PRESERVING

yor a LITTLE GIRL -v^ AM^ L, WATERMAN

BOOK

ALBERT

R. LIBRARY Cornell University

MANN

Gift of

Thomas Bass

CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

3 1924 089 587

29

Cornell University Library

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the United States on the use of the

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A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK FOR A LITTLE GIRL .

as it explains in simple fashion the processes of making delicious fudges. Little Candy Book for a Little Girl By L. Little Preserving Book for a Little A Amy Girl By Amy L. finds out how to make little girl.The A Little Ideal Series for Girls $1. one volume. OR Margaret's Saturday Mornings home from school on Saturday mornings. Other Voltitnes in Preparation Little Vegetable Book for a Little Girl Little Flower Garden Book for a Little Girl Little Knitting Book for a Little Girl Little Nursing Book for a Little Girl Little Gift-Making Book for a Little Girl Little Party Book for a Little Girl. Mass. vivacious style makes this manual as delightful reading as a A story-book. A By Louise Frances Cornell A A A A A A THE PAGE COMPANY S3 Beacon Street Boston.00 Each. cloth decorative. Waterman is In simple story form explained every step of the process of preserving and canning fruits and vegetables. Cook Book for a Little Girl By Caroline French Benton The little simple. Little Housekeeping Book for a Little Girl . A By Caroline French Benton A helpful use of her spare time. Little Sewing Book for a Little Girl A splendid volume to encourage little girls in the study of the useful and beautiful art of the needle. i2mo. . Etc. nut dainties and the like. Waterman This is a book of special appeal. fondants.

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WUh a frontispiece in fall color by HARRIET O'BRIEN BOSTON COMPANY * * MDCCCCXX THE PAGE . WATERMAN Author of "A LITTLE CANDY BOOK FOR A LITTLE GIRL." Etc.LITTLE PRESER- VING BOOK FOR A LITTLE GIRL BY AMY L.

U. A. H.Copyright.. February. S. 1920 THE COLONIAL PRESS C. igso By The Page Company All rights reserved First Impression. SIMONDS CO. BOSTON. .

TO ^Irelaitre THE LITTLE DAUGHTER OF s. MY LIFE-LONG FRIEND AND TO MY NAMESAKE . m. ffi.

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CONTENTS I. .

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" this is all " my work. in mother's preserve closet. Jessie laide. Before May and Ade- Jessie friend. May she hiiited at a wonder- Now they were together again. You see. besides a good-sized bench that had a shelf un- derneath. the other (indicating the two long shelves) is and very wide mother's. the tell one longing to hear and the other eager to the wonderful secret. these stood two little girls." 1 . they had written to one another regularly. and in each letter that Adelaide sent to Jessie ful secret. pointing proudly to the bench and its shelf underneath." said Adelaide. who had been away the whole summer To be sure. May was Adelaide's most intimate long.A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK FOR A LITTLE GIRL CHAPTER I MARMALADES There were two long and very wide shelves.

but it was usually the result of her thoughts. busy in the kitchen. She poured out her very In fact.2 Jessie A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK May gasped. Jessie May was all interest. how I mean. etc. and the underneath covered with jars of jams. Adelaide always told mother everything. — for she wouldn't for the world have Adelaide think she doubted her word. for the top of the bench shelf had every spare inch jellies. " let's go upstairs and I'll teU you how it all happened. and not the process of thinking. the two little girls seated on the back porch the great secret was and piother. Adelaide had been trained to think for herself." said Adelaide. she overheard them being laid bare to Jessie May. and you may be soul." were comfortably When disclpsed. "Why. so in one way it was not sur- . vegetables. preserves. Of course. pickles. mother learned a good that until many things morning about her small daughter's thoughts that she had hardly realized before. smiled at their to herself very evident enjoyment. " Well. You see. sure that Adelaide did not neglect even the smallest detail. could you? " hastily corrected Jessie May. Adelaide! You couldn't.

' why can't I make it. And. his .FOR A LITTLE GIRL prising to hear her 3 tell Jessie May that for two or three years she had been longing to help " preserve. " Mediterranean Sweets. mother mother." was the " great war " that made her decide she surely was old enough to begin." said Adelaide. as it was the very best month of the year to make marmalade. so I said. because she had read of so many little girls who were helping in all sorts of ways to " conserve " and " preserve. I thought Daddy ought to have marmalade. It was way back last March.'' ' " exclaimed the excited little girl." she said." " But." Adelaide continued. " the thing that really She told Jessie May it started me was Daddy's fondness for orange marmalade. Jessie May. all of which had the special flavor most desirable for orange marmalade. and then went on to explain how mother had said that she would make some at once. let me! at once. " and then she was so busy that she couldn't begin to make it Well. At that season the " Valencia " oranges. just think. " So mother bought the oranges and lemons and grapefruit. and his disappointment when we came to the end of mother's supply." and Seville oranges were on the market.

" full for words. Jessie May. and eagerly looked over the neat cards which the box contained. She was too it is.in the box. besides. Jtessie May wanted to see the one for orange marmalade.4 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Jessie May took a deep. for durshe ing Adelaide's recital had hardly dared breathe." (Adelaide then exhibited a small covered wooden box that she had been carefully guarding. and leaned back in her chair with a long drawn sigh." ! Suddenly she exclaimed. they did. because mother did not want me to grow tired of my work but enjoy each new rec- . " Because. for fear of missing a single point of the story. "that I have all of the recipes right here. and on which the precious directions were to be found. Adelaide." "Well.) Jessie little little May was very much interested. and. you will notice that all my recipes are for small quantities." replied Adelaide. " The best part of continued Adelaide." as she said. "they made several small tumblers full. " it was really the first recipe you ever tried. " My goodness did you only use two oranges and one lemon and a grapefruit? I shouldn't think they would make very much. deep breath.

glass measuring cups a large aluminum funnel a small round wire rack to put in the bottom of the saucepan to prevent the jars from touching bottom and to allow the water to flow under as well as over the top a strawberry huller a . . and Adelaide showed Jessie May all the different things she used while preserving. sterilizing. a pair of a jelly bag attached to a wire frame (which was very inexpensive). FOR A LITTLE GIRL ipe as it 5 did. a wire strainer . two half -pint . Then the two went into the kitchen. just not very many. and I most certainly little girls she ended. There was the aluminum deep enough to hold a pint jar overflowing with water (the pint jar was the largest sized jar which Adelaide used) for scales . small sharp knife . and they were care of. There were easy to take kettle. to insert in the jars to let the air bubbles rise to the top when filled with fruit.. tablespoon for skimming a silver knife . a silver wooden spoon. . and could be slipped on to a bowl or saucepan so that the juice could drip slowly." came along. Adelaide told Jessie May that if she had for- gotten anything she would be sure to find what was needed by referring to the proper card . a long . a colander and a quart pitcher.

the jars must have . and brought Adelaide had sampled mother's preserves for some few years now. following The preserve closet. which. Also. preserves. conserves. marmalades. even though she was not so very old. The jars would be less likely to crack if a wire or wooden rack was at the bottom of the pan for sterilize. and let boil gently for ten minutes. commenced her lessons in preserving mother said that she would find many Adelaide general rules to remember. etc. where the fruit dry and cool. saved time successful results. Then mother explained that to you washed your jars and tumblers pan (a dishpan would do) of clean cold water over the fire. stored. if When carefully and expense. should be dark.: 6 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK little alphabetically arranged under "Utensils " in the precious box. jellies. perfectly clean. and she knew the difference between jams. followed. Is to be The jars and tumblers used should be properly sterilized.. placed them in a large the jars to rest on. as far as taste was concerned. but the pro- making was the pleasure she was eagerly She began to feel " quite grown up " when mother told her to write down the cess of anticipating.

fruit. be thoroughly wiped on the outside with a clean damp cloth and labeled bewere suf- Marmalades. to have the finest flavor. let it is stand over night upside down. . should be spot- lessly clean. After filling the jar to overflowing. utensils. ficiently and jellies. Always use new rubbers every year. Each jar should fore putting away. and not too and preserved as soon as possible after picking. jams. etc. its leaking. to let silver knife between the sides and the air bubbles rise to the top before sealing. and dip them in boiling water before putting them smoothly on the jar. and spoon (or a wooden spoon) were the best articles to use in preparing or stirring the fruit. Hands. the covers must perfectly. A silver knife. 7 fit and they should be left in the boiled water until ready to use. protected if covered with a coating of melted paraflSn. Never stand a jar where a cold draft can reach it .FOR A LITTLE GIRL no nicks around the top. to be sure there no possible chance of ripe. thus preventing discoloration. insert a fruit. fork. The firm fruit used should be of the best quality.

please do not tell Daddy that I am going to make his marmalade for him. " we'll keep it as a surprise." responded mother. then added. " Mother. busily preparing to begin." said Adelaide. or if the juice dropped as one mass from the side of a spoon. Sugar Water Mother told Adelaide to wash the oranges and lemons thoroughly and to wipe them dry. Two One Lemons. . jelly point " had poured on to a cold saucer began to set. fell as one from the side Mother thought these ten " lations " were sufficient. I won't. or when two You could tell if when the " little been reached a drops ran together and of the spoon. rules and regu- and. Adelaide agreed. dear. or a jelly bag that you can buy attached to a wire frame. of course." Orange Marmalade Oranges. but allowed to drip through a jelly bag made of a double thickness of cheesecloth.8 If A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK you wanted nice clear jelly it must never be squeezed. " No.

peel and all. For Adelaide used a small. and poured the fruit into mothIn a seper's four quart aluminum saucepan. she measured the fruit. The next morning Adelaide removed the cover from the saucepan containing the fruit and put the saucepan on the stove. lengthwise. cut the fruit This made this it it into quarters. except away of the things with which had finished. very thinly across (not lengthwise all this time). very. covered the saucepan. and she sliced each quarter. easy to remove the seeds and cut out the thick parts of each center or core. smooth board (in fact. using the little 9 sharp knife. stand for the clearing she This cjompleted her work for that day. Adelaide was surprised to find that took quite a long while to get these few prepared. arate pan Adelaide measured as many cups of sugar as she had had of fruit. While the fruit . and was glad she had not attempted too many. and for twenty-four hours. Next.POS A LITTLE GIRL then. Then to each cup of fruit Adelaide added two cups of let it boil- ing water. using the glass measuring cup. of a five-pound butter box) was the cover to cut upon which the fruit. then put them into a bowl until it were ready.

