Source: Lt. Col.

William Stephens Smith’s order book, Lee’s Additional Regiment (selection dated 24 March-16 May 1778), vol. 17, 224-261, Numbered Record Books Concerning Military Operations and Service, Pay and Settlement Accounts, and Supplies in the War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records (National Archives Microfilm Publication M853, reel 3), Record Group 93, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Note: The transcriber has done his best to preserve the original spelling. The only changes to the original being the occasional omission of some unnecessary punctuation. Any additional punctuation or alterations are in brackets. - Matthew Murphy, February, 2003.

Baron Steubens Instructions
On Tuesday 24th Inst. March 1778 - Eight O clock in the morning, the Inspectors of Brigades are to Assemble the Majors One Capt. One Sub[altern] From Each Comp[any] from their Respective Brigades & acquaint themselves with the Following Regulations, then take twenty men without arms & Proceed to the Performance of the following Elementary Evolutions,1st. The Position of the Soldiers, is to be carefully attended to, he must stand straight & firm, upon his leggs without affectation, his Shoulders Square to the front, & keep back the [knees?] upright , both arms hanging down by their sides, without constraint[.] These twenty Soldiers are to be formed into One Rank & in Such a manner that the whole line is Connected by a Straight Junction of the Elbow[.] they must Dress by the Right, & Cast their Eyes to the [right?] without Advancing the Head[.] 2nd. The Soldiers Placed in the Ranks & Dressed as have Been Directed, are to march to the Front[.] at the word of Command, To the Front March all the Soldiers raise their Left foot at once, Look to the right, & Advance forward with an easy free & Natural Step; Regulated by the officers [at?] the right wing, without Bending the knees to[o] much or Projecting Breast, & always Closing to the Side, their Eyes fixed upon, & when Crowded on that wing Inclining or gaining Ground to the Opposite Side [.] 3rd. As it is of the Greatest Importance, to have an Equal & Uniform Step, throughout the Whole Army, the Inspectors are to attend Particularly to the Soldiers, Kepping a Due & a Regular time in their Step, & To the officers not making any alterations in it[.] 4th. There will be only two Steps used for the Manouvers, [...?...] the Slow and Quick Step, but the Soldiers must be made, throroughly Acquainted with the former Before they are Taught the Latter [.] 5th. There must be an Officer on Each flank of the Ranks, & when the men Look to Right, the Officer takes a Point of View forwards which he Leads them in a Straight Direction, the Soldiers Closing to that Side & when Crowded gaining Ground to the Opposite Side, the Same thing must be Done by the officer of the Left Wing, when the Soldiers Dress to that Side[.] 6th. During this front march, upon the Officer Commanding - “Halt!” Every Soldier is to Stop Short on the foot which is then forward & Instantly Bringing up the other to it, without any Other motion, Casting at the Same time their Eyes to the Wing upon which the Rank is Dressed[.]

7th. The Officer Commanding them -“To the Right about face” & marches, the Rank to the other Sides, upon the Same Principles, after having Repeated a Sufficent number of times this front march both ways - they must wheel to the right & left at the following Words of Command 8th. “To the Left Wheel, March!” at the word of march all the Soldiers raising the left foot advance forwards, keeping the usual or Exact time between their Steps, the Left Wing Being the Pivot, upon which the whole line moves, the off[icer] of that wing is not to Step out of his Place whilst the right is Wheeling with the Slow Step[.] the Soldiers are to Dress to the Right & are to be Directed in their Step by the Officers on the right[.] After the Wheeling is over, the officer Commanding Halt, & the Rank Dresses to the Right. 9th. After having repeated Several times the Wheeling, the off[icer] orders a new the ranks “To the Front, March!” and after advancing a few Steps forward Commands without Interuption on the March- To the Left Wheel!”[.] at this word the Left Wing Stops Short Making only the time of their Steps, & becomes the Pivot upon which the Right Wing wheels with the Slow Step. 10th. Next word of Command is - To the Right Wheel, March!”, the troops being Dressed to the right. NB,.-Between the word Wheel & March, it is necessary to observe a Certain pause, because at the Word Wheel, the the Soldiers are to look to the Left, & at the Word March, the officer begins the Wheeling with the [...?...] Step. & all the Rank Dresses To the Left, this Wheeling to the right. Having been Performed several times, the Off[icer] Commands a new,- “To the Front, March!” Observing carefully that the Soldiers at the Word - “Wheel!” look instantly to the left, & at the word - “Halt!’ to the Right. 11th. When the Soldiers can Wheel with [precision?] & Advance with regularity, they must be taught to Incline Oblikely to the right and left, without altering [the] parallel direction of their front[.] For that purpose During the march the Officer Commands,- “To the Right!” and Instantly the Soldiers continuing to move with the Slow Step, carry their Right Foot oblikely to the right Side, & Left to the front & Continue so until the word “Forward”. Then they are to march Straight forward as before[.] 12th. The Soldiers [perform] the Same Oblike Step on the Other Side, at the Word - “To the Left!”, carrying the Left Foot in an Oblike direction, to the Left side, and the right foot Straight forward, always Observing to keep their front [Parrellell?], with the front of Their Departure, continuing in the Same manner until they hear The Word - “Forward!”, when they march as Directed Before. NB This Step is of Great Importance to facilitate a Platoon, or division, when too Crowded[;] gaining ground on one side or the Other Side without Confusion or dressing to the right or Left, after having Lost their Distance with Other Platoons or Divisions[.] 13th. The Soldier must be taught how to March by files in the following manner[.] Every Soldier in his position, & the rank dressed, The Officer Commans, - To the Right Face, March!’, the soldiers raising their Left Feet advance by Files with a Slow Step, and usual distance[.] This [last?] Object must be Carefully observed in Such a manner, that a Soldier[‘s] foot Occupies the spot which the foot of his file Leaders Just Left[.] This order of march becomes so much the more necessary and Important, as it is to be used in the Quick Step, in the Several [?nducings] of all collums but as it is very difficult to Execute it with a great Line, without altering the Distance[.] it must never be Done with more than the front of a Division[.]

