—American 2 — The 3 — Which 4 —The House, —The Food Problem, 6 — Hatching, — Brooding, 8 — Young 9 — Maturing —




Pa ge






32 37



.... ...
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the Stock,













—The Show Room, 3 — Fancy 4— —The Townsend




Poultry Secrets,





Copyright 1912





President of the National Poultry Association, recognized as an authority on all poultry subjects


N. Y.

£fl. The beginner needs help. in poultry Therefore if this book falls into the hands of an old breeder he will probably cry out that he finds very little that is new be- tween I its covers. I assume that you are a novice. what of it? am not writing for Experience. if I save one lone reader from loss from discouragement / shall feel that I have not labored in vain.A3091<«2 . In this little book I shall talk to you. Well. so far as possible. if they appear. I am writing for Inexperience. and that captious critics./ X FOREWORD. may all go hang! — — Fraternally yours. And so. The old breeder can shift for himself. the same as I would do if you could drop into my office from time culture. a beginner. THE AUTHOR. to time.



is the average yearly cost of producing a dozen eggs placed at 12y 2 —which would probably be a reasonable estimate —and if under improved conditions and improved breeding the average pullet lays which can be marketed at prices that will level up to 25 cents per dozen.CHAPTER I AMERICAN POULTRY Poultry raising statistics is the biggest business on earth. And under circumstances of which any live man may take 10 dozen eggs in a year . as Government Cotton is —incomplete they are — prove that the poultry industry of the world surpasses every manufacturing business. pound for pound. And trade. while in the lower grades the difference is still greater. in favor The live weight prices for the best grades of poultry run on the average from two to three times as much as the highest prices paid for the best grades of cattle. than that of producing pork or mutton. At the same time the market reports. In addition to the handsome profits made by growing still fowls for If market we cents find that the egg trade yields greater results. hogs or sheep. Beef. pork and mutton are left far in the rear. no greater. month by month. the profit in commercial eggs is self evident. giving better returns for the money invested than any other line of legitimate has been proven over and again that the cost of producing is poultry meat beef. will Wheat was passed long ago. show that the selling prices are overwhelmingly of the poultryman. It this great industry is a profitable business. and even "King Corn" place be found in second when the poultry industry is properly tabulated. no longer king.

6 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. The demand for reliable fresh eggs is always ahead of the supply. the pork raiser largely limited to the . There are many consumers who will gladly pay 50 cents per dozen on yearly contract for dependable eggs." These "system" hawks and "school" rats prey upon the ignorant. The poultry all this business has this advantage —that there no place in broad land where poultry and eggs will not yield handsomely. reaches its flood in April and slowly ebbs until the end of June. cannot learn to raise poultry by sitting at ease in your city home. the lazy and the credulous. so long as the breeder does his part. profit advantage this may be largely increased. by mail on how make money on As to location: your best location is where you is are. The cattle breeder is confined to the is west and parts of the south. The man who has graduated from this school is equipped for success in the poultry business and will not be misled to by advertisements of systems or instructions poultry for a two cent stamp. Such customers must be sought. and from the Yukon Gulf the poultryman is king. to the from Maine to California. who have been The successful breeder has learned that the only school that can be depended on is the school of experience. The tide of trade in this line begins flowing in February. misled by big promises in flaming advertisements. To be a successful poultryman follow —no matter what line one may You —requires good judgment. and a capacity for hard work. since one may obtain anything cents to fifty dollars per setting for such eggs. The eggs for hatching trade can be made very profitable if one has good birds and a good business head. North. even though you should "bite" at every "system" swindle or fraudulent mail order poultry "school. but once found they will stick. south. Eggs from fifty for hatching pay still better. east and west.

size and quality being the only points that count. Of course one must breed in Thus the Boston market demands brown eggs the browner the better. central states. which have passed beyond the dangers of their baby days.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. with equal lack of reason. and often does. have excellent stock. But in such cases the beginner takes a chance which he would not do in buying from an old time breeder. while for the "Leghorn" eggs are most in demand. demands white shelled eggs. — able as the so-called latter American or English varieties. whose stock has won the blue at the leading shows. And it if his birds are of the line royal. is With these exceptions an egg an egg. six weeks of age and upwards. eggs or baby chicks. But under no circumstances should a start be made with In cheap birds. In catering to the first the so-called Mediterranean breeds would not be as profitcertain localities certain markets. a very good way to start is by the purchase of a number of half grown chicks. The beginner is often puzzled to know whether it is best to start with birds. may sometimes be purchased . the experienced buyer may find advantageous to deal with him. but the poultry- man has the whole nation for a for field. The New York market. always go to a breeder of established reputation. He can raise his own chicks and. Birds of good quality. trio or pen. The lesser breeder may. that will be the best way for him to start. must necessarily know his business. The reason is obvious: the man who has been in business for many years. can in due time establish his own strain. the sheep herder is 7 equally restricted. If one cannot afford to buy first class adult birds. A very careful analysis of each shows If that each has certain advantages and also certain disadvantages. the beginner can invest say $75 for a trio and from $100 to $150 for a pen. buying a Like begets like and cheap birds beget cheap birds. More than that he must necessarily be a man of honor. by careful line breeding. Therefore start at home.

insist that his eggs should be packed in that Generally speaking. and admit the fact. But the chance. The remainder should be marketed is to at once. however. if eggs fail eggs for The buyer should know. the breeder should not be blamed to hatch. ble. and the buyer should manner. Such birds of course have not been culled at a very reasonable price. When buying eggs for hatching. the greatest danger Distance is lies in the handling they receive en route. In the Another precaution against ordering eggs too early. is . Careful packing has had much to do with this. not objectionable. Neveris theless April and May are the best hatching months. And June better than February. careful handling. mad if rush for early hatched chicks. it is breed from Pullet eggs are usually smaller. has had more. The stock. The most common method eggs are from start with eggs. whenever possi- from a breeder who can ship by a single express line so that no transfer to another company will be necessary. weaker and is less fertile than those laid by hens. that in buying hatching he takes a chance. it is eggs sometimes in February and frequently in March. are able to get before the fertile first of April. One should buy then. the beginner takes a long chance he purchases eggs laid true. Eggs carry best when packed in strong baskets and safely cushioned on hay or excelsior. over direct lines of communication. This is satisfactory provided certain precautions are taken.8 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. first is to know to that the varieties thoroughly matured While some unwise mature earlier than others. In sending out eggs for hatching from our test pens lent returns all the we have had excel- way from Maine to California. The big breeders. yet as a rule any bird under one year of age. and the beginner should have an experienced breeder look them over when they have reached the age of six months and select those that are fit to retain.

But the and will rot buyer should learn the difference between an egg that one that is is fertile not. Packed closely for shipping they susceptible to are liable to suffer from chilling. faulty hen. his troubles would be nil. Any of these causes will make them disease. this But if they escape and are properly cared for on their they should not do well. arrival. if He little can count his chickens before they are hatched. The baby chick industry has some commendable buyer is The saved all worry over cranky hens or cranky incubators. such eggs are really the cheapest in the end. Some prominent breeders get as high as four or five as this price is dollars each for eggs from their best pens. from a faulty incubator. It is customary to duplicate poor hatches at half price. Unfortunately these chicks are exposed to many dangers. A hen may stick her job so closely that the eggs are not sufficiently aired. should exercise Therefore one common sense when making claims for infertility. largely in his favor. because the chances are that any bird hatched from such eggs will be immensely valuable. In using incubators faulty thermostats is likely occasionally allow a wide variation in temperature. 9 This is particularly so when buying And high the higher priced eggs. there is no reason why . In such cases. for the almost invariably one in which the germ has started and is This death of the germ It something for which the breeder is nowise responsible. the fact rotten egg died. over-heating.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. the life-giving oxygen does not reach the egg in sufficient quantities and the germ dies. from alternate heating and chilling. and they are of frequent occurrence. may be caused by rough handling. all particularly to the deadly white diarrhoea. and for want of fresh air. features. and all he could raise that he counts. or from a that because a hen sits steadily to One should not suppose she sits properly. Most beginners imagine that eggs which is during incubation are infertile. is quite the contrary. this to prove fatal to the germ especially in the earlier stages.

The females purchased at such sales year. healthful and is profit- Properly managed there nothing that will yield better returns for the time and money invested.10 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. notably at the close of the hatching season. able business. the beginner may often take advantage of bargain sales. Poultry keeping is an honorable. . but will if may not lay many eggs the following mated to a vigorous cockerel. At certain times of the year. But he should remember that it is only in the school of adversity that one wins the highest honors. The beginner must needs expect discouragements. the few eggs they do lay be of high value.

the stories told easy victims. poultry culture. is Mr. they pay their hard-earned money to alleged poultry "schools" for the purpose of learning by mail. a thousand hens will pay correspondingly. so many fail at the outset is that they begin tales told They read the Munchausen some fabulous fall by irrespon- sible knaves. There is no royal road to success in The way to learn to raise poultry is to raise poultry. The most common fault to be that of beginning on to large a scale. They read. whose stand- ing today financially "felt his of the highest." and having no knowl- edge of the facts in the case. these things lead to failure. U. and this saying holds true nowhere more than avoided a trio. and grew as his business . R. almost invariably meets with failure. "how to conduct a large poultry plant". is in the poultry business.50. The reason why with inflated ideas. and by that idea of is meant from small beginnings. started with a dozen birds. they believe. A bad beginning in poultry culture usually means a bad ending. they figure. Better success with than failure with a thousand. or even with a hundred. unwisely. a tyro. that profit of if a single hen pays yearly a legitimate All even $1. He way. in their city homes. exploiting "strain." treated his customers right. Fishel. and the if man who begins with a thousand birds. Do not start with the making a fortune immediately.CHAPTER II THE START Well begun is half done. and by various "system" men describing in rosy colors how profits running from six dollars upward per hen can be made by wholly inexperienced people.

Had he invested his money at the outset in dollar birds. keeps brain . in three years' end of the chapter. the noted breeder of Rhode Island Reds. the originator of the beautiful and useful Partridge Plymouth Rocks. his "strain" to the would have been dollar birds culling. The novice should be am writing this book for the beginner. first is answered by saying: "Whatever amount you can bearing in mind the stipulation of starting small". not fancies. Noftzger. blunt truth. and in fact almost every noted breeder began growing poultry along the same lines. told the plain. Lester Tompkins. by starting with three birds of exceptional value. I went on trio he would get started sure foundation.12 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. Poultry raising is doors. Many humbugs and some downright swindlers have crept into the poultry business. The wise tyro. and if properly managed gives better returns. One The of the I capital do need for a most common questions put to an expert is "How much start. therefore should follow their example. than any other business. healthful and profitable. he immediately saw a light." The next is "Where should I locate?" afford. and by careful time he had a flock of birds that placed him among I the money makers. to illustrate: A how beginner wrote me that he had $75 to invest in birds and asked many I could send him for the money. We shall publish facts so that the beginner may start with his eyes open. Sam. grew. It takes one out of and body busy. dollar for dollar. He should have facts. then I told him that on a to I would send that him a trio anywhere with this of thorough-bred stock equal to in any that he could purchase explain the country. and the brassy claims made by these harpies have led many people to invest beyond their means by arousing hopes arrant impossible to realize. On the other hand. first class and that another year he could have a good sized flock of birds instead of a large flock of culls.

through misleading advertisements. than a well-bred pullet lays in a single month. plenty of money. Birds in constant confinement must have grit. constant attention. and making and And the secret of this is to breed intensively. but of a single variety. fresh water dry. and while they may be healthy and vigorous they do not make as quick growth nor lay as many eggs as restricted birds. in who city first are making village. a multitude of it breeders today legitimately. from class stock birds. beguiles the credulous into paying enormous prices for But there is third-rate stock and eggs. Such breeders may not raise many they can raise good ones and get good prices. On free range much of this be kept clean. Houses must snug and Vermin must be held in check. animal food. lime. 13 living —and a good living He won't make thousands of dollars yearly on a few square feet of land. Under absolutely "natural" conditions no hen would lay except The native jungle fowl lays fewer eggs in a year for reproduction. The "200 egg" hen is . unless. The reason is that free range birds are often left to hustle for themselves. as one notorious faker claimed to have done. like that unsavory person.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. and as their expenses are low their profits will be high. is labor and expense unnecessary. dust baths and pure. Green food. he pitches Truth overboard and. The "back yard" breeder can make a from bis birds. But town lot breeding two hundred birds To properly care for under such conditions requires more downright is not easy work. But remember: Fowls on free range never pay as much per head as they do in confinement. charcoal. must be supplied. labor than would the care of a thousand on free range.