This was to kill all they were put on the stove to be sterilized. Then. or until the the peel oranges and lemons was very tender. lade was then allowed The marma- to boU until a little dropped on a cold saucer would begin to jell. germs and to prevent the when put away. could not always tell just how long it would take for. boiled. as oranges and lemons differ so. After the sugar was added. mother told let it Adelaide to look at the clock. and if it was cooked in less time you felt You that so much time had been gained. in other words. or. the sugar was added gradually. the sugar had been fruit placed at the back of the range to heat through.10 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK was coming to the boiling point. spoiling of the fruit When boil for the fruit began to boil. . Adelaide brought a number of tumblers from the preserve closet. These she washed thoroughly and stood in a large pan in which had been placed a wire rack. and then of one hour (not too hard). Adelaide stirred the mixture every few minutes with a long-han- dled wooden spoon. In the meantime. the marmalade to jell. being covered with cold water. and as soon as the had boiled sufficiently. but mother said it was safer to allow an hour.

I'm so proud and happy now. she took a clean cloth. smaller. when it was cool. dipped it in hot water. By moving the tum- . As Adelaide. dear. not a regular measuring cup but to a tray. was it worth the work (for it is a great deal of work. Mother happened to have a small glass cup. and then Adelaide ran away to play. It seemed easy work to clear the things away." answered Adelaide. stood filling the tumblers with the golden marmalade. the back of the range. that I've almost forgotten felt while stirring how hot and '^ tired the marmalade and waiting for it to jell. mother said. then melted some paraffin and poured it over the top. which proved the very thing with which to dip out the marmalade. Mother helped her stand the marmalade in the sun while it set. Later. you see) and effort? " " Oh mother. Adelaide then took a long-handled spoon and lifted the tumblers out of the boiling water on and filled them at once with the marmalade. her cheeks flushed and eyes shin- ing.FOR A LITTLE GIRL As soon saucepan was lifted to the 11 as the marmalade was done. " Well. Now that the marmalade was finished. and wiped off the drops of jelly from the tops of the tumblers and outsides.

there is no question about it. no. she put on the little labels and carried all but one tumbler to the bench in the preserve closet. you see. Daddy. I happened "What's make that marmalade myself and before I grew up. When he had quite satisfied his appetite he announced " Well.-" . only. I only hope Adelaide can make it as well when she grows up." " Oh. and he proceeded to help himself generously when the hot buttered toast was passed. The next morning at breakfast Daddy was very much delighted to find a jar of marmalade before his plate. Last of all. you certainly do know how to make marmalade. There's nothing funny about that statement that I can see.: 12 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK biers gently from side to side the paraffin formed on the sides and excluded the air. Can't you just imagine how surprised and to delighted Daddy was." At that mother and Adelaide burst out laughing. I've never tasted better. He was so intent in his enjoyment of this that Adelaide and mother could smile at one another without being observed. mother." replied Adelaide. which mother had told her might be for her special use. while Daddy looked surprised and questhe joke? tioned.

so she Adelaide try Orange and Grapefruit Marmalade Oranges. after cutting the grapefruit in halves. The rind of the grapefruit was grated and added to the sliced oranges and lemon. Adelaide cut the oranges and lemon lengthwise into quarters. Each quarter was then sliced as thinly as possible with a sharp little knife. and put into a bowl until all were ready to be measured. lemon.FOR A LITTLE GIRL Mother let IS said that many people liked the addi- tion of grapefruit in their marmalade. then. Two Lemons. which she separated from the little pockets with a very sharp knife. One One Sugar Water This was prepared in exactly the same manner as the previous recipe. all The oranges. . Grapefruit. washed thoroughly and wiped. except that Adelaide grated the rind of the grapefruit instead of cutting it into thin slices. Adelaide removed the seeds and used only the juice and fruit pulp. removing the seeds and grapefruit were and thick skin at the centers.

The boil. saucepan containing the fruit on the stove to removing the cover let it When the mix- ture came to the boiling point.14 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK After measuring the prepared fruit with the glass measuring cup and putting it into the saucepan. After adding the sugar Adelaide stirred the marmalade frequently. then putting them on the stove and bringing the water to the boiling point. The pan of sugar was placed on the back of the range to heat through. Adelaide added two cups of boiling water to each cup of fruit. then covered it and In another let it stand for twenty-four hours. following morning Adelaide put the first. and when the fruit had boiled an hour the sugar was after which she sterilized the added. she began to time it and continue boiling gently for an hour. same by placing them on a rack in a pan of cold water deep enough to cover them. pan Adelaide measured as many cups of sugar as there were cups of fruit. This gave her time to wash the jelly tumblers. and as soon as it had boiled another half-hour she began testing to . — she remembered the number of cups of water — fruit she had before add- ing the so that all would be ready for the next day.

came the labels. the oranges then cut into quarters lengthwise. and when cool. Adelaide poured it over the top of the marmalade. After this.FOR A LITTLE GIRL see if it 15 ping a would " jell. Then. melting some paraffin. and gently moving the tumbler from side to side she completely covered Next it with paraffin which kept out all air. and all seeds and tough centers removed. little Orange and Rhubarb Marmalade Oranges. . they simple to make. If it began to thicken and set. Rhubarb. it was ready to remove from the fire and pour into the sterilized tumblers. Sugar Water Adelaide found this marmalade much more The oranges and sticks of rhubarb were thoroughly washed. These were placed on a tray in the sun to set. and then the tumblers were ready to be stored in the preserve closet." This she did by dropfrom the spoon into a cold saucer. Two IJ lbs. the tops and outsides were wiped with a clean cloth dipped in hot water to remove any marmalade that might have been spilled in the process of filling.

Removing the saucepan from the fire. and the paraffin was melted and poured over Adelaide never forgot to shake each tumbler gently while the paraffin it the top. To each cup of fruit she added one-fourth cup of cold water. Adelaide again meas- ured the contents and to each cup she added three-fourths of a cup of sugar. which Adelaide had previously made ready. . Adelaide measured them to see how many cups of fruit she had and emptied each cup in the saucepan. Putting these together. to When cool.16 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK were put through the meat chopper and the rhubarb was skinned and cut into one-half inch pieces. as marmalade much more securely Next came the labels and the recloset. then placed them on the stove in the saucepan to boil. sealed the from all air. there followed the usual wiping with a clean cloth dipped in hot remove any spiUings while filling. moval of tumblers to preserve was still soft. then poured at once into the stertumblers. water. When the boiling point was reached. These were aU put back ilized in the saucepan and boiled slowly until thick. Adelaide noted the time and let them boil slowly for one half-hour.

Again the saucepan was weighed. she then proceeded to remove the skins with a. Next. and to take out the stones. she put the saucepan away in a cool place until the .FOR A LITTLE GIRL Peach Marmalade Peaches. Mixing the fruit and sugar well together. Adelaide put the peaches in a pan and completely cover them with boiling water and let them stand for a minute slip off easily. or two. or until the skins would Pouring off the water. First. 1 17 dozen Sugar What laide little girl does not love peaches? this was no exception. and to these she containing the peaches showed Adelaide just how much added half their weight in sugar.small silver fruit knife (a steel knife would discolor the fruit). this time containing the peaches. Adelaide weighed the saucepan (in which the peaches were to be cooked) while it was empty. and then cut the peaches into thin slices and placed them in the saucepan. of the The differences between the weight empty saucepan and the same saucepan the peaches weighed. and mother told Ademarmalade was to very simply made.

