r of 12. we had been content to enii>loythe previous formula. bad been increased three times. and a cross-sectional area of 25 sq. in each magnetic circuit will be the same. per ampere of circulating current.112. If the scale will have been altered in the same ratio. there will be. Practice in the measurement of magnetic circuits trains the eye to form an estimate of the flux that a coil will emit.2832 628. f.1 X 25 ^ ^^^ ' and the mean ^= 8.5. 202.3227. Then if the linear dimensions of the whole system be suddenly increased. an additional reluctance in the solenoid of — where I is its axial length and a its cross-sectional area. in a given the permeif its scale of construction be altered ratio ances of each circuit. Thus it is evident that the flux through a single circular turn of wire carrying nc amperes must be greater than that through a long solenoid of the same diameter. the values of the intensity and of the flux in the of circuits.ice. or corresponding portion of a circuit. short coils of large area emit the greatest flux.8 with a mean i?of2-^= If 8.0. Permeances vary directly. number of turns.3227 ^ —= = 0. for although the m. or diminished. ]0 0. the relative arrangement — — . having n turns through which a current of e amperes circulates. the ideas it embodies and suL'grests are often valuable in dealing with magnetic circuits. and reluctances inversely.

each elementary path of flux will have been lengthened three times. May. The lessened intensity will.30 Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. flux in a circuit of a given form. so that its reluctance will be three times less and its permeance three times more. and the aggregate flux will therefore be three times as Or. but corresponding distances being everywhere trebled. the altered in the same proportion. if the flux is once determined for a magnetic circuit. of equipotential surfaces will not have been affected by the change. will be proportional to the length of wire it contains. gested by the conception of permeance. Consequently.! The influence of iron will be subsequently considered. 1S92 . from the point of view suggreat as in the original. With this assumption. however. but enlarged nine times in cross-section. the gradient of potential will be three times less. Vide a paper by Carl Hering before the Franklin Institute. 1. and current carried. number of turns. be carried through areas that will be all correspondingly increased nine times. it increases directly with the dimensions or This implies that the diameter of the conductors is scale.

. we will select that geometrical system which we know establishes a uniform intensity. are all essentially deter minate quantities. and wound with Nc current turns.Chapter IV. circuits surrounding electric currents. such as we have defined them. except within the substance of the active conductors . there will be a distribution of potential wherever there is a flux. and consequently the intensity. Now suppose the wooden ring exchanged for one of iron having the same dimensions. . Then by the results of Chapters IV and VI we luay consider that we have everycircuits We have devoid of We We — — where withm the wood au intensity . The InfMence of Iron in and on the Magnetic Circuit. thus far confined our attention to magnetic iron. . . m. and these two. depending only on the strengths of the currents. whose magnitude would depend on the quality of the iron. had everywhere increased in some ratio. merged together. which we . and permeance. The iron alters in no way the original system. now proceed to consider the effects of introducing iron into magnetic circuits. so that the elements of the circuits. fx. and the manner . and far removed from any of the magnetic metals. but superposes upon it a new system. which the original one has induced. . have seen that in all such circuits. Suppose this to be constructed of wood. f. We should find experimentally that the flux. . and their geometrical arrangement. . or —Nc — 1 -^ . The first evident effect following the introduction of iron into a circuit is an increase in the flux. that this potential and flux can always be determined by rule. . flux density. namely m. may call the prime intensity. In order to examine this under the simplest conditions. (including potentials). flux. the value of the prime intersity. however difficult the numerical calculation may happen to be. It will be seen that the changes thus effected are not fundamental but superstructural. reluctance. form a composite system whose resultant effects are presented to view. and in a direction of uniform curvature a closed circular solenoid with a mean radius r and a small crosssectional area a. .

for. m. f.) There are only two ways in which the flux in this circuit can have been augmented by the substitution of iron. f. For conductors in general. if the excitation on it had been increased from JSFa to jj. and . f. of course.. Either by an increase in the permeance. F. resistance of a wire might just as well be considered as due to the effect of a counter b. the reluctance of iron is not constant as is the resistance of metals in the galvanic circuit at uniform temperature. a residual flux exists If we are to retain the definition that ii. m. All that we can observe is a fall of pressure along the wire. and its practical advantage is decisive. e. f. f. or by an increase in m. in the iron. in whicli that prime intensity had been brought to bear upon the iron. f. remaining constant. f. m. to lA. the M. it is found that after the current has been interrupted in the solenoid. m. survives the working current. precisely the same effects would be produced within the wood. but so far as the magnetic circuit and its various elements are concerned.32 Theoretical Elemeiils of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. m. m. and a distinction can only be effected in these instances by observing that the drop in pressure is not uniform in distance. or that residual b. such as tliat existing in the arc lamp. JVb current-turns. f. With the magnetic circuit of iron it is otherwise. was long ascribed entirely to resistance. largely due to counter E. It is therefore more probable that the increase in flux is due to m. but varies with the conditions of the circuit while on the other hand. Here as well circuit. f. the F prime permeance unchanged. where the drop in pressure. or to its numerical equivalent o r. flux stand in the relation of cause and effect. the magnetic structure and molecular condition of the iron must be different from those in wood. produced in a definite relation to the current strength. But leaving these influences for later consideration. the principle of resistance is much simpler than that of its numerically equivalent counter e. however. m. Since the maintenance of flux does not imply in the iron. and this might be ascribed either to opposing b. with. f.. assuming the change in flux to be due entirely to diminished reluctance. Physically. in direction. m. (10 JVb to 10 /^ JVc ampereturns. m. m. purely as in the corresponding case for the galvanic numerical considerations afford no choice be- The electrical tween the two alternative hypotheses. m. f. induced in the iron and coinciding with the prime m. There are cases. it follows that there is residual m. we should find that the flax had increased from There would be no other magnetic change.

has increased /x times. the uniform prime intensity of flux in the solenoid. a uniform m. m. excites in the iron. 33 expenditure of power. Since the prime m. m. f. f. Similarly M—M= •fv . which will exist in every centimetre of iron under stress along the circuital path. m. According to these principles. when introduced. the induced ii. P. tlais does not violate any law conneoted with the conservation of energy.Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machi. in the iron must be jn 31 {/x—l).

f. F. 18r3. On interrupting the current in the solenoid. — times greater. m.* Fig. but under favorable conditions. If this particular intensity were produced in the interior of a closed circular solenoid. the complete introduction of Norway iron of this quality into the core would raise the intensity to 16. Ewing. the factor of augmentation due to the presence of iron depends upon the chemical and physical structure of the latter. and that in the circular solenoid it corresponds to the uniform fall of potential per centimetre of circuit. and on the other hand a result as low as 1. /^ is seen to be 1. M. and the total m.. m. "Magnetism in Iron. S. f.000 ergs per unit-pole. and thus withdrawing the prime system.000 for about 16 c. Rowland. m. would have been 3. F.200. Phil. per centimetre of circuit would be raised from 16 to 16. but suffers to a greater or less extent when the excitation is withdrawn.85 has been reached under very exceptional conditions. The second is the induced system jj. lines per sq. this induced m. prime system that would exist if the ring were of nonmagnetic material. value as high as 4.. Prime intensity is commonly denoted by the symbol S. know that this is the gradient of potential.. and its flux on the returning path that completes this local circuit. cm. cm.000 lines per gq. flux and intensity remain. May. 15 gives some curves of values for fx with several qualities of iron. may be conserved. 1. the exciting m. while it is materially reduced by small degrees of impurity.34 Theoretiaal Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. or the flux per square centimetre that would exist if the iron were removed and replaced by non-magnetic material. it is greater as the iron is softer and more nearly pure." page 139. The numerical value of jx. we have to add one more link to the chain of consequences. The abscissae represent prime intensities. If we next consider circuits partly composed of nonmagnetic material.000. as much as 95 per cent. especially when these consist of carbon or manganese. If the circumference of the ring were 200 cms. d. For a given prime intensity. and take into consideration the demagnetizing influence of the iron on itself. induced in the iron establishes its own local magnetic circuit independent of the prime system. and partly of iron. {11= 16). and the p. after introducing the A We iron 3. in Norway iron.600 ' has been recorded for Norway iron in a particular case. . G. s.200. For example. Strictly speaking the induced system does not remain complete. The M.

Theoretical E^niuiitu of Eli-c<ro-Uyuainic Machinery.' —m A" \- .

16 and 17 represent the effect of placing in a uniform flux. happened to be 2001. p. the induced distribution of potential would be approximately that indicated by the closed curves to the scale of inverted numbers. and it penetrates the iron with an influence equal to that of prime flux with the same intensity. with JI=: 1. By rotating the diagram about the axis a o b. axis with Ji Outside the bar the flux completes the local magnetic circuit of the induced system by curved diverging paths from right to left. duced in the bar instead of taking the value IT (fi 1) which we know it would assume if there were no counter- — . return flux outside the bar. apart. The prime distribution of equipotential parallel planes is indicated by the dotted lines 10 cms. M. The induced M. Thus where the surfaces of 700 and 300 ergs cut the bar. The induced system would be similar to the straight solenoid or helix in Fig.^00 to 700. tends to neutralize the excitation of the prime flux. reached in the iron at each point is such that it is just fA. Figs. in cross-section. The external potentials are indicated only from -f. or 80. and 20 n square cms. page 12. where the external fall of potential is most rapid. entering the iron in the reversed direction. and the bar with this distribution could be replaced by a solenoid of the same dimensions without iron. from left to right. due to the external flux. they are rather less than 5 cms. these curves will generate the corresponding equipotential surfaces. lOOOOO or current-turns m all. But the bar could never attain this distribution. 1 times the resultant of the prime and induced — counterflux. Within the bar the equipotential surfaces would be planes perpendicular to the 2ij01 from left to right. The mean value of Ji in this length will be 5 . a soft-iron bar 50 cms. and The result will be that the flux inleast near the centre. If the = /< for the iron composing it. 4 discussed in Chapter II. and since the gradient is 10 ergs-per-unit-pole in this distance. c o D is now introduced with its axis parallel to JB. or 80 times more poviferf ul than the prime flux to which it is opposed.38 Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. long. owing to the counteracting influence of its own external return There is no magnetic insulator which will keep this flux. and having value of — = 2000 — current-turns per cm. This demagnetizing influence would be most active near the extremities of the bar. -B The bar 1. apart.

for the sake of illustration. may be such that the modi- the induced system . Even if the prime flux be uniform. as determined by experiment. 37 acting return flux— that is.Theoi'etkal Elements of Mectro-Dynamic Macli tlicnj. will also be in generaf a variable. in the iron usually becomes very complex. and the value of /< corresponding to their resultant or combination. may assume that the relation of jx to varying values of IT. In the case of Fig. waive all attempts at accurately depicting the resulting induced system left in the bar under the combined We influences of the prime and its own return fluxes. 17. 16. so that — — Fig. we may. if the bar formed the core of a closed circular solenoid rises to the value at which it is }i 1 times the local 11 or resultant of the prime and induced distributions. the induced return flux will generally vary from point to point.