14th, The Same march by files must be Executed to the left, as wel as to the right upon the same principles[.] 15th, The Soldiers having been Sufficently Exercised in these Marches, in one Rank[,] the Inspectors are to have them exercised in two Ranks equally with & without Arms, observing the Distance only of two Paces between the first & Second Rank[.] 16th, When the Soldiers are Sufficiently acquianted with these Orders of March, they will go thro’ the Same Evolutions again with their Arms, and when they Can Execute them regularly with the Slow Stepthey will Immediately pass to the Execution of them with the Quick Step[.] The Proceeding Evolutions being the Elementary grounds of all maneuvers whatsoever, the Brigade Inspectors must Take Particular care, that the off[icers] conceive themselves clearly &Execute them with regularity & exactness[.] The Main Point is to Introduce the Same Step through the whole army, & except the Quick Step[,] which is used in Some Evolutions, there must not be a Quicker or Slower in any Kind of March; wither for Parading or Mounting Guards[.] In Short in every march or Motion, the Soldier will use no other motion than the Slow One[.] Before the word march and after the word Halt is given[,] no Soldier is to move in any manner, his feet or arms, & even tho he march without arms, he must not Stir his hands, blow his nose, & much less talk. The Exercise shall be Performed the four first Days without arms on the Parade of every Battalion[.] In order not to tire the Soldiers, no Exercise shall Last an hour[.] the Inspectors & off[icers] of Battalions will Explain with [mildness?] what the Soldiers are to Do[.] [They are] are not to use them ill, niether by Abusive words or otherwise, but to Point out their faults Particularly[.] There will be no other Punishment for the Soldier that neglect his Duty, or is inatentive, than to make him Exercise one hour after the others have Done[.] On the 24th Inst. PM, the Brigade Inspector will again assemble the Maj[ors], Camptains[,] one Sub[altern], from each Company, on the Parade, in Order to repeat the manouvers of the morning and go gradually thro the rest, as described above, and this exercise to last until five o Clock[.] On the 25th Inst. 8 O Clock AM[,] Every Capt. Is to take 20 men out from his Com[pany] in Order to Exercise them as above[.] all the off[icers] of Batallions, will be Present at this Exercise, and the Inspectors are to Examine during that time, that the off[icers] Introduce nothing but what has been Prescribed & Especially that the Slow Step be Introduced every where the Same[.] For the future[,] every Other Manual Exercise is Prohibited until further Instruction from the Commander in Cheiff[.] after having Exercised the Troops in the Common or Slow Step, both by front and flanks in one Rank, without Arms and afterwards with arms, they Shall be made to Repeat the Same thing in Two ranks, always Close, and from that Movementthe Troops Shall make no Exercise either for the Parade, Marching Manual Exercise & without having the Ranks Closed[.] When a Company put themselves under arms and forms themselves in two Ranks[,] the Second is Six Paces from the first, but as Soon as the officer has examined the Equipment of the Soldier[,] the Second rank shall advance to the Distance of two paces of the first, which Distance they shall always keep in all Marches & Evolutions, whatsoever, & only when the Exercise is over Shall the Captains make the Second rank fall back to Order their firelocks, & Dismiss their men[.] When the Soldiers is Skilled enough in these marches, by front & flank with the Slow step[,] the Same Marches will be performed with the Quick Step, on the Same Principles, after which Several plattons will be taken together, and formed into a line of two Ranks[.] Wheel to the right and left by Plattons and march in that Order, with their Rank[s] always Closed, and the officers will learn to Perserve their distance[.] the officers & non Comisioned officers on the right wing of Their Plattons, will always march in the Direction given[.] the line is

to be formed Several times by wheeling to the right or Left in order to See wither the officers have kept their Distances, and then they are to wheel to the Right & Left by Plattoons[.] when the Company or Battalion marches by Plattons, they will be taught to form themselves into Sub divisions by marching with the oblique Step, then the Colums will be Closed up on the march & with the Colum in Close Order[.] Marches & Wheelings will be made till it is brought in a line with a Point of Direction, after which they will Display to the right or left,- And here will be Shown the Application of that nessessary march by the flanks[.] The Soldiers being once Instructed So far, they will perform the Same Principles the Changing the front,- and will be taught to execute several easy manouvers, after which they will be Exercised in Charging the Enemy with fixed Bayonets[.] The Manual Exercise will be Reduced to a few Motions, the Soldier need only know the following for the Present[:] “Poise your Firelock” “Shoulder your Firelock” “Present your Arms” } “Fix your Bayonets” “Unfix your Bayonets” “Load your Firelocks” “Make Reddy” “Present” “Fire” “Order your Firelock”

{

However they Should not amuse themselves in [...?...] Beginning with Manual, but our Whole Intention Should be given to teach the Soldiers how to march[.] the few Commands of manual Exercise that will be retained may be learnt in two Days[.] As Soon as the Troops are Instructed in these little Manovers, they will begin to Execute them by Battalions, afterwards they Shall Manovers by Brigades, then with whole Divisions[.] afterwards these Manovers will be repeated by Battalions, as many as the ground will admit to act upon it, & they will finish with Divers Representation of Battle that will be Executed with Bodies of Infantry Cavalry Light Troops[.] Such is the System I have Desigd to follow for the Exercising and Monovering the Infantry & which I Submit to the Approvation of his Excellincy the Commander in Chief[.]

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Chapter 2nd, 30 March 1778
===================================================================== The guards being assembled on the grand Parade, the men of each Brigade to be Placed as their Respective Brigades stand in Order of Battle in two ranks, Rear Ranks two Paces from the front, each officer in front of his Own men to Command - “Order, Firelocks!”[.] The Brigade Inspectors of the Day will have the line Dressed to the right and advancing from the Centre to the front with Command - “Shoulder, Firelocks!”[.] two Adjutants from the Same Brigade as the Inspectors will assist him, they will be Posted on the Right flank[.] The Brigade Inspectors will then Order the Battalions to be formed on which [...?...] all tho Officers, & non commis[sioned] officers Inclining to the Centre of the Battalions, advance the former 12 Paces to the front & form a Single Rank[.] the non commis[sioned] advance to the Distance of 4 paces from the rear of the officers & form two Ranks [...?...][.] Brigade Inspectors then Proceeds to appoint them in the following manners[:]

===================================================================== 1st Division 2nd 3rd 4th =========== ============= ============= ============ 1st P. 2 P. 3P 4P 5P 6P [?] P ===== ====== ====== ===== ===== ===== ==== ons 1:13:16 10:6 4: 8: 3:15:12 9: 5: [...?...] Thus the Eldest Off[icer] will Comand the first Division[,] the 2nd officer will Comand the fourth Division[.] The Third officer the third Division The fourth officer the Second Division The non Commis[sioned] officer[s] are to be Posted on the right of each Plattoon in the front Rank, one on the left of the Battalion the others in the rear as Bringers up[.] In the mean time the Adjutant tells of[f] the Battalions into four Divisions and Each Division into two Plattoons[.] the first Adjutant begins on the right of the front Rank, counts as many men as there to be files in the Platoons and then makes an Interval Sufficient for one man, & so Proceeds telling of[f] [...?...] Plattoon[s?][.] The Second Adjutant Does the Same in the Rear and Observes that the men Cover their file leaders[.] as Soon as the Adj[utant] have arived at the Left Flank Pla[ttoon][,] Brigade Inspector will Comand - “Officers take Your Posts”, upon which [said?] the Officers & non com[missioned] officers face to the right[,] the other half to the left[.] Each officer marches to the right of his Platoon [...?...] within the distance of 8 paces and counts the files of his Platoon as a check upon the ad[jutant] then Post himself [before?] the Centre of his Platoon[.] the non com[missioned] officers Post themselves at the Same time[.] The Inspectors [proceed?] to the right Wing & Counts over the number of Files in Each Plattoon[.] After this is finished he gallops to the Sentre, & Comands “Present Your Arms!” He then Advances toward the Gen[eral], Salutes with his Sword and Informs him that the Battalion is formed[.] the Gen[eral] Orders him to Comand - “Shoulder!”, and then Orders the Manovers that is to be Performed[.] On Monday next[,] nothing more is to be Performed than Wheeling to the Right & Left by Platoons, Marching by Platoons & forming the line again[.] if time will Permit, the Battalion will be Exercised in marching forward when formed, the whole to be Performed in the Slow Step[.]