Another way to make Peach Marmalade was as follows: Peach Marmalade No. 1 lb. Peaches. When they were cool Adethem carefully. sliced peaches. not forgetting to spoon. after which they were shredded into small pieces and added to the stones. labelled them. she cracked nels. her tumblers had been and. them and removed the kerThese she scalded in boiling water and removed the brown skins. as soon as the marmalade was filled. The next morning Adelaide put let the saucepan containing the peaches on the stove to heat and them cook very slowly until thick and smooth. Sugar. stir frequently with the wooden In the meantime.18 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Picking out four of the best peach next day. (juice). sterilized. 2 1 lb. One 1 cup . they were removed from the boiling water and at once laide wiped affin over the top (shaking the tumbler gently from side to side). poured melted par- done. Lemon Water. and carried them away to the preserve closet.

in exactly the same manner. quinces. Apricot Marmalade Apricots. When it the marmalade was finished she poured at once into the sterilized tumblers that were ready waiting.FOR A LITTLE GIRL water. plums. and let the stir- mixture cook slowly another half hour. Next she rubbed the cooked added the sugar and lemon ring it fruit through a strainer. labelled them. poured the melted paraffin over the marmalade. then removed the skins. Adelaide stirred the fruit frequently with the wooden spoon. and stored them away in the preserve closet. juice. returned the peaches to the saucepan. . 19 Adelaide scalded the peaches with boiling Then she cut the peaches into small pieces. put them in the saucepan with the water. As soon as they were cool she wiped the tumblers clean. Mother told Adelaide that she could also make marmalade of apricots. and boiled slowly until the fruit was thoroughly soft. So Adelaide tried each one in its season. and even prunes. occasionally.

and let it cook slowly for about half an hour. Sugar. One 1 cup Mother told Adelaide to wash the quinces thoroughly. and poured blers Adelaide stirred occa- sionally to be sure that the it marmalade did not at once into sterilized tum- when it was finished. out- sides she wiped clean when they were and then poured melted paraffin over the top of the marmalade. cut in .20 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK From the apricots Adelaide did not remove the skins. When sufficiently cooked she rubbed the fruit through a wooden strainer. wipe. put it back in the saucepan. remove blossom ends. The labels were then pasted on and the tumin the preserve closet. side to side to make them air tight. she simply cut them in halves and took out the stones. Lemon Water. The tops and cool. (juice). blers stored away Quince Marmalade Quinces. burn. 1 lb. added the water. and boiled slowly until the fruit was very soft. 1 lb. and gently shook the paraffin from. stirring frequently with the wooden spoon. put them in the saucepan. added the sugar and lemon juice.

and cook slowly one half-hour. Then mother outsides clean. This she did. and put them on a tray to cool. then cut in small to put into saucepan. told her to wipe the tops and and cover with melted parafBn (shaking gently from side to side). add sugar and lemon juice. and when the quinces were properly cooked. away in the preserve closet. return to saucepan. store label. 21 quarters and remove seeds. stirring with the wooden spoon frequently. add water. Plum Marmalade . Adelaide poured them at once into the sterilized tumblers she had ready waiting. to then rub fruit through a strainer. and let cook slowly until very tender.FOR A LITTLE GIRL pieces .

1 lb. When the jars were cool she wiped the tumblers clean. and the next morning put them washed in several on the stove in her little saucepan to boil until . Sugar. especially you do. because even I'll if I don't like prunes. added the labels. and into these Adelaide poured the marmalade.22 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK "The sterilized tumblers were waiting. I may as not like prunes. poured over melted paraiBn. mother thoroughly said." Prune Marmalade Prunes. for Adelaide did had been a tender subject However. When Adelaide came to the prunes mother It wondered what would happen. (juice). the results were better than mother had expected. between them for some time. then stored them away in the preserve closet. for Adelaide remarked " Well. so make this marmalade for you. : well try it. 1 One cup The prunes. Lemon Water. then soaked over night in the cup of water. This Adelaide did. mother. 1 lb. shook gently from side to side to make them air tight. would have to be waters.

though not quite. put in saucepan. and added enough water to almost. 1 doz. she added the sugar juice. cover the apples. then pressed them through a strainer. shook gently from side to side to exclude all air. and mother thought that that was sufficient for the present. returning the fruit to the saucepan. Apple marmalade came next. Sugar Water These were nice tart apples of fine flavor. Adelaide washed them well. laide then 23 With two silver forks Aderemoved the stones and rubbed the fruit through a strainer. returned it to the saucepan. pasted on the labels. When cold. and to each cup of fruit added three-fourths of a cup of . cut into quarters (removing stem and blossoms only). Apple Marmalade Apples. and stored away in the preserve closet. poured melted paraffin over the top of marmalade. poured and let cool. into sterilized tumblers. Adelaide wiped each tumbler. These she cooked slowly until very soft. She next measured the fruit. and lemon cooked it slowly one half-hour.FOR A LITTLE GIRL thoroughly cooked.

stirring every The sterilized tumblers were ready. and stored these Adelaide poured the away in the preserve closet.U sugar. fire. poured melted paraffin over the marmalade. and into marmalade. pasted on the labels. Adelaide gently for three-quarters of an hour. when cool she wiped the tops and outsides clean. . shook the tumblers from side to side gently to exclude all air. A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Returning the saucepan to the let it boil little while.

and she welcomed each fruit in its turn. Strawberry Jam 1 Strawberries. but according to the season. in the order given. and Strawberries were usually first on the market. Adelaide was especially fond of jams they did make the most delicious sandwiches when she came home hungry from school or went on a picnic.. etc. quart Sugar Mother told Adelaide to empty the strawbercolander and place in a pan of cold water. FOR A LITTLE GIRL 25 CHAPTER JAMS Of II course Adelaide did not make her jams. then to dip the colander up and down so ries into the . jellies.. so " Strawberry Jam " was the first attempt in the jam making line. but the climax of enjoyment was reached when mother made rolly-poUy jam puddings in the winter.

The tops and outsides of the tumblers she wiped with a clean cloth as soon as the jam had cooled. meanwhile. letting it and When the fruit Adelaide was always glad when it came time . using the straw- berry huller. their weight in With a wooden potato masher Adelaide mashed the berries in the saucepan . and she had carefully inspected them. and poured stand a few over the sugar this mixture she let minutes before putting the saucepan on the stove come slowly to the boiling point. it was ready for her to pour into sterilized tumblers. commenced to hull the berries. then she weighed the berries and measured out three-fourths sugar. then poured melted paraffin over the jam. had cooked slowly for forty-five minutes. next to change the water two or three times until clear.26 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK it as to thoroughly cleanse the berries. because if you did also said that you lost part of the juice. was then lift out the colander and drain. with the wooden spoon. Adelaide stirring frequently. and shook gently from side to side to make it air tight. which she had previously prepared. felt After Adelaide after mother sure they were clean. Mother berries you should never wash after they were hulled.

and then dipped the colander up and down in a pan of stood clear cold water several times. drain. after Adelaide the colander to which she poured the berries into the saucepan and weighed them. she was so eager to learn. how quickly her bench was becoming In the beginning. tumblers preserve closet. but Adelaide replied she was sure she would not mind. to see filled. mother had told her that sometimes all of it would seem as though she spent her time preserving.FOR A LITTLE GIRL to paste on the neat little labels 27 and put the away in the very much surprised. When all possible dirt had been washed away. she was too. for the fruits and vegetables followed fast upon one another. 1 quart Sugar Adelaide picked over the raspberries before washing them. and mother told her to keep a sharp look-out for curled themselves little up in the center. worms that sometimes and you may she put be sure Adelaide's keen eyes never missed one if there were any. Raspberry Jam Raspberries. . Next them in the colander.

and let the mixture stand a short time before putting on the stove to cook.28 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Adelaide found it a great convenience to know and she kept a little card showing just how much each one weighed. closet. fruit had become heated to the boiling point. Adelaide let it cook slowly for fortyit When the five minutes. then when they were the weight of each saucepan she used. it secure from the air. weighed with the fruit. and as soon as it had cooled she wiped the tops and outsides carefully. pasted on and stored them away in the preserve . poured melted parafiin over the jam. all she to subtract the weight needed to do was from the total of the the fruit weighed. then mashed the berries. added the sugar. shook it gently from side to side to make the labels. she had sterilized the tumblers and they were ready when the jam had finished cooking. saucepan to find out how much To she each pound of raspberries Adelaide meas- ured three-fourths of a pound of sugar. Adelaide poured the jam into the tumblers at once. meanwhile. not forgetting to stir with the wooden spoon to keep from burning .

letting the jam heat slowly through. and pound she added a pound of sugar. pasted on the labels and put away in the preserve closet. she wiped the top and outside of each tumbler. When cold. 29 1 quart Red Currants. Adelaide picked over the raspberries very carefully and placed them in the colander. thus excluding all air. These she then set dipped in clear cold water several times and to each Next she weighed the fruit. Adelaide stirred it frequently let it cook forty-five minutes. When and it boiled. then she removed the stems from the currants and added them to the raspberries. shook it gently from side to side. She mashed the fruit well with the wooden masher in the saucepan and poured over the sugar. Sugar 1 pint First. aside to drain. poured melted paraffin over the jam. It was then ready to pour into the sterilized tumblers. After a few minutes the juice began to run and she put the saucepan on the stove. This combination of raspberries and red currants was a great favorite with everybody. .FOR A LITTLE GIRL Raspberry and Red Currant Jam Raspberries.

It boiled gently for forit ty-five minutes. poured melted paraffin over the jam. pasted on the labels and stored away in the preserve closet. Sugar 1 quart The red currants Adelaide removet^ from stems and their put in the colander to be thoroughly This was done by dipping the colan- washed. . With the wooden masher she mashed the currants and stirred them well with the sugar.^0 A LITTLE PRESteRVlJ^G BOOIt Red Currant Jam Red Currants. der up and down in a pan of clear cold water. she changed the water several times. To each pound of fruit Adelaide added one pound of sugar. If they were very dusty. then Adelaide poured into sterilized tumblers at once and stood them away When they were cold she wiped the top and outside of each tumbler. stir- ring with the wooden spoon frequently to pre- vent it from burning. side to side to keep out any air. she the fruit let come slowly to the boiling point. After draining the currants sufficiently. shaking it gently from to cool. she weighed them and put them into the saucepan. Putting the saucepan on the stove.

mixed well with the wooden spoon. so she consumed a was glad to find the black currants come already stemmed. let stand until the juice ran. as soon once as it was cold. the picking off of the stems lot of time. to stir the jam frequently. it When . Adelaide wiped each tumbler thoroughly. however. Putting the black currants in the colander. inside the top and on th? outside. If they were very dusty she changed the water two or three times until it was clear. occasionally. forty-five min- While this was boiling gently for utes. she proceeded to wash them thoroughly by dipping the colander up and down in a pan of clear cold water several times. not forgetting. After weighing the currants she poured them into a saucepan. then put the saucestove pan on the to the and let the mixture come slowly stirring boiling point. was cooked she poured the jam at into the tumblers and let it cool.FOR A LITTLE GIRL Black Currant Black Currants^ Sugar 81 Jam 1 quart Adelaide found that when she used red currants. Adelaide sterilized the tumblers. mashed them with the wooden masher. added an equal weight of sugar.