common will be even though she is not —and probably never —a commercial fact. The average farm grels. would not pay far better with poultry than with anything else. Colony houses large . fail to find all make money There are very few places where poultry and eggs is a ready market at good prices. No. he has the ability he can breed both fancy and market poultry. Nor should they be allowed Even that |3. and thus of the business.— 14 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. a good living can be made on a half acre. who pretended to have made by feeding them on table scraps. flock is a nightmare —a jumbled mess of monis A majority of farmers still think that poultry something This for the is "women folks" to "fuss with" but of no real importance. from 30 hens. and fancy poultry to California. It is a great mistake. Fence in the garden and let the birds roosting Neither should they be made feathered tramps. Therein the secret of success with farm poultry. safe to say that there is not a farm of ordinary size where general crops are grown. properly managed. The town lot breeder can. them out free. did not allow them to befoul his kitchen steps. tance. that. If The farmer can at both ends — or an equivalent. in small flocks. in barns or out-buildings. to loaf about the kitchen door looking for table scraps. some popular variety. know his birds individually. and breeding only for the fancy. His mythical "feeding" was done at a dis- lies The farmer should adopt the extensive or colony system. Thus he can mate properly as will be described later on — and from his small flock produce a high percentage of Selecting first class birds. The town breeder must buy everything raise everything for his birds. bred the way from Maine On run the farm the birds should not be cooped or penned to keep of the garden.600 in one season alleged breeder. under sheds. and usually does.

dry and comfortable. there are others equally great. mental or toy birds. The farmer. —and . demanding. little While allowing a good out door run they keep themselves these the chicks warm. These big commercial on broad well. is Commercial breeding." of these great "farms" in the vicinity of There are many New York. the breeding of ornato There are enough buyers of make this branch Indeed there are bantam breeders year. use the less Buckeye colony houses because they I last for years and cost than could build them. organize and conduct such an extensive business unusual. by men who are big enough for big are of success with twenty thousand — pay The secret hens is the secret of success in any other big enterprise. Generally runs into "egg farms.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. for a few dollars. enough for forty or perhaps fifty 15 chicks can be built at trifling cost. ready to put together. I or purchased. as it does. The is ability to place. they lines. so this merely specializing. and on the Pacific Coast. as the word suggests. Sultans and other "odds and ends. of the business fairly profitable. Philadelphia and Boston. together with the Frizzles. qualities that only the few possess. plants When managed things. money makers sometimes. can town breeder raises dozens. in California. for With the colony system a large number of chicks may be cared without much labor. called. and enough to look out for when they are large buildings make admirable roosting houses." with "broilers on the side. They may be hopper fed and watered from a little barrel so will need but raise hundreds while the attention. is Fancy breeding. who make a great deal demand at all times for money every And there is a fair the Polish in all its varieties. therefore." The secret Standard of success with these bizarre birds is to breed to the advertise. Silkies.

Among them are but none of them are suitable for or eggs. the Leghorn naturally holds first place. the Silkies. Polish. including birds raised for capons. are really general purpose fowls. the best fowls for the white-egg farmer. unless it possesses practical qualities. mature quickly. and require far more food to reach a market age than do any other breeds. generally lay smaller eggs than either of the other varieties. These varieties include such massive birds as Brahmas and Langshans. slow in growth. can be bred successfully only where food products are available at the lowest market prices. The and Bantams are all of this class. but where food products are cheap they can be grown successfully and will pay great profits. with some notable exceptions. The Plymouth Rocks. under such conditions. and to a lesser extent the Wyandottes. and Orpingtons.CHAPTER III WHICH VARIETY? The beginner constantly asks the question: "Which is the best breed?" And the oft repeated answer is: "There is no best breed. has . Frizzles. These birds grow rapidly. the Cochins." Naturally some breeds are better than others. Rhode Island Reds. Where eggs. and if care is taken to secure a good laying strain. The fact that the Wyandottes. They are large of frame. they are. many odd and beautiful birds the man who goes in for meat The "meat" breeds. and that they run smaller in size. it only a toy of no use save to the dyed-in-the-wool fancier. The well deserved popularity of the American and English breeds rests upon their general utility qualities. the Hamburgs. the Sultans. and especially white eggs are required. No matter how beautiful a variety is may be.

eggs. are The difficulty im- mensely popular. make no mistake in taking up this breed. bear confinement well. both Single and Rose Comb. broilers. maturing early. 17 As however. And despite their handicap in being touted by some of the worst fakers in the business still commanding position because of their intrinsic . they been among the leaders. however. The consequence is that the Reds have retained their in the utility qualities along with their popularity show room. he takes care to buy his stock or eggs from will men who are dependable. these birds are among the aristocrats of the feathered world. and plenty of them. rankif As layers. both with the fancier and the market poultryman. their popularity is in England. and when properly bred they are very satisfactory egg producers. The beginner. served to lessen their popularity with the practical poultryman. tinted eggs. laying good sized. of breeding this variety to the Standard gives the fancier an opportunity to extend himself to the limit.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. strictly first class birds. The Rhode Island Reds. and their growing popularity in America. mature early and are exceedingly popular as market rank high. Massive in stately in style. As fancy birds they bring high ing with the Plymouth Rocks and Orpingtons. The English Orpingtons are size. lay large. brown birds. the Wyandottes fill every requirement. they are winning a easily understood. In the tests for laying they have prices. And it has been a fortunate thing that the Rhode Island Reds have been in the hands of practical have been unable men to such an extent that the standard tinkers to ruin this breed. The beginner. will find that the white variety will give the best satisfaction as a layer —owing to the fact that the comparative ease of breeding to standard requirements has enabled the admirers of this variety to give more attention to utility points than has been possible with other Wyandottes. They are docile. Rapid in growth.

and equally popular in the show room. equally at home in pen or on range. in no difference in the meat or egg value of either there although the lingering American idiocy against dark legs chickens —though It is is none in turkeys —has prevented the This absurdity is Blacks from having the vogue of the Whites and Buffs. necessary therefore. quick growing. a great layer of big eggs. is is the fact that double mating of the necessary in order to produce males of color. provided strong in type. as a rule. There are three standard varieties There is merits. This fault must be and will be corrected. early maturing. lusty. puts type prize to a bird that above all else. legs and eyes. this active breed varieties of is typical of American snap and of go. In starting with Orpingtons. wonderwith the farmers of America. the originators of all the Orpingtons. should exercise much The American first it is standard differs materially from the English.18 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. same shade It is The males naturally run the females dark. unsurpassed as a market bird. is and as a result the blue ribbon too often awarded birds that are Orpingtons name only. and females light. Its only objection in the eyes of the small breeder. one caution. The Plymouth Rock is the American bird par excellence. to breed . especially the White variety. each The old reliable Barred variety the which ardent fully popular is a business bird. especially for the town fancier. There are many has its admirers. Buff and Black. The latter. is rapidly disappearing and therefore the Black variety growing in favor daily. An is English judge will award may be bad in comb. An American judge in too apt to consider these minor points. —the White. Large. variety. therefore the beginner with Orpingtons should buy his stock or eggs from men who breed to the English type —like William Cook and Sons. Plymouth Rocks. very properly. one of the best of all varieties.

no ''broody" years' tests. have a world-wide poputo a large size. Graves and Owen. all grow and are among leaders. They are phenomenal the most popular of layers. is is apparently destined to become the most popular of the Partridge Plymouth Rocks.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. This prevents many small breeders. from handling this variety. but the market breeder. finds in the Barred Rock a variety that suits him from the ground The Buff. the As is usually the of especial merit is produced. Columbian and Penciled varieties are all excellent. case. which was ever seen. Storm official tests Our — or sunshine has no effect on their plumage. Noftzger. up. Ind. and from light birds. The White Rocks. in order to produce females of standard color. who lack the necessary room. to men like Fishel. The beginner will make no mistake in White Rocks. . As egg producers their remarkable freedom from broodiness places them among the showed that four exhibition White Rocks laid 861 eggs in one year an average of 215 each. thanks larity. Man- His strain appears to be the only one containing no Partridge Wyandotte blood. And in three included "a large number of birds. there are several new beauty breed. market breeds. who cares nothing for fancy points. from dark birds in 19 order to produce dark males. The White Rocks breed white and stay white. especially from a light male. when anything who claim to have of North originated this wonderful variety. But careful investigation shows Samuel A. backed by their own intrinsic good qualities. The latest edition of the Rock family and one that all. this variety We have had birds of taking up the reach an age of four years and moult out to a snowy whiteness. but none of them has achieved the popularity of the others. that the honor clearly belongs to chester.

early maturing and exceptionally good as a layer. are easily broken up if They the they become broody. free from the incubus of double mating —the beginner would find this an excellent variety. Lighter in weight and easier to breed to color than the Barred Rocks. weight and color they should — — be judged on their own is merits. both for eggs and market. soft The remaining standard American breeds Buckeyes. has The Java. A pen of six birds laid the astounding number of 1. both Black and Americanized. The foolish is prejudice against dark shanks and the "booming" of responsible for this. Therefore the amateur and professional will find that the Partridge Plymouth Rock is not only a bird of beauty but one of the greatest money makers in poultrydom. since the Java is new breeds an excellent variety. brown and black and both male and female are produced by single matings. sufficient. a couple of days confineif ment usually being best of mothers. Our official trap nest records show that they have outlaid all others thus far tested. brown. of lustrous greenish black. As the Buckeyes differ from the Reds in size. color. Dominiques and Javas are birds of quality. The first has been rather unjustly called a "mahogany bay" imitation of the Rhode Island Red.321 eggs in a single year. bright red and mahogany in the female the color is a beautiful blending of mahogany. The Dominique attention than it a grand old breed and deserves far more receives. a combina- tion in the male. . sadly neglected. become thoroughly A large. an average of 220 Their eggs are uniformly large and very even in shape and each. This fact alone makes them particularly valuable to the egg farmer because of the labor saved in sorting for the market. they make Their plumage remarkably beautiful. The Partridge Plymouth Rocks possess many qualities held by no other breed or variety. Mottled.20 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. vigorous breed. while is allowed to sit.

Therefore will pass the subject for the present. geese and turkeys occupy separate and distinct poultry culture. merely saying that under proper conditions either of the three can be made to yield handsome returns for the money invested. Ducks. it fields in As they differ entirely from the gallinaceous fowls book of this sort without I would be impossible it to handle them in a extending far beyond the prescribed classes limits. .POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. 21 The Dorkings. Minorcas and many other varieties are worth "taking up" and there is a chance for the right man to make a fortune with any of them.


and ventilator if windows are supplied. the roof covered with a good material. the floor built of solid concrete to keep out the vermin. other. elaborate ventilators and heating systems have to the cost only to the detriment of the birds. If in winter so that the birds will not actually suffer it The house need not be is should be substantial.CHAPTER IV THE POULTRY HOUSE One housing. The house should be costly. and will be the fowls are not overcrowded. added There are but four requirements in a well tight roof. of of of the secrets of successful poultry culture is that of proper It is probable that as this line as many failures have resulted from lack knowledge along from any other cause. Under such circumstances they style will do well and pay well. if the walls are lined with is fairly heavy weight tarred paper. but if cool in summer and from warm enough the cold. a dry floor. there will be freedom from sickness. The stances. fortable. as large sums In money have been wasted on expensive but improperly built houses. of the style described in this book. and covered with plenty of clean straw for if scratching. and size of the house depends wholly upon circumis First let us consider the house that used more than any . and the birds happy and con- tented. trying to make the birds comfortable they have been made uncomDouble walls. built poultry house — freedom from draughts and proper openings for the air and sunshine.