For instance. lines still indicate the prime equipotential planes. If we add together at all suitable points the potentials of the prime and final induced systems. fied potential is everywhere 10 times less than the unmodified potential would have been. and is independent of. Broadly. bundles of rods arranged everywhere parallel to the flux. the prime equipotential surfaces are displaced. one in the equatorial plane. on this circle. The flux is intensified along the line of the axis. At their intersection n n a neutral circle is formed. That is to say. the scale being altered to the upper numbers. from the currents and their geometrical arrangement. f. the prime system. by the introduction of a wedge. brings no additional intricacy of process.33 Theoretical Elements of Electro. and the curved lines the resultant system. 17. while it may add numerical complexity. we obtain a new series of equipotential surfaces represented in Fig. the points s s situated on the prime plane 30 will have a reof -j. and a small compass needle would not assume any selective direction. At all points on this circle the flux vanishes. is (yu 1) times the value of the resultant intensity due to prime and induced distributions. Then introducing the iron into the circuit. this diagram fairly represents the general effect of introducing a bar magnet or rod of soft-iron into a uniform field. // being a function of the intensity experimentally determight consider the iron as divided up into mined. — — — — We . and the surface of sultant potential of Here the dotted resulting system passes through them. but the removal of these restrictions. m. straight and narrow bar placed lengthwise in a uniform flux .Dynamic Machinery. Notwithstanding the arbitrary manner in which we have simplified and chosen the final induced system. and the other an ellipsoid enveloping the bar. although superposed upon. The surface of zero potential has two sheets. In all cases we have first to determine. as an elastic medium might be. In the above instance we have considered the case of a long. and weakened in the neighborhood of the equatorial plane.20 and the induced surface of 10 in the 10. the final induced system has to be found. such that at every point the induced m. in which case the same distribution of equipotential surfaces here indicated will This apply. the prime flux from left to right just balances in intensity the return flux of the local or bar circuit. is the final condition of the induced system. from right to left. the elements of the prime system with the iron removed. obtained by revolving the radius o n round the axis age.

is inherent and fixed. every molecule of iron may be regarded as an elementary independent magnet. 39 and find the distribution round one rod at a time as though that existed alone. or it may be sustained nearly cqmplete for an indefinite period according to the range of fx in the iron. and usually on the assumption that jx has a constant value. but they are numerically so complex that the elements of a magnetic circuit partly composed of iron. but wherever the demagnetizing flux exceeds a certain intensity depending upon the quality of the iron. Each molecule has a separate magnetic circuit. when superposed upon the prime distribution would yield the resultant system actually developed in the circuit. According to this view. which latter regulates the intensity of the demagnetizing return flux. The induced system may be destroyed in a small fraction of a second. Ewing's theory is the most recent and comprehensive hypothesis accounting for the magnetic behavior of iron. The flux from any one molecular magnet. a magnet A . F. a process of decadence will set in. It is cuits. The demagnetizing influence vrill vary from point to point. no longer submitteil to the prime excitation is exposed solely to its own return flux tending to reduce the residual m. depending upon the distribution of potential and flux in the induced system . They have in fact only been determined in a few simple cases. These conditions of magnetization in iron are readily apprehended qualitatively. in which the M. while extending over the whole system.Theoretical Elements of Eltclro-Dyiiiiinic Machinery. and then superpose the successive distributions from neighboring rods. piece of magnetized iron is physically very different from a conductor carrying a current. free to set itself in any direction under the influences of magnetic flux. Or it might be possible to deal with the iron in mass by some more comprehensive method that would render this long summation unnecessary . the induced system is left active. M. however arrived at. but the final induced system. On the removal of the prime system. but the iron. but magnetically it is a particular aggregation of small magnetomotive forces and as such the corresponding arrangement of conducting loops must always exist. extending the process until every rod had its influence compounded. m. and the form of its circuit. evident that from the standpoint of magnetic ciris equivalent to a particular form of active solenoid. f. cannot in general be computed.

induced in the iron will have r<-. f. will be practically confined in its action to those molecules in closest proximity. p." shall return to We this subject at a later period. so that the resultant M. this theory accounts for the observation that fx does not merely depend upon the magnitude of the prime intensity H. and be equal to the sum of all the molecular m. would be the sum of the m. Beyond this point only the more powerful and enduring arrangements will remain to be reduced. every molecule will be brought into parallelism. There will be a certain strength of flux which will sufiice to destroy a large majority of all the groups. and consequently approximates to the type of a closed solenoid with iron core. Besides offering explanations for a variety of magnetic phenomena. resolved along this line. the magnetic circuit principally of iron. ii. m. In most electromagnetic machines.'s now more or less dispersed. for the molecular disengagements will generally differ if this value be attained by steady increase. f. so that the condition at any moment involves the previous history of the iron. but also upon the manner in which this magnitude has been reached. and brought into more or less direct alignment with the impressed flux. unless experimentally. The result of all the mutual actions will be an aggregation of magnetic circuits in all directions and degrees of complexity. This greatly facilitates the computations. f. the components at right angles to the flux disappearing in the aggregate by cancellation. or gives evidence of what has been termed its " magnetic memory. f. F. m. while a few of the most powerfully united groups will require comparatively great intensities to resolve them. by reversals. At an indefinitely great intensity.. At any intermediate stage.iched its maximum. m. yet the demagnetizing flux is generally smnll compared with is . at first only a few molecules in balanced or unstable equilibrium will be affected and turned into alignment with the flux. If a gradually increasing flux is brought to bear upon the system from an exterior Ji. as well as the more perfect alignment of those already mastered. il Elements of Eledro-Dynmnic Murhinery. At this stage /i will reach a maximum value. In this condition.40 Theoretic. in any one line is zero. Gradually molecules in firmer mutual association will be separated from the configurations they had naturally assumed. the m. for although there is some return flux. or again by overreaching and descent. the induced m. m. M. The iron is then neutral.'s in any one line. whose influence prevents an accurate determination from being arrived at.

and a to the resulting magnetic sufficiently close approximation meet circuit is usually available to practical requirements. the prime excitation. . 4). that the numerical difficulties in determining the resulting system become formidable.Theoreticul Eleiuents of Electro-Dynamic Mackinery. It is only when the circuit has a lesser proportion o* iron and larger air-gaps.

Strictly speaking. like a simple fluid pressure. broadly speaking. . If we consider any point in the magnetic circuit where the intensity is -B. and the stress may be said to exert as negligibly little disturbing influence upon the substances in its path. The resultant pull in this direction will therefore be a tension of — . The effect is ordinarily so feeble that it can only be discovered by placing two substances in a powerful flux. and. as hydrostatic stress might effect upon a sponge immersed in the cylinder of a hydraulic press. Magnetic stress. Stress Distribution. In a perfect fluid at rest. this observed condition is an argument for the existence in it of motion for which flux is the origin. This is the basis of Maxwell's theory of molecular vortices. with a superimposed tension of — dynes per square centimetre in the direction of £. the stress will be represented by a pressure of -— dynes per square centimetre in all directions. matter is apparently unaffected by permeating magnetic flux. This is the fundamental moving power in nearly all electrodynamic machines. all substances appear to have some capability for magnetization. to a positive value or pressure in the perpendicular plane. The flux in a magnetic circuit is accompanied by a condition of stress. or result. associate.Chaptee v. so that the difference of their magnetic properties may enable them to exert a relative displacement. however. Excluding therefore the magnetic metals and their principal chemical derivatives. while repelling each other sidewise. Whatever may be the ultimate cause of this stress. all the observed moving forces that are exerted between currents or magnets may be attributed to its existence. varies from a negative value or tension in the direction of the flux. the stress at any point is equal in all directions. the lines of flux tend to shorten themselves. Assuming then that ether is a perfect fluid.

43 Considering the case of a long straight wire at rest. keeping the axis at rest. 18. far removed from all magnetomotive forces. and consequently the stress. or 4^-A ' .Theoretical Elements of Electro DyniiDik Macliinery. it is evident that the stress set up when a current passes through the wire cannot tend to displace it bodily. is symmetrically distributed in concentric cylinders round the axis. for we know that the flux. will in its own circuit. There will be a uniform pressure on the surface of the wire tending to compress it and reduce its diameter. from portions of line.'J /It A Fig. This pressure in the case of a wire of radius r carrying a current e will be wire's substance. But any flux from neighboring magnetomotive forces. I Y/^ . — r dynes per cubic centimetre of the Thus a straight wire carrying 30 amperes and having a radius of one millimetre would have a . not in its own straight general disturb this symmetry. and give the i wire a tendency to move.

1416 X (0. One. current-carrying wire appearing in section at c.44 Tlworetical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Macliinery. If the parallel lines are one centimetre apart 5 in the first system over the 64 square centimetres of space included in the diagram. is due to a long. surface due to the stress from its 18. 18 represents two systems of potential.432 or 14.32 amperes.1)3 3.73 dynes.1416 cubic centimetre of its Yolume.000 own flux of 5. pressure exerted on its 2X3X3 — = 'mrfwm A Fig.730 dynes per 8. belongs to a uniform intensity. Also since 4 . indicated by the parallel straight lines. 19. and a small element in or near the surface of any shape occupying -j Jj-^th of a cubic centimetre would be forced towards the axis by a pull of Three-fourths of this stress is due in a round 5. to side pressure and one-fourth to the tension along flux paths encircling the surface. straight. The other. -nrire ^= = .r c 18. shown in radial dotted lines. Fig. the current establishing the second system has a strength of 1.

15 and -\. equal and opposite. The point p for example. The current c must therefore be flowing down the wire from the observer. and J?i at any point whose axis vector is p in the plane outside the wire will be defined by the relation ^ G B' = B— — V.573 cm. The general effect is a crowding of the contours between b and c.32 amperes in a uniform prime intensity of 5. The combined flux that influences of the tension along the lines of bend over the wire. the cyclic elevation of potential round the wire is indicated as taking place at the line A o B in the surface of zero potential for the first system. The faint straight lines indicate the surfaces of the first system. 18 on the surfaces of -\. disappear in union. 19. OB. since the nut on a righthanded screw rotating with the arrows would move in that direction.T!ieoreUcal Elements of Electro-Dynamc Macldnery. of the equipotential surfaces surrounding a current of 14. . and here the fluxes from the two systems. their effects will necessarily be combined.5. with a more sparse distribution between c and a. The distance of this + point from the centre of the wire we know to be 2 G -^. The potential is numerically discontinuous at the line cad.B and G are mutually perpendicular. Op. Fig. the resultant intensity intensity. 45 For numerical convenience. and the side pressure from the more crowded flux above. but the gradient is uniform on the sides of the gap so that there is no discontinuity in S. or. The arrows indicate the respective directions of the flux iij the two systems and are assumed to lie in the plane of the paper. which stood in Fig. in represents the prime this instance. are to press the wire down from c towards a with the force expressed in dynes bj the equation P= V. the perpendicular intersection of two equal surfaces there is absolute neutrality. their and . now resides on that of 20. 0. If these two systems coexist. Generally if the vector current. At the point d. In Fig. 19 gives the resulting system. the curves representing the sections in the plane perpendicular to the wire. The intensity is increased above c at the expense of the region below. this relation holds in all cases for a steady. straight current C making any angle with a uniform intensity B.

The simple equation last stated is practically important.148 dynes or 2. one cos^ along the direction of flux. but is inclined to this at an angle 6. if the wire is not straight. or the flux not uniform. 20.19 gi'ammes weight. and uninfluenced by influence P= = B Fia. upon every centimetre of the wire's length. the total magnetic pull would amount to 2.46 TJieoretieal ElemenU of Mectro-Bynamic Macliinery. and acting along c a.432 x 5 7. the other sin0 across the flux perpendicularly.16 dynes is a maximum. and the resultant of all the actions . the pull is svad dynes'per cm. The wire may be reduced to G considered in such a case as having two components. It shows that when the straight wire is not perpendicular to the flux. the whole pull is exerted upon the virtual component of the wire's length at right angles to the flux. 1. In 3 metres of this wire. From this point of view. The pull must then be found for each section separately. stress. it becomes necessary to subdivide the length into such a number of smaller sections that the wire may be considered straight and the field uniform in these narrowed limits without sensible error. Again.