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Chapter 3rd

Gen[eral] Rules for the formation of Troops
===================================================================== The files are always to be Closed, each man occupying space Enough for him to move freely & Without Constraint, the rear rank on all Occasions to be Closer to the front, (I.E.) Within two Short Paces or One long Pace distance, wither the troops are Marching or parading on their Parade, - but in the March by files, as those Ranks become files, they must be in Close Order as mentioned Before[.] A Squad consisting of a non Com[missioned] officer & 12 Privates when Paraded is formed into One Rank, with the non Com[missioned] officer on the right, but on the march every Squad consisting of more than three men is to be in two Ranks[.] if there are two non com[missioned] officers to the squad on the Parade, one takes Post on the Right, & the other in the Sentre, and in marching of[f], the one on the right Marches two Paces in front, and the other Becomes Bringer Up[.] A Detachment of two officers & non Com[missioned] officers and from 14 to27 files is to be formed into two Platoons[,] the eldest officer on the front of the first Platoon the other in the front of the Second[,] a non com[missioned] officer on the right of each Platoon & and the other two as Bringers up[.] If they march by the Right[,] the officer of the first Platoon leads the first Platoon, the non Com[missioned] officer who was on the right of the Second Platoon leads the Second Platoon and the Jun[ior] officer becomes bringers up of the Party, and Marches at about two or three Paces distance from the Rear Rank of the Platoon, or from the bringers up, when there is any. if they march from the Left, the officer of the second platoon leads the Party, and the Other Becomes a Bringer up of it[.] Detachment composed of any number of Files from 28 to 56 is to be Divided into 4 Platoons, an officer in front of Each Platoon, one on the Left of the 4th Platoon who becomes a Bringer up in the march and the rest as bringers up[.] if there are not four officers, the non com[missioned] off[icers] on the right, Suplys the Defficensies[.] Any number of Files from 56 to 112 are to be told into divisions & 8 Plattoon[,] the officers [and] non com[missioned] officers Posted as above[.] Any number of files from 112-208 (which is to be for the future the Strenght of a Battalion or Regt) is to be told into 4 Grand Divisions, 8 sub divisions, and 16 Platoons, the officers before Platoons, as above, a non com[missioned] officer on the right of each Platoon in the Front Rank, & one on the left of the Whole, the rest bringers up[.] The Interval Between Regiments formed in a Line is to be 15 Paces[.]

Chapter 4th
=========== Instructions for Changing the Front of a Battalion[,] By Closing & Displaying the Collum Formed By Wheeling ==========================================================

The forming and Displaying Colums may be Done Several ways, while will be explained by degrees, but before we Indecate any other manner of forming into Colums it is nessary to shew how the front of a Battalion may be Cahnged by Closing & displaying by the right or left, the Colum formed by Wheeling to the right or left[.] The Battalion formed for Changing as directed in the former Instructions, the Commanding officer forms it into a Colum by Wheeling to the right[.] in that Evolution the officers are posted in the Sentre of their Platoons as usual During the march, the Officer Previous to the display[.]

“Close Collums”
At this last word the 1 Platoon halts & all the others advance with the usual Slow Step, but when Lenghtenned, close to one an Other leaving no greater Intervals between the Platoons, then between the ranks, the officers Inclining and taking Post to the left of their respective Platoons, the Drummers & Fifers and artillery inclining to the right & forming on the right of the 1st Platoon[.] the Colum thus Closed, advances at the word,st

“March!”
to the Place appointed for the displaying[.] when the head or Leading Platoon arrives on the line, supposed to be Drawn between the two Points of View, Chosen for that Purpose[,] the officer Commands,- “Halt”, and gives notice to the officers of the Point of View on both Sides. Supposing [then?] the Signal for Displaying to be given[,] the officer then Commands,- “To the Left Face, March!”[.] At [that?] word of Command[,] all the Platoons except first, face to the left and March as Close as Possible, every officer marching his Platoon towards the Point of View, in proportions as the Platoons have advanced. At a proper distance performing the Comanding officer of the Batt[alion] Commands,- “Halt, Front, Dress!” Observing to give the word Halt when two thirds of a Platoon have passed, the Left of the Proceeding One, because in the march by files, notwithstanding all the Care Possible a Platoon Generally loses its’ Distance[.] at the word Dress[,] every officer Dresses his Platoon by the first Point of View & then takes his post again on the right of his Platoons, in the front Rank, & and So for all rest as before[.] When the Colum has been formed by Wheeling to the Left, by Platoons, it is Displayed by the right in the Same manner, vice versa, Except that the officer Remains on the right of the Platoons after the command,- “Halt, Front, Dress!” The Sub Inspectors, Brigade Inspectors, & other officers, will Carefully attend to this, During this week in order that we may be able to pass to greater things next week[.] =====================================================================

Chapter 7th
Instructions for the Formation of the Battalions of Guards, with the Several Detachments brot On the Grand Parade by Brig[ade] Maj[ors] ========================================================== ===================================================================== =================
As soon as a Detachment arives on the Parade, the Commanding off[icer] is to form his men into two ranks, at the Distance of one Pace, & Place a non Com[missioned] off[icer] on the right, & others in the rear of the Detachment as bringers up, at the distance of two Paces from the rear rank[.] Perculiar care must be taken that the me are in a right Posision, their Elbow Slightly Touching one another[.] The off[icer] Comands,- “Order Your, Firelocks!”, takes Post Eight paces from the front Rank, where he is to Remain, until furth Orsers[.] The Detachment that comes next take Post on the left of the Former & Observes to do the Same thing, besides to have no Vacancy between Detachments and not to Cover the non Com[missioned] officers of the first rank, by placing another non Com[misioned] officer in the rear rank, & So on for the other Detachments[.] When all the Detachments are arived, the Brigade Maj[or] acquaints the Brigade Inspectors with it, & the latter Begins Counting of the off[icers] & non Com[missioned] off[icers] whilst his two Adj[utants] counts the files in order to divide into 8 Platoons, observing to Place the odd men in the Platoons of the right & Left, & so towards the Sentre[.] That Division Should always be made before hand in Order to exelarate the Formation. The Adj[utant] dress the whole troops from right to left, Then the Brigade Inspector Gallops to the Centre[,] Draws his Sword and Comands [Attention!][.] at that word the officers draw their Swords and Dress by the right[.] the Inspector Comands, “Handle, Arms!” [,] “Shoulder, Firelocks!” & then [officers & non Com[missioned] officers to the front, March][.] at the word “March”, The officers who Stands nearest the Senter advance four Paces forward, and halt, whilst the other officers on both Sides, faces to the right & Left, advancing with the usual Slow Step, towards the officer in the Senter & forming in one Rank, acording to the Order of Senority[.] At the word “March” the Non Com[missioned] officer likewise are to Step out of the first rank[,] the bringers up go thru the Vacancies Left between the Detachments and face to the right & Left, & advance with a Slow Step towards the off[icers] already formed[.] in Order to form themselves in two Equal Ranks, the first will be Composed of Ser[geants], if Posible, at a distance of 4 Pace[s] from the officers, observing to keep the Same distance with the rear Rank of Corp[rals][.] the Brigade Inspector then Proceeds to appoint them to Eight Platoons[.] The non com[missioned] officers to be Posted on the right of each Platoon & one on the left of the Battalion in the front rank, the others in the rear as bringers up, one to each Platoon[.] if there are more than the numbers of bringers up, to be Increased from the Flanks to the Senter[.] As soon as the Brigade Inspector Begins appointing his officers, his two Adj[utants] must begin Counting off from Right to left the number of men that belongs to each of the eight Platoons, according to the Division supposed to have been made Before, Giving Each Platoon their number from Right to left, as 1st Platoon 2nd Platoon & So on to the 8 Platoon[,] Leaving a Vacancy sufficient for One man between Each Plattoon[,] but [no] more[.] The whole being Done, the Brigade Inspector Comands off[icers], non com[missioned] off[icers],- “Take Your Post, March!” At the word “March”, they face to the right & Left and march off with the usual Slow Step to their Posts[.] The non Com[missioned] off[icers] apoint[ed] as bringers up go thro the Vacancies between the Platoons, fall into [...?...] front Rank, & the Officer step up to the right of their Platoon, Count the number of files in their Platoons and return to the front rank[.] The Brigade Inspector then Comands,- “Present, Arms”, & advances towards the