is In nearly every case the houses are unsanitary. lot the "No. An abundance of fresh air without drafts. while no draft is apparent in any part of the building. Moreover the houses damp proof — a matter of great importance. This method of ventilation is absolutely perfect. are abso- . or else they are some freak "system" of pine sticks coops. alone. and sold to the inexperienced. For a few birds on a city or village probably the best. By changing the windows to the inside a very easy job we turned them into the Tanner Ventilators used in all our houses. enough to condemn them. In driving storms of snow or rain it would take more than Spartan fortitude to care for even one of these unhappy pens. made by the same company. is bad. easy to clean —we found it an excellent building for a dozen — The Sectional Laying House. and that. factory. of these houses.24 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. The foul air is forced out and pure air is drawn in. In the former the birds lack sunshine —which means a loss of health —working wholly out of doors—for these "houses" are merely cheap boxes —the birds are certain to be neglected In the latter in bad weather. Thousands of "back yard breeders" are housing their birds im- properly and wondering why their chickens don't pay. The 3 by 6 "system" coop is worse. was also tested with good results. The barn "house" and vigor. The buildings are thus made — cool in lutely summer and warm in winter. The Town Lot House. In off in many made cases the so-called "houses" are either spaces penned dark and drafty barns. at outrageous prices.Yard" house is Careful tests have been made of several varieties satis- and we found that the Buckeye house was very birds. and muslin.

breeding and colony houses and their man. and dampness six inches is The house on walls thick and carried about a foot below the surface. The beginner will hardly undertake the erection of buildings for a large commercial plant. Such buildings include laying houses. at least. The Secret Cement makes the best can be kept clean and it is 25 of Dry Cement Floors. Make no mistake about upon One of the secrets of successful poultry culture is based the common sense idea of making haste slowly. After various experiments the problem has been Townsend Model House —using a combination of the Buckeye sectional houses of —the foundation walls and floors are proof. made cement and are absolutely damp is The secret of this conIt is struction very simple. No sensible would try to build a mansion sensible man would try to until he had learned to cut a rafter. incubator and brooding houses. to an inch in thickness rests —three parts of sand or fine gravel to one of cement with the hydrated lime as stated. is utterly impossible for the tyro. is six pounds of hydrated lime with each hundred pounds of to put part of And this need not be used in the bottom course. Make this very wet. accomplished by mixing cement. In the All have been faulty Many methods have been tried to overcome in one way or another. once with a second course from a half-inch unknown.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. . better than dirt because it is vermin proof. and the cost is trifling. for poultry houses. until after a long experience with more or less insane incubators and more than less hysterical hens. agement this. It is flooring. Our method down about two inches of five parts rough gravel and one Edison cement. But has had not con- the objectionable feature of being damp — and dampness is ducive to good health. solved. this dampness. absorbs no filth permanent." as one man No "teach-you-by-mail" concern promises. "manage a large poultry plant. The building is not only damp proof but vermin proof as well. and follow at laid. and It is is better than wood because it far cheaper. tamp well.

under sheds He matures can These find shelter as best they —in —anywhere Of course. Be sure that the roof is tight and have a door at the high side with one or more windows in the low front. But by October the birds should be provided with proper quarters and taught to occupy them. Every farmer should do so. is used properly. Any farmer can make money with his poultry. not knowing that poultry might pay better than all his crops com- — is bined —but if interested at all. the first is that the birds are improperly housed. and any . And of the several reasons why they do not.26 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. Hardy? The few that survive must be hardy. Let the with house have a front slope. on a nests at the side. a tenth of what he might do. Usually his stock mess of mongrels. If he takes any interest in the subject which he rarely does. south or east side of a barn or other outbuilding makes an excellent location provided of course that the ground is high and dry. Let us next consider a house that is used by tens of thousands. It may be well enough to allow the young stock to roost in the trees during the late summer months and early fall." The farm poultry house may be built at very little expense. barns. except where they should be. His hens "steal their nests" and vermin steal the chicks. The Farm Poultry House. light in and everywhere. he merely wants birds that a will give him both eggs and meat. is They are generally weight and their egg yield lighter —the A price paid for such "hardiness. level. of which not one per cent. place the roosts at the rear. 14 feet deep A building by 14 feet wide will accommodate about 40 birds. • The average farmer neither knows nor cares anything about the fancy.

in short. Tanner. and many consultations with our Mr. southern exposure. This makes a good house at little cost wherein the birds may have proper shelter during the long winter. and a keep the breeding stock in is tip top condition at all proper house one of the first essentials. of the Advisory Board. A yard of strong with a shel- tered. After much study. planning following: it I had several objects in view.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. to be sure that each female "nicks in" with the male. As the breeders must be under daily observation. The Fancier's House. Among them were the ." —who goes in for exhibition —should plan his house accordingly. of For the breeder who expects his birds bit of even a percentage March chicks must have on the turf during the winter is whenever a green shows. This a breeder's secret and is well worth remembering. tects in America. The Townsend House. lutely necessary. The man who breeds birds for "points. is an absolute necessity to get if early chicks are fair wanted. This is new house for some of the tests which I am In conducting in the interests of the National Poultry Association. I who is one of the best working archi- have planned and built the model house described a herewith. J. 27 farmer who can saw a board and drive a nail can erect such a house at a cost of less than $40. Breeding pens that are expected to throw fancy stock are usually of small size —from six to eight females — so that less house room is needed. S. demand unusual turf. as trap nests are absoattention is as the birds. is to One of the secrets in producing good show birds times. Breeding stock requires special handling. the "long" or continuous house if best one breeds at all extensively. during the breeding period.

n K r» W 1 N 1 N 1 w 1 H H N W Y ) r\ r 1 ! N W 03 </) I o IT N 1 "H3 o N rv 1 1 2 •u c (0 1 H 1 M 1 N ' H £ W W H o 0) Y w K N 1 1 N — H ' V +> F/^ V <+- ^ o £ W r\ £ 3 O £_ 6 o w B A .

in all weather. a four-foot alley-way 30 feet long through the main house. cat." Sanitary Perches. at the same time. the feed room being There 9 x 16. oyster shells. without drafts. laying." bins. two inches thick with a half inch top. "PR. An absolutely dry floor. Doors "F.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. the necessary records. etc. bat. making. This house is 22 x 30 over all." pens. The only vital necessities — are sanitary fountains or other easily cleaned receptacles for water. and dropping boards that may and be cleaned easily. is fit only for Main house. a dust bath. A convenient. 29 Thorough ventilation. rat. A house that should be mouse and mite proof. boxes for grit. 6x9. clear. feeding. "A. dry and vermin proof feed room. fairly low perches. 22 x 30. all A "one man" house where a single helper could do the work in a short time. "D. and one easily cleaned." trap nests. with plenty of scratching litter the hen that will not be a hustling. Cool in summer and fairly warm in winter. "B. paying bird the market. carried out. but. 12 x 16. charcoal and beef scraps. Given these. "W. has been successfully The fixtures and appliances used in any poultry house will depend upon the owner's taste and pocketbook. The is entire building rests on 6 inch concrete walls and the floor is of concrete. Trap nests are con- ." feed troughs for dry mash. fairly dark nests. as indicated. ease of cleaning and rapidity in gathering eggs from scores of trap nests. "P" is passage way. Feed room." windows. to insure good health. This demanded automatic watering. Perfect sanitation. it This was something of a contract.

extending to the roof. and the broad end. This allows square feet of glass to each pen. is thus set in motion. yet effective way for admitting fresh air at all seasons without drafts. fitting closely to nailed a three-cornered board. themselves and feet Each pen has 54 square matched and as the dropping boards are wide enough for double roosts each pen will hold from 8 to 12 birds. and under the nests that a clear space allowing fowls is much extra scratching room. is On each side of the opening. the bottom resting on the window sill and the top against a stick nailed to the side boards near the top.30 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. the water being conveyed from an full of tank so that the pans are always clean water. at the top. The sash is placed between these boards. and four feet at the lowest — the wall being nine inches above the floor. a simple. the length being the same as the sash. In the monitor top are swinging windows having three 9 x 12 panes in These windows swing out and are regulated from the passage is way. or closed tight in zero weather. the building is if A double current of air air. of the opening keeps out intruders. The house. A strong screen on the outside The house is eight feet above the walls at the highest point. being from 8 to 12 inches wide. 16. therefore well lighted. The watering air pressure is automatic. The windows are arranged as follows: the sash. being then held in place by a cupboard catch. In each pen there a four light window. In the summer they can be flushed as often as desired. and always supplied with fresh The entire window may be lifted out necessary. is veniently placed. and for carrying off the foul air. The 5 1-3 partitions are solid is pine. In the winter they can be automatically emptied at night to escape any danger from . Each pen furnished with a Norto feed wich Automatic Feeder which allows the birds at the same time gives plenty of exercise. The pen windows are supplied with the Tanner ventilator method. each pane being 12 x each.

. And if one uses but- two houses it is equally available. An additional roof was built. The old fashioned and unsanitary dropping boards are not used fall into in this house. The fronts were held in reserve. damp air to chill the birds. there is a constant circulation of air. as with the wireprotected doors and windows wide open. and putting them into position facing each other five on a side. however. carrying it up so as to allow for the "Monitor" top. the partitions resting on boards nine inches wide. so there was no waste of lumber. 31 The house is cool in the summer. The high sides faced at a distance of six feet. The fronts were utilized. Ohio. freezing. The night droppings is the litter and as this is changed weekly there no odor. of Springfield. The house is relatively warm in winter because there is no dead. . This made a first class house at far less cost than had we bought the lumber and built — outright.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. The house was built by taking ten of the sectional houses made by the Buckeye Incubator Co.

The fake breeder. and no man with the other The is secret of proper feeding cannot be told in a sentence. these chicks will never be anything but We may buy mature birds of the best quality. You cannot copy sort. of it. we may give them but unless ideal quarters. but unless they are fed right.CHAPTER V THE FOOD PROBLEM We may buy the best eggs in the world. The secret of proper feeding has been well kept. and something American and English But hatched! in the beginning of things. who tell of eggs from a fake "strain" may tell you of feeding 30 hens on scraps "feed" at a few cents from his table. the laid knowing breeder feeds for chicks long before the eggs are from which those chicks are . There too much The beginner may be will told will what to feed his chicks. Possibly it be right. we feed them right they will not lay well nor throw good stock. for the still Mediterraneans won't do at different is required for the all for the Asiatics. and a "system" man may per bushel. get from them chicks that are marvels in health and vigor. but sells they do not give you the essential facts. The proper food varieties. the legitimate breeder for you don't of sense will have anything to do know the particulars. We may culls. tell The real breeders will usually you what they feed —in a general way. probably it be wrong.

POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. vegetables. fast growing. quick matur- These birds require no nerve On need fattening food —plenty of corn. their first supply of the An hour or two later they get Gritless I Chick Food prepared by Park I & Pollard of Boston. and the way I did is this: After the chicks were "nest ripe" after the hatch is completed —that is not earlier than 48 hours First. 14. The latter is a mighty important factor. the contrary they anything you please. You ing sort. —Leghorns. described in Chapter Very Now you are ready to feed your breeding stock — not for record laying. Mass. Keep the Chicks Busy! I have grown some immense Leghorns. milk. Anconas. Iowa. exercise. sour milk. of the small. Your birds are properly mated. but for record chicks. . are breeding some Mediterranean variety food. fresh water. Clinch that fact. I —and I my search for the keep the chicks in Buckeye colony houses either with hens or Lullaby brooders in lots of from 15 to 30 — depending on the season. would say at the outset that have gone far afield in use the Park & Pollard foods solely because they give better results at less cost than any others best. first the of January.. chicks come. of Des Moines. as well. crowd them to the limit. green stuff. 33 Now It is let us go into details. much flesh and And when the and — See to it that they have plenty of granulated bone. — I begin operations. chick grit. nervous. and water in a chick fountain. they get some chick grit —just a pinch for each one —with some of the medicated charcoal prepared by the Des Moines Incubator Co. Get your Leg- horn hens as fat as you can —they won't take on too note the increased size and vigor of their chicks.

the Orpingtons. snug. when they go on free range. so necessary to chick growth. accordingly. wheat and bran. Chick Food in ground alfalfa which spread thickly on the A liberal supply of this food is scattered in the alfalfa and they are kept is busy thereby. chase and scrap over. leaves of lettuce or Swiss chard. being less active than the Mediterraneans. and. little different preparations are necessary. These larger breeds. in The chicks are confined cats. must be handled No fattening food —no corn meal—no "Johnnie cake. so long as it them something to race. a A chick mash. to a certain extent. but the growing food is used until they mature." These are the A corn. with a well blended variety of other grains. for the chicks until transferred to the laying or breeding After the second day the youngsters is are given the Gritless floor. . For best. But this is Scratching for grain gives exercise. rats well shaded runs until they are weaned. all purposes the Park It & Pollard Screened Scratch Grain answers contains enough corn to keep up steam during the cold weather. oats and oat meal. and they make homes houses. There is plenty of animal food. called "Growing Food" supplied after week or ten days. Odds and ends of food must be thrown occasional earth into the pen many times gives Bits of bread or boiled potatoes. dry These houses are and vermin proof. large.34 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. In breeding the Asiatics. staples. Rocks and Reds. When the youngsters are about a month old a coarser grain— the Intermediate Chick Food — is substituted for the gritless. an worm—it matters little what. This prevents any loss from and other vermin. not enough. daily. in this combination.