Theoreticiil

Memeiits of Blectro-Dynamic Machinery.

47

In some cases it will be possible to avoid this tedious process by finding an average by inspection in others the rules of the integral calculus will be applicable. But however complex the arrangement in the number of wires or the difference of strengths of current they carry, the fundamental principle is the same, the pull on each element dl oi conductor carrying a current c in an intensity making an angle with its direction, will be c? ^ c sin^ dynes directed perpendicularly to the local plane of J3 and ; and each element acts independently of all the rest. The direction of motion is perhaps best remembered by Fleming's rule, often useful in dealing with motors. If the ^rst ^nger of the left hand points in the direction of fla.'s. (that is by following the north-seeking end of a compass needle), and the bent middle finger, the current, the outstretched thu/wb perpendicular to these will point out the direction of jTJotion. have hitherto assumed that the prime flux was not altered by but merely compounded with, the flux due to the currents in the wire or wires. If, however, the flux of the currents alters the prime distribution, as might take place in the vicinity of iron by the establishment of induced M. M. F.'s, these alterations would have to be accounted for and effected in £, if they are of sufiicient importance to affect the result, in order to arrive at the true moving forces. Fig. 20 gives the resultant potential system for a straight 2.5. wire with O 2.864, and uniform prime intensity has the same value as in the preceding case of Fig. 19, the prime flux being halved, and the current doubled. It is to be observed that notwithstanding the equality of forces in the two instances, the distributions of potential and therefore of flux differ materially. At every point of a magnetic circuit there exists, as we

determined.

;

S

.

.

H

G

We

P

=

S—

iave seen, a tension of

— dynes
8
7t

per

normal to the equipotential surfaces, and
pressure of

— dynes
B^
8
7Z

per square centimetre aotmg uni-

...

square centimetre,
also a lateral

formly in all directions over the tangent plane, the plane with which the equipotential surface at the point locally coincides. Also at every point not occupied by a source of M. M. F., that is, at every point not within the substance of a magnet or active conductor, this distribution of stress is in statical equilibrium, and it would seem that this distribution (or some numerical multiple of the same) is the

48

Tlieoretical

Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery,

only one capable of maintaining equilibrium consistent with the condition of pull along the observed paths of flux. Only within the substance of magnetomotive sources active conductors, and temporary or permanent magnets is this equilibrium destroyed and resultant moving force brought to bear upon the space and substance occupied by the magnetomotive source. If the medium composing the circuit, (wood, copper, air, etc.) were divided into any number of volume elements individual cells of any shape, each element treated as a

/

/

QO

\

\

^ \

\

\
if}

\

)r.

/ /
B.,-

e=*--ctD'^'"-

k
Fig.
31.

in equilibrium under the magnetic and would not experience any resultant force urging it against its neighbors. As an example, let us consider the simple and familiar case of a long straight wire carry-

rigid

body would be

stress,

ing a current C. Fig. 21 represents a section of this wire and the space surrounding it in a plane perpendicular to its length. Suppose another and similar section made through the wire one centimetre further on, so that attention may be confined to the lamina of space one centimetre thick between these planes, surrounding and including the wire. Let a b c d be a small element of this space between

Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery.

49

the radii o c and
circles

od

(including; an angle dff)

and the

c d g whose radii are numerically r and r -\- dr, respectively. The faces a c and b d are equipoteniial surfaces. Their area is 1 (cm.) Y, dr, and the inten-

a e e and

sity

by the

results of

Chap.

II,

JB

se =—

,

is

perpendicular to

Considering the element as a rigid body, it will be subjected to pressures on the faces a b and c d, together with tensions across a c and b d. These four stresses may be considered as exerted at the centres of the respective faces and are indicated by the arrows. They may be reckoned as follows

them.

:

w

50 Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. As soon as a current C is established in this conductor. being inclined to each other at an angle n dd. and the stress varying as its square. and since the same could be proved for any similar small cylindrical element outside the wire. The effect of this — C" dd d r inclination will be a resultant pull of 7C Ir A / . which could certainly be built up of such adjacent elements. it must follow that any larger portion of the space. The proposition arrived at in the foregoing simple case is of general application no matter how complex or irregular the flux distribution may be. while variable intensity always bends so as to keep convex on the weaker side. d rV 1 or ulti- mately — 5 — dynes inwards in the direction t p. but they are not exactly opposed. The element is therefore in stable equilibrium. and may be stated in the following terms. In other words. because the flux is stronger on the inner side. the two effects everywhere maintaining statical equilibrium. the flux distribution from the current will have been superposed upon the prime system. is balanced by the resultant tension in the opposite direction owing to the local curvature in the flux. In fact uniform flux is straight. the divergence of equipotential surfaces implies not only weakening but also bending in the flux channels. would be in similar equilibrium regarded as a whole. in the substance of this wire as well as all round it. more than compensates for the difference in area. On the other hand. dynes in the direction s p. B We . The table shows that there -will be a difference of pres2 7t r (r -\- sure on the inner and outer faces of dry ^—-. that when an inactive conducting wire is situated in a prime flux density B. The resultant system of stress distribution will again be in equilibrium at all points outside the wire. the stress distribution is in equilibrium throughout the tield. or ulti- mately -i — . The resultant side thrust that may be exerted upon any element of the magnetic circuit (not included in the substance of a magnetomotive source) due to the variation of the intensity in or round it. the tensions are seen to be numerically equal. just counterbalancing the resultant side thrust. observe therefore.

33 AND 34. it may be divided into filaments. agreeing with the Practically. These filaments in fact attract each and the resultant forces of the mutual system will depend upon the curvature of the wire. the length of one side being. where is the prime intensity for C 0. in the space 51 but there will no longer be equilibrium occupied by the wire. and rarely needed. For a long straight wire of circular section. C B. 22 represents of electromagnetic force distribution. say. but there will now be a system of mutual forces between the fila- we have P= P= B = OB B P= B FlGS. 8 centimetres. a wire AD CB bent into a square. external resultant 'FI (7B is simple and important. with a current density of units (c. Regarding the wire cross-section as a mere filament without sensible seen that the resultant vector force acting upon it will be V. as well as upon the dimensions of its cross-section. s. G. will be that the prime intensity for any one filament. in addition. 23. G before. It may be advantageous to analyze a few simple systems ments other. while the internal system of forces through the substance of the wire is more complex. The square is supplied by two wires held very close together. will be modified by the flux from all the reiuainiug filaments. When the cross-section of the wire cannot be fairly considered negligible. the force at the surface noticed on page 45. with a current C . each filament in succession. each carrying its appropriate share of The consequence of applying the rule G. to V.) per square centimetre.Theoretical Elements of Electw-Dynamio Machinery. biA applied to the wire to restore equilibrium between its substance and its environment. R P Fig. and this force must. The vector force on the wire as a whole will still by summation be as V. the force on any element of the conductor at radius vector e will be =2 n G^ dynes per cubic centimetre.

c. f. or r G will be the pressure that the wire must at every point longitudinally support. d. and B represented by the arrow o b. and netic force acting on each side of the square due to G will be ^ C-S dynes. m. there would still be a magnetic circuit having its M. or inwards. third. 23. Summing all such elements. Of these three systems. p.53 Tlieoretical Eleinents of Medro-Bynamic Machinery. m. because the two factors. (in this case a symmetrical stress system). its plane is perpendicular to a uniform prime intensity Viewed on this side. or external flux S. a circle a d b is substituted for the square of Fig. represented by the arrows at A. The complete system of forces will then be triple. First a compression of the wire towards its axis due to filamentary attractions.. and third. the The electromagcurrent circulates counter-clock-wise. local flux and local current reverse together. in the turn of current and its flux threading the loop in the same direction as the prime flux o b. In Fig. the first two are evidently not reversible in direction when the current in the square is reversed. These will not be the only forces acting on the wire. The triple system of forces will again be : compression of the wire . for should the prime flux _B be withdrawn. Although the distribution of this local flux would not be uniform over the square. which force is perfectly uniform. second. a force & G aetihgon the establishment of from the external m. a thrust radially outwards. namely G dynes per unit of length along any side. The third system is however reversed by a change in the direction of current. suppose a loop of perfectly fle able wire ABC. and according to the direction of current shown it will in this instance be directed towards the centre. the action varying in intensity from point to point since the flux distribution is not uniform. 24. in the same plane. the resultant effect will be to establish forces on the sides in the direction of the arrows. a set of forces acting outwards and perpendicular to each side. As a more general case. bringing a longitudinal stress oi r G dynes on the wire according to the direction of the external flux B. 22. the total resolved force across any diameter will be 2 r G and half this. In this case it will be possible for the second and third systems to oppose and exactly neutralize each other. and B. and. G for its own local flux. Fig. a radial thrust of all the parts of the circle outwards due to the application of the rule V. Here the force on any small arc rdd Slvlq to the action of Ji and G is rdd OS. to lie in a horizontal plane and to be B S £ : £ B B A B B .

Tlieoretical

Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery.

53

capable of moving only in this plane. This condition eliminates any disturbance due to gravitation. On passing a current in either direction through the loop, the forces set up will expand this, until equilibrium is found in a circular form, and further expansion is resisted by longitudinal tension. This expansive tendency will be further
assisted by an external flux vertically in Fig. 25. If, on the contrary, a

downwards, as shown prime flux had been

upwards through the loop before the current passed in the direction of the arrows, the loop would have tended to collapse and assume some such form as that in
established

Total collapse will be resisted by the local magnetic circuit and its outward stress system. The equilibrium would in any event be unstable, and if free to move, the sides of the loop could cross each other until the wire opened out into a circle like that in Fig. 25, but with a cross at a, and with the direction of current opposite to that indicated. This triple system of forces forms perhaps the simplest analysis in these instances, but it would, of course, be possible to arrive at the same results by determining the resultant system of flux in and outside the loop due to its own M. M. F., and that of the external source, followed by a calculation of stresses on the conductor from point to point by the fundamental laws of tension and side thrust. As a case next in order of complexity, we may consider a wire bent into the form of a square with length of side I, but so situated that the normal to its plane makes au angle 6 with the direction of a uniform field of intensity -S. This differs from the case last considered only in the departure of 6 from 90°.
Fig. 26.

Let JB be withdrawn, and a current of uniform strength through the wire. The compression on the wire's substance, and the stress acting on the sides of the square, tending to force them outward systems 1 and 2,

G pass steadily

Theoretical

ElemenU of

Electro- Dynamic Macldaery.

according to the results of tlie preceding case are evidently unaffected by the direction of the plane assumed by the square in space, these forces being only dependent

on the distribution of current. !Now introduce the external flux B, whose direction, indicated by the arrow ob makes an angle d with the plane normal on, Fig. 27, drawn positively, or upwards from the plane, on that side which presents the current as flowing counter-clockwise, and its magnetic potentials therefore positive. We may first assume that d is less than 90°..

N

Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery.