32 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK poured melted paraffin over the jam. using the long wooden spoon. but you did not enjoy it so much if the seeds were allowed to remain. boil gently for come gradually While she let the fruit twenty minutes. she put the fruit saucepan and with the wooden masher it well. so that jam was prepared a little difof the blackberry ferently. Moving the saucepan from the fire. Jam 2 quarts Sugar Mother explained to Adelaide that the flavor was delicious. Adelaide a fine then rubbed the fruit through sieve (mother said if the sieve let the seeds pass . then pasted on the labels and stored away in the preserve closet. which she shook gently from side to side to keep out all air. in the Afterwards. Blackberry Blackberries. mashed Then let she stood the saucepan over the fire and the fruit to the boiling point. Adelaide stirred frequently. After picking the blackberries over carefully. Adelaide put them in the colander. then dipped it up and down in a pan of cold water and set aside to drain.

which she re- turned to the saucepan. tops and outsides carefully with a damp poured melted paraffin over the jam. she added three-fourths of a cup of sugar. and stored the jars away in the preserve closet. let it This took three-quarters of an hour of gentle boiling before it was done. thus keeping out all air. Jam 1 quart Sugar " The jams with a nice tart flavor. then she . and When cold. shaking it gently from side to side." He was him. Gooseberry Gooseberries. filled.FOR A LITTLE GIRL ured. Adelaide poured at once into the sterilized tumblers. and putting the jam back heat slowly. especially fond of gooseberry jam and for that reason Adelaide decided to surprise The gooseberries Adelaide put in the col- ander and dipped up and down in a pan of clear cold water until thoroughly clean. 33 through to use a cheese-cloth bag) and meas- To each cup of juice. " are the ones Daddy likes best. stirring often. over the fire. which were waiting to be set aside to cool. pasted on the labels." Adelaide said. she wiped the cloth.

and then Adelaide filled the sterilized tumblers with the jam and set it aside to cool. it very frequently It took three-quarters of an hour to cook. but after it had reached the boilbe mashed with the ing point Adelaide stirred to prevent burning. though she could have used the little sharp knife. Large Blue Plum Plums.S4 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK With the strawberry huller she drained them. pulled off the tops. When the jam was cold she wiped each tumbler around the top and on the outside with a clean damp cloth. Jam 1 doz. Sugar The large blue plums. Adelaide washed and . placed the saucepan over the fire and let the fruit come slowly to the boiling point. made delicious jam. This needed to be stirred with the wooden spoon occasionally. Of course Daddy was very much pleased with this jam. To each pound of fruit she added a pound of sugar. Adelaide's mother said. poured melted paraffin over the jam. pasted on the labels and stored away in the preserve closet. next she weighed the gooseberries and put them in the saucepan to wooden masher.

for forty-five min- prevent the and continued to stir very frequently to jam from burning or sticking to the bottom. fire. When the jam was cold she wiped the top and outside of each tumbler with a clean damp cloth and poured melted paraffin over the jam. Adelaide had the tumblers sterilized and waiting. came later in the season. Next came the labels. and as soon as the jam had finished cooking she poured it at once into the tumblers. shaking it gently from side to side to exclude all air. After weighing them and putting the plums in the saucepan she added three-fourths of a of sugar to each pound of fruit.I'Ofe A LITTLE omt slit ^b each one wiped each plum carefully. and then the tumblers of stored jam were away in the preserve closet. she stirred the fruit occasion- ally until it reached the boiling point. Adelaide found. 1 dozen Sugar The green-gage plums. letting pound them stand until the juice ran. but they were worth waiting . In the meantime. after let it boil slowly. then with a silver knife and took out the stone. Green-Gage Plum Jam Plums. Placing the sauce- pan over the which she utes.

A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK These she cut open with a silver knife. she put them in the saucepan. and let the jam come after having washed slowly to the boiling point. and to each pound of fruit she added three-quarters of a pound of sugar. continuing to cook the jam for forty-five minutes. Adelaide wiped the tops and outsides of the tumblers with a clean damp cloth. Adelaide stirred frequently to prevent its sticking to the ing burned. and removed the stones. Damson Plum Jam Damson Plums. sufiiciently As soon she as the it bottom and becomjam had cooked the sterilized poured into tumblers which were ready. stirring little it every while. Weighing the plums. and shook gently from side to side to exclude all air. and the stored The labels jam was then away in the preserve closet. When the juice began to run she placed the saucepan over the fire. were next pasted on.36 for. Sugar Water. and when the jam was cold. poured melted parafiln over the top. and wiped them carefully. 1 quart 2 tablespoons Compared to the large blue plums and the green-gage plums Adelaide found the damson .

So Adelaide washed the knife carefully. After the jam was cold Adelaide wiped the top and outside of each tumbler with a clean damp cloth. but the sugar she placed in a bowl and placed on one side until ready to use. and while it was coming to the boiling point she stirred constantly with a wooden spoon.FOR A LITTLE GIRL 37 plums quite small. and shook . then poured melted paraflin over the top. Still continuing to stir. then poured in Of course she had weighed the plums and also an equal amount of sugar. This was to let the juice run. she returned the saucepan to the fire. she let the jam cook slowly for forty-five minutes. so that the sugar would not stick to the bottom and burn. and with a silver each one before putting them into the saucepan. and mother told her they would have to be cooked first before she could remove the stones easily. slit Damson plums But. Adelaide measured two tablespoons of cold water into the saucepan. The saucepan was then placed over the fire and the plums were cooked slowly until tender. and with two silver forks Adelaide easily picked out the stones. The tumblers had been sterilized and the jam was poured into them at once. Adding the sugar. as usual. first. when they were removed. the plums.

Into the saucepan she poured one-half a cup of cold water. and quite enough for Adelaide to experiment with for the present. Jam 1 quart Sugar Water. There were many other kinds of plums. To each cup of fruit she added a cup of sugar. let it heat gradually to the boiling point. then carefully picked them over. i cup Adelaide put them in the colander. which she returned to the saucepan. tumblers were waiting. stirring constantly with the The sterilized wooden spoon. and into . she let the barberries become just warm. BarbefrieS make a very tasty jam. which she dipped up and down in a pan of clean cold water until free from aU dust. pasted on the labels and stored the jars away in the preserve closet. Placing the saucepan over the fire.38 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK gently from side to side to exclude the air. mother said. Barberry Barberries. then cooked twenty minutes. placed over the fire. then added the barberries. but these were the ones that had the best flavors. then Adelaide pressed the fruit through a wire strainer and measured.

FOR A LITTLE GIRL these Adelaide poured the jam. stirring with a wooden spoon occalaide cut out the sionally. 39 When the jam was cold she wiped the tops and outsides with a clean damp cloth. i lb. and English friend gave this recipe to Adeit proved to be very " tasty. When she had weighed the prepared fruit and put it into the saucepan she poured over it three-fourths its weight of sugar. Sugar An laide. then wash and wipe thoroughly. and let the mixture stand until the juice ran. jam away Rhubarb and Fig Jam Rhubarb. then she put them through the meat chopper and added them to the rhubarb. she let the fruit come slowly to the boiling point. After it had boiled Adelaide stirred ." friend said to choose the pretty pink it The rhubarb. poured melted paraffin over the jam. and cut with a sharp knife into one-inch pieces. then pasted on the labels and in the preserve closet. shaking it gently from side to side to exclude stored all air. Figs. Placing the saucepan over the fire. The figs were looked over carefully and Ade- hard little part near the stem. 2 J lbs.

40 it A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK frequently and cooked gently three-quarters It was then ready to pour into the sterilized tumblers. all air. which Adelaide never failed to have on hand. and stood away to cool. shaking gently from side to side to exclude in the preserve closet. then pasted on the labels and stored the jam away . side of each tumbler with a clean damp cloth. When it was cool she wiped the top and outof an hour. it poured melted paraiBn over the jam.

Mother thought that as Adelaide's quantities Adelaide's mother glass for her red ctirrant jelly. thin bread and butter sandwiches with jelly in between. soft boiled custards served in When individual glasses with a spoonful of jelly on top. For some years now. Adelaide had visions. glass measuring cup full of jelly was sufficient to fill three of these dainty glasses. had been using a small thin and any other A jelly of which she was especially choice. and the beauty of these lay in the fact that you could put them on the table as they were.FOR A LITTLE GIRL 41 CHAPTER JELLIES III mother gave Adelaide her first lesson in jelly making. and many many other delicious dainties it would take too long to tell about passed before her active little mind. were all small she would let her use these small . Jelly rolls. One little glass was sufficient to serve as a relish with cold meat or chicken for a family of four.