One method six of feeding whereby such records as 1. in addition to the food already described. and mixed with water. and 863 by four White Rocks — each one year —was as . exclusively.321 eggs laid 1. Keep them busy every minute. For this purpose foods rich in animal protein. The secret that it is of feeding for eggs is easily mastered. laying tests with various breeds we have produced remarkable with never an ounce of wet mash.165 by by six Partridge Rocks in one year. change. likewise produced. Never allow them to "hump up" and mope. A brief set back is enough to Bear in turn a promising chick into a worthless cull. It — This produced "results" by increasing the egg yield. Therefore keep them growing.215 1. middlings and so forth. —like corn for instance —must The "standard" foods wheat. In feeding for "commercial" eggs will induce laying in the late fall it is necessary to give food that and early winter when eggs com- mand top prices. in trouble — especially food is many cases. A mash necessary. The chicks 35 of these larger varieties should have. Remember as impossible to get figs from thistles as eggs from a scrawny. in Reds.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. when vegetable disastrous results protein was —causing bowel used — getting birds In our results "off their feed" and out of condition generally. follows by six Leghorns. half-starved bird. corn and barley were formerly used. made up of bran. oats. a considerable amount of oat meal which may be boiled or made into oat cakes. Have your pullets butter fat when they go into the laying house. but growing in the right way. Then somebody began feeding a "wet" mash. A wet mash is unnecessary. The chicks will relish this for a mind that your object is to keep them growing. blended with the right amount of carbon be supplied.

but where the work is done while exposed one in a real poultry house —that man may care for dozens or hun- dreds. potatoes. proves The claim. Now and then as often as they seemed to relish it some steamed alfalfa was given them. When the pullets were placed in the laying or breeding house they were fed or two each —as a rule —a small amount of scratch feed —a handful —in the morning. is And any is bird that forced to lay before able to stand the strain ruined both as a layer and breeder." or on any of tho "hundred- eggs-for-a-cent" swindles. how ignorance and it is together. birds and a big egg yield. bone grit. Nobody gives something for nothing. with no condiments nor forcing of any Don't waste your money and ruin your birds with any of the so-called "egg makers. with occasional — — extras in the vegetable way — cabbages. mixed half and was kept before them all the time until they began laying. if possible. Meanwhile the Dry Mash and Growing Feed." "patent foods. a bigger fool than knave. half. beets. etc. It means strong and healthy sort. apples. The most precocious Leghorns do not lay at such an age. charcoal. shells and some granulated —there when you have it. then the Growing Feed was dropped. that coop. The pullets I were kept growing to say until matured and up to weight. This method means a great saving of time and money. And here want most positively that the fellow who adver- tises that his "strain" lays at 3% months many mendacity is. and a heavier feed in the afternoon. like others made by go reckless people.36 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. Pure water in clean vessels. who advertised eggs from a flock . It means birds are properly housed all —not in a ridiculous "system"' to the elements. And is the knave who advertises real food at a few cents a bushel no better than the so-called "breeder" of prize birds at 50 cents per 15.

to write a letter of accusation to some The beginner should undertand one thing far a dishonest breeder clearly: No matter how may go to get trade. Eggs must have plenty is of fresh air. and let fail go Then. bought from reliable breeders. Why often is then that good eggs. when the eggs to hatch. along it with some eggs —or load an incubator.CHAPTER VI HATCHING It looks so easy! all Apparently that is necessary is to put a hen in a box. One is that the hen often sits too well. there is and he won't supply them —as no reason why he should unless they were unquestionably it is infertile —what a pleasant pastime editor. But the worst of these knaves it send hatchable eggs. Impossible? Oh no. so fail to hatch well? There are several reasons. nor infertile eggs. is . how easy if it is to blame the breeder and demand free eggs. Oxygen There a vital necessity. nor rotten eggs. light the lamp. a secret worth remembering. On rare occasions filling some notorious humbug may buy up pages of space and by that space with shameless falsehoods will may rob beginners thereby. yet the worst of them do not send out "doctored" eggs.

but if you must chance such a one. so to speak. corn. If the hen of is set in a close. As a matter lice of course you will see that she If kept free from while incubating and brooding. what fresh air might reach the eggs smothered. where plenty of pure. The "nice. keep her the ground. on fresh air can reach her. Never blood set a hen on the ground unless she is full of good red —a vigorous. that she is This the ideal way hen —provided a strong. new laid eggs.— 38 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. she doesn't. but that they had died for want of the necessary oxygen to sustain life. stuff to eat. Give her grain and perof haps a little but no mash food will any sort. There is another reason why some eggs not hatch strong chicks even under the best of hens. under cover. Hit or miss mating by ignorant . the poor vitality hen. you must extend the time gradually from five minutes to half an hour —depending is upon the weather. as a result. "sassy" creature. See that the hen doesn't she should remain off sit too "tight. she neglects to dust herself as some of them do green —then dust her yourself. The secret of getting good hatches with hens is this: Set the hen out of doors. And the eggs are "all rotten" you may be sure that they were all fertile. If As the hatch progresses she knows her business she will time herself. water. lusty bird. should off never be used. musty room. and don't expect many chicks." the lady-like hen. ready for a fight at any time. nor good chicks either. at the other. charcoal and to set a grit. quiet hen. the hatch will not he good. if she hugs her nest little as some if them do is —and if. You may place her on the ground with a and a dusting place with is narrow cover at one end." If longer and longer.

and most important: of oxygen! that. and the hatch suffers accordingly. Every chick may every chick may die. Lack Remember LACK OP OXYGEN. thin with no knowledge of If legs. shown by narrow breasts. causes this wide range? things. What Many First. its stock purchased from unknown breeders it.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. applies to all our really great breeders And the same truth —men of honor and intelligence. We fill regulate the heat. and save money while doing buy the best —the best from an honest man. We may We may start two filled machines at the same time and with fertile eggs. breeders 39 who do not undertand the art. blood lines. by incubators we face other problems. . who grew into the business from boyhood. weak stock. the breathed out air of a living room. A half dozen eggs from Lester Tompkins' best pen at four dollars per egg would be much cheaper than a hundred cull eggs at four cents each. all these lead to poor hatches. from a live. When may it comes to hatching We may buy the best incubator made oil — if there to is a "best. and supply plenty of moisture. the burned out air of a in all small room. cheap eggs bought from cheap men. incubator with the very best eggs obtainable. dull eyes and pinched heads. you want to succeed. of these the eggs are deprived of the life-giving oxygen to a greater or less extent. or test out so that one may be And when the chicks come we may get a hundred hundred eggs or we may not get one. The "heavy" air of the cellar." We can the use the best and follow directions the letter.

A close. bear in mind that the eggs must have fresh air. Hot air and hot water machines are both used either will Under proper conditions give satisfaction. for that would dry pure fresh air are to thrive. freshest eggs should invariably be used in machine hatching.40 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. Turn by hand. Another cause of failure is in buying the worthless so-called "incubator" eggs —the sort that costs to the from two to fill to four dollars per hundred. A quarter turn is enough. fill Unless you can afford to buy enough good eggs to the machine you better depend on hens. under improper conditions neither will do so. And don't be timid about cooling the eggs. Don't use a turning tray. A well ventilated cellar the best. them out and ruin the hatch: but it does mean that must reach the eggs if they are to hatch and the chicks . ill ventilated is room is the worst place for an incubator. This does not mean that a current of air should blow over the eggs. They need it. But do it three or four times a day. It is an insult machines an incubator with For the best and such trash. And finally.

if Most of the eggs came by express and escaped butchery on the way. But accidents come and fact that of a it happen and they must be considered. Are your troubles over? Not exactly. Very good. Barring accidents every chick should. in If The any eggs were broken the nest has been cleaned and the remaining eggs carefully washed dusted. infertile and spoiled eggs have been removed. . cooled and ventilated. reach adult age. virile stock. then you will have a good hatch.CHAPTER VII BROODING Let us suppose that your hen has about finished her work. in theory. if the weather conditions were right — if all the many "ifs" have been favorable. Sickness will cannot be ignored. watered and The incubator eggs have been properly turned. Reports of tests made by intelligent men have shown over and over that seventy-five out of a hundred chicks hatched would be a high average to reach maturity. they came from good. They have just begun. warm water. Therefore we might as well face the will any man who brings an average of seventy-five chicks out hundred to maturity has done exceedingly well. The hen has been well fed.

well ventilated retreat on hot days. little The dreaded If white diarrhoea win rarely trouble her flock. with large covered runs. and a clumsy. . And so. An excitable forever rushing about. barring accidents. is secret of successful brooding easier shown than widely. and they by three feet.42 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. told. alone. now for the former. They give shelter in cold or stormy weather. don't believe in furnishing chick meat to cats or rats. and a cool. either. The two methods failure does not —natural and artificial —vary Success or depend on in either case just Good management means success as surely as poor management means failure. many chicks to death. The The latter has been considered. one raises only a few chicks a good "mother" hen makes the best brooder. she will raise most of her But a good hatcher hen. She will teach. Although each house measures with liberal head room. hover and protect them. she "runs" will leave with them in a roomy pen —as she should do —rats and cats them flock. And what is the result of this well doing? Breeding and feeding. that is is not always a good brooder. When six the hen is re- moved they make are vermin proof. allow plenty of exercise. ideal homes for the growing youngsters. These are the two stumbling blocks that trip the beginner. yet two men may carry one of them with ease. Let us If first consider the natural method. awkward hen I never let a lot of valuable chicks out on free range until they are I large enough to care for themselves. The roomy Buckeye colony houses. will tread will crush them.

clover. and once started it goes rapidly from bad to worse.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. of the right degree. of chicks be furnished to In no other way immense number meet existing demands. even for a time. artificial May hatched chicks brooding may be summed up in — must supply steady heat. of Swiss chard thinly planted in rows to will furnish enough green stuff hundred chicks from May December. try on nothing earlier than The secret of successful one word warmth. In warm weather be sure that houses and runs are placed where they will be shaded from the mid-day sun. Twenty-five cents worth Anything green that they for a will eat is good. In early spring no 43 hen should be given more than a dozen or fifteen chicks. Without going into details. And bear one thing in mind — I would repeat it again and again Yarded chicks must have plenty of green food. if Better trust the old hen at lars But it one is bound to try it. which is unnecessary. is not recommended to the beginner. or trouble will begin. in the name of dol- and cents. lettuce. or . In June thirty-five are none too many. on poor or insufficient food: but it will neither thrive nor live without proper heat. Artificial brooding first. What kind? Oh. this plant puts out new leaves as fast as the older ones are broken Artificial brooding could the is a necessity in this commercial age. dandelion leaves. We though not thrive. any kind! Lawn clippings. but as the days grow warmer the number may be increased. for off. too high for a given by food If this is made to sustain the body little demand if lowered. A chick will live. is I will explain that the chemical changes wherea high temperature.

and never. keep the brooders clean. And where it sent. made by Park has & Pollard. And For occasional use the Lullaby.50. the second vitiates the air. many advantages. on the market. it I use ground it alfalfa for a bedding. chicks period. if a used in cold weather —no matter whether it a heated or "fireless" machine. safely place 100 in at first. use an The first is wholly inefficient. invaluable. is Thus.44 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED ceases and trouble follows. under any circumstances. is For emergencies $1. A coal stove. little have found that this brooder answers every requirement. used in colony houses. is placed must be warmed. The beginner brooder house. Don't depend on the heat from the oil brooder lamp. afterwards reducing the number to "fireless" brooders There are numerous inexpensive. The Buckeye Fireless. it is . I I might have only a few chicks of one variety. the room in which stove. is excellent for 25 to 50 chicks. large enough to keep the room comfortable during the night. charges paid. It is adjustable. it if a "guaranteed 200 chick" machine you may 50. proper digestion The dreaded white diarrhoea in little and many functional disorders in mature fowls may be traced to chilling or overheating. and will take care of it is any num- ber from one to a score. to Take particular care or twice a week. should be used all —the object being to retain an even temperature at times. stirring up every morning and renewing once . In buying a brooder always discount the capacity one-half. for In making test hatches. will hardly go to the expense of building a regular brooder is And it is yet. of Boston.