65

outwards, and Ji

I

sm.

d dynes along
its

a^

and

e^,

tending to

rotate the square about an axis in

also be reached from a slightly altered point of vit'W. 13 niay be resolved into two components, one cos d normal to the plane, the other 13 sin 6 lying in the plane. The resultant stresses produced by 13 cos t) on each side of tlu^ square are all directed outwards with side resultants 13 C I cos '^. The stresses produced by 13 sin H are 13 C I cos 6 upon the sides a d and c e in the directions Cj,, e^, and the remaining sides a c and d e, parallel with this component, are unaffected by it. If then the resultant system of fiux distribution from C and 13 were completely mapped out, and the consequent

metry must D E. These results may

plane, which by symconnect the middle points c d, of a c and

B

Stress distribution

in virtue of^;

— duly
B

determined, there

at all points everywhere outside the wire, while the effect on and in the wire may be represented by four systems of forces. The first two, pertaining only to are the above-mentioned compression and outward push in the plane. The third will be CI cos ^ on each side, also directed outwards, and the fourth will be a couple of moment C I sin 6*, tending to rotate the whole square about its central line c d. The direction of rotation would be such as to bring the square perpendicular to B, or in other words diminish the angle H; and if the square were actually constructed as a rigid frame pivoted on an axis through c d, it woujd be necessary, excluding the consequences of pivot friction, to apply a couple of OV sin d dyne-centimetres to the frame to maintain its equilibrium under these conditions. Fig. <l,s represents the similar stress system when the angle H exceeds 90°, so that the flux fi'om the local circuit is opposed to within the square. In the equivalent quadruple stress system for this case, the first two components regarded from the normal o n are unchanged, but the last two are reversed. I cos 8 now acts on each side inwards, and C -S ^ sin B acts on a d and c e in the directions of the arrows a^ and e_,, forming a couple I' sin H. This couple tends to rotate the plane first into ])arallelism with B, and then to continue the rotation through the angle 6 until the normal o n coincides in direction with B. may apply these principles to the case of a rigid,

would be equilibrium

C

B

B

B

CB

CB

We

so as to be capable of revolving as a rigid body in the plane of the paper. active solenoid of iV^ turns. upon its walls. will be B B . sin d will set up a couple in each turn. units supplied to the The current of helix in such a manner as not to influence its rotatory freedom. a single turn of the solenoid is represented. in Fig. 29 and 30. we may resolve this into components J3 cos^aloncr the solenoid. makes an angle d flux. and sin ^ perpendicularly across it. directed in the plane of the paper. an influence that the rigidity of the walls will keep in check. As a rigid body. uniform prime flux of intensity JB. p c is the axi'j.^ >-Jp 'T-^> ^R Figs. which is pivoted about its centre of figure p. so that A B c is the positive direction of the solenoid's axis. which acts in the direction h p k. where db is the section through the axis of the solenoid. 29.56 Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Macldnery. to a larger scale. about a pivot line through p. l^ow restoring the stress to bear exterior intensity B. 30. the helix can undergo no distortion from these. as shown by the arrow a b. and by symmetry. G A with ABC. If we withdraw for a moment. cos d will only produce a radial outward stress on each turn of wire in its own plane. o q a line through the axis perpendicular to the component sin d. We may therefore banish them from present consideration. the vector force set up by sin 9 on C. Upon all elements of the turn situated on the same side of o Q as H. circulates clockwise as viewed from a. B B B To examine this effect more closely. pivoted in a uniform exterior This is represented in Fig. it is evident that the flax in the circuit of the solenoid will bring a system of H ~~--. they cannot tend to rotate it.

If all these elementary forces be summed round the circle (whose radius is r). the force will be c b sin 6 d s cos cp. 2 X 600 X 0. G.000 X 0. that of the arrow v s. at distances — 7t T on each be (9.. but only to rotation . a small element of the wire. whose position angle N p H is ^. and at any intermediate element.5. which is represented simply by the area turns ]Sf A. thick or thin. from unity when lies across the solenoid. experiences therefore. to zero when is in line therewith. d s. for a given solenoid. set up if or moment 31. coil's . and prime flux increases with the deviating angle 9. 4 The moment Jfof 9 this couple will therefore rt r'' ]Sr C B am r. such as n. G. and were attached to the pivot axis at . the total forces referred to the mid-plane of the solenoid will be 2 iV" side of P. the total force will be 2 G e. so that sin sq. Since each turn of wire will contribute an equal pair of resultants. varying at its sine. exciting current. ii. Further the formula for takes no cognizance of the shape of the solenoid. on elements at o and Q. R the area of cross section. = = = A B B B B M . This total force applied at the points t £ B and V.% C jB sin ^ r.Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Mncldneiy.m 9 r dynes in each semicircle.000 c. (a tendency to translation would in general be were not uniform). s. At the points h and K. in order to equilibrium. A =3 30°. whose distances from p are each 7t — 4 T will be the re- sultants of the elementary system. assuming the absence of pivot friction. 57 parallel to the axis and in the diretion of the arrow t ej while with those on the other side the force will follow the opposite direction. if iV"r= 600 turns. solenoid in a uniform prime flux.2 X 1. a pulley of p.~ = N C B sin 6 = A NC B sin if where radius A is .5 100. To take numerical values that might be readily attainable experimentally. s ^ 9 0. it would be 9 . no tendency to translatory motion. This rotatory tendency.000 centimetre-dynes.2 c. meeting sin 6 at right angles.M ^ AN C—= s\n B necessary to apply a force of ^5^ dynes. grammes weight maintain the at the periphery of the pulley. or . will be urged with a force C -B sin 6 d s dynes. _S= 1. It might be short or long. cms. the force will be nil. we have for Jf. C == 2 amperes or 0.

.5j T/ieoreiical Elements of Eleotro-Dymimic Machinery. In any loop. In practice. whose recognition tends to connect and coordinate their various consequences. further approximation may be attained by supposing the wire to be subdivided into filaments sharing the current. ideally at least. The proposition may be true even if the turns be not circular. and however irregular the space disposition of their m. is proportional to the sine of the deviating angle. so that all problems connected with magnets are reducible. cms. this assumes that the wire is filamentary . each. m f. but if the diameter of the wire is sufficiently great to introduce sensible error. Whenever such symmetry is preserved. remained the moment would be the same so long as N" unaltered. and a single turn of 50 sq. if each is symmetrical about a line in its own sin 6 and that aU plane perpendicular to the component the successive median lines lie in one plane. to cases involving only the corresponding virtual solenoids. will exert the same force as 20 of 2. which will be a plane of symmetry for the coil. the outer layer of ten having 3 sq. but whatever their shape. The rotatory power of a solenoid carrying a given current in a uniform prime flux.. and summing the area turns again on this basis. uniformly magnetized rod is in fact equivalent to a solenoid of the same dimensions carrying a number of current turns that will produce the same magnetic potential difference between its terminal planes. magnets are seldom shaped like solenoids. therefore depends only on its total area turns. cms. there will always be some combmation of superposed solenoids of various lengths. Strictly speaking. They tend to set their own local and internal flux parallel with that in the exterior field.5 sq. cms. for it is evident that they may successively vary in size and shape. the moment of restitution. and the tendency to this alignment. and excitations that would form their magnetic equivalents. the sum of the area turns would remain 50. as actually exists between the rod's extremities. All these stress distributions are subject to a general law. These principles are characteristic of the behavior of magnets temporary or permanent in a uniform prime flux. the moment of rotatory force '\s O JB sin d multiplied by the area turns for the coil. all concentric . cms. or coil of wire A £ A . and are never quite uniform in magnetization. shapes. These turns need not be all equal of size^ provided that they are ten in the inner layer might have 2 sq. as is usually the case in practice..

and to move to a position wherein may become a maximum. but the loop will spread into a circle. If flexible or extensible. the force urging it any instant along its path to its goal of maximum contents. to move from a position of lesser to one of greater flux enclosure. and radially extend that circle until held in check by mechanical mum 4^. dxj^ B. the loop will tend by its motion to augment F.. Majjnetic equilibrium whenever F attainable in other positions will be unstable. there is as we have seen. It will not only compress the wire so as to shorten the paths immediately encirclinsj it.. cos 5 5-1 Fig. Similarly. by reducing R. will . it will tend to enclose a greater total flux.. As a consequence of the tendency exerted by an active conducting loop or coil. 31. when the loop is subjected to the flux from an external magnetic circuit. forces.Theoretical Elements of Electro Dynamic Muclaiiery. the form of minireluctance for a given length of conductor. a flux F= M -=^. 59 carrying a current.

changing both J'' and to Cj ^P and Cj m. but leaving A F F F m A — m m the ratio -^^ of the total fluxes through d and a unchanged. lines 4 7t which will force a total flux of. 0. the intensity due to the M.14 Cj-^r. This quantity will be zero when the axial distance between the rings is infinite. under the conditions imposed by the form of the coil and its geometrical freedom.60 Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Michinvi y. the M. F. this inclination will be almost exactly 45° or. Round — in this instance. units is estab- m . Practically. by symmetry. will be the sur(in face integral of flux through A. As represented in the figure. The circle D is now filled with flux aggregating to Cj lines. respectively. so that can never equal F. or counter-clockwise as viewed from g. M. current flows round circle a it will generate a m. s. F. f. uniform in strength and in inclination with the axis a d. the circumference of circle d. and the total flux so intercepted the surface integral of flux from over JJs area may be called m. certain share of the case represented by the flgure. will increase with their proximity. and equal to 1. say through the circuit . 31. radially outwards in all directions from the axis. or in other words. be the space rate of adding new flux at that moment to the The coil will advance in such a flux already encircled. and into J?j cos 6 cutting the circumference parallel to the axis. terminated at the margin with tbese component intensities. g. and in the ideal case of filamentary circles will numerically equal -Z'^when a and d coincide. Neit.61 c^-^r c. of c. g. Resolved components this becomes JB^ sin 6. will pass through circle d. the current c being supposed to circulate positively. in the plane of the circle. We may and coaxial observe this in the simplest case of two equal circles of conducting wire maintained at radius If unit distance. the thickness of the wires forming the circles will limit their approach. numerically. M. si. and its value may be denoted by Ej. will be altered in like proportion. The journey will thus be jjerformed in the least time and by the shortest route that the system will permit. cm. of Cj will be. manner that this rate of addition shall be the greatest rendered possible by the flux distribution.8958 r). lines per sq. suppose that a steady current of c. s. It is evident that when a's unit current is altered in strength to Cj units. as rejaresented in projection by Fig. In the case before us these components happen to be eacli 1.