Adelaide poured a few at a time into the saucepan (which contained two tablespoons of and mashed them with the wooden potato masher. and often held the little glasses up to the sunlight to see how clear and attractive the jelly was. Adelaide was delighted. Red Currant Red Currants. Sugar Water. wooden spoon to prevent burning. then she drained them. Placing the saucepan over the stirring occasionally with the she let the currants cook slowly until they looked white. and she told Adelaide that they made the most delicious jelly.42 glasses A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK exclusively for her jellies. all the currants were used. which she dipped up and down in a pan of clear cold water until the currants were thoroughly cleansed. Jelly 1 quart 2 tablespoons large cherry The currants were the ones mother bought. fire. Picking them over but not removing the stems. Adelaide emptied the currants into the colander. this she continued to do until cold water). .

then she let for twenty minutes continue to boil rapidly it (mother said was not necessary to stir this). which had been washed the fire Again she placed the saucepan over and brought the juice to the boiling it point. to let it heat through gradually but not to brown.. and from there These she into the little sterilized glasses. as the juice had boiled sufficiently she added the heated sugar gradually and stirred with the wooden spoon until it was all dissolved when it again came to the boiling point it jellied in about three minutes. skimmed the jelly. Now clean. she measured the juice and returned to the original saucepan. This she placed in an earthenware dish at the back of the range. poured it into a pitcher. Adelaide worked very quickly now. FOR A LITTLE GIRL The frame little 43 jeUy bag attached to the wire over another large saucepan. placed in the sun and let them stand until the As soon . she removed the saucepan from the fire. them stand until all the juice had this it dripped. When Adelaide measured the juice she also measured to each cupful a cup of sugar. fitted nicely and into letting bag Adelaide poured the currants. or in the oven with the door open.

preserve closet. they were then wiped around the tops and outsides carefully with a clean cloth. the glass being shaken gently from side to Next came the labels. the colander by dipping These she washed carefully in it up and down in a Into the of pan of clear cold water. was stored away in the and then the It was a beautiftil color. saucepan she measured two tablespoons water. Next the saucepan was placed over the fire and the currants boiled un- . then she picked them over without removing the stems. and mashed them with the wooden potato masher until all were used. added the currants a few at a time. White Currants.44 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK damp next day. the jelly was covered with melted paraffin. and it made Adelaide's mouth water just to side to exclude all air. Jelly 1 pint 1 pint ( 2 tablespoons The red and white currants Adelaide found made the jelly a beautiful color and more delicate in flavor. Sugar Water. Red Currant and White Currant Red Currants. jelly look at it.

Adelaide skimmed poured into a pitcher. and it. then she added the sugar very gradually and stirred until it was dissolved. stored the jeUy serve closet. and the next morning measured it into the saucepan. let Standing them in a sunny window she remain until the next day. as usual. but not to brown. then into the small glasses at once. it When it it came to the boiling point " jellied " very quickly. which were already sterilized. them With a clean damp cloth she wiped the top and outside of each poured melted paraffin over pasted on the labels the jelly. away in the pre- . stir not forget to with the wooden spoon to pre- vent the currants from burning. jelly bag was ready and into this Adepoured the currants. and. shook each glass gently from side to side to exclude the air. She let the juice drip overnight. The juice Adelaide boiled for twenty minutes rapidly. glass carefully. To each cup of juice she measured a cup of sugar. which she placed in an earthenware dish on the back of the range The laide to heat through.FOR A LITTLE GIRL til 45 Adelaide did the red currants looked white.

and she mashed them all with the wooden potato masher. and Adelaide poured in the fruit and the juice dripped over night. poured them into the colander. Adelaide let it cook until the currants looked white. Sugar Water. dipped them up and down in a pan of clear cold water to cleanse thoroughly. and. These were added to the raspberries. Of all Adelaide picked over the raspberries (looking in each centre to be sure there were no little worms).46 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Red Currant and Raspberry Jelly1 pint 1 pint Red Currants. When pan she measured the juice into the sauce- she also measured an equal amount of sugar . when the fruit boiled. Raspberries. she stirred well with the wooden spoon. The currants were washed in the same manner as the raspberries. Setting the saucepan over the fire. 2 tablespoons the jellies this was mother's favorite. and Adelaide picked them over but did not remove the stems. The jelly bag was ready. and after draining emptied them into the saucepan with two tablespoons of cold water.

carefully with a The next morning Adelaide wiped each glass damp cloth around the top and poured melted paraffin over the jelly. outside. then she and then the serve closet. shaking it gently from side to side to exclude all air. This Adelaide stood on the back of the range to heat through but While the juice came to the boiling point Ade- not brown. stirring constantly until the sugar dissolved. 3 tablespoons . It was then easy to pour the jelly into the small glasses and stand it in the sun to ually. It very quickly boiled again set. Next the labels were pasted on. jelly was stored away in the pre- Blackberry Jelly Blackberries. laide attended to glasses. 1 quart Sugar Water. the sterilizing of the little As soon as the juice had boiled rapidly for twenty minutes Adelaide added the sugar grad- was and in a few minutes reached the " jelly point.FOR A LITTLE GIRL into 47 an earthenware dish." Adelaide skimmed it carefully and poured it into a pitcher.

The juice she put over the fire to boil rapidly for twenty minutes. When fully wiped each glass carearound the top and outside. but not brown. This she dipped up and down in a pan of clear cold water several times to thoroughly cleanse the berries. and stood the sugar in an earthenware dish at the back of the range to heat through. Skimming carefully. and mashed the berries with the wooden potato masher. ilized poured the jelly into the and from there into the small sterglasses. which she stood in a sunny wincold. let it reached the jelly point. and to each cup she allowed three-fourths of a cup of sugar. The next morning she measured the juice.48 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Adelaide picked the blackberries very care- fully into the colander. and poured . she then pitcher. Placing the saucepan over the fire. she let the blackberries heat through slowly until they were soft. Adelaide dow to set. then she poured them into the jelly bag and the juice dripped all night. When they were well drained she poured them into the saucepan with two tablespoons of cold water. the juice After had boiled it sufiiciently Adelaide added then she the sugar gradually and stirred with a wooden spoon until boil until it it was all dissolved.

After they were poured them into a saucepan with two tablespoons of cold water. then poured them into the jeUy bag to drip. Spiced Blackberry Jelly Blackberries. she let the blackberries simmer until they were soft. To each cup of juice she measured a cup of sugar which she stood on the back of the range in an earthenwell drained she ware dish to heat through. Placing the saucepan over the fire. but not brown. and . 2 tablespoons -{ cinnamon mace cloves The fully blackberries Adelaide picked over care- and put in the colander to wash thoroughly by dipping them up and down several times in a pan of cold water. one-eighth of an ounce of ground mace. shaking it gently from side to side to exclude all air. Spices (ground). 1 quart Sugar Water. and mashed them with the wooden potato masher. also one-fourth of an ounce of ground cinnamon.FOR A LITTLE GIRL 49 melted paraffin over the top of the jelly. then she pasted on the labels and stored away in the preserve closet.

stirring constantly with a wooden spoon until the sugar was dissolved. mother told Adelaide. pasted on the labels and stored away the jeUy sterilized glasses in the preserve closet. was what her mother gave her when she was a little girl if ever she complained of a sore throat. Jelly 1 quart Sugar Water. shook it gently from side to side to exclude all air. a damp cloth around the top and outside. When skimmed a pitcher. the " jelly point " was it reached she at once and poured the jelly into It was then easy for her to fill the and let the jelly stand until Next. The juice and spices were then boiled together rapidly for twenty minutes. Adelaide wiped each glass with cold. 2 tablespoons Black currant jelly. . after which time Adelaide took out the bag of spices and added the sugar gradually.50 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK one-fourth of a teaspoonful of ground cloves. poured melted paraffin over the jelly. Mother medicine. which she tied up in a piece of thin muslin. said that this was better than any Black Currant Black Currants.

it is so good. added two tablespoons of cold water. and placed the mixture over the fire to simmer until soft. equal Next morning she measured the juice and an amount of sugar. " Mother. The juice she brought to the boiling point and it continued to boil rapidly for twenty minutes. to heat through but not brown. then dipping it up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water. she stirred with wooden spoon until it was all dissolved and After skimming Adelaide poured it cooked to the " jelly point. Into the jeUy bag they went next." The black currants Adelaide picked over and washed thoroughly in the usual way by pouring them into the colander." the jelly into a pitcher from there into the sterilized small glasses. I should think you would have felt almost glad to have a sore throat. mashed well with the wooden potato masher. When the jelly was cold she wiped the top and .FOR A LtTTLE GIRL 51 After Adelaide had tasted it she said. she emptied them into the saucepan. the Adding the sugar gradually. and and then stood the tumblers in a sunny window. and Adelaide let the juice drip all night. After draining them well. which she placed in an earthenware dish at the back of the range.

and Adelaide let it drip over night. The sugar was placed in an earthenware dish at the back of the . Green Gooseberry Jelly Green Gooseberries. up and down it in a pan of clear cold water. She meas- ured two tablespoons of cold water into the saucepan. 1 quari" Sugar Water. Pasting Adelaide then stored the jelly away in the preserve closet. labels. it Adelaide put them in the colander. and stood aside to drain. 2 tablespoons gooseberries were easily picked over and The dipped washed. Pouring the fruit into the jelly bag came next. not forgetting to stir with the wooden spoon to keep them from burning. To each cup of juice Adelaide added three- fourths of a cup of sugar. Placing the saucepan over the fire she let the gooseberries simmer until they were soft.52 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK damp cloth. and shook gently from on the side to side to exclude all air. outside of each glass with a poured melted paraffin over the jelly. added the gooseberries and mashed them with the wooden potato masher.