CHAPTER VIII YOUNG STOCK At last your chicks are weaned from hen or brooder. is Therefore you should get them out on a good run whe. but work that pays. longer in danger of white diarrhoea or any other baby there plenty of green stuff and plenty of shade. at least every day. Clean out the litter on the floor of the is colony houses as often as once in ten days. They are no You They know enough to go in when it rains. . no longer need coddle them. I see to it that every house is thoroughly sprayed with Zenolium or the Park a week during the summer. You draw a long breath at the thought that your work is done. But be careful that you do not bar out the sunshine. This duty too often neglected after the chicks get on range. of course. means work. and if caught out in a sudden shower it won't harm them. The colony houses should be so placed that the sun can get at them for an hour Keep the houses clean. * A poultryman's work is never done! The secret of success with chicks after they are able to care for themselves is to keep them growing every minute. Don't deceive yourself. lice it is & Pollard liquid lice killer once Give the youngsters a dusting with good It powder every week or ten days.

See that that. that the door is closed every night. Therefore hook up both win- dows and keep them open day and night. and the price decreases. The stout wire screens Be sure. The secret of getting quick money on young stock sell to bring the chicks to broiler size in the shortest time possible. The chicks need will bar out vermin. like "feed" at 15 cents per bushel. Don't take stock in any miserable "system" faker that he can teach you who advertises how to raise two pound broilers in eight weeks. get your broods out early enough you can broilers in If you can your January hatched March as the trade does not demand birds weighing more than a pound each. Don't neglect the birds because they are "on range. Remember Too often chicks that run free are left to find water as best they can. On stormy days youngsters provide a liberal amount of scratch grain — I find that the Intermediate Chick Feed is of especial value — so is that the may keep busy. And right here let me sound a note of warning." their fountains are full of fresh water daily.46 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. Like those fabulous pullets that lay 26 eggs per month when six months old. like making $7.500 a year on a plot 40 feet square —as the same knave claimed he could do — all these are palpable falsehoods. however. broilers You cannot get commercial weighing two pounds at . One single lapse may cost you twenty-five valuable birds. Better wait until they are three-quarters grown. As the season advances the weight increases. Then there will be no danger of crooked breast bones. Don't be in too big a hurry to have them roost. In May the demand is for birds weighing from two to three pounds each. lots of fresh air.

In fact. This will enable him to will know which and the judge also price up the stock for him.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. if he has the very best stock obtainable to start with. should be cautious about going into the broiler industry. unless most favorably situated. cannot be done with any general flock. are the best. unless he chances to breed that variety. which the judge does not know. but he knows how to mate. will be able to make quite a tidy sum from his surplus birds. and thus a value. the beginner will do well to insert a modest advertisement in a poultry magazine stating that he has such birds for sale. eight weeks. to if possible. And he will be agreeably disappointed to find 90. first class He should . but if the chicks get any setbacks — if they are not kept on the jump profit —then they will not reach a broiler age at any The beginner. The reason that a reputable judge has given his birds a standing. the beginner. 47 While an occasional extra precocious chick may it hit that weight at the age. get an experienced breeder of the variety in hand for the mate up such pens as are wanted coming season. Then. it. will often be- amazed to find that his highest scoring — especially in the males —are passed by in favor of birds of less The experienced breeder may not be able to score the birds as the judges can do. If among these birds are any that score especially high. will is that his second birds better prices than if —even those running under bring much sold unscored. and the if chances are that he will have them the parent stock is right. Having matched his pens the beginner may now advertise and sell his surplus stock. is If all goes well there good money in whatever. The beginner birds value. Along in December or January he should have them leg-banded and scored by a competent judge. which they could not attain otherwise.

yet they will pay far better than would to sell eggs for market. But there is always a demand for stock. and live up to it.48 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. And while it the chicks hatched in mid-summer may not do as well as those turned out in April and May. strain and sex. variety. What would hundred week-old chicks adults. Give them a variety. secret of getting young stock up in weight quickly is found partly in feeding and partly in care. In caring for the youngsters one must combat two ends in — lice and overcrowding. yet his expenses. being so profit. first will Pullets of hatched as late as September be laying in March. score. The next day give them some Growing Food dampened with sour milk. After will do well to continue first hatching through the sum- May the demand for eggs drops off and the trade is practically dead by the first of June. will be crowded quarters for a half-dozen When the chicks are weaned no more than twenty-five should be kept together. And so on. The One should remember that growing chicks tire of the same food after day. Tomorrow give them boiled potatoes chopped up and mixed with bran. . much less. Make this a positive rule. leave him a handsome The beginner mer. with the price of each. also the who rated them. f'-'Y Mixed in thus with their regular food the youngsters will relish these extras and will thrive amazingly. will name the breed. The former may be kept check by a never ending be roomy quarters for a Overcrowding of course results from hatching more chicks than one can accommodate. fight. and while he will not obtain any such prices as a great breeder gets for stock of the same grade. many varieties And while good their eggs should not be used for breeding they will bring very prices for househould use. Today boil up small potatoes and see how they will scamper for them. He difficulty and the judge little have but will in disposing of such birds.

The Orpingtons which this person handled are — — large biras. The secret right time of producing heavy winter layers is in hatching at the —according to the breed- —and in bringing the pullets to the pink of condition late in the season instead of early. He knows better. cir- Like many another true or not. One of the most absurd claims made by a certain alleged breeder. and can be forced to lay as early as the Leghorns. Early hatches are necessary for market birds. yet no legitimate Orpington breeder ever attempts it. A pullet that begins laying too early is likely to "soldier" during the winter —"eating her head winter payers off" when eggs are highest. . No she pullet of any variety should lay before she is six months old if is to be used thereafter as a breeder.CHAPTER IX MATURING THE STOCK It is a common saying that the early layer "saying" this is is the payer. according to cumstances. but for winter layers —and —the pullets should not begin work before November. and while this breed is a wonderfully fast grower. Too early laying is often followed by a late moult —and that means good-bye to eggs until the following spring. was that pullets of his pretended "strain" laid when less than four months old! Had this been true it would have proven that his birds were worthless.

except as noted. If you are running an egg farm. The of May is late enough. frame. They should begin laying December. and sometimes even later." large of first. Crowd your pullets for size. Unless running to another. and replenish your stock by buying lot of pullets a new every year. properly housed and fed. If Give them muscle and meat later. pullet usually makes the biggest. in the Winter layers first American breeds must be got out earlier. But you cannot breed successfully from such nervous Mediterranean breeds birds. forcing heavy laying. If not overcrowded they can be kept in colony houses until the middle of October. will continue laying through the winter.— 50 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. the youngsters look "leggy" you may be sure that they are doing well. just before they begin to moult. Forcing means ruin. Let the young birds have free range as long as possible. abnormal. best Better retara laying than hurry it. big of bone. healthiest. gained only at the expense of the Precocity vital is It is powers. after an "egg farm" I would move the pullets from one pen fall. and the broken down. The if light. may be hatched in June in with excellent results. Get them "on their legs. you may slaughter the innocents sell forcing early maturity. The "gawky" laying hen. played out birds the next summer. . housing them in the so that they would not lay too early. and.

If the beginner has high grade stock he will find some good breeders and perhaps some strong show birds when his youngsters mature. as has much your pullet winnings. and provided with two roosts. Take the that a pullet pullets. The late The great thing is to avoid over-heating at summer and early fall days require that especial attention be given the youngsters. it that fact in mind. and be almost certain to catch cold on going out in the cool morning To the egg farmer the year. These birds require different handling from that given the layers. by well ventilated. preventing any serious fighting. overcrowded they become overheated.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. Buy or raise pullets yearly to take the place of the old birds. The eggs so-called "utility" 51 pullets —meaning those kept merely for —should be housed earlier than the choice stock that has been reserved for future breeding. In these days keep up an unending warfare on lice and mites. will accommodate from 12 to 20 pullets. is The experienced showman knows Bear to do with at her very best just before she begins laying. so If the cockerels become — and that 3 they are apt to do —put an oid male among He will act as a peace-maker. . if of roosting room. for instance. of course should have been separated from the pullets as soon as they became annoying. as they approach maturity. The cockerels quarrelsome them. If troubled with insect pests they will not sleep well If —which will air. first year of a hen's life is the profit making After that she should be marketed. night. means a set-back. Be sure The ordinary the 6 growing stock has plenty colony house.

by coaxing them with tid-bits scraps of meat. boiled and sugared the weight on late hatched birds. at their best when exhibited they must be hatched at the right time. Such birds must be hatched. and matured in the — — right way.: 52 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. But note the result: . small. their shells earlier. and there are few beginners who have proper facilities for keeping winter hatched chicks on the jump. do best hatched in June. by tempting them with frequent feedings. and rice. Cockerels should have an earlier start than pullets. Red. Better wait until March or April and get out birds for the winter shows. quick maturing Mediterraneans If you breed any of the you can get your pullets if —and cockerels. too. and so forth. as a rule. It takes longer to get them right in weight and plumage. But the same December should not see daylight before the first of May. The American and English breeds must break Pullets of the Rock. where otherwise he would spell I — Failure NEVER FORCE YOUR BIRDS FOR THE FALL SHOWS! show birds. To have your pullets "show ripe" that is. in February. for that matter —into in show shape hatched any time between the middle birds shown in of March and the middle of April. you may put may win the blu^ in October. Wyandotte^ or Orpington classes should not be shown by novices in the fall exhibitions. And here heeded — want to say something to the beginner that will if enable him to write Success. And if the pullets to be shown January will. stuffing your promising By — sweetened bread. Supposing you plan to show in October. if properly matured.

—these and other ills. ing of the Park & Pollard Scratch Grain in deep with their Growing Food in hoppers.. with grit and charcoal in the etc. is In maturing your birds there nothing better than a liberal feedlitter. Congestion in one form or another troubles. beets. More likely the best of them will be dead by spring. —the ratio being four quarts of Growing Food to one quart of Fattening Food. —and then nature do the . if throw you scrub indeed they breed at all. your prize winners stock.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. Your in 53 stuffed and untimely fattened birds digestion. To the latter you might add their Fattening -Food during the last week before your show birds go out Give them plenty of milk to drink. —mixing some alfalfa. acute indigestion. —for roup. — cabbage. bowel are congestive — will carry off the flower of your flock. With impaired every organ weakened will by the strain of over-feeding. mash —and plenty let of bulky green food rest. with will go off their feed January.

The two year hen lays eggs that are larger. no bird should be placed in the breeding pen before is a year old. there are no "cures" for poultry These things are necessary for health: good stock. A slight ailment a trifling cold or "off" on . There is is no danger from judicious inbreeding. the female that scratches. If the breeder been. there are few that old for hatching at an earlier age. "sings" and lays. with a few exceptions. Breeding stock should be mature. ills. and there will be very sickness in any plant. inbreeding absolutely necessary to produce certain results. if he uses birds that if are. proper housing. the male that crows. with keen appetites. with clear eyes. Given these. alert. Birds that are bright. Never use a bird for breeding that has been sick. "talks". Such birds are healthy. is Good stock the principal thing. While most varieties are laying long before lay eggs fit this. digs. or have afflicted with any disease. and will beget healthy chicks. is heedless or ignorant. smooth plumage. and cleanliness.CHAPTER X DISEASES Prevention is better than cure. fights. Indeed. both parents have a is similar fault —in any of these cases inbreeding — dangerous. little feeding. BUT BE CAREFUL. clean legs. red combs. To be on the it safe side. and better in every way for breeding purposes. Indeed. Remember this rule and live up to it.

in winter as well as in summer. and equally careful about the vessels that hold it. If cart off six or eight inches of the filthy surface dirt. lack of food and of fresh air and exercise. the bird is takes courage to do it especially if a high scoring male. they remain so the breeder at fault ninety-nine times out of a hundred. dampness. If the birds are dusted with a good lice powder about the first and seventh of each month there will be no trouble with body lice and no need of choking the house up with unsanitary dust. grit and charcoal. money to "doctor" any bird that it. The latter should be cleaned daily —thoroughly cleaned floors. —and that. feed 55 — is not a bar. The worst lice are those that infest the roosts and nests.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. and replace with new April and October. These can be kept in subjection by using plenty of Zenolium or the Park and Pollard Liquid Lice Killer. vermin. disinfected. they should be scraped clean three or four times a year. seriously Better use the axe at once and be done with little If If from healthy stock. among the most common being the following: Unsuitable location of buildings. Be careful about the drinking water. There are various causes for disease. impure water. bird forever from the breeding pen. But anything serious shouid remove the It afflicted this. which are expensive. fail to chicks will be healthy is when hatched. of green is And there no excuse for any of them. It is is usually a waste of time and ill. and covered with plenty . lack of sunshine. Look after the of dirt— which they should not be —you must dig up and too. But pays. If This should be done twice a year — say in board floors are used. The dusty "dusting boxes" are not used in our testing house.