Gen[eral], Salutes him with his Sword and Informs him that the Batt[alion] is formed[.] The Gen[eral] then Orders him to Command,- “Shoulder, Firelock!”, & Orders the manovers which is to be Performed[.] NB[,] When a Battalion wheels to the right by Platoons & Bringers up remain in their Places whilst the Platoon[s] are Wheeling[,] except one who is on the left Wing of the 8 th Platoon[.] when the wheeling is performed, & the Battalion Marches, he must become a Third Bringers up to that Platoon[.] In the wheelings by Platoons, the officers March Before[,] the Senior of their Platoons, within four Pace Distance, and turn now an[d] then to look at their Platoons & keep their Soldiers well Dressed, they are to take Particular Care not to alter their Distance, for it is of the Last Importance always to Perserve a Distance equall to their Front & it is for that Purpose that they are Directed to Count the Number of their files[.] In wheeling on a march the wheeling is to be Performed by all Platoons on the Same Ground, and the officers must take Particular care to notice the Place where the Platoon that Proceeded theirs began to wheel in order to march at an equal Distance always at that Place, & then Comand the Wheel[.] The officers are to Comand “Halt!”, when the Wheeling is over, that is when the Platoon in it’s Evolution has described a Quarter of a Circle[.] in this they must be as nice and as Exact as Possible, in Such a manner as not to give the word Halt to[o] Soon or to late[.] the word Halt is to be Imeadiatly followed by the two other Comands, “Dress to the Right!”, March with Sease any Interval of time, in order the Better to preserve the Distance and Order of the Platoon[.] ===================================================================== Chapter 6th ===============

Honours Due from the Guards to the Gen[eral] and Other Off[icers] of the Army Ordered by his Excelency to be Observ’d in future ===================================================================== =================
1st. Guards Commanded By Com[missioned] officers are, for the Comander in Cheiff, are to Parade & Present Arms - The officer Saluting & Drums beating, but as in Camp before the Enemy, it would not always be Proper to announce the Presence of the Com[mander] in Cheiff, his Excelencey orders that the Drums Do not beat[.] 2nd For Maj[or] Gen[erals] & Gen[eral] Feild Off[icers] of the Day[,] the Guards Present Arms[.] 3rd For Brigade Gen[erals] they Parade with Handled Arms[.] 4th For the Adj[utant] Gen[eral] or Inspectors of Divisions, the Same,- also Quarter Guards for their Own Brigade Inspector[.] 5th Guards Comanded by Non Com[missioned] off[icers] Present Arms for the Comander in Ch[eif], Maj[or] Gen[erals], Brigade Gen[erals], Feild Officer of the Day, adjutant Gen[eral], Inspector of Division, Field officers of their own Regt, and Inspectors of their Own Brigades[.] Centinels Present arms for all Gen[eral] Officers, Fields officers of the day, Adjutant Gen[erals] & Inspectors of Divisions & the Sentinels in Camp to all Feild officers of their own Reg[iments][.] The Guards of the Comander in Chief Pay no honour but to him[.] The Guards of Maj[or] Gen[erals] Pay no honour but to the Comander in Chief, Maj[or] Gen[erals] & the Brigades to whom they are to guard[.] Guards of Brigade Gen[erals] pay honour to the Comander in Chief, Maj[or] Gen[erals] & the Brigadiers for whom they are on Guard[.] When a Guard Parades, it must Be formed in two ranks agreable to the Instruction already given for formation of Troop[.]

The officers to the Right of the front rank, a Ser[geant] Covering him the in Same Manner, as formed for the Charge, the Drums to the right of the officers, & the Centinels to the right of the Drummers a Little Advanced[.] There must be no Single man, the Centinel will give the time[.] the Officer facing to the Left gives the word, “Present Arms” and with the last motion again Faces to the front[.] Facing again to the left he Comands - “Shoulder!”[,] Keeping always to the right of his Guard when Occasion may Require[.] N.B. This Last article Respects only the Guard in Camp, in time of Wars, in Garrisons or in time of Peace, the Guards Parade with open ranks and the officer advances four Paces before the Sentry[.] When it happens that a Gen[eral] or Feild Officer of the Day Pases a Guard during the time of Relieveing, both Guards pay the Honours before mentioned, without Moving their Disposition, altho the Gen[eral] or field officer of the Day Should pass Behind either of the Guards[.] When a Battalion or Detachment Passes before a guard, the Should Carry Arms, & beat a march also, and if the Battalion has Collours the officer Salutes them[.] When a Body of men apear without Arms Even if these are [Countrymen?] if these number are Superior or Equal to the Guard, the Centinel must alarm the Guard, & the Guard must turn Out until they have Passed[.] When a Guard is marched to its Post, or in returning Should meet a Gen[eral] or Field oficer, they must Carry Arms & Continue their march[.] When a Single Soldier meets any officer, he should Halt Front & Carry Arms until the oficer is Passed[.] When two Guards or Detach[ments] meets, they Should both Carry Arms and Incline to the right to make Room for Each other to pass[.] ===================================================================== th

Chapter 7

============== Instructions for Officers of the Guards. ========================================================== ========================================================== ========
1st. When an officer arives at a Post[,] his to Releive, the Old Guard is already formed and Presents Arms at the arival of the new one, which forms its self oposite the old One & the off[icer] Com[mands] - “Present, Arms!”[.] then the two officers aproach each other & the off[icer] of the Old Guard Imparts to the other the Instructions he has received, then Both officers Com[mand],- “Shoulder, Firelocks”[.] both Guards face together to the right & upon the word “March!”, they Change their Ground Reciprocaly[.] 2nd. Then the officer of the new Guard apoints as many men as there is Centinels, A Non Com[missioned] officer of the old Guard and another of the new one marching before the men, Leads them to their Different Post[.] they begin by Releiveing before the Guard House [.] at their drawing near, the old Centry Presents his arms, the Non Com[missioned] off[icer] of the New Guard Comands “Present Arms” - Poise, Firelock”[,] which last only Extends to the Centry Releiving & Centry Releived[.] the Non Comis[sioned] officer Comands “March”[.] both Centrys comes near Each Other, the old one Imparts to the new one the orders which he had Received[.] the new one takes Place of the old one, when goes afterwards into his Rank[.] the Non Com[missioned] off[icer] comands Front, & both Centinels face to the right about[.] the non Com[missioned] officer Comands “Shoulder!”, & leads the men to releive the other Sertries in the Same manner[.] mean while the officer of the new Guard appoints the two other numbers for Each Post[.] when the Non Com[missioned] officers come back with the old Sentries, they lead