poured melted paraffin over the jelly. Jelly 1 quart 2 tablespoons After picking the cherries carefully into the colander. with a When damp the jeUy was cold Adelaide wiped each glass around the top and on the outside cloth. Wild Cherry Wild Cherries. poured it into the pitcher. then stood them in a sunny win- dow." Adelaide skimmed the jelly. shook gently from side to side to exclude all air. 53 When the juice had boiled rapidly for twenty minutes Adelaide added the sugar gradually and stirred until it was all dissolved. added mashed them with the wooden potato masher. Adelaide dipped eral times in a it up and down sev- pan of clear cold water. then stood it aside to drain. . and from there into the sterilized small glasses. Sugar Water. Into the saucepan she the cherries and measured two tablespoons of cold water.FOR A LITTLE GIRL range to heat but not brown. It was then cooked to the " jelly point. then pasted on the labels and stored the jars away in the preserve closet.

so Adelaide stood the glasses When sunny window. she let the cherries simmer until they were soft. and stirred with the wooden spoon until all was dissolved. . poured quickly into a pitcher and then into the sterilized small glasses. after which she poured the fruit into the juice drip over night.54 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Placing the saucepan over the fire. the jeUy was cold she wiped the tops and outsides of each glass carefully with a damp cloth. poured melted parafiin over the jelly (shaking it gently from side to side to exclude aU air). pasted on the labels and stored the jelly away in the preserve closet. Mother the sun in a if liked to have all of her jelly stand in possible. jelly bag and let the The next morning she measured the juice. The sugar she placed in an earthenware dish and stood on the back of the range to heat through but not burn. stirring occasionally to prevent burning. The juice she let boil rapidly twenty minutes. and to each cup she measured three-fourths of a cup of sugar. added the heated sugar gradually. After the juice and sugar had boiled to the " jelly point " Adelaide skimmed it carefully.

but not brown. Jelly 55 1 quart 2 tablespoons The in cold wild grapes Adelaide poured into the it colander. and an earthenware dish and stood at the back of the range to heat through. . and as soon as the juice had boiled the necessary time. Placing the saucepan over the ally to prevent burning. she let the grapes simmer until soft. water. fire taining the juice she placed over the the sugar was put in that the juice might boil rapidly for twenty minutes. then fire. she picked them over carefully. In the morning she measured the juice and an The saucepan conequal amount of sugar.FOR A LITTLE GIRL Wild Grape Wild Grapes. dipped up and down it several tiiries water and stood to drain. stirring occasion- the jelly poured them into bag to drip over night. Sugar Water. The small glasses were all sterilized. Next. Adelaide added the sugar gradually and stirred with the wooden spoon until it was all dissolved. pinched each grape and dropped them into the saucepan containing two tablespoons of cold to break the skin.

Wild Plum Jelly Wild Plums. Melting the paraffin she poured it over the jelly and shook all it gently from side to side to labels exclude finally.56 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Adelaide tended the juice and sugar care- fully until it reached the " jelly point. skimming quickly. by dipping the colander up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water. Next she stood them in a sunny window. and when the jelly was cold the glasses were wiped around the tops and on the outsides with a damp cloth. Adelaide washed the plums after emptying them into the colander. she poured the jelly into a pitcher. after which she drained them. 1 quart 2 tablespoons plums that Adelaide used were The wild brought to her by a friend who lived in the country. cherries. licious They were about the size of large The flavor of the jelly was most de- and a general favorite with everybody. Sugar Water. and from there into the small glasses. The jelly were pasted on and the was stored away in the preserve closet. Into the ." then. air.

FOR A LITTLE GIRL 57 saucepan she had measured two tablespoons of cold water. . pasted on the labels and stored the tumblers away in the preserve closet. The the juice she let boil rapidly for twenty min- utes. Adelaide When laide skimmed it quickly. and stood them in a sunny window. fruit into the not forgetting to stir occasionally to keep them from burning. Adeadded the sugar gradually and stirred with As the wooden spoon until it was all dissolved. and to each cup she measured three-quarters of a cup of sugar. the juice had boiled sufficiently. and as she picked over the plums she it slit each one with a let silver knife and dropped into the waiting saucepan. while the sugar was stood at the back of earthenware dish to range in an heat through. but not brown. After the jelly was cold she wiped each glass around the top and on the outside with a damp cloth. from there into the sterilized small glasses. poured it into a pitcher. These she simmer until soft and mushy. soon as the " jelly point " was reached. then poured the jelly bag to drip over night. shaking it gently from side to side to exclude all air. In the morning Adelaide measured the juice. poured melted paraffin over the jelly.

The next morning she measured the juice. When the "jelly point" was reached Adelaide skimmed the jelly quicldy. It (the juice) was boiled rapidly for twenty minutes. but not brown. These she let boil until very soft. it was added gradually and stirred until was all dissolved. When the fruit had cooked sufficiently. Adelaide wiped the sugar . while the sugar stood on the back of the range in an earthenware dish to heat through.58 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Damson Plum Jelly 1 quart Damson Plums. she poured it into the jelly bag and let it drip over night. Sugar Water. stirring occasionally with the wooden spoon to prevent burning. and then stood them in a sunny window. and from there into the sterilized glasses. After twenty minutes of boiling for the juice. As soon as the jelly was cold. and to each cup she measured three-fourths the amount of sugar. 2 tablespoons Adelaide wiped and picked over the Damson Plums. poured it into a pitcher. and slit each one with a silver knife bein the fore placing them saucepan with two tablespoons of cold water.

FOR A LITTLE GIRL the tops and outsides of each glass with a cloth. let the juice drip over night. Covering the saucepan." the " maiden's blush. With a silver knife she cut them in Placing them in the saucepan. 59 damp poured melted paraffin over the jelly. 1 dozen Sugar Water The apples that made the best jelly." and the " fall pippins. pasted on the labels and stored the jelly glasses away in the preserve closet. mother told Adelaide. she quarters. shaking it gently from side to side to exclude all air. were the " porter apples." Adelaide wiped each apple thoroughly with a and removed the stems and blossom ends." the " gravenstein apples. . she stood fire it over the and let the apples cook slowly until they She found it necessary to stir the fruit with a wooden spoon occasionally to prevent the juice from burning. Apple Jelly Apples. When it was done Adelaide poured it into the jelly bag and were very soft. added cold water until it came nearly to the top cloth damp of the apples.

over the jelly. which she placed in an earthenware dish on the back of the range to heat through but not bum. As soon as the juice had boiled rapidly for twenty minutes. The glasses were then placed in a sunny window. and to each cup she measured a cup of sugar. Then she let it cook to the " jelly point. Adelaide wiped each glass around the top and on the outside with a fin damp cloth. shook it poured melted parafgently from side to side to exclude air.60 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK The next morning she measured the juice. mother did not think two dozen would be too many for Adelaide to prepare. . and. stirring constantly until it had all dissolved. and as they are very small. Sugar Jelly 2 dozen Water The crab apples make a very handsome jelly. pasted on the labels and in the preserve closet in jellies." after which she skimmed it quickly. when cold. stored the jeUy away the space allotted for Crab Apple Crab Apples. poured it into a pitcher and filled the sterilized small glasses at once. Adelaide added the sugar a little at a time.

you only needed to wipe damp cloth and remove the stem and blossom end. Next she placed the jelly in a sunny window. mother said. As soon as the juice was ready. just put them into the saucepan and nearly cover them with cold water." skimmed quickly. poured into a pitcher. to heat through. and filled the sterilized small glasses at once.FOR A LITTLE GIRL clean with a 61 These. while was boiling rapidly for twenty minutes. but not brown. Standing the saucepan over the fire. Adelaide put on the cover and let the apples cook slowly until very soft. In the morning she measured the juice. and for each cup of juice she measured a cup of sugar. It was not necessary to cut them. poured melted parafl?n over the jelly (shaking gently from side to side to exclude all air). stirring occasionally to keep from burning. Adelaide added the sugar gradually. pasted on . This she let come to the " jelly point. she wiped each glass around the top and on the outside with a damp cloth. then she poured them into the jelly bag and let the juice drip over night. The sugar was put in an earthenware dish and the juice stood at the back of the range. When cold. stirring constantly with the wooden spoon until it had all dissolved.

It was necessary. and for each cup she measured an equal amount of .m closet. she poured it into bag and the juice dripped over night. Adelaide found. 2 tablespoons it Mother saw to that the barberries were bought just before any frost came. The reason for this. In the morning she measured the juice. col- Adelaide poured the barberries into the ander. and she liked a few of the berries to be green. and dipped them times in a up and down several pan of clear cold water. to stir with the wooden spoon occasionally to prevent burning. A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK and stored away in the labels the preserve Barberry Jelly Barberries. to rinse off all dust. she told Adelaide. When the jelly the fruit was done. was to make the jelly firmer and a much better color. 1 quart Sugar Water. next she mashed the barberries with the wooden potato masher and placed over the fire to cook slowly until very soft. then she picked them over and put them into the saucepan with two tablespoons of cold water.

J dozen Sugar Water Quinces are very hard to cut. Quince Jelly Quinces (large). when cold. and. while the juice boiled rapidly for twenty minutes. so Adelaide found it necessary to use the little sharp knife. cut each quince into small som ends and . stirring constantly until let it it all dissolved. At was the end of that time Adelaide added the sugar gradually. but not brown. Before storing the glasses away in the preserve closet Adelaide pasted on the labels. with a a Adelaide wiped around the top and the outside of each glass damp cloth. poured melted paraffin over the jelly. she filled Skimming the jelly into poured the in a pitcher and the sterilized small glasses at once. Adelaide removed the blosseeds. then she cook to the " jelly point. after washing and wiping them thoroughly." jelly quickly. and shook it gently from side to side to exclude all air. In preparing these.FOR A LITTLE GIRL 63 sugar. They were then placed sunny window. which she put in an earthenware dish and stood on the back of the stove to heat through.