dx. This latter must be the intensity normal to the cylindric surface. 14-^ .28 ti c. so small that B^ does not apwill increase by the preciably alter within the range. 61 lished in d. and through the ring. the circle d is given a displacement dx along the axis. repto the amount of resenting an increase in the value of B^ sin ^ 6> it follows that B. The stress distribution due to the combined flux systems will be represented by the vector product of J3^ sin in the plane of D. applicable to Fig. As a numerical illustration. 0. as shown. also counter-clockwise. 31. sin 6 into the area of that surface. or 40 amperes. this will be the increase in d's share of a's flux for a small excursion dx of d. 0. will be the circumference of the circle.684 X of attraction between the circles will then be 85. B^ then. dx. urging d bodily towards a. Cj 3. upon Cg round the circumference. as viewed from a. or P= B^ Cg sin 8.684 radially outward. for if while Cj and Cg are flowing. motion and the total flux from a threading d will rise from to Cj 7n -\. or making OB^ sin 6 dx in this instance numerically is O P P = = = = = P= m m 1. and becomes 1. be equal to the surface integral over d in its previous position plus that over the cylinder dx generated by the circumference during the small displacement.Theoretical Eiements of Electro Dynamic Machinery.64 x -f 1. the increment would amount to Cj B^ sin 6 O total lines. and since the attractive force between the circles is the product of and P=c^ m . If Cj and g„ cirwill be exculate in opposite directions the same force erted in repulsion..r X 5 X 4 This result can be expressed in terms of m. The summation of B^ sin c^ r d d round d is M P= where 2 .2 r 71 r dx= 2.14 x -f the local components B^ sin 6 and B^ cos d The force 0. 2 .r r ^j Cg sin ^. or 30 amperes . which force its rigidity will hold in check and which may therefore be dismissed from consideration.966 at the circumference of d. sin 6 O. and the force of attraction between them.2 7t r dx B^ sin 6. for the surface integral Cj of a's fluxes over d in its new position will. also the corresponding vector product of cos 6 on Cg tending to expand the circle d radially. namely. If this rate of increase were to continue unaltered for one centimetre of displacement. let the radius r and axial distance x between the circles be 5 cms. by the results of page 4. -S. Cg =: 4.96 dynes.

the flux in f and in d together. 32 let a. increases the two current strengths and the rate at which per cm. = = m . must be equal to that in a due to d and f coincidently. as gauged from a small displacement or in symbols m dm If attains the negative sign in this formula.. being coaxial. and f. Similarly a. if instead of ciprocal value between the circles. Summing these two equalities. then the flux from A intercepted by f. Icl oi -D and f oppose and neutralize. P m m cally equal. we may remove the remaining limitations of equality and form. Further. d^. say Af must be equal by the above reasoning to the flax from f intercepted by a or f^. or An 4. For. a's distance and aspect must be relatively the same. d. The share intercepted by a of flux due to unit current in D. viewed from the centre of circle a. d and p having one common side. shifting the standpoint to the centre of d. and under inclination Q. d will be seen at distance I.63 Theoretical Elements. On Fig. so that Tc I may be removed without influencing this result. of Electro-Dynamic Macldaery. a and d be removed to any distance and set will still be reciproat any inclination d to each other. say. due to A. For in Fig. that is to say Again. be three equal squares fixed in space. When this is done. the pull will he exerted in the direction opposite to that of the infinitesimal displacement dx. the flux intercepted by a from unit current round h op In. by proving that 7n will be mutual between any two circuits under any fixed geometrical conditions whatsoever. 32. must by symmetry be equal to d's interception of a's has a mutually reflux from unit current.F The currents in the common side Da -}" F^. of advance. If unit current flows round the contours of these squares.

and the introduction of iron into the system induces more or less deviation from the rule. The proposition only holds good for non-magnetic media. by establishing unit current. increase the mutual in- m . and as though existing alone. if free. If an active coil made up of any arrangement of turns. If its freedom be re- stricteil to motion round special axes or in certain jjlanes. m. r. This quantity is called the will m mutual inductance of the two circuits. 5H3. The coil. that is intercepted by each turn of the other coil. be the separate interceptions of the n »/(. but frequently. For a complex system of coils with many ?7i„.in one coil. Continuing this process. f. and it will be evident that they have mutual and reciprocal values of in. will rotate round that axis which possesses the greatest values of -=—. This is the recognized general behavior of active coils and of magnets. then the mutual inductance of the two coils will be the sum of these terms. be placed in a uniform prime flux due to an external m.. or ni. in all but exceptional cases. we might proceed to find .Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dyiitmiia Machinery. the coil will still select that axis of rotation left free which has the greatest value t. when suspended in prime fluxes that are practically uniform. The moving forces will vanish 80 soon as attains a maximum. The force tending to rotate the system round any axis will have a 2 moment ^ = dm ''-''' Td' where ^-^ « d is the rate of increase in the mutual inductance per radian or unit of angular displacement round this axis. taken separately. situated in given relative positions./. turns in the recipient coils. Let m. and then determining the flux due to this M. M. of conducting loops. the momentum acquired by the moving system in its rotation to this position will carry it beyond.. although a rotatory displacement will in general do so. 63 due be equal to the flux intercepted hjmJcoplji from that to unit excitation in a. their prototypes. such as a pair turns. When the prime flux is not uniform. against opposing forces.. it is clear that no motion of translation can alter m. a translatory motion will. having any sizes or shapes. any loops or series of loops can be constructed. and t. and set up an oscillation about the position of ultimate repose.

33. it is some- Fia.G4 Tlieoretical E'ements of Electro. may Although the distribution of stress in a magnetic circuit always be found by summing the vector products of flux and current on each element of conductor. cms. and generating radii of r and sq. the intensity -B within the core at any = N R A . and from these their re- 8 7t sultants. a square cross section of b^. that will increase the mutual inductance most rapidly in space and time. as represented in plan and diametral section by Fig. we know that when excited by a current of C units. As an example of some practical importance. The motion of the system will be that translation and rotation consistent with geometrical freedom. we may consider a closed hollow ring or circular solenoid with a uniform winding of turns. cms. 33. By preceding results. and the moving forces will in general consist of a resultant force accompanied by a couple. ductance of the systems.Dynamic Machinery. times more readily obtained by determining the local values of — throughout the system.

so that . where and dA becomes b. Ji and the pressure is .m%j> r-d^^mC^b art J p2 r ^2. opposite. The flux paths are all circles and exert a tension of — dynes 8 7T per sq. and P d q g. At any point on the inner surface. — X dynes per sq. and H J KL being equal. may be omitted from consideration. ' li j and this is the stress exerted across any radial sections such as PB and sq when the thickness of the conductor wound on the ring need not be considered. along these circles. the total tension exerted across any section PH of the hollow core would be A. J3 has the value and cm. The stress that is directly brought to bear upon the walls of the core consists of the side thrust or outward pressure of dynes per sq. the total tension must be found by subdivision of the area into elements and summing the elementary tensions on each. reserving for examination the curved surfaces b b s f. outwards. S^ ' but since the in- Stt tensity diminishes outwardly. The stress on the plane surfaces D E F G. At any point on the former and outer the pressure circumference. cm. dp. Two symmetrical systems of one resident at the outer ciroum- . but which tenHions are nowhere directly impressed upon the walls of the ring. cm. If the intensity within the ring were uniform. radially 2 AT (J is is —X 1 4 iV2 (72 ^i — dynes per sq. 65 radius p 2 is JV C P '-. cm.n n \r _naynes.Tlieoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. stress are thus established. In this instance the — ^^ = ri^ 4 iV2 (72 dA. and equilibra- ting through the substance of the walls. di- rected towards the center o.

or the magnetic attraction which they would evince.66 Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Miclv.900 - grammes weight. respectively. such as p o Q. iV"= 2000. while the resultants of . This proposition has very general applications. unless the stress supported by the substance of the walls counterbalanced the total tension of the flux. the two halves would mutually exert upon each other. and o g'. i? 14. and each section would support a ^^ stress of 'i. and f' o. the resultants of the first system directed across this plane are stresses .mry. and s q by symmetry. 5 4. ^-^^ "^ nR dynes along o d'. the second system are two equal stresses or dynes 7ir along b' o. 33. if the ring were actually divided by the plane p o q. Then the total force exerted across any diameter of the ring would be = = = = _ ~ 4 X 2000 X 2000 X -2 X 2 3. Selecting any diameter. let »• 10. the other resident at the inner circumference and directed radially inwards. Its amount would be equally shared between the two sections p e.900 dynes = —— — = 581. ference and directed radially outwards.1416 (lO 593. As a numerical illustration of the foregoing case presented in Fig. for in any active coil it is evident that equilibrium could not exist across any section of the coil. . <7 2 (absolute units) or 20 amperes. and f' o. 1 solenoid miy be ascribed to the resultant side thrust from the flux and is here equal to the total tension exerted by the flux within the interior.Ti I The stress exerted tangentially ^ through the walls of the \r R =r-. and the resultant tension is generally more readily determined than the resultant pressures that equate it. This will be the stress which.2 14 ) 681. These forces do not equate but leave a balance directed inwards of ^^^ 7t ^^ i_L \ r _L\ _H J dynes along e' o.

.4 grammes weight and by the adoption of the approximate formula.800 dynes = 5'76. or -7.8 grammes weight.at any . This is a direct consequence of the facts that \i proportional to the current turns. the dotted lines through jo q s and t represent the wails of an internal concentric ring of All the walls of radii r^ and i2j.r simply. Exciting 2 JST the inner coil only. the stresses would have been here underestimated by about three per cent. and the tension in its turn is proportional to Ji' may next consider the distribution of stress within a double solenoid or pair of concentric ring-i. but of negligible H We thickness. Exciting the outer within it coil onlj'. In Fig. tension across each section being 28->. are proportional to (iV C)^ or the square of the current turns. would support the lower half vertically beneath it by magnetic force under these conditions. the double solenoid may be supposed rigid. ~ = The 16 X 2nno a. suspended at its centre b1. if the mass of that lower half did not exceed 593 grammes. 8 . the tension exerted across any section would reduce to A. 2000 1416 X 12 y 2 X X 12 2 565. the intensity will be H = ^ O —— ^ . each section. current Cj and JST^ turns. the practical case of a solenoid with more than one layer in its winding. 33.Theoretical Elements of Electro-Di/namic Machiiierij. ^ 8 " TT r- and the total stress acting across this or would be double last case. one of which Such a system is related to is enclosed within the other. 7 = X A N^ any diameter of the ring C^ 5 Thus in the • with a mean radius of 12 cms. If the difference of intensity over the cross-section of the ring were negligible. pe and s q If the ring POQtiie upper exerting a total stress of 296 5 grammes weight. the intensity at any point of radius p will be _Bj = '2 IT C . The formulae indicate that the tensions exerted across a section of any closed circular solenoid without iron. 07 were actually divided by a diametral plane half.

the surface integral of tension over the inner ring will be 1 ~ 272- ('•l A again \ Similarly between radii r and r^ of the outer ring the total tension will be <„ ^ = — 'J. the t^ — = bJSF^C^ I 1 =3-1. JB. but zero beyond them. be supposed that since the total tension within the inner ring is ^j its walls must sustain a If. =" —^—!— within the inner tin * and —5^ within 8 TT the outer only. sures due to the intensities adjacent to the walls. however. the side thrust presstress of this amount. Exciting both the intensity at any point in the internal ring will be that due to both coils. H For a point within the outer ring but without the inner. or coils simultaneously. The - cm. be summed and compounded. = P remains undisturbed. stress per sq. and is carried over to the outer coil. within its walls. The stress supported by the walls of the outer ring is thus increased to . The <j tension across entire section must be 7'= It might. — ^ ir^) — 1 \ 1 \ I is sup- ported by the stress from the external intensity H^. point. under th^se conditions will be ring. at first sight.68 Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. Across any section such as s Q. 1 7t \r \ -73 I ana 1 Tj^ 1 between total radii JR^ and M. b while the balance of ij. or N^ — C^l C^ i 1 71 \7. it will be found that the stress on those of the inner ring will only be .