them before the old guard[,] Comands “Present, Arms”, “Poise, Firlock”, “March!”the Soldiers go to their Rank & File. They Com[mand],- “Front”, “Shoulder, Firelock”[.] 3rd. The Old Officer forms the old Guard in the Same manner as at their mounting[,] Wheels by the right or left and Leads his Guard with Order into Camp[.] 4th. When the Old Officer Leaves the Place, the new Guard “Present, Arms” till the old one has Filed of[f] then he Com[mands] “Shoulder, Firelocks!”, and order a Non Com[missioned] officer to write Down the Names of the Soldiers of that Guard[.] to be Composed of an officer[,] two Non Com[missioned] officers & 25 Privates[,] this Guard with Eight Sentries to Place which makes three numbers for each Sentry - So that each Soldier is on Centry Eight hours out of 24[.] He [gets?] their names written Down in the Following manner[Night?]/ Anthony | John \ Peter / William | Odgen \ Hays / George | Dick \ Harry 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

Before the Guard House

At the Post A

At the Post B

And the Same for the other Posts which make[?] the Number of 24 men[,] the twenty fifth remains for the Service of the officer of the Guard[.] 5th. So when an officer has a Guard of 24 men[,] there are Eight of them Centry, & when the Eight are Releiving, he has but a third Part of Guard left under arms with wich he must Defend his Post[.] in Case of an Atack he must remain under arms until the Centinels Comes back[,] he then forms his Guard again in two ranks, & Orders them to lay down their arms[.] NB. This must be Observed with Greater Exactitude in the night than in the Day[.] 6th If a man Deserts out of a Guard & the officer is not acquainted with the Desertion before the first two hours are over[,] His Sign that he has not formed his Guard & must be answerable for the neglect of his Duty[.] 7th. In the night[,] officers are to Send every half [h]our a Patroll of a Non Com[missioned] off[icer] & two Privates in order to visit the Sentry & Examine wither they are Strick in their Duty[.] 8th. Every Guard must be Under arms at the arival & Passing by of a Gen[eral] Officer[,] Feild officer of the Day, or Inspectors[,] Pay them the honours to their rank & the officer is to give an account of the Instructions he has Received, When Required By the Said Gen[eral] Officer[.]

9th. During the night the Guards are to Pay no honours to any Body Except to the Gen[eral] officers & officers of the Day Visiting the Post[.] at their arrival they Put themselves Under arms[.] the Sentry hinders the officers of the Day from Coming near the Guard until the Officer has Sent to him a non Com[missioned] off[icer] & two Privates in order to Examine him & ask him for the Countersign[.] Having [Reconnoitered?] him, the officer Causes the Gen[eral] or Feild Off[icer] of the Day to come near him[,] ask him for the Parole, & gives him an account of his [guard?][.] 10th. No officer is to Pull of[f] his cloathes in the night, under Pain of being Tryed By a Court martial[.] 11th. No officer to absent himself from his Guard, under any pretence whatever, beyond the distance of two Hundred[?] Paces under Pain of being tryed by a Court martial[.] 12th. No officer is to give leave to a Soldier to go to Camp or into the Country, under any Pretence, whatever of it is[.] to get Provision he must Send a Non Com[missioned] officer and two or three Privates, with a Note Signed by his own hands, Certifying that they are going to Purchase Victuals[.] 13th. After the tatoo is beaten, no person is to go 50 Paces from the Guard, and hw who Should be Found at a Further Distance shall be arrested & treated as a Deserter[.] 14th. The Officer is to Instruct his Sentry in what to Do & what they are to Observe at their Post as well by night as by Day[.] 15th. Every Guard is to be found under arms Formed according to their numbers Agreable to the Instructions already Given for the formation of the Troops[.] 16th. When an Officer or Non Com[missioned] off[icer] is Releived from his Guard, he is to Conduct it back in Same Order he has received them[.] at the Pararde, in one or two Platoon of his Guard he Composed out of three Brigade, he Shall Lead them to the Center Brigade, then Divides them from each Brigade, having each Detachment Conducted by a non Com[missioned] off[icer] or a Veteran Soldier, in Good Order to their Respective [Battalions?][.] 17th. Any officer who before he is arived in Camp will Let his Guard go by themselves & Stragle away without order[,] Shal be Put in arrest & tr[ied] by a Court Martial[.]

Camp Valley Forge 16th May 1778
The Inspectors will Begin to Instruct the Troops in the Several Formations of Sollid Collums, & Several Way of Displaying[.] NB. To all Manouvers whatever a Battalion be formed for Changing,- Sollid Collums are formed Either to the front or Flanks & in either Case by the right or Left, the forming Collums to the Flanks is Performed in the Same manner as the Brigades have practiced in Changing front[.] the forming Collums to the front by the right is performed in the following manner[:] When the Battalion is formed for Changing, the Inspector Gives the word “By the Right” , “Form Collums, to the Front”, this Suposed to be given by the Gen[eral] Directing the Manovers[.] on which the Comanding officer then Commands “March!”[.] the first Division marches right forward as many Paces as Ordered, the 2nd Division marches by Files in the rear of the 1st, faces and Closes up, the Off[icer] of Each Division giving the word Halt, Front, to his division, so on with the rest,