Then she added the sugar gradually. was carefully wiped with a damp cloth around the top and on the outside. the glass was shaken gently from side to once. placed the saucepan on the casionally with the and let the quinces cook very slowly until soft. nearly covered the fruit with cold water. and. As soon as they had finished cooking she poured the fruit into the jelly bag and let it drip over night. .64 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK fire pieces. stirring oc- wooden spoon to prevent burning. but not brown. finally. and for each cup Adelaide measured an equal quantity of sugar. melted paraffin was poured over the jelly. each glass side to exclude all air. jelly into a Filling the sterilized small glasses at sunny window. stirring constantly until all the sugar had dissolved. Adelaide pasted on the labels and stored the glasses away in the preserve closet. Next morning she measured the juice. The sugar she stood at the back of the range in an earthenware dish to heat through. and the juice she let boil rapidly for twenty minutes. she then stood in a them When cold. When the " jelly point " was reached Adelaide skimmed quickly and poured the pitcher.

it casionally Adelaide stirred put on the Ocwith the wooden fire. When the juice and sugar reached the . Quinces (large). The juice then boiled for twenty minutes. which she put at an earthenware dish to heat through. In the morning she measured the juice. The apples cut into quarters. then stood When it she emptied the fruit into the saucepan she nearly covered it with cold over the cover and let it boil gently until very soft. stirring constantly until aU had dissolved. at the end of which time Adelaide added the sugar gradually. and removed she the stems and blossom ends. 65 ^ dozen ^ dozen Sugar Water The apples and quinces Adelaide wiped thor- oughly clean with a damp cloth. water. and to each cup she measured the back of the range in an equal quantity of sugar. As soon as the fruit was sufficiently soft she poured it into the jelly bag. but the quinces were cut into very small pieces. spoon to prevent burning. where it remained over night to drip. but not brown.FOR A LITTLE GIRL Quince and Apple Jelly Apples (sour).

poured the jelly into the sterilized small glasses at once and stood them in a sunny window. as she wanted her " cranberry jelly served with the turkey. filled " jelly point " Adelaide skimmed quickly. then stored the tumblers away in the preserve closet. them over. then dipped them up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water. to side to exclude all air. Cranberry Jelly Cranberries." 66 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK a pitcher. 1 quart Sugar Water After Adelaide had emptied the cranberries into the colander. Next she pasted on Each glass the labels. and especially this year. was carefully wiped with a damp cloth around the top and on the outside when they were cold and melted paraffin poured over This Adelaide shook gently from side the jelly. While her little fingers worked quickly she told mother the cranberries made her long for she picked Thanksgiving Day to come. feel Mother it very proud to have said she would grace the " festive l^oardt" .

to heat through but not brown.FOR A LITTLE GIRL When 67 the cranberries were all in the sauce- pan. then added the sugar gradually. Adelaide poured enough cold water over the top so that she could see the berries. Adelaide poured the cranberries into the jelly bag and the juice dripped over night. When the fruit was soft. it Now pouring into a pitcher and filling the ster- ilized small glasses at once. enware dish. poured melted parafiin over the top. and let '' it continue to cook until the " jelly point was reached. In the morning she measured to each cup of juice a cup of sugar. stirred constantly until the sugar was all dissolved. she worked quickly. Adelaide cooked the juice rapidly for twenty minutes. and Adelaide used wooden potato masher with which to mash She also stirred them occasionally to keep them from burning. As soon as the jelly was around the top and the outside of each glass with a damp cloth. skimming the jelly. These she stood in cold she wiped a sunny window. shaking it gently from side to side to . it easily among fire. Placing the saucepan over the the berries cooked slowly. This she stood at the back of the range in an earththe them.

68
exclude

A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK
all air,

pasted on the labels, then stored
in the preserve closet.

the tumblers

away

Adelaide tried the combination of cranberries

and apples which mother said made a very good
jelly-

Cranberry and Apple Jelly
Cranberries,
1 pint

Apples,

4

lbs.

Sugar

Water
After wiping the apples thoroughly with a

damp

cloth, Adelaide

removed the stems and

blossom ends and cut into quarters.

The

cran-

berries Adelaide placed in the colander, dipped

up and down
over.

several times in a

pan

of clear

cold water, set aside to drain, then picked them

Putting the apples and cranberries into the

saucepan she nearly covered them with water,
placed them over the
occasionally with the
fire

to cook slowly, stirred

they were very soft

wooden spoon, then when and mushy, Adelaide poured

the fruit into the jelly bag.

The

juice dripped

over night, and, in the morning, she measured
the juice.

To

each cup, Adelaide measured an

equal amount of sugar.

The sugar was placed

FOR A LITTLE GIRL

69

at the back of the range in an earthenware
dish to heat through, but not brown, while the

juice boiled rapidly for twenty minutes.

Add-

ing the sugar gradually, Adelaide stirred constantly until
it

had

all dissolved.

When

the cooked juice and sugar reached the

"jelly point " she

skimmed quickly, poured into

a pitcher,
once,
jelly

filled

the sterilized small glasses at

and stood in a sunny window. After the was cold, Adelaide wiped around the top

and outside of each glass with a damp cloth, poured melted paraffin over the top, shook it gently from side to side to exclude all air, pasted
on the
labels, then stored the jelly

away

in the

preserve closet.

This finished the " jelly making."

70

A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK

CHAPTER IV PRESERVING AND CANNING
"

Mot HEUj"
'

questioned Adelaide, " what

is

the difference between 'preserving'

and 'can-

ning

?

"

"Well, dear, according to the cook books,
preserved fruits are cooked with from threefourths to

an

fequal

weight of sugar, while
sufficient

canned fruits have only
sweeten.

added to

Some
it
is

fruits are often

canned without

sugar, as
fruit,

not the sugar that keeps the

but the perfect sterilization of fruit and
Sterilizing,

jars.

you remember,

is

the killing

of all germs

by

boiling."

" Some fruits I much prefer canning without
sugar, such as apples, peaches, blueberries and

rhubarb.

When you open the jars

in the winter
it

time and add the sugar as you need
is

the flavor

almost like that of fresh fruit," answered
see, so

mother. " Oh, I

that

is

why our peaches

taste

"

FOR A LITTLE GIRL
so

71
else's
!

much

better to

me than anybody

exclaimed Adelaide.

Adelaide began with strawberries, but first she read the " general rules " again that she had

down in the beginning, because not wish to make a single mistake.
written

she did

Canned Strawberries
Strawberries,
1 quart

Sugar

dipped

Emptying the berries into it up and down several

thei

colander she

times in a

pan

of

clear cold water, then let

The

berries were hulled, weighed,

them drain thoroughly. and put into
fire,

the saucepan, which she placed over the

heating the fruit through very gradually.

It

was

better,

mother

said, to let

them stand at

the back of the range until the juice began to
run, before bringing the berries to the boiling

These boiled slowly five minutes, and then Adelaide added one-third their weight in sugar. The sugar had been standing in an earthenware dish at the back of the range, to heat through, but not brown. While Adelaide added the sugar very gradually she stirred the fruit gently with the wooden
point.

and she could see There wasn't a single bug or worm. laide long to pick these over. damp away cloth. and It did not take Ade- almost every one perfect. inserted the silver knife between the jar and fruit to let the air bubbles rise and break. to be sure it did not leak. large. pasted on in the preserve Canned Raspberries Raspberries. The next morning she inspected the jar carefully. each center very easily. sealed quickly and stood the jar upside down out of the way of any draft. A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK spoon. and was very careful not to break the It did not take long for the fruit and sugar to come to the boiling point. and then Adelaide filled to overflowing the sterilized pint jar at once. put on the new rubber smoothly. She weighed the raspberries before putting them in the colander to dip up and down several . then wiped away all stickiness with a it the label and stored closet. 1 quart Sugar Mother was berries. they delighted with this quart of rasp- were just ripe enough.n berries.

but not brown.FOR A LITTLE GIRL times in a 73 pan of clear cold water. to heat through. Adelaide was very careful not to break the fruit. put on the new rubber smoothly. in- and the berries to let all air bubbles come to the top and break. boiled again it ilized As soon as the fruit ster- was ready to pour into the pint jar. and stored the jar away in the preserve . pasted on the label closet. then with a damp cloth she wiped away all stickiness. When they had drained. then stood the jar upside down out of the way of any draft. sealed serted a silver knife between the jar quickly. filled Adelaide the jar to overflowing. Adelaide moved the saucepan forward. When the juice had run sufficiently. It was then time to add the while warm sugar. She also placed a third of their weight of sugar in an earthenware dish at the back of the range. and continued to boil very slowly for five minutes. she emptied the berries into the saucepan and stood it on the back of the range to let the juice run. In the morning she made sure that the jar had not leaked. the berries came slowly to the boiling point. stirring very gently it dissolved.