Charcoal —especially But if the medicated the droppings charcoal —will usually keep the bowels regular." indigestion. its When a chick cannot digest food. This will start the birds digging. seem too hard. Unless you have the "no yard" houses —which If are often the best is — you should see that the runs never get it foul. Don't dose the birds. a little linseed meal. mixed with bran in a moist mash will be effective. All the foregoing is in the way of preserving health. The most common and "white diarrhoea. when it "pastes up. In considering a few particular diseases that no very sick bird should be "doctored. and covered with two or three inches of sharp sand and six or eight inches of oat straw. or cremate it. limited let be spaded frequently to late fall. corn might be grown." becomes droopy. have carefully tested many alleged "cures. and ." but have found nothing reliable.56 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. There is no "sure cure" for this disease. Cement floors should of sand. fatal disease of small chicks is the deadly it In almost every case is really an intestinal resulting from many causes —the I most common being chilling or over-heating. the runs could be sedded large enough alfalfa down in a stout lawn grass or —for green food is a necessity. bury it deep." it is best to say at once Kill and bury it. —two or three times in per month —from early spring Each time mix Sunflowers or If a liberal quantity of oats. Look the space after the runs. and will field also suply a limited amount of green food. be cleaned twice a year. thus supplying both shade and food.

to brood right. to feed right. But while ventable. worthless bird. if This should the not be the case. and would not be the case we understood business as well as the hen does. for if. Therefore "mother" your late hatched chicks with hens or tireless brooders. in zero weather. recovers from a bad attack will always be a stunted. directed. A tireless brooder is all very well in warm Have weather.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. don't overcrowd. nothing to do with such a person. is a knave. and employ hens Chilling is fatal. but any man who offers to sell a 'system" for keeping chicks in a heatless brooder. trouble. The fine spun theories of salaried people. the "tweedle diarrhoea. tweedle dee" arguments over the source of this disease have no practical value. feed as and your early hatched birds will seldom have any bowel While chilling is fatal. the best thing it 57 is to it end its misery. "peeps" dismally. We never can. Chicks can safely endure much more heat in late winter or early spring than in the summer. heated brooders early in the season. dum and it. hatch second. out of doors. yet it is easily preto And the "secret" — so called —of avoiding it is first. You can prevent white You cannot "cure" . equalize matters if we would we should use incubators and later. Careful tests show that artificially hatched and brooded chicks are more liable to attacks than are those hatched by hens. over-heating is equally so. right. Keep the chicks comfortably warm. this disease is generally incurable. We But don't. third. by chance.

bird. face. comb. or a tendency to contract even though she herself should apparently be "cured. established. the disease is promptly kill and cremate the is rare. death. Promptly remove all infected birds. A dollar cure for dime or less may — — be had as follows: . loss of appetite. The treatment is preventive. Genuine cholera Therefore note all the symptoms. A is neglected cold is And a cold easily cured taken in hand at once. Fowl cholera is a contagious. and wattles seem bloodless. Symptoms are great thirst. Roup is is a cold is CHOP OFF ITS HEAD! All the roup "cures" on earth will not make such a bird fit for breeding. Give them water to which creolin has been added a teaspoonful to an ordinary wooden bucket. then give a small dose —a one-thousandth of a grain tablet of mercury If bichloride every two or three hours. She it. the distemper you do you are liable to catch —for if it is very contagious.58 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. a congestion. is —that means. is almost certain to transmit the disease." If Don't "fuss" with a roupy bird. high fever. drowsiness. But a cold not often roup. There is no cure. Disinfect thoroughly and often. excessive diarrhoea. for the roup present with the usual marks a stench— when this smell "odor" of a bad cold — don't hesitate. rapid and deadly disease. As soon as you hear any wheezing or sneezing among your birds you should begin operations. the usual exciting cause of roup. When the bird stinks —that's the proper word. For — individual treatment with valuable birds that are under suspicion.

The writing of such a book might help a man employed by an endowed state college or station to kill time. coughing. The only thing remove each patience. little Use care that the fellows will not strangle. you might air-slacked in this so place the afflicted chicks in a box or barrel and let some lime sift over them through a piece of bagging. you to a to do is to separate the sick from the well and new location.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. night. then the hatchet the only safe and sure "cure. old. cup of water to color it Dip the bird's head in the Repeat. going about with their mouths open. Enough could be written about other ills affecting poultry to fill a book as large as this. fine 59 At night cough and — mist —and They to spray about the will roosts so that the birds sneeze. look for gape worms. sneezing. this is nothing but a "cold" treatment will cure. It mostly affects chicks from one to four weeks very hard to treat effectively. little — enough make a film —over pill their drinking water. job of it. not. but it . Mix a teaspoonful of pure creolin take a hand pump one that throws a in a gallon of water. If it is grows worse. Pour a may inhale the Make a thorough kerosene oil creolin. you have the time. the peculiar roup odor present. solution keeping there ten or fifteen seconds. If and therefore it is any of your chicks are drooping. Repeat every night for a week. They are thready creatures from an eighth to a half inch long and are found clinging to the chicks windpipe." The disease called gapes is caused by worms in the windpipe. If skill and may remove the worms by hand. If it is if Give this treatment twice daily so long as need be. And If the old ground should never be used again for young chicks. it Place enough permanganate of potash a deep red. in a Give each sick bird one grain quinine at Repeat once or twice. Never mind.

" "condiments. To illustrate: I might pre- pare a long article on tuberculosis. you'll rue . it. Provide roomy. But as there discuss it. little would be of or no practical benefit." "egg food." beginning with the ^'diagnosis" and ending with the "concomitant" cure for the disease it fatality. Feed as directed. well-ventilated houses that are free To sum up Breed from healthy. If you do. And finally: LET THE WELL BIRDS ALONE! Don't try to increase their growth or egg production with "tonics. from drafts. is no possible would avail but little to dry. Keep the premises clean and the birds free from vermin. well-mated stock. If these : rules are followed there will be very little sickness." or any other atrocities. filled with words of "learned length and thundering sound.60 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED.



secret of selling eggs and stock at a profit


be told in one


the secret of continuing to sell year after year


be told

one word:

Advertising will


but unless the quality

is there, to

back the

advertising, there can be no

permanent business.

Knaves have bought space
but only for a time.

magazines from fawning publishers,
for a time;

and by thus sharing their plunder have robbed the public
Their fraudulent claims and



by no real quality,
one after another.

have been exploded, and they have disappeared



a right


to sell,

and a wrong way

to sell.

—in selling market eggs — the ordinary hit or —"farmer" method. Eggs gathered and sold at odd miss — usually miss fresh or spoiled—never assorted for shape, size or color times —
The wrong way

and bartered at the village store
over long after

at the lowest rate.

Stock carried

has ceased to pay.

Young stock




are at their lowest.




to sell




as "commercial" poultry and

to take pains

lots of


— and

do business in a business-



Get your hatches
off early.

Push the young stock hard.


weighing from a pound and a half to two pounds command high prices
early in the season, while late hatched broilers are often a drug in

the market.

Hens should be fattened and



you run an egg farm
Roasters, as a


their second year, before they begin to moult.

should be confined to the larger breeds, and


be grown

at a profit only

where food



Egg farming may be very profitable —or it may be a financial graveyard. The secret of avoiding the latter is to satisfy the public. If white eggs are wanted, give them white eggs. with equal If they foolishness demand brown eggs, then the eggs must be brown.

But whether white or brown, the eggs must be
to size-up evenly.

fresh, clean,



the larger these fresh and clean eggs

are, the better prices

they will bring.
in cartons holding one dozen each.

Eggs should be neatly packed
for your farm, or yards,

These cartons, or boxes, should be labeled, with some catchy name
and sold under a dated guarantee.



would read

like this:


John Doe, Proprietor,
Roeville, N. Y.


The eggs
in this

carton were laid



Having got your
get busy.



and boxes ready, pack a few dozen and
reach of a city of fair size your market


live within

right there.


a personal canvas, starting in on the afternoon

that the label



laid today" is a big puller.





be amazed to see


quickly you can

work up a route and


for cash only.


a positive rule

No money, no eggs!
winner in the end.

Thus you avoid bad

hard sometimes, but never mind

Live up to


The You




be a big

you go in for "blooded stock" and


eggs for hatching, you will

face a different problem. In the beginning you

must have good


Your stock or eggs
to go

must come from a noted breeder unless you want
years of needless

through long

Show your







As your


increases, branch out.

Don't be afraid to go where the big noise

Stand on your feet as soon as possible.
flagrant faker

But don't imitate that


advertised that he had "originated a strain" before

he had raised a single chicken.

But don't


Don't say that you have a ten thousand

dollar hen, for there never

was such a

Don't say that your flock

"averages 256 eggs per hen," for no "flock," nor even a pen, ever did

Don't say that your six months old pullets are "all laying 26
In brief, don't try to fool people certain to be found out.

eggs monthly," for they are not.

with any such

silly lies.

You are



And then you


wish that you had emulated the Father of our


But don't hide your


. Don't offer eggs in October. for hatching should be advertised in late winter and early spring. and legitimate business. baby chicks in November. Eggs and fall. That is all way of business. Better put a good advertisement in one little prominent magazine than a If card in twenty. you have a good "selling face. Don't scatter your shot. But advertise according to the season. photograph and use or a "confidence" But if you look like a poet. Talk in the big. to secure the prices that are But don't give your eggs away. and signed and dated by the judge. it is Make a noise. Three dollars a The secret of getting better prices for your stock is this: Have a to competent judge score them and furnish a score card numbered correspond with the leg-band on each bird scored. Advertise. Advertise. nor stock in April. This gives each bird a standing and a value. setting is better than thirty cents. Have this card made out with ink or an indelible pencil. stock in the summer At the outset you cannot expect paid old breeders. Tell what you have done. or a prize fighter man — as the best of us may do —then keep your face out of print. Advertise.64 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED." have a cut made from your it. baby chicks from early to late spring.

will furnish the score card with each bird. . and that you scores. In the dull months tell what you are going to do. and will sell your birds where nothing else would do And Keep finally right on advertising. and advertise that fact. makes it. Then do it. value. what you are doing. and during the busy months. 65 Let people know that you are offering birds for sale that have been scored by Judge So-and-so.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. Have the judge put a price on each bird as he All this gives confidence. tell Before.

months Show your birds. very great. both is from an educational and busi- ness viewpoint. . full The "American Standard of Perfection" only authority on show birds recognized breeder should is in this it Every own a copy of this book as gives a description of every recognized variety. and the country. in The beginner learns more by observation than he could of study elsewhere. and go at that? The reason for exhibiting is that people must not only be "shown. but you will get in line for future winnings. the authority. Moreover. The value of the poultry show. You may not "win the blue" nor a ribbon of any color. the poultry show is a great inciter of public interest. Begin cautiously.CHAPTER XII THE SHOW ROOM Why tion? let it do the most successful breeders show their birds in competi- It is troublesome and costly. One cannot breed exhibition birds without a Standard. Why not tell what they have. We catch the hen fever in the show room." but they must know who has the winners.

puzzled greatly over the question of choice of breeds. at the fall fairs that thousands of people get their first ideas of thoroughbred poultry.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. The youngsters may not be up in weight. Of course you want that will aid you: to win at the fall shows. should have been hatched late in the previous year. Groom your birds carefully. in the fall were hatched at the right Thus the adult birds exhibited. Show them just the same. at the outset. Therefore lay. she begins her "egg song. earlier than the middle of Don't get birds out for the shows March. and should be well up in weight by September. See that they have clean feet and legs. for you don't want the pullets to This fact is begin laying before they are shown." and you think she is ready to discourage her from so doing by changing her from one pen to another. say. Never mind. first The young fall of April. Some of your best birds may be in moult. All right. for it is Here is where many a fancier is born. The beginner is. the winning of ribbons was the sole object . off to 67 New York. and here is a secret See that the birds shown time. Boston or any other big Start in at the fall fairs. Don't rush your birds city the first year. for many of your rivals will have the same trouble. very important. in September. urged that by so doing he will have to much less competition and therefore a much greater chance If win the coveted blue ribbons. Frequently he It is is advised to take up with some one of the rarer varieties. stock should be hatched about the This will throw their moult back so that they may be in good feather at that time. if A pullet is at her best just before maturity.