till the Colum is formed[.] to form with Expedition, the front Division Should march forward half the Depth of the Colum when Closed,- for Example, a Colum Composed of eight Divisions will have a Depth of about 24 Paces[.] The first Division will then march forward 12 Paces & Halt,- the 2nd-3rd & 4th incline to the Left, so as to fall at once into the rear of the Proceding Division, & the 6th, 7th, 8th Come at once into their Proper Places, taking care to keep Close in the rear of their Proceding Divisions[.] The forming Collums to the Front by the Left is Done in the Same manner, Changing the Firings, The Colums formed to the front Display on the Same maner as always Practiced[.] in Changing fronts, Observing that when the Collums is Closed To the right it Displays to Left[.] after having Closed the Collum the Inspector will march them to the front, to the right & Left by facing[.] they will also Leade the Collums in a Serpentine manner without any word of Comand for Wheling taking the Greatest Care Possible that in all these Movements the Collums remains in the Closest Order Posible & the Soldiers keep their ranks & files[.] the Collums being arived on the Ground[,] they would have them form on [it?][.] the men Suport their Arms, the Inspector Comands - “Carry, Arms!’ & Displays Emeadiately[.?] when the officers are Verst in Displaying to the right by the Centre in the following manner[:] The Inspector having given notice that the Collum is to Display By the Center the officers Comanding 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th Sub Divisions Place themselves on the right of their Divisions[,] the Others the Left[.] the Signall for displaying being Given [by] the Inspector[,] Comands to the right & Left, Face[.] the four Divisions on the right face to the right, & 5th Stands fast[.] the 3 of the Left face to the Left & as Each Division Gains its Distance the officer Comands Halt, Dress to the Center, the 5th Division Moving up a Little, the whole Dress in a Line[.] when a Battalion is formd for a Charge the Drums, Fifes & men must be on the right Wing & when the Batt[alion] is marching in open Collums before the 5th Sub Division[.?] so soon as the Collum is Closed they_ _ _ _ by the right or Left they will take Post on the right of the first Sub Division[.] when a Batt[alion] Divided into Platoons is to be formed into Sub Divisions for Displaying or any other manovere, the Battalion wheels by Platoons by the right[.] Whi[lst] marching the word is given, form Sub Div[isions][.] Imeadiately the odd Platoons Incline Oblikely to the right[,] the even Platoons Incline to the Left, Lengthening & Doubleing upon the Preceesing Platoon [and] Dress with them[.] The Officers[,] Non Com[missioned] officers belonging to the Platoons which Double up, Fall into the rear as bringers up [,] Leaving in front only the officers who Comands Divisions[,] who remains in Center & one Ser[geant] on the right Wing[.] NB All Displayings are to be Done by Sub Divisions, and when the Line is formed, they will also Size by Sub Division[.] To form afterwards into Platoons the Battalion must wheel by Sub Divisions and while marching, at the word, Form Platoons, the even Platoons Halt[.] while they Leave these Distances, The officers & Non Com[missioned] officers belonging to them taking their Posts[,?] Inclining Oblikely to the right while the odd Platoons Incline to the Left till the Collum is Drest[.] all Exercising and Manovers to be performed without mussick which Should never be alowed to Play but when on a march towards the Enemy or else where[.] the musick in Time of Exercise not only Pervents the Soldiers from Giving the nessesary Attention to the Commands of their officers, but accustoms them to that Dancing Step so Disagreable to the Performance of the manovers[.]

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Instructions for Facing and Charging Bayonets ===================================================================== ================= A Battalion formed will fire from the right to the Centre, as always been Practised, but when Displaying from Colums the orser of Firing will Depend on the maner in which the Colum Displays, always Begining the Division which is first form’d & Continuing with the other Divisions as they arrive in the line[.] when the last has fir’d, the first wil Recommence[.] When Displaying from the Centre of a Colum, formed by the right, the third Division is that on which the others form[.] as Soon therefore as its front is Clear, it advances to the line & fires, the 2nd Division Follows the 4th, then the 1st & So on[.] When Displaying from the Center of a Collum formed by the Left[,] the Second Division begins the fire[.] When Displaying from the Centre of a Collum formed by the right[,] of 2 Battalions[,] the 1st Division of the 2nd Batt[alion] making the head, Begins the fire[.] the 4th Division of the 1st Battalion begins the fire of that Batt[alion] and So on to the Left of the Second & to the right of the 1st Batt[alion][,] each Division fireing as [it] arives on the Ground[.] When a Batt[alion] is formed marching in front Towards the Enemy, Fireing Advancing as is Perform’d in the Following Manner[:] The Battalion advancing with the usual Step[,] the word is given - “fire by Platoons, advancing!”[,] on which the officer Comanding the 1st Platoon follows in the Same manner and So on with the rest[.] the Platoon Having Loaded again[,] marches up to their Places in the Battalion, and when their turn Comes begin again in the Same manner[.] The Batt[alion] having faced to the right about[,] Receives the Orders to fire by Platoons Retreating italics mine], on which the 1st Platoons receives the word halt[,] to the right about[,] face [italics mine],- “Make ready, Present, Fire!” The 8th Platoon following the Same Order, and So on the Same as advancing[.] the Soldier in Loading thus facing to the right & in Whouldering face again to the right & march up to their Places in the Batt[alion] In Charging the Enemy wither by Batt[alion] or Divisions or Platoons[,] the Officers Should Comand with a Loud Noise & be Careful to give the men time to take good aim & not hurry them in their fireing[.] as Soon as each Soldier has Loaded his Piece, he must Come to a Shoulder Without waiting for the whole to Shoulder Together[.] In Presenting, the Soldier should put his right foot 6 Inches[,] at Least[,] behind the other[,] that being the natural Position to Stand in[.] In other Nations the men of the 2nd Rank are accustomed to Step of with one foot to the right, in order to clear the foot of the front Rank man[,] Who Kneels but as in our army, the front Rank fires Standing[.] the 2nd Rank will in making ready Step a Little to the right in order to Present in the Interval of the front Rank & having Loaded his Piece in Coming to a Shoulder he Steps Back to his Place[.] The Charging with Bayonets is Performed in the following maner[:] The Soldiers Seizing his Firelock with his right hand as in the 1st motion of Poising[,] He throws the Bayonet Forward bringing the but[t] Under his right arm, and at the Same time Seizing the Firelock with The Right Hand, about 8 Inches above the Lock[,] holding the But[t] firm Under his Arm & Keeping Square to the front[.] the men of the front rank have the Bayonet about a Foot higher than the but[t][.] A Batt[alion] Should never Charge Bayonets till within 100 Paces of the Enemy[.] this Manover is to be Perform’d in the following Manner[:] The Batt[alion] being before formed for the Charge advances in the usual Step to a Certain Distance, the Comanding off[icer] Orders March, March [italics mine][,] on which the Batt[alion] advances Imeadiately with a Quick Step[.] the officer then Comands “Charge Bayonets!”[,] on which they Imeadiately Charge Bayonets and Keep advancing[.] having advanced about 15 or 20 Paces, the Comanding officer Commands Batt[talion]- - at which word the Soldiers Imeadiately Come to a Shoulder & take the Slow Step again Dressing to the Center[.]

when the Comanding officer Perceives the Batt[alion] is well Dress’d[,] he Comands “Batt[alion], make, ready; Present[,] Fire!”[.] The Batt[alion] fires to be repeated 2 or 3 times & is given on a [Suposition?] the Enemy are retreating, the Comanding officer than Comands Batt[alion] to the Front March [italics mine][.] The Batt[alion] advances 40 or 50 Paces, Halts repeates the Fire of Batt[alion][.] with regard to the Manual Exercise[,] it will Remain as it is always been Practised, Except in Chargin Bayonets & as above Directed[.] The Different Firings by Platoons and Divisions advancing & Retreating being now Introuduced[,] it is nescessary to give Direction for the forming of a Reserve for the Collours, whcich is to be Done in the following manner[:] The 2nd first Serg[eant] is to be appointed for the reserve[.] the Serg[eants] to take Post[,] one behind the 3rd File[,] one right 6th Platton[,] the other behind the 3rd file on the Left of the fourth Platoon[.] on the Batt[alion] Receiving the word to form Charge[,] take Post on the right & Left of the files above mentioned which form’d they Reserve[.?] the off[icer] & Serg[eant] which was to the right of the 5th Platoon Post themselves to the Left of the reserve which will then be the right of their Platoons[.] When the Batt[alion] wheels by Platoon or Divisions, the Serg[eants] of the Reserve fall again into the rear of the Platoon and take the Post they had before formed for Charging[.] as Soon as they form Batt[alion] again, they again take Post as Reserve NB[.] the Reserve does Neither fire nor Charge Bayonets[.]