The stress distributions in magnetic circuits containing iron may next be examined. but its distribution among the rings is such. leaving the balance to the walls outside. just as its equivalent solenoid would do. This tends to secure a more uniform distribution of the total tension on the walls. so rigidly that the stresses exerted by the wire became imparted to the encircled substance. we have seen that equilibrium of stress exists throughout the hollow core of a simple coil or solenoid. The outside layer always carries the stress that it would support if all the inner rings were removed or left unexcited. the total the walls together is equal to the sur- face integral of tensioQ over the whole area to the limits enclosed by the outermost. section S is so small relatively to the generating radii.Theoretical Elements of Electro Dynamic Machinery. that the inside coils take less than the integral tensions over their own sections. however. or combination of solenoids. for practical magnetic purposes a single solenoid representing the entire mass might give suflScient approximation. this distribution of the stress through the substance of the iron must follow from the molecular nature of magnetization demanding in strictness a correspondingly large number of molecularly small solenoids to adequately represent the theory. but usually a great change in its degree. Apart from the artificiality of the hypothesis by which an equivalent solenoid is substituted for a magnet. In a if the inner ring stress sustained compound by all circular solenoid. the magnetic stresses that would be developed in that equivalent solenoid. therefore. the stress in iron is developed throughout its substance. While. are developed in the iron. or simply this 1 p- 1 . that the intensity within it is practically uniform. or turns of active conductor. and that stress is only manifested in the walls. 69 across any section. The introduction of iron into the magnetic circuit produces no change in stress principle. and would be the stress on those walls were absent or remained unexcited. This inten- A . If the magnetized iron be regarded as the equivalent of a certain solenoid. if the insulated wire was spirally wound in a groove on a core of copper or silver. uniformly magnetized bar of iron when divided across by any plane exhibits attractive force between the severed portions all over their opposed areas. commencing with the simplest Let us take a closed circular solenoid of which the case. whereas.

000.. s. = The stress for this intensity would be \ — ' ° ' Stt or approximately 11.. that the stress on the walls of the outer solenoid will be.Dyaamic ^^lacldnery.999. each section would support 22 megadynes. Since we may regard the core as magnetically equivalent to an independent internal solenoid of definite excitation..000 dynes per sq. amperes.3 . If the ring were divided into halves by a plane through the axis of revolution.- 88.S'' 2 per sq.911.. since /< would be about 500 for this excitation. in this case the iron core. or 21. and this will be the stress exerted along the walls of the solenoid. lines per sq.6 dynes. cms. X ^. Suppose r c = 5. cm. or perhaps 16. s. 22. will be supported by the iron core.000.5 = c. so that the total tension will be X 500' . we know by the results reached in the preceding chapter. and the total stress. G. iV"= 500 turns.4 dynes. and the total attraction between the two halves would be 44 megadynes. we have B= — =33. so far as mechanical freedom will permit. the share of stress supported by the solenoid is relatively so small when it encloses iron.3 jj.3 will excite a total resultant intensity in the iron of 33. that the core may be regarded as exerting the entire stress. equal to that sustained before the insertion of the inner solenoid. . and the remainder. The coil in this case will therefore retain the stress of 88.„ ^ lines O. or 44. If now a soft iron core be inserted so as to fill the solenoid. It is evident that in nearly all cases that can practically occur. sity will be _B = - The total stress exerted along- the flux paths will be —^= -—^and S will be the total C " ' amount S W'^ z 7t of this over the section 15 cms.85 kilogrammes weight.70 Theoreticid Elements of Electro. G.0 r /S= 2 sq. the prime intensity of 33. cm.650 c. and = 0. assuoaing that coil and core are mechanically independent or frictionless. will be supported by the iron core and the solenoid together.000 dynes. cm. across any radial section.4 dynes.

.

000 11.000 7.000.000 3.000100 9.000 // 0.000 8.000.000.000.0001 110 JUL 130 13.S-S \l Fia.000^1.000 !. I) g c-i g « I.000. 34.000 10. 12.000 8.000 S .000.000.000.000 1.-S. .000.000 1.000.00016.0001.0001 H.000 per sqpare centimetre p'er / // no 1: II n i grammes wei^t T square ce Timet" III 10.000.000 9.000.0(/0 i pounds weight per square inch 10.000.000 2.0001 Curves represent ng the Intensity of magnetic stress.O'JO 14.000 5.00012.000.180 III 170 10.000 5.000.000100 160 15.000.000 13. 120 -for-£\ll-value3-of-B from|-0-to-20rOQO- lin dyne 11.

. Thus. erally differ at these limits. this is not generally the casi-. and less than this near the edges. the intensity may not be regarded as uniform.000 passes perpendicularly across the plane of junction.000 times. the value of fx will genat the outer.Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dyniimic Miichinery. and the resultant intensities will tend to approach more closely than their excitations. prime intensity varies from 2 2 Nc N c at the inner wall to —jj— . the polar edges. cm. grammes weight per sq. inch of contact surface. Fig. owing to the area of cross-secThe tion.8 megadynes. ri The introduction of the iron core has increased the power 250. enabling the tension corresponding to any flux density to be determined by inspection. and perpendicular across. inch. across. will be curved and variable from point to point. but lie parallel to and facing each other. their attraction will still be the same if the intensity remains unaltered in value or distribution. With an iron core. gives the curves representing the value of — 8 7t in dvnes per sq. the intensity at. cm. B We . so ihat the stress. will differ at different points in a section. or 113 lbs. cm. of course. from the polar edge the inten- Bi say. In practice. but at any poiat in the air gap between the poles not less than eity d -— cms. The next case in order of complexity. the attraction between those surfaces will be 7. of surface. per sq.. or attraction between the poles will be B —— dynes per ^ sq. and near. if two smooth plane surfaces of iron are brought into contact. cm.. is that of a closed circular solenoid in which.. If the plates are not in contact. The value of not only on account of difference in the radius. and a uniform intensity of 14. Suppose that the air gap between two parallel and similar opposed pole faces is d cms. and pounds weight per sq. 34. and the intervention of an air-space between the plates will cause the flux to diminish and to deviate from the perpendicular in its passage. but also owing to the variation in jx due to the different excitations can no longer obtain the total stress thus established. or 8 kilogrammes per sq. will be practically uniform.

3 kilogrammes per sq.. could be experi- mentally determined. .000 lines passed through the armature was the same in each case.73 Tlieoretical Blements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. assumed that the total flux of 20. s. each.000 c. we might take the mean value of these extreme limits or 7. but to. so that the resultant intensity and for would range from 24X500 14.. to be the outer and inner generating. radii of the soft iron core whose breadth is A=:5. determining a series of prime intensities for intermediate = A radii. Then the prime intensity at the inner wall .4 kilogrammes per sq. cms. Now suppose the polar surfaces reduced to 1. as the iron at those areas approached saturation. and the area of cross section. >M might be 400 in soft 24. 25 sq. the advantage gained by We . so that finally when the flux density in the soft iron at the polar areas approached 18. and r=10. With the same total flux through the armature. cm. or in other words.9. iV=600.125. and then re- taking the average of the —— values. and for both poles combined 21. cm. first approximation to the total stress. making a product of 178. The limit of accuracy would be ultimately determined by the precision with which the scale of fJ. lines per sq. ^^ „. For H= = 36.18 2X500X0. the corresponding stresses being As a 5.333. cm. some process of average or summation must be resorted according to the degree of accuracy desired. or a total stress at each pole of 10 95. — 10 H= = 24. and section square.'? 15 iron.2X600X0.3 -=36. . =0.3. respectively. multiplying each by its 733 corresponding /<. representing a stress of 7. the density at the contact surfaces will be 13.400 12. G. and at the outer wall ^^. and c=3 amperes. suppose i2=15.85 and 8.5 sq. cms. and this reduction would become more marked as the polar area reduced.1 kilocloser result would be obtained by grammes weight. 500.68 above the preceding case.. an have here increase of 5.000 at the outside to 36X400 at the inside of the core. Or an empirical lation could be assigned by trial between fi and -B so that the total stress could be determined by integral calculus. but in reality there would be some reduction in the flux as the polar surface diminished.. As a numerical instance. jyt from the product of - — and the cross sectional area.

A -B' 7t .dynes. the maximum attractive force due to a soft iron core without a permanent magnet. Similarly they indicate the necessity for employing a permanent magnet in a receiving Bell telephone in place of a soft iron core. Beyond this point of maximum effect.Tlieoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Michiaci-ij. Hard steel is necessary for their construction in order that the countermagnetic flux from their poles may not demagnetize them. we may consider that _B„ may be superposed upon B^ when the alternating current passes through the coil. and soft steel will more readily permit a high intensity to be obtained. Experiment shows that the friction to sliding between two smooth or nearly smooth surfaces of iron under mag4 B^ . and B^ is the maximum intensity that the alternating current can effect. still further reduction of the polar contact areas would result in a lessened total attractive force. and therefore B. Assuming that the diaphragm of ferrotype plate is so close to the pole. as great as possible for a large tractive power. The stress exerted on the disc then alternates between of - 8 A (-B„ — TT + B^^ is and - o A {B^ — B^'. 73 increasing would be just offset by the reduction in the total flux that would pass through the surfaces. that the flux density may be regarded as uniform and everywhere perpendicular to the surfaces. These principles also explain the advantage that is secured for permanent magnets of hard steel by softening their poles when these latter are of due proportions. it is desirable to have li^. a total range — 71 ^—^ 8 7t - which generally much greater than the original value coil A -B' and — — the electromagnetic effect of the becomes correspondingly augmented in the ratio of to B. and under the influence of an alternating current in the coil. will be is B A — B^% where A 8 TT the effective polar area. but at the polar surfaces. This maximum would depend upon all the conditions of the magnetic circuit. The insertion of the bar magnet produces a steady normal pull on the diaphragm of -8 sity. and its determination may be left for later consideration. where B^ is the permanent magnetic inten- If this is not nearly sufficient to saturate the iron at the polar surfaces.

we may imagine that every elementary rod. and establishes its own local magnetic circuit. Every rod is thus acted upon by JB^ in one direction. the keeper should support at a point midway between them a total weight of 16.056 kilogrammes per sq. cm. more or less obliquely. and by the return or counterflux from the rest of the sphere in the . For the sake of simplicity we may first suppose that the attracted particles are all of spherical We may next consider the stress form. cm. becomes magnetized.22 kilogrammes minus its own "weight. but in a direction opposed to the prime intensity Ji^.exerted at each pole.000 per sq. so that if .74 Tlieoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery netio stress. P.11. Por if the flux through the armature is say 20. into the area over which they are exerted. the stress that it will be necessary is to apply between them parallel to the plane of contact will be -^ force. and permeability /x is placed in a uniform prime flax of density J?p. as exjsressed by the equation SttJ J3' ds. the seeming paradox that an electromagnet will often support a heavier weight from its armature after the contact surface between poles and armature is reduced. This case is practically represented in the moving force of iron filings toward magnets. cms. Part of the induced flux in completing each rod's circuit. Since this stress will be. is the clue to all the most important phenomena of attraction between magnets. When an iron sphere of radius r./is the coefficient of friction (sensibly 0. each. / i?" ds. or about one-fifth of the total tractive The subject of tractive extensively developed in Professor power of magnets has been S. to a stress of of 4. corresponding." The fact that the intensity of magnetic stress varies as the square of the flux density. exerted upon magnetizable particles situated in a magnetic field. or line of particles in the sphere.000 lines.2) between ungreased smooth surfaces of iron. Thompson's " Electromagnet. and the polar surfaces two sq. by the curve of Fig. and the total pull will be 8. 34. permeates the substance of all the other rods. It explains. ing the same not sensibly different from that accompanystress exerted mechanically. parallel to -Sp. for example. and that the total stress is the ultimate sum of all the intensities. the density will be 10.