Orpingtons. But as prizes are but incidents. requires particular treatment. separately and the beginner for the first. as some believe. To winning with show without competition is wasted effort. . Leghorns or Wyandottes will give you plenty of variety. a matter of luck. Dominiques. Cochins. Langshans and Minorcas. is not.68 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. Dorkings. how grow to weight. These are all standard and valuable breeds. The standard high and the showroom demands of that exhibitors and judges shall be men unblemished reputation. All this and indeed each will be variety. If of poultry culture. all But the beginner first will find that any of the more popular varieties from the those in the It is group will be in greater demand than last. impossible in the scope of a single chapter to give the multitude of secrets for preparing and showing birds. and as a winning where there is no competition is merely a walk-over. For a secondary group we have the Brahmas. Don't go in then for the freaks. such advice might be good. such advice is decidedly bad. One may learn far more by losing in competition than by winning without competition. Each breed. in there was any credit little or no opposition. Winning go by favor." In this book every Standard breed and variety is told. taken up to breed. time. and condition birds to win. found in my special book on the subject entitled "Show is Room Secrets. In fact there are 27 standard varieties of these five breeds. and about a dozen more that have not been admitted to the Standard. Houdans. such advise might be good. will Nor do prizes There have been and there dishonest judges. Rhode Island Reds. be some dishonest showmen and But the fakers are few and juggling is judges are fewer yet. You will find that the Plymouth Rocks.

is But no such bird has ever been seen. varieties — it is a rare bird difficult Indeed there are some particularly score. have scored a multitude of birds. point white bird A ninety-six may be had.CHAPTER XIII FANCY STOCK No man ever had a well developed attack of "hen fever" without desiring. it is an ambition that leads to fortune. but don't look for it in a Rhode Island Red. sooner or later. That is a proper ambition. but even in the highest scoring varieties —solid I Wyandottes. cost depending All show birds are expensive —the upon quality. The perfect I bird would score one hundred points. I emphasize it because too many beginners do not follow wisely. and there no probability that one ever will be seen. White Leghorns or White have never found one that would come within several colored birds the —like points of perfection. to show his birds and win some prizes. which seldom reach that For this reason one should bear in mind that what would be a comparatively low standing for one of the easier breeds would be very high for another. while in some of the parti-colored varieties solid color which naturally score lower than those of that will go over ninety. if wisely fol- Please keep in mind that last phrase: If wisely followed. Moreover. . lowed.

R. unless he has a manager who knows . or.70 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. and the chances would be that such stock would have market value only and poor edged standing far likely to more — value at that. how to raise the youngsters that come from the mating. Fishel than one apparently worth fifty. of whose antecedants I knew nothing. slight. He does not know how mate for the best bird. every bird judged by its own Beginners are prone to think of birds as of dollars coming from the mint —that it each is as good as the next. He thinks that one is too dear or the The answer individual value. admitting a difference. birds of exceptional quality. The be- ginner cannot understand other too cheap. The former would throw stock of a known value. at the outset. from the same hatch birds. he thinks It is should be true that "strain" has value. a fatal mistake The beginner makes a to mistake —usually results nor —in buying. to this puzzle is that. The latter would carry one immediately into the unknown. have sold a bird for for $5. is A bird bred by a man of acknowl- show value than if bred by a novice. And here is a fact worth remembering. There is nothing in which the beginner is more I likely to form a wrong idea of value than in exhibition $75 and another. Consequently he would be courting disaster to buy such a None quality to of the really great breeders will sell a bird of the highest an inexperienced man. Why should there be such a wide difference in price? it. Thus I would rather have a ten dollar White Rock bred by U. not considering the breeder's is reputation or the value of his strain.

They know —those —birds men of quality —that show otherwise failure would result. here of experience: until is another "secret". The beginner should buy good stock if good enough to need be —but not thousand dollar birds. But if you possibly can best. fifty. is as high as any novice should And he may well begin with cheaper birds than that. also well known to every breeder bird that has been No shown is fit to use as a breeder he has had a thorough rest and is again in condition for breeding. and they place reputation above dollars. how to handle 71 such stock. do not place the birds you have shown in your breeding pens after. The beginner selling of show stock is an art not easily mastered. Public interest demands it. or a A trio at a hundred pen at a hundred and go. weeks months would be better. The may as well understand at the outset that he cannot get the prices paid to men of established reputation. a whole year would be Why? Well. in a breeding pen. properly mated for best results. He may have as good . for the breeding pen until restored to a normal condition. nor hundred dollar birds. A bird.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. "condition" and breeding "condition" are not always the Often they are very far apart. which has been stuffed to make that weight. Show same. dollars. of the variety is where not fit weight counts. A common ner mistake —and this is a "secret" known to every ex- perienced fancier — is that of the amateur who buys a blue ribbon win- —especially a male—and places him at once Don't do it. Show birds must be used avoid for it —at the right time —as breeders. Birds must be shown.

beginner. must make his prices low at first. filling way into page after page with lies about his "strain" —which he "originated" by the simple process of hiring somebody to buy birds for some him —don't imagine. Tecktonius.72 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. therefore. he pays the penalty. advertise your breeders From June to which you may have for sale. One of the "secrets" of successful advertising is to tell the truth. inclusive. Either they quit sud- denly or land in the penitentiary. all crooked. naturally. Kaufmann The individual birds as Fishel. charge. if you have any for inclusive. and that you. that he has made tens of thousands of dollars with poultry is on a few square feet of land. you should advertise eggs for —also stock. Lying never pays. but. Don't imagine that because some big swindler buys his print. I say. He may is carry on his nefarious business for a time. From November setting to May. go to them. the buyer will. sooner or later. Don't imagine that the poultry business too. or and Windheim. will find that the "Classified" advertisements re- At the outset you pay the best. disposal . Therefore tell the truth. But if he charges as much for stock as these well- known breeders no business. October. because some "system" knave There is advertising. These cost a few cents per word. that he is successful. with apparent success. but one end to all such cheap rascals. and give better turns for the money invested than can be had in any other way. must be a crook. Tompkins. Cook. or he will do One ing secret of success —which is a "secret" only to the more observ- — is that of advertising.

" Be modest. truth. . you will surely will lead to —build —though when perhaps slowly the "get-rich- up a business that fortune quick" knaves are "broke" or wearing stripes. As soon as possible have photo-engravings made from good photographs —for pictures are great pullers.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. Don't brag. The circular and letter- heads should be of the very best quality best paper. then your experience will will give the answer. Don't expect too much if at first. Make your prices low. Advertise in a few of the best poultry magazines. You won't get But if rich in a month. labels for your egg boxes. a modest letter-head and envelopes to match. trios and pens. Give prices for single birds. it you give your customers a the best of every time. You may have a wonderful this pullet is a "flock" pullet with an apparently authentic if trap nest record of 256 eggs in a year. pairs. Even in your small advertisements be careful what you say. to copy such men than to follow some ignorant faker who tries push himself ahead by stupid bragging and untruthful boasting? If you are in doubt. A neat circular giving your winbirds — if you have made any —or of the — from which your stock came. a worthy name to in poultrydom. if little you tell the you carry out every promise. They cheapen you most people. and notice how little Isn't it better. Look through the advertisements of men who have made they boast. then. in the eyes of Never use "stock" cuts. You nings need printed matter. These you will need at the outset. Even so don't pretend that and advertise that your "flock has an average of 256 eggs in a year. nor a year. 73 and also your young stock. ink and workmanship. nor in several years.

foundation stones on which their fortunes are . that they were did not hatch. of painstaking labor. in which truth and square dealing have been the built.74 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. believe what they let it go. You may not the doubt. when once established it is an asset of the greatest value. To make money on fancy stock one must be content to make haste slowly. for. as I often do. that they Never mind. One must gain that confidence before it has a financial value but. Occasionally you will meet with dishonest buyers. They will tell you that the eggs were broken. at no Pocket the loss and It will pay in the end. or. infertile. but give them the benefit of Duplicate their order at half price. say. in each case. The trade along this line is wholly a matter of confidence. price. The good-will of a business like that built up by Fishel or Tompkins or Cook is worth an immense fortune. it has been built up by years .

CHAPTER XIV POULTRY SECRETS A secret is something studiously concealed. The poultry business because it offered a rich field for these contemptible crooks. Many widely adverinvesti- tised "secrets" have been sold at high prices. Other alleged "secrets" were those of the various "systems" some good. took the authorities some time to close down on them. Many breeders. which the fellow hired somebody lishers accepted and which heedless pubthey —not thinking. which proved on gation to be merely well known facts. was able The only original thing in the whole wretched swindle was the advertising. to prepare. One of the worst of these fakes was a little booklet advertising a so-called "original strain" of birds.haring his plunder. possibly. eked out with a few facts stolen bodily from a produce firm's year book. that in taking his money were r. because they promised impossibiliOne fellow had a "system" for making more than sixty dollars ties. mostly bad. And in the interim the industry suffered and thousands were plundered. yearly from each hen! Another swindler of the same sort advertised that his "system" would enable "six people to make a good living from six hen*! Aided by his stool pigeons this petty cheat robbed thou- sands of unsophisticated people before he was finally taken in hand. which this firm sent out gratis! to sell a catalogue of his In this "way" the kna^e pretended "strain" at a dollar each. directly and indirectly. some bad. of the secrets discussed in this book are known to various Some of them have been disclosed and are secrets no .

scratchers. experience dictates. active Select hens that have large. Do not use a male that is too heavy. bullies the hens. . When is the breeding season food. meat or exhibition. Lester Tompkins and Kaufman and Windheim with the Rhode Island Reds. Percy A. rather than those that have laid themselves out in their pullet year. using light colored males. and are broad between feathers. Parks. Let us consider the proper mating of certain varieties: Barred Rocks. You want abounding rather than quantity. yearling. in the eggs laid for hatching. non-sitting Plymouth Rocks. The secret of mating this grand old variety for is this: producing big birds and big layers Breed to the female line. whose on each side of the comb "stand out" instead on at night. In order that the fertility may be good the male should be a well developed cockerel or a lusty breeders. near give muscle making. They are published with such additions or improvements as Others are longer. snow-white.76 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. the last second winter. Select those that lay best the of lying smooth. the "bred to lay" Barred Rock man. with his Fishel with his massive. In other words. The great breeder wonderful Orpingtons is one who has learned how to mate his birds for best results for eggs. eaters. the singers. the legs. Young's White Leghorns and Tecktonius with his superb Buff Leghorns are instances of what can be done in scientific mating. red combs. strength building vitality. breed from those that are on the up grade instead of down. and always from two-year old hens. the first off the roost in the morning. Cook. . Old males to all breeds are not good These rules are general and apply and varieties. new discoveries now made public MATING SECRETS. big. for the first time. nor one that And be sure that his dam was a good layer.

the Standard calls for a tail only five degrees lower in the Minorca than in the Leghorn. alert birds that were not forced In breeding to unusual laying in their pullet year. with the resulting pale legs and flat backs. long. slow and they fall easy victims to White Leghorns observe one cast-iron rule: Breed only from two year old hens. And a judge tail who knows his business will penalize a Leghorn with too low a as surely as if it be too high. pushed first the limit. it is only natural that some thin. played out stock should get into the breeding pen. Bred primarily for eggs. Single In no breed is vitality so quickly depleted as in the to Comb White Leghorns. Breed from erect. He should be a rangy bird. The foolish craze for extra low tails has caused some breeders to throw White Minorca blood into their Leghorns. over weight. from strong. upstanding birds. By breeding skill 77 to the female line you will get good pullets both for utility and exhibition. drooping wings and pinched breasts. is "leggy. And get your breeders as tame as possible. Leghorns. You may use your very is best hens for breeding —the required being in the selection of the male. bold. with a four or at most a five point comb. . It is bad practice.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. Don't use a "logy" bird. and for that is reason be very careful in selecting one that birds are liable to be sluggards. regular. with as strong barring on the flights as is possible to get in a pullet-bred male. Remember. standing well up on well spread legs. The chicks are weak. the result is When this happens Utterly disastrous. lacking in stamina. their growth the dreaded white diarrhoea." with "crow" heads. then cast aside after the year. He should be lighter than the hens but be careful that he bird. not a '"washed-out" open-barred The barring should be sharp. for such See that he has a good red or bay eye and be sure that he comes from a good laying strain.