Instructions for the Inspectors of the Army
______________________________________________________________________________ the Inspectors will have these Objects to attend to[:] 1st. the Exerciscing of the army 2. the Order & Displine of the army 3. the Service of the Guards & the line With regard to the first[,] the Inspectors will follow the Instructions given by the Baron Steuben, & have them Exercised by the Brigade Inspectors, without adding or omiting any thing That might alter that Uniformity which is Indespen[sable?] for the Performing Grand Manouvers[.] When a Brigade turns out to Exercise they must be formd in one[,] two or more Batt[alions] according to the number of men, as Directed in the Gen[eral] Regulation already Given by the Baron Steuben for the formation of Troops[.] When a Brigade is turned Out for Exercise by the Inspector, the Brigade Inspector appoints their hours to the Adjutant for the next Day and the Adj[utant] will Gives notice to the Comanders of Reg[iments][,] that nothing may Prevent all the men from turning out, Except those that are Sick or on Duty[.] the Hours for Cooking & Fetching Provisions must never Interfear with the hours of Exercise[.] at the appointed time[,] the Brigade Inspectors will order a Long Roll to Beat Before the Center Batt[alion] of his Brigade[.] the Adj[utants] orders the Same before their Respective Reg[iments] & Each Reg[iment] forms Imeadeately on [it’s?] own Parade Ground[.] The Officers and non Com[missioned] officers who are not on Duty are to atend the Exercise, Except one officer[,] four non Com[missioned] officers & 15 Privates to remain in the Incampment of Each Reg[iment] [...?...][...?...] to Guard the Camp and take Care of the barracks & Tents[.] Invalids, or Such man as are badly Cloathd may Serve for this Purpose[.] when a Batt[alion] is turned out, the Adj[utant] forms it to two Ranks & Divides it according to its Strenght into 4, 8, or16 Platoons[.] the Capt[ains][,] Sub[alterns] & Non Com[missioned] officers must Be appointed According to the Regulations made in the Formations[.] after this[,] [the]

Batt[alion] Marches in Platoons to the right or Left to the Place where the Brigade is to form[.]

1st Pensylvania Regt - Capt_ _ _ _ _ _ _4 Sub_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 15 NCD _ _ _ _ _ _ 28 file_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 164
When the Inspector finds the number of files to be Sufficient to form a Batt[alion] of 4 Sub Divisions & Eight Platoons[,] he Leads the Batt[alion] Together[.] if the number is Inferior to 56 files, according to the Regulations he has them Incorparated an forms one or two Batt[alions] out of his One Brigade[.] that formation being made[,] the Inspector Leads his Brigade to the Place of Exercise & Exercises the Manouvers he has Proposed or what had been Ordered by the Inspectors of Division[.] to make D[...?...] the time of Exercise the Inspectors will Cause The Troops once or twice to stand Easy[.] in that Interval, the Soldier will be at Liberty to blow his nose & c[,] but as the Exercise is Resumed, every Kind of Motion is forbid[den] & the Strickest Silence is to be Observd[.] the officers who is not to Punish the Soldier for Some faults in the Performing the Exercise, is E[...?...] Injoined to Punish very Severely any Soldier who Does not Remain Stedy under arms[.] the non Com[missioned] officers and Bringers up are to Point out any Soldier who Does not remain Stedy under arms[.] the Only means to Present this Disorder is to Punish Imeadiately the Non Com[missioned] officers[.] it is utterly imposible that a manouver or Evolution be ever Performed in Good Order if the Soldiers are not Cured of those Bad Habbits[.] the Exercise being Over[,] the Inspecter Leads the Brigade [from?] the Place of Exercise[,] Divides the Reg[iments] & the Eldest Captain Leads the Troops to their Reg[imental] Parade & Dismiss them[.] in Order to hinder the Reg[iment] from having half their men in the barracks or tents at the hour of Exercise, & the Inspector himself be Judge himself of the numbers of men Under arms as in Proportion to the Strength of the Reg[iment], it is nescessary that the Adj[utant] Return Every Day on Account of the State & numbers of men fir for Duty to the Brigade Inspectors in the following manner-

Capt[,] 4 Sub, 12 NCO, 38 Privates
C Sub NCO Priv

In Service of Guards 1. 3. 5. 85 Sick 1. 2. 32. Detachd 1. 6 Under Arms 3: 8: 29: 272 ============ In the Whole 4: 12: 38: 400
Notwithstanding the Experiance thru Which the Brig[ade] have already Done by Battalions, the Inspectors must Choose Good officers out of each Batt[alion] for the Excercising[.] the Rec[ruits?] & men Coming from Hospitals[,] When they arive, they must be Exercised by themself in front or Rear of the Batt[alion] in Order to teach them the Elementary grounds & Principles of marching & Manual Exercising[.] a Batt[alion] able to Perform Some Evolution will have Lost it’s [Reins?] if only twenty men are Introduced who are not Instructed how to keep their Rank & file[.] the NC Off[icers] must be taught how to keep their Distance between their Platoons, to Dress with their Platoons before they march Straight Forwards to the Point Of View Given[,] which may be Effectiv by Placing them In One Line 10 or 12 Paces Distance from Each

Other and making them march Strait forward[.] after this they must Learn to face to the right & Left then to march & Dress in marching[.] they must be formed afterwards in one Rank, touching Each other [at] the arms in the manner of a Soldier[.] one of them is to Command the rest to make them march & Practice Wheeling to the right & Left and that [...?...] may Learn how to Lead a Platoon and Comand the wheeling with a Loud Voice[.] this article is One of the most Important and it which the Inspector will Pay Particular Attention[.] the formation of the Batt[alion] being So Simple a thing of it Self[,] should Be Exercised as Quick as Possible[.] the Soldiers ought not to be fatiuged by a Matter that requires only the attention of the off[icers][.] Such NC Off[icers] as Don’t find the Place to which they are appointed are to be Punished[.] [...?...] Adj[utant] are to Count the files pre[...?...] to the Platoons[,?] nothing in them Easier and Should be formd in an [Instant?][.] with regard to the manual the [...?...] will be Prefered[Presented?] with Some few Alterations[.] the Com[pany?] of Guards will Perform the Exercise in Presence of the Inspectors at a Day which will be appointed for that Purpose in Proportion[.] as there are new Evolutions to be Introduced, the Baron will give Proper Instructions to the Inspectors and will have them to form by the Comp[any] of the Guards in their Presence[.] In the Grand Manouvers the Inspectors will Lead the Colums[.] the Brigade Inspectors will remain With their Respective Brigades and Be Present at the Execution of the Mano[vers][,] the Dispositions of which they shall have need Before[.] with Regard to good Order and the Disipline of the Troops[,] it is nessesary the Inspectors take Good Care to Instill into the minds of the officers that it is Impossible for an army to be well Disp[osed?] if themselves Don’t give the Example of the Strikest Subordination[.] it is nesessary to learn to Obey in Order to be Able to Comand[.] how Can an officer Espect Obediance from Soldiers under him, if he himself Performs Negligently and Disobeys the orders he receives from his Superior[.] its then nesessary the Inspectors take Great Care to have Executed the Orders Give[n] by the Comander in Chief the Disciplining of the non Com[missioned] off[icers] is the Soul of the Army[.] the Ser[geant] & Corp[orals] of a Comp[any?] are always with the Soldiers not only under Arms & during the time of Exercise, but also in the hut and mi[les?][.] nothing Can Escape their Knowledge and the Conduct of the Soldier Depends very much on that of his NC Off[icer][.] if the Inspector finds any of them Negligent in there Service, who either Get Drunk or Game with the Soldiers or give some other mark of bad Conduct[,] they shall have them arrested and the Adj[utant] are to report them to the Commanding officer of the Batt[alion] who according to the Case[,] will have them Punished or reduced & a good Soldier Put in his Stead[.] When the Reg[iment] have received their Rec[eivt?] & Reinforcement that are Expected, the Inspector will muster the Troops and Each Batt[alion] will be obliged to Give an Exact acc[ount] of its Effective State & the men absent[.] The Inspectors are often to visit their Divisions and the Brigade Inspectors their Brigades in order to See wither the Interior Service of the Regt is Performed with propollay[?][,] wither the officers & NC Off[icers] are Present[,] when a Party is to Parade for Guard Fatigue or any Other Expedition that Each Troop be formd according to regulations, given on the Reg[iments] Parade & not between the Barracks or [...?...], that no Partys march By files but by Platoons, that the officers march of[f] & Conduct their Troops in Good Order, that the Soldiers keep their Rank & files & In marching such as they have been taught in their Exercise[.] as soon as the Troops are under Arms[,] the Inspectors are to Examine wither their Arms are in Good Order, if a Soldier keep his Ammunition in Good Order & when the men are Paraded for Guard or Detatchment out of Camp, each Soldier is to Carry his haver Sack and whole Baggage with him[.] every Day the Adj[utant] is to Order 2 off[icers][,] 4 NC Off[icers] and a Drummer to Perserve the Poles[Police] in Camp of the Reg[iment][.] those off[icers] & NC Off[icers] must be the whole Day in Camp and they are to be Present at the Distrubution of all Provisions& which are made[,] then they are to Conduct the Soldiers when they go for Water, Wood & Straw & in the following manner[:] in