The ellipsoid is one of the few geometrical forms for which the resultant has been determined.= The {ix—\)- //+2 total intensity within the pphere B^ being the sum of the resultant and induced intensities.. The values of // are supposed to have been determined either directly.011.Theoretical Elements of MlliCtro-Dynnmic Machinery.000x3x3.. Total intensity in sphere (Sr a).B^ /^+ Norway 2" iron. ia the iron is locally yu-1 times the resultant B.oon 0.'i. and since S. It can be shown that within the substance of a magnetizable sphere the counterflux is uniform and jast one-third of the induced intensity ^. B. represented by these last two equations. f. and the iaduced m. and under this classification the sphere makes its appearance as a particular case.000 . = j> B^ ~. + Bi. = (yu — 1) B„ we must have and B.. m.000x3x499 502 602 . Thus with a sphere of Eesultant of primfl and in- Intensity induced in 23 couoterfluK tensities B. of those opposing fluxes. 3 1 = = = = 1x3x149 0.1351 160 3x2 2 10 ICJ 162 _3tin &i 3x!flO 220 600 3.0197 150 2.999 603 3x1. will be B. 75 opposite way.498 0. so that the resultant prime intensity £. these component internal intensities would assume values dependent upon the prime flux density in a manner outlined by the following table.0370 0.! 3x5^n(OT 5. or by correspondence with known samples of iron..000 10x3x219 lOO i.999 3. m.000 ^„gg3 500 5.UUJ = . sphere by its m. p.941 152 152 0. throughout the sphere is -S. _ ZiJ.

page 13. while the induced. but the equipotential curves for this local circuit correspond in outlines to those represented in Fig.76 Theoretical Eiements of Electro-Dyaamic Michinery. fj. having the same dimensions as the iron sphere it replaces. and usually not far from three times the prime. is ^Aii_^^=2A//' and this practically (^)' has a large value. the distribution of flux is of course no longer uniform. It is evident that the counterflux nearly neutralizes the prime intensity within the sphere for all ordinary conditions. and be wound upon a sphere of wood or other non-magnetizable material. The coil must be of negligible thickness. nickel. produces everywhere within it the uniform flux density of — . We have already seen in Chap. and the corresponding intensity within the sphere from the assumed range of /<. and since _B- is the prime intensity existing within the coil before it is excited. /^i-=ll\ = "^ i-Ji^^ \ . Immediately outside the sphere. the uniform flux density that the coil must create within it.JB^ when Ill. and determine the stresses set up on that coil by the foregoing rules. current turns per axial centimetre disposed on the surface of a non-m^agnetizable sphere. the intensity within their substance will be uniform. For this purpose we may replace the iron sphere by its equivalent active coil. and place them in a uniform magnetic field. and consequently the current turns on this wooden sphere must be C ^ -J— X 2B. Within the wooden sphere we have to produce a uniform total intensity of — . we have next to ascertain the stress which this distribution will exert upon the sphere as a rigid body. value of /i may vary through wide limits without much alteration in the total intensity. so that if we take spheres of iron. or even ferroso-ferric oxide. cobalt. since the prime flux is here compounded with the return flux from the sphere which completes its local circuit by curving paths. and also the total intensity are almost three times the prime. . that a winding of C becomes '2. and superpose. The table and formulae also show that the 5. Having then determined the values of the uniform prime intensity.

lines for every centimetre of distance alont( the line of J?p. but increases steadily by b c. Taking any thin slice in the winding and considering it separately (Fig. we know that the resultant stress on this loop would be 5 nrp* (7 dynes along the line of S^. just in the same way that a compass needle freely suspended in the earth's flux (assumed to be uniform) exhibits directive tendencies. to find the magnetic stress on the coil with this excitation. so far as regards resultant magnetic stresses. which its rigidity will hold in check. that a homogeneous sphere of iron or magnetic mains is Fig.Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. therefore. its equivalent. that the prime intensity S^ in which the iron sphere rests. however. equivalent active coil were a single plane loop perpendicular to H^ of radius p carrying a current G. for the total increase in the flux enclosed by the loop. we have an active ring at right angles There will be a stress radially to a uniform prime flux ^p. 35). will be in equilibrium It follows. but no inclination to move bodily towards either geographical pole. while the radius r of the sphere is so small relatively to b that the variation of the intensity Then if the existing within its interior may be neglected. or the iron sphere. outwards all round the ring. 77 per centimetre All that now reslice perpendicular to ^p. is no longer uniform. g. Suppose. s. material will remain at rest in a uniform magnetic field of any intensity. and consequently the entire coil. per centimetre of its excursion along JB^ would be . but there will be no tendency to motion along the line of -Bp in either direction.

so that if a given mass of iron be divided into spherical portions. the factor j — 1 will not usually be far below unity. radius. no matter how small the individual spherical diameters may become. whether the substance of the sphere be iron.78 Tlieoretieal Mlemeais of Blectro-Dynamic Machinery. 35. since /^ is dx generally large. the total pull on the whole mass will be the same. b times the area. dx d^ dynes.. varying with the cube of the volume of the particle. is proportional to the . or Fea O4. at any distance x from the centre of the sphere measured along the line ob. B V dx.') dx and the be the integral of this then dP n fp dx on the sphere will -\-r. steel.^^p dx which. since in all these substances. =hC 3 total pull = P ^bO ^^^' 3 = ^Mp / ^-n 4: ±!L r- 71 \ PL -\- ^ ^ P=bB^ i:-^^)' Also the variation of prime intensity be no longer simply b per cm. and the resultant stress is this rate of flux absorption multiplied by the current in the loop. nickel. its local rate of increase or gradient will be expressed in all cases by if ^^^. and the distribution of prime flux round all of these is similar. ezpression between the limits x on the slice is -^ V + Z I . In Fig. the crowding It is evident that the pull. cobalt. however. Since the coil in this case is a spherical shell we have to divide it into elementary loops and sum their respective resultant stresses. the same in the same magnetic flux. These last two equations embody all the principal facts concerning the apparent attraction between magnets and This attraction is nearly spherical magnetizable particles. becomes practically P= r' B^ Ji£L. and for spheres of the same diameter. In practice. | and the equivalent current round is Cdx ^ The elementary '^ bC n or (f — pull a.andP=r'^^. the radius of any elementary slice of thickness dx is P = V 3 r^ — x^ this slice .

to be placed in a magnetic flux. G. drum-shaped. The essential accompaniment of such convergence or divergence is a concavity or convexity in the equipotential . either through the sides.000 c. whose If. the prime flux must be either convergent or divergent. lines. say 1 cm. The formulse also show that if the resultant attractive force is to be made as great as possible I B -y- \ raust be a it is useless to provide a powerful flux unless its gradient is also considerable. long. If on the other hand the flux is converging.7854 c. because there is no absorption or generation of flux within the cylinder. G. Suppose a small wooden cylinder. so that the flux enters normally on that face. in diameter. and so flxed. For while the flux densitj' might be sensibly uniform for example. if resultant magnetic stresses are to be exerted upon the panicles. s. In other words. the flux is uniform within the limits of the cylinder. it will enter through the sides and e. s. and S — ax 7 -jD =: 200. Suppose in this case that the density at E is 1.4 lines pass through e .4 will leave through the face x. flux emerges through the sides. some sides act as a channel or tube of flow. so that 785. leaving entirely through X. since the flux is dispersing. 985. that e is perpendicular to the direction of S. when the spheres remain scattered apart.Theoretical Elements of EleatroDynamic Miiehinenj. or through x. 0. however. lines. namely. or maximum. then if 200 more lines come in through the sides. whose two faces are denoted respectively by the letters b and x. If all emerge through x. Then. must emerge from the drum. The attraction therefore of such a field upon particles of magnetizable material placed therein depends upon the local number of lines that would enter or leave the sides of an imaginary small drum set with its axis along the local direction of S. and the direction of motion would always be towards the denser flux. a consideration that merits a more detailed examination. 79 of a number of spheres into close proximity will influence in some degree the flux distribution. when closely packed the prime intensity round any one sphere will contain the additional return local flux external to neighborinir spheres. this quantity entering. and the rate of increasing density along the direction of JB will be here 200 lines per cm. the density of the flux finding exit at x will be diminished. and also 1 cm.

and ds^. the equipotential surfaces crowd together as the poles are approached. rj and r^ are both infinite. equipotential surface of any shape. but only their numerical values. measured along the direction of J3 B — — positively. cide with these sides. 36. a little spherical rectangle of sides ds^ and ds^. it follows that for a simple mag- the attraction on a coil without iron core netic circuit particles in the circuit will vary at any given point as the square of B. Since by this last result the formula for the pull of a prime flux upon a magnetizable sphere may be written P= r^ B^ I 1 j. if we take an surfaces controlling the flux. the radii of circles that would locally coinrespectively. or the flux. In fact. . and cut out in it. the rate of change in is its product with the sum of the local curvatures in any two perpendicular planes. will alter with the exciting current. B and dx = 0. or. the flux Also if r^ ds. is uniform Fig. traversing the rectangle will be and r. Thus. and consequently as the square of the exciting current. and the sum of the curvatures at any point will remain unchanged. 36.. be the radii of curvature of the sides <7s.80 Theoretical Elements of Electro-DijuamiG Machinery. for not the shape of the equipotential surfaces. dsi. for near the saturating point of the iron core the changes in the form of equipotential surfaces and of their gradient consequent upon changes of excitation may vary considerably. In the case of an ordinary permanent or electromagnet. their curvatures at the same time increasing. it will follow that -j— dB ^/ — B\ 1 1 1 \ 1. In practice this is nearly true for ferric magnetic circuits with lorge air gaps such as bar electromagnets. Fig. — — . when the equipotential surface is plane. as we know. but is of course often far from being true with ferric circuits nearly closed.

in order to attract iron particles. points. the undue prominence that they give to polar points and edges has to be borne in mind. distribution of The particles really indicate the B —— . 37 represents the results of a particular Curve No. cated by circles. at 16 cms. Other things being equal. in the centre. In fact it will sometimes happen in practice that a powerful electromagnet with broad flat polar faces when plunged into iron filings will become densely packed with these particles round the polar edge. 81 SO that both poles.Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Machinery. In this or similar circumstances. so that its poles are B B —j— will be much greater at the edge. there will be a considerable difference between the rates of flux divergence at these positions. the attractive force at any point in the field can be computed. as indicated by the local curvatures. distance. is conical. or at the edge. 1 connects successive observations indicase. The result will be that while there may not be much difference between the values of (or the distance between successive equipotential surfaces). as determined by a field searcher and ballistic galvanometer at each successive centimetre of distance. at emergence from the pole. of the prime intensity along the axis of a large bar electromagnet (excited with constant current). Fig. and not B simply. the long circular edge may more than compensate. the best form of pole piece for an electromagnet to possess. The intensity B^ descends from about 900 lines at one centimetre from the pole. the equipotential surfaces close to the poles are almost planes. while the centre is left almost entirely denuded. However valuable the curves assumed by scattered iron filings may be in delineating the distribution of flux. to VO. with a field-explorer or otherwise. for while the centre will be almost inactive. or acts at. If the flux distribution surrounding a magnet can be determined experimentally. B and —— are usually a maximum at the but should the core of the electromagnet be cylincomparatively wide flat surfaces. The . lies perhaps the foundation for the supposition sometimes entertained. while at the edges they bend much more sharply. the flat pole disc is generally preferable. and the product of drical. If on the contrary it is required to sustain the largest mass of particles. that magnetism principally resides in.