78 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. if But if your birds are sound in hackle. Houdans are not as popular in America as their merits deserve. be tipped with white. and very untrue to The "secret" of securing good color in these birds varies with color. But the following general The Standard calls for red undercolor rules are necessary in all cases : throughout in both sexes. it is best to use a male that to get stilty. The Standard requires that This proposition should be the surface plumage in each sex should be glossy black. as will prevent the chicks from running into buffs. or else secure eggs from such birds Rhode Island Reds breed very true to type. Buff is a "made" color — a combination of red. I To secure it breed from evenly marked speci- have got the best results from males that were somewhat It lighter than the females. Each has his own. white and black. it it will be an advantage the male a clear. The buff color in all varieties is a difficult proposition. bright red. is and tail." required by the Standard. There is onlyone way. is under exhibition Otherwise you are likely "gamey" cockerels. in if you do your own mating. To blend them into that "rich. so difficult that advise the beginner to purchase either tested birds from a reliable breeder. and the male and female are reasonably matched in surface color you need not fear a little smut if Indeed. They are good layers of large eggs. . carried out regularly. White is the hardest to combat. non-sitters and excellent table fowls. In mating Reds weight. though this does not follow in all cases. Too often five this is overlooked. wings in the undercolor of the female. The work is so intricate. demands skill and experience. and that is to spend a season I making test hatches. the different breeders. In breeding this variety regularity of plumage should be carefully considered. and that about one feather in mens. golden buff.

Such birds should be marketed to along with the culls. would appear. feathers glossy. a long and broad back. well red comb. The pullet that will lay well always looks well. And here the secret: Three things require especial consideration when selecting future layers. the feathers on each side of the proven to been clearly explained. but results have been noted.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED. This has comb be a sure indication. therefore. Among the very best "bred to lay" pullets there will be some that will never pay for their keep. . eyes are brilliant. full. The pullet that will lay well always eats well. walk — all these indicate the layer. that each breeder should the best method with his 79 find out for himself own individual flock and mate accordingly. Conduct. SECRETS OF SELECTING LAYERS. But the trouble has been It will distinguish the prospective layers from the loafers. She is scratching from dawn to dusk— the first to get busy in the morning. appearance. a duck-like spread tail. Observe them in order: First —General — Shape. As noted. Second Third — Conduct. Her comb is bright red. ally difficult be found to be not especiis when the secret is known. Shape. broad. The "why and wherefore" has never stand out like brushes. A a wide and deep abdomen. bright eyes. Appearance. full breast. It is a trite but true saying that the hen that lays is the hen that pays.

were also wonderful breeding pens. scrawny makes a layer." Did you say that? Well. One point should always be kept should ever go into a breeding pen. will be well to tell the is fertile But before doing so it beginner once again is the difference between an egg that and one that not. In theory. is And in several other varieties the "show" male usually unsuited for breeding. The all Grand Championship Pens of Lester Tompkins. How What I can this be remedied? is the secret of fertile eggs? shall tell you. nated" by purchasing birds from other breeders. What Yes? did you say? "If it rots it is infertile. A first prize pen of Barred Rocks. And surely nothing annoys a breeder more to find that eggs —possibly from his choicest pen —are running infertile. for instance. but this does not always follow. to find a lot of infertile eggs among than those purchased. in mind. nor in a 3 by THE SECRET OF FERTILE Nothing annoys a buyer more than EGGS. Of course there are exceptions. from which he sold the eggs he could spare. the strain from which the bird comes. . would make very sorry breeders. at $4 each. the last to quit at night.80 POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED She never it. she fat. you are wrong. Don't be afraid of The lean. gets out and hustles for pullet never loafs time waiting for food. the bird that "wins the blue" should be the best for the breeding pen. Breeders and Winners. No unknown is bird This means that you should know And a "strain" not "origi6 coop.

fertile eggs than those that have been left to —fed poor or improper food and in limited Generally no male should be used for breeding before he old. Therefore. of itself. produce the results. If ?n egg rots while incubating you may be sure that it was that fertile. is a year And hens Watch If are always better than pullets. and well fed birds that like the of course. . so far we can. the male. I repeat it now it may not be forgotten while considering this subject.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED An infertile 81 egg will not rot during the period of incubation. I have told this fact again and again. have been kept growing every minute with high grade food. The maturity varies with the Dreed and care. it. he gives attention solely to one or two of his mates you should alternate either him with another or remove his favorites. The former plan is best. will mature quicker and produce far more hustle for themselves quantities. The Mediterraneans. ing season age of To that end we should separate the sexes until the breedis on. Park and Pollard Chick Grain and Growing Food. Fertile eggs! Don't expect them by following any will not do. We should use only mature birds for breeding. No "system" of feeding will do We may fertility as well admit at the outset that the hundred per cent. mature earlier than the Asiatics. is seen in wild fowl very But as to get the highest fertility uncommon among domestic possible we should follow nature birds." Yet this has been sold as a great Breeding old males to pullets or cockerels to hens will not. of the alleged "sytems." Merely alternating males "secret.


Winter laying as difficult as it is unnatural. as noted.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED See that the breeders have plenty of green of doors stuff. laid in our test pen as high as 22 eggs in seven days in February. Stuff them growing every minute. Make them You will get no fertile eggs from drones. Tecktonius. secret of getting eggs in winter depends upon three things: right strain. . when shown in mated pens. laying too early! I them daily. here the secret: Hatch your birds so that the pullets may begin laying late in the autumn. BREEDING EXHIBITION BIRDS. A. Yet a pen of four exhibition Buffs. One exception. This is not The Leghorn is not considered the best of winter layers. Keep the hector them. A pullet that begins laying too early apt to "soldier" in December and January when eggs are highest in price. Such a pen would not breed winners.. the right hatching. is that of the Barred Plymouth Rocks. You must double Like produces like a rule. Don't allow any old hens nor males to Feed them to the limit with the right kind of food —and you will get the eggs. seems. can. Don't As chicks keep let them begin have made the is last rule emphatic. bred by F. 83 and get them out whenever you exercise. Since Leghorns can be bred to such winter laying. Hens must be bred to it. —as but there are exceptions. EGGS The The IN WINTER. is How is it done? Well. the heavier varieties may surely do as well or better. the right care. Wis. of Racine. pullets busy.



mate these birds using one pen

produce exhibition males and

another to produce exhibition females.


at that



be lucky

you get one really high grade show bird out
exhibition birds

of a hundred chicks.

Indeed, this follows true with most breeds.




the reason

why high grade
The secret
that the male

command such

big prices.

of getting exhibition birds of

any variety




your birds so that one sex

may compliment

the other

—meaning thereby
and vice

must supply any shortcoming

in the female,

The subject
It is

too extensive to be treated fully in a single


thoroughly covered in


book "Show


which the reader



interested in this branch of the

poultry industry.

It is


of well developed

most discouraging
for this in

to find that a

chicks, almost ready to hatch, have "died in the shell."



may account



but usually the chicks die for

breath— smothered
of oxygen!

in the shell.


There you have


Par more incubator chicks die from

this cause than are lost


The secret

of prevention is to supply

more oxygen.

have saved many chicks that were leady to pip by dipping the eggs in hot water for a moment then removing them quickly so that the air might work in through the opened pores of the shell. A better
way, especially with
incubator eggs,





invented by Dr. Merkley of Buffalo. This


an inexpensive attachgreatly

ment which may be applied to any incubator, and which increases both the number and vitality of chicks hatched.


a vicious habit.

An egg

eating hen will demoralize a


flock, for the trick is easily learned.

Various "cures" have been suggested.

Paring down the offenders

an egg shell with nauseous compound; leaving china eggs

about; any of these methods


prove effective.

And they may




better than cure.

Provide nests that are so high in front

that eggs cannot roll out.

Place a number of china eggs in the nest.

Use trap nests and have them quite dark. Furnish plenty of oyster shells, beef scraps, bone and green food. Gather the eggs often, and
feed scratch grain in the litter at short intervals.

Keep the hens

busy and they wont have time

to learn

bad habits.



excess of pullets



and for unknown ages men have

sought to find a

way to obtain them. There have been "ways" without The shape of the egg; the time of the moon; the sizes of the were sure to work until tried.

After a careful series of tests
satisfaction of


has been demonstrated to the
very large and active


people that mating a reliable cock that will be

two years old

late in the following spring, to

females that are at least one year
five to forty of

and by allowing from twenty-

such females to one such male the offspring will be


by a good majority.

For a number of seasons

have been conducting a series of im-

portant tests in the interests of the poultry industry



other tests at


or abroad there are
to advertise a



motives in these.

They are not conducted


nor a college.

No admission


Breeders who enter

good birds


only birds of quality are accepted

— such

ers receive, as they deserve, the full benefits of the publicity achieved.


tests are not confined to laying as are others.

They cover a




and valuable questions


vitality, fertility,

diseases, feeding, growth, housing,

appliances and

so on and on.


tests are absolutely inpartial.


the birds entered by famous


big showings


have those of U. R. Fishel, the


C. Tuttle,

Lester Tompkins,

Wm. Cook

and Sons,

F. A.


tonius and others of their class


their good fortune.


unknown and unheralded, wins

honors as did a pen

Partridge Plymouth Rocks entered by

A. Noftzger, well

and good.


unknown, big or



are free to enter; and there

no charge for so doing.


tests are practical.

Facts are sought, not fancies; results,

not theories.


the results thus far have been satisfactory in every


the facts established are these: That


chicks do not

require feeding five or six times a day.


fed once a day, and the

as possible I thank you one and it is and hope to see as many of you whenever possible for you to come. can be influenced to a considerable degree. or an old variety that has been neglected. you have a popular variety that you want tested. If all. although some are better than others. My testing plant is open for inspection every day. and without any cost to you. is That laying That sex in the . That if given the same chance a good. unsanitary.POULTRY SECRETS REVEALED chicks thrived exceedingly. Therefore If I shall be pleased to hear from breeders at any time. you are an old breeder you are surely welcome. shell chiefly for lack of That chicks die oxygen. for there are multitudes of facts yet to be established. the The same offer applies to anything new in way of appliances or products.more a matter of breeding and feeding than of breed. while the Rock wastes it in needless fat. and many more equally valuable and interesting. you are a beginner you are doubly welcome. to visit Meanwhile you are cordially invited me whenever If possible. These tests will be continued for an indefinite period. and you so far as can. healthy Leghorn will eat as much as a Rock with this difference: that the Leghorn wastes surplus food in needless exercise. That the claims of a made hens whole family of six living off the product of half a dozen —of tens of thousands cleared yearly from half an acre—of pullets laying at three months — or "flocks" averaging "258 eggs yearly per —of baby chicks thriving out of doors in fireless brooders during false. or a tion new I variety that will help is fighting for recogniI — let me hear from you. . 87 That dropping boards are needless and We have done away with them entirely. hen" zero weather —that such claims were absolutely That there is no "best" variety.

FEB 5 1912 .

to Cat. KtB 5 .One copy del. Div.

1912 .

because has a it's The National that is Beginners' department to worth many dollars you each year.00 . A real Magazine. interesting different. New York The one afford to Poultry Publication you can't be without.National Poultry Magazine Buffalo. Valuable information each month. Up-to-date. Sen d for a sample Cop]) It is free 50c a Year Three Years for $1. Bright. Foreign. Pigeon and Bee departments are conducted by experts. The Women's. Newsy.

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 002 851 208 9 i .

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