the morning an officer of Poles[Police] Orders the Drummer to beat three Double Stroaks on the Drum which is the Signal to go for Water[,] then the Soldiers assemble with their Canteens in the Center of the Reg[imental] Parade[.] the off[icer] forms them in Ranks & Platoons[,] a NC O[fficer] as Bringers up[,] Conduct them to the Water and bring them Back in the Same Order which is to be Done in the Same manner 3 or 4 times a Day as Occasion may Require[.] the Same Order is to be Observd when for wood the Soldiers are to assemble with their Axes[.] the off[icer] forms them & Leads them to & from the Places a[s] above[.] the Same Order to be Observed when the Soldiers go after Straw or any other nesessary[.] the Inspector will Pay Great Attention to Eevry thing that relates to the Preservation of the Soldiers[,] Pervents his Being Unnessasarily Fatigued and the Exercise Continuing no Longer & in the heat of the Day & the off[icers] from Asembling the Troops to[o] Soon or Rem[aining] too long Under Arms[,] [he must make sure to] Halt the Batt[alion][,] take Care of the Cleaness of the Camp and Especally that the Off[icers] Pat Great Attention to the Cleaness of the Body of the Soldiers, that the Soldier wash his head Frequently, and his feet & beneith himselfin the water if posible, that no unholsum Food Be Caried into Camp as Trash that are not ripe which must be Seizd & Thrown into the river or Ditches[,] that all Ditches be Often Imeadieately Seperated from the other in wood[.] Every thing that Contributes to the Preservation of the Troops must be Observd with the Greatest Care[.] the Brigade Inspectors are to teach the Non com[missioned] off[icers] and Soldiers how they are noto Salute not only the officers of their Camp[any or Reg[iment] but Every off[icer] of the army[.] it is Nessesary that the Soldiers may Know the Respect that he owes his off[icers][.] a Soldier who meets an off[icer] in his way must Stop Short[,] face towards him and take of[f] his Hat with his Right Hand, leting it Down to the Lenght of his Arm[.] the Soldier when he has his Arms is Never to take of[f] hs hat, but Stop Short[,] face & Carry his Arms[.] An Adju[utant] of Each Brigade is to Carry by turns the Parole & Gen[eral] Orders to the Inspectors of his Divisions and Receive those that the Inspector has Given for the Exercise or Disiplining of his Brigade[.] the Which Orders he must Imeadiately Report of the Adj[utants] of the Same Brigade[.] the Brigade Inspector will take care that the Drums Do not Beat only for the Long Rolls, Tatoos & that beat the Same time throughout the whole line a Quarter of an hour before the time and Soon as those on the right of the Brigade begin to beat, the others Shall take it up[.] the Drummers are to Exercise at the appointed Hour as for Instance, in the Morning from Six to Seven O Clock, after that time no Drums is to Beat, Except for the Usuall Beating - - with Respect to the [third?] Object of Inspectorship- - The Signals of the Guards & in the time when a Party or Detachment are to Put themselves under arms, either the forming a Piquet or any other Service, the Adj[utant] of the Batt[allion] must always Comand for Every Twelve Soldiers one Supernumery, those are to be formed in the Rear of the Detach[ment] in one or two Ranks[.] when at the Inspection a Soldier is found whose Arms, Ammunition or Cloathing are not in Order and fit for Service[,] the Inspector will Send him back & Put in his Place a Supernumery of the Same Reg[iment] or Comp[any][.] the Guard having mounted, the Supernumery Returns to the Camp, Except those who have been Employed as above mentioned[.] the Brigade Inspectors are to give their Attentions to every Guard[,] Picquet or Detachment going out of the Brigade[.] they will Direct the formation & order of march and will give the nescessary Instructions to the Off[icer] & Soldiers[.] every Day an Inspector to atend the Parade, In Orser to Direct the Exercise or Evolution which are to be Performd[.] the Brigade Inspectors will Comand [the] Parade by turns, the Adj[utant] will assist them in forming the Batt[alion][.] the Service of the Guards is one of the most Important Objects Intrusted to the Inspector[.] The Inspector will Often Visit the Several Guards & Part of the army[.] the off[icers] are to be Under Arms at their Arrival & Pay them the Same Honour as the off[icer] of the Day[.] the Inspector will See afterwards if the off[icers] have formed their Guards according to the Regulations[.] they will ask the off[icers] for an Account of the Instructions he has Receivd from his Guard the number of his Centrys, of the Instructions he has given them, how he has Disposed his Nightly Paths Rolls, how he has Rec[eived] the rounds, & if the

Inspector finds that the off[icer] is not Sufficently Acquainted[,] he is to give him the Nesessary Instr[uction][.] The Brigade Inspector informs the off[icers] and NC Off[icers] of what they are to Do, How they are to Dispatch their Path Rolls[.] they will Ever Examine the Centrys in order to See wither they Know what they are to Do when on their Post & how the[y] are to Pay the Honour to the Gen[eral] & Feilds Off[icers] of the Army[.] they will Shew them the Compliment they are to ay to Each Off[icer] that Passes by their Post[.] When the Army takes a new Change or Incampment, every Inspector will Carefully reconnitre the approaches & Places that are to be keept for the Security of the Camp before the Division, and make Reports to the QMG [Quartermaster General] and the Gen[eral] of the Day[,] that they Place the Nesessary Guard[.]

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