gives a series of values for II. The series of observed pulls in dynes divided by the cube of the radius of each sphere. they will tend to set lengthwise to the and their local induced counterflux will exercise upon themselves less demagnetizing influence. and when the length is many diameters. and the deviation is perhaps no more than the size of the spheres. local inclination of this curve as determined -5 by its with the axis of abscissae tangents. and the resultant stresses greater.904 cms. steel. might. the strength of the equivalent solenoid. the other 1. in diameter. The pull at various distances along this path was measured in the cases of two iron spheres. the spherical yields the least displacement stress.. forms that particles of given volume free to follow directive tendencies can assume. as the particles are elongated. of soft iron. or nickel. might jointly account for in combination with errors of observation. in order to reduce the results to an equivalent sphere of unit The agreement radius. of all stronger. flux. The equivalent solenoids are therefore In fact. . are shown by curves IV and V. under similar conditions. and the resultant pull in a given flux increase directly with pi. and this represents the calculated resultant pull in dynes upon a sphere of iron 1 cm.665 cm. If the particles are not spherical. — that are represented by curve The product at any distance from the pole of the two ordinates S and —^-p d Ti gives the locus followed by curve III to the left hand scale. in radius when jx is large. cast iron. be expected to differ considerably in attractive force. Such rods. between these and curve III is fairly good.83 Theoretical ElemenU of ELctro-Dynamic Machinery. one 0. and of small diameter compared with the flux We gradient —— = . Also. the influence of their permeability becomes more noticeable. have hitherto assumed that the attracted particles are spheres. or their residual magnetism.

distance from pole face in centimetres. in diameter.000 110. curves IV and should coin: field X V WICU V i.000 1.— Cukves Indicating the Resultant Displacement Stkesses on Ikon Spheres Plac^id in Magnetic Flux.— Curve II gives the rate of increase of curve I. flux density (prime) along central line perpendicular to pole face ordinates o£ left hand scale dynes of resultant force abscissae. Curve I oonnects circles indicating observations of flux density by explormg coil. .665 cm..000 Centimetres Distance From Pole Face. 37. Fig. in radius —Curve IV connects crosses indicating observations of pull /r3 on iron sphere 0. C1C16 Ordinates o£ right hand scale.905 cm.000 130.140.'-Xt .-Curve III (broken line) gives at each point the product of the ordinates in curves I and II or B dB/ds to left hand scale in dynes on sphere 1 cm.Curve ootmects Iriauiles indicatl ing observationsof pull /. or its gradient at each point dB/ds (dotted llue). in diameter.— Under theoreUoally assumed conditi jus.000 60. » on iron sphere 1.

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Magnetic flux is a store of energy. so as to temporarily defer the introduction of iron into the subject. near Thus the earth's total flux density in the open country New York being about 0. of — dynes perpen- dicularly outwards per sq. It can only be brought into existence by work. embodied in the flux during its uniform continuance. or nick1. is the fundamental 7t relation of magnetic energy. If we first consider materials that are practically nonmagnetic. and merit consideration. cobalt.. and a store of energy per unit volume to the extent of —— 8 7t ergs. amounts to — to ergs in- per cubic centimetre. is again released as the flux wanes and disappears. cm. Apart from permanent magnets. amounting — dynes per sq.magby ' this flux. 1 Joule = 10 millions of ergs = 0. then the energy residing in the flux at any point where the intensity is £.Chapter VI. of area. and inm.6 c. .7d7 foot pound (at latitude of Green wich). therefore volves a pull along the direction of H.43 megajoules of energy in magnetic flux.' = This equation — W = B^ 8 ergs. air. and this work. the flux energy residing in earth. Electro-Magnetic Energy.1416 0. will netic substance traversed be '- — '- — 8X3. line per sq. a thrust all round. or 1. But there are other expressions for the energy in a magnetic circuit that are often independently useful. per c. per o. cm. g. and a cubic kilometre of this space will contain 1 4ax 10* ^ ergs. c.. or other non. cm. s.0143 ergs. A flux density of £. c.

that is to say.— Diagrammatic Representation op Simple Magnetic With One Turn op Active Conductor. el. Energy. in particular and in practice. Diagrammatic Arrangembnt op Two Loops Forming One F. Fig.Dynamic Machinery. by electric currents. strictly speaking. = units of current. 39. to the linkage of F with cF — . m. f. F= encircled flux. is closed through a constant b. W c F and its magnetic energy may be expressed in terms of the current strength and the flux enclosed thereby. Coil. which we still reserve for later examination.7 li Fig. = F^+ F^ \ F. and this energy may c. the energy of the flux so far as it is dependent upon the current c and its local magnetic circuit. If we suppose that an electric circuit in a single loop of any shape. magnetic flux is only sustained in general by electricity in motion. = F„ + F„ . [aW= — fA.84 Theoretical ElemenU of Electro. W= c F^ -j-' + f ^ F„ ergs. and that the total flux through the loop is J^'lines. maintaining a steady current of c units. Circuit Linked c 38. be practically regarded as due although.

This relation of energy to currfnt flux is diagrammatically indicated in Fig. F^ *"' = 2 Fi + Fa—F„\ F. 38. Elcc. 2 The total magFig. such as an assemblage of helices excited by independent batteries. or TT-^^ 2 ' "•'^'+. and multiplying this by half the current c flowing steadily round the loop. or when several electric circuits are placed in propinquity. — F„ '•g W= ^> 4- ^» 2 ..Tlieoretical Elements of Electro Dynamic Muchinery. We . When the electric circuit forms more than one loop round the flux. ifj = Fa + J":.— Diagrammatic Arrangement of Three Independent Circuits. 85 only yields the integral of r — taken throughout the space occupied by the loop's flux. 39. Pig. The sum of all these products of cF is — the energy required. -' Fo"\ . netic energy of the system is found by taking each loop in turn as though it existed alone . may take a few examples by way of illustration. 2 is This equation that is therefore equivalent to the statement equal to the volume integral of — extended throughout the entire space occupied by the magnetic circuit or circuits considered.. counting the total flux threading it in the positive direction F. 40. Engin eer Fig.+^° = i2ci^ergs.. 40.i- ''3 F.=F„ + F. the same rule holds by extension. + Jo . as in a coil or solenoid.

flows steadily round this circle. the turns of wire forming the solenoid irregular.^ 0. in radius be bent into a circular loop. cms. proving in this simple instance the equivalence always existing between the total V' luminal energy and the product of current turns by enclosed flux 2 .9 megalerg.5 20 X 2 = 225. or 30 amperes.'s.000) carrying a current of c (1. will amount to 600.5 X 2 20 all ^^^ = 300 .. If a wire of copper 100 metres long. is here reduced to simple multiplication „= W is Nc F = 1000 c. .5) units. assumed uni- V= form. f. t> .720 ergs. and will be restored to the circuit when the current ceases. c. or other m.. of the current when remote from iron. so that the flux energy per cubic cm. so that the . f.480 = 900. „ passes through each and of the N" summation of and c F . we may take it for granted that the flux urged through this loop by the m. and this flux turns. ot — . — 300 = 225. 20 cms. m. either in size or in spacing. amounts to 8 TT =2 X 1.• c magnetic energy wui .X. = Also the interior volume of this solenoid 251.000 ergs.5 X ^~it. and a small with a mean radius of revolution r cross-sectional area of a 2 sq.5 tt r a. m. during the establishment of the current. (1.000 ' ergs— s the same result as above.480 lines in all. so that some . _B = 2 JV c = 150. . Next consider a closed circular solenoid of iV turns 15 amperes. know that the total flux within the solenoid will be by the = = = We r 2 iVc a = 2 X 1000 X 1. and one mm. This energy will be absorbed flux from the source of voltage. 3X600. X 1. The * 1 total * ^^ .r6 Tlieovdiad Etementa of Ela:tru-Dynitviic Ilarhinery. thereiore be -i. tiTT n = > r^ N^c^a = r 10002 X 1. Imes.3 anil withm 2 tt r a the intensity. and a current of three units. will remain conserved in the medium during the steady period of current flow. had been If in this case..

.000 X 1.Theoretical Elements of Electro-Dynamic Mucliinery. since the flux is always proportional to the m. F^ — of^.000 =2 X 10~* orO. m. p. is called the inductance of the circuit. thus causing the amount linked with each turn to be no longer uniform./!. s. so that the inductance of this particular solenoid in practical units ^ would be 200. and the energy stored up in its magnetic circuit evidently varies as the square of the current through the coil. are the fluxes that would respectively thread each loop if the current strength were unity ten amperes and the expression for energy then becomes — — .-i The practical unit of inductance generally called the henry.OOU. /g. In the closed circular solenoid just considered 2 X 1. where /"j. in the absence of iron. g. 87 flux had passed outside. .oOO. linkages. come necessary to make a arrive at the correct amount strict summation in order to of total energy.000 l.. we may consider F^ = cf^. and consists of 10^ or one thousand million c. or sometimes the coefficient of self induction. and consequently to the current strength. For any given coil not containing magnetizable material.ii millihenry. the inductance 2/'is a constant depending merely on its geometrical conditions. and Again. it would have be.000 X 2^ 2/= ^^= i^^ = r c •' ^ 20 i. F„ = cf^. ^= ^ (A 2f +f2 + - +/») = ^ ^/- The quantity which is the total number of lines linked with the circuit for unit current in the same. etc.

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. units Attraction of magnets upon magnetisable particles Attractive force between two active circular loops Bell telephone receiver. S... stress within 67 ^ 12 Dyne Ellipsoid Energy — electro-magnetic field 83 50 Equilibrium of stress in magnetic Equipotential surfaces 6 39 Ewing's theory of magnetism Ferric magnetic circuits Field.. tractive effort in C. G. S.. magnetic 47 ' Force — attractive on magnetisable particles 75 Friction between magnetised surfaces 73 .. unit of current . 80 1 magnetic Fleming's rule of motor directions Flux.75 Ampere.61 73 7 Closed circular solenoid 16 intensity in flux in rectangular " " " 17 28 32 " " intensity in. Co-efficient of self-induction 87 7 Density of flux Double solenoid. G. equivalent of in C.86 energy m. with iron core stress in " " " " " 64 67 " " "double " with iron core 70 ..i:n^ r> EX PAGr 7 ..

Induction Iron...... electro-magnetic upon . 82 42 45 " " on an active conductor in equilibrium through magnetised medium on coil carrying current 48 55 64 69 71 " in active solenoid " " " " with iron core flux densities established by varying — Tangent galvanometer . magnetic 25 6 14 21 " definition of " distribution of flux Prime 34 25 current. attraction Stress. H 18 Spherical magnetisable particles. potentials of Reluctance King conductor carrying Self -inductance 19 87 Solenoid Solid angle .INDEX... Permeance Potential. " induced magnetisation in Magnetomotive force Maxwell's theory of molecular vortices ellipsoid 9 42 12 Mutual inductance 03 .23 . influence 3 upon magnetic circuit 31 34 6.Continued.

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