2 cups Adelaide picked over the raspberries and currants very carefully. and let it boil slowly twenty minutes.74 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Canned Raspberries and Currants Raspberries. Next she cooked them very slowly until the currants looked white. sealed quickly and stood upside down out of the way of any draft. stirring until it was all dissolved. Sugar. pasted on the and stored it away in the preserve closet. then she strained them through two thicknesses of cheese cloth. inserted the silver knife to force the air bubbles to the top. . The sterilized pint jar Adelaide filled to over- flowing at once. placed the new rubber on smoothly. but kept them separate. then she poured in the raspberries carefully and boiled them three The currants minutes. she placed in the saucepan and mashed with the wooden potato masher. In the morning she wiped off all stickiness with a damp cloth. made label sure the jar did not leak. washed and drained them in the usual manner. she added the sugar. Returning the juice to the saucepan. 1 quart 1 pint Currants.

and boiled the cherries slowly twenty minutes. and cut the cherries in halves with a silver knife. and sugar Adelaide put saucepan together and stood at the back The cherries in the of the range to heat gradually. Then she weighed the fruit. she used one-half their weight of sugar. Adelaide followed mother's way. but if they were of the sweet variety. to melt As the sugar began and the juice to run. She filled the sterilized pint jar to overflow- . so the large ripe cherries she placed in the colander. Next she removed the stems. washed thoroughly by dipping several times in a it and up and down pan of clear cold water. though she told Adelaide many people preferred them canned whole.FOR A LITTLE GIRL Canned Cherries Cherries. If they were tart. Adelaide was careful not to break the halves. 75 1 quart Sugar Mother liked to have her cherries cut in halves and the stones taken out. she needed only one-third of their weight of sugar. she removed the saucepan forward and stirred the fruit gently with the wooden spoon. taking out the stones.

sealed quickly and stood the jar upside down out of the way of any draft. inspected the jar carefully to see that did not leak. so she stopped eating then weighed the fruit. pasted on the label in the preserve closet. but not brown. The saucepan containing the blackberries was . right. drained thoroughly. inserted the silver knife to bring the air bubbles to the top. she put it in an earthenware dish and placed it at the back of the range to heat through. and stored the jar away Canned Blackberries Blackberries. 1 quart Sugar These were great big blackberries. ripe. firm but and Adelaide poured them into the colander. In the morning she wiped with a off all stickiness damp it cloth. She could not resist popping the biggest one into her mouth. Weighing one-third their weight of sugar. Adelaide sighed. placed the new rubber on smoothly. but she realized mother was any more and proceeded to wash the blackberries.76 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK ing. but mother told her that that was a very bad practice to begin. She dipped the colander up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water.

and Adelaide watched it while it came the juice began to run. 1 quart Sugar The blueberries that mother bought were almost as large as currants and they were firm and dry. sealed and stood the jar upside down. The next morning she examined the jar carefully to see that it did not leak. on the new rubber smoothly. and Adelaide stirred gently with the wooden spoon.FOR A LITTLE GIRL also stood 77 toward the back of the range until when it was moved forward. pasted on the label. Canned Blueberries Blueberries. wiped off the stickiness with a damp cloth. the jar to to Adelaide sil- overflowing. out of the way of any draft. inserted a all ver knife bring bubbles to the top. slowly to the boiling point. then stored the jar away in placed quickly. They were ready filled to put in the sterilized pint jar as soon as they boiled up again. being careful not to break the blackberries. For five minutes the berries boiled very slowly. a little then the warm sugar was added at a time. . the preserve closet.

pasted on the and stored the jar away in the pre- serve closet. In the morning Adelaide removed ness it all sticki- from the jar with a damp it cloth. To each pound of berries Adelaide added one-third of a pound of sugar. sealed quickly and stood the jar upside down out of the way of any draft.78 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Adelaide picked them over carefully. then placed the new rubber on smoothly. then set aside to drain. which she placed in a pan of clear cold water. but not brown. She inserted a silver knife between the fruit and the sides of the jar to bring all air bubbles to the top. stirring gently until it had all dissolved. and at steri- once Adelaide fiUed to overflowing the lized pint jar. . weighed. dipping it up and down several times to cleanse the berries thoroughly. Adelaide added the sugar very gradually. ries When the ber- had boiled slowly for five minutes. The fruit was ready to can as soon as it boiled up again. put them into the colander. inspected thoroughly to see that label did not leak. setting it in an earthenware dish at the back of the range to heat through. The berries were then put into the saucepan and heated gradually.

as They needed to boil but a minute or they had softened sufficiently while as they were done. 2 tablespoons let Mother berries Adelaide put up a jar of blue- without sugar. then she placed the saucepan over the berries heat fire and let the through very gradually. and stood the way of any draft. then she dipped it up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water to cleanse them from all dust. two.FOR A LITTLE GIRL Canned Blueberries (without sugar) Blueberries. Adelaide picked over the berries carefully into the colander. Adelaide filled heating through. 79 1 quart Water. After they had drained thoroughly. inserted a silver knife to let all air bubbles rise to the top. sealed quickly it upside down out of After inspecting the jar next morning to be . They made delicious pies in the winter. then break. with two tablespoons of cold water (this was to prevent burning). It was necessary to stir occasionally with the wooden spoon. placed the new rubber on smoothly. As soon the sterilized pint jar to overflowing. Adelaide poured them into the saucepan.

When they were done she lifted each half peach out . pasted on the label and stored the finished product away in the preserve closet. Peaches. which she placed over the fire and let boil teh minutes. then she dropped the peaches in carefully and let them cook until you could pierce them with a silver fork. two ways with sugar and one without. cut in halves and take out the stones. So Adelaide washed and sterilized two jars. It was then easy for her to remove the skins with a silver knife. Adelaide put up a dozen peaches at a time. Into a saucepan Adelaide measured two cups of water and one cup of sugar. The first dozen Adelaide placed in a pan and covered with boiling water and let them stand a few minutes. she wiped it carefully with a damp cloth to remove all stickiness. 2 cups There were three different ways mother told Adelaide that she might put up peaches. and mother said they should fill two pint jars. The peaches were large. cup Water.80 sure it A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK did not leak. 1 1 dozen 1 Sugar. Canned Peaches No.

then Adewith a wiped off all stickiness damp cloth. ' 2 cups The second dozen of peaches Adelaide prepared in the same manner. inserted a silver knife be- tween the fruit and the sides of the jars. then weighed the peaches. She placed them in a pan. Plac- ing them carefully in the saucepan. away Canned Peaches No. and the remaining twelve in the other pint jar. The next morning laide she inspected them care- fully to see that they did not leak. Peaches. to the air bubbles rise to the top let and break. sealed quickly and stood both jars upside down out of the way of any draft. 2 1 dozen Sugar Water. covered them with boiling water. Adelaide poured over the peaches one-third of their . Next she filled the jars to overflow- ing with the syrup.FOR A LITTLE GIRL 81 with great care and put twelve of them in one pint jar. took out the stones. pasted on the labels and stored the jars in the preserve closet. placed new rubbers on smoothly. removed their skins with a silver knife. cut them in halves. let them stand a few minutes.

she picked out the fruit with the fork. pasted on the then stored the peaches away in the pre- serve closet. so as not to break the When they were sufficiently cooked. stickiness with bels.82 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK let them stand over night. weight of sugar. In the morning she added two cups of cold water and stood the saucepan over the fire. Canned Peaches (without sugar) Peaches. 2 cups . filled them to overflowlet all ing with the syrup. placed the new rubbers on smoothly. Adelaide stirring occasionally in a careful manner with a wooden spoon fruit. letting it come slowly to the boiling point. and until they could be pierced easily with a silver fork. putting twelve halves in each pint jar. 1 dozen Water. and stood the jars upside down out of the way of any draft. then inserted a silver knife between the fruit and the jars to air bubbles rise to the top and break. From then on the peaches simmered slowly. sealed quickly. In the morning she examined each jar carefully to be sure they did not leak. wiped off all la- a damp cloth.

down out way of any Next morning Adelaide examined each jar carefully to be sure they did not leak. or until they could be pierced easily with a silver fork. stirring occasionally with the wooden spoon. wiped off all stickiness with a labels and stored damp cloth. she let the air bubbles rise to the top and break. pasted on the away the jars in the pre- serve closet. sealed quickly and stood each jar upside draft. put the saucepan over the fire. juice. and filled them to overflowing with the Inserting a silver knife between the fruit and the sides of the jars. Lifting the peaches out carefully with a fork. and then boiled them very gently for twenty minutes. Next she placed the new of the rubbers on smoothly. took out the stones and placed them carefully in the saucepan. . let the peaches heat through gradually. she removed the skins with a silver knife. cut in halves. them To these she added two cups of cold water. Adelaide put twelve halves in each sterilized pint jar.FOR A LITTLE GIRL boiling water 8S After Adelaide had covered the peaches with and let them stand a few minutes.

but. mother said. The just she fill apricots are so much smaller than peaches that one dozen. Adelaide washed it thoroughly. cut in halves Placing the saucepan over the let fire. stirring frequently with a vent burning. should a pint jar. If dozen 1 cup Sugar Water. Adelaide the fruit come slowly to the boiling point. rich it was of such a and delicate flavor. then overflowed. Mother also said she was surprised that more people did not can this fruit. to be on the safe side.84 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Canned Apricots Apricots. . would let Adelaide prepare eighteen. and wiped each apricot and removed the stone. sil- Adelaide picked the apricots out with a ver fork and placed them in the jar she poured in the juice so that it first. After weighing the apricots she put them in the saucepan and added one-third their weight in sugar and one cup of water. wooden spoon to preAfter they had boiled gently all twenty minutes (Adelaide stirred she the time being very careful not to break the apricots) filled the sterilized pint jar at once.

Canned Pears Pears. 1 dozen Sugar Water Adelaide prepared a dozen large pears. sealed quickly and stood the jar upside down out of the way of any draft. and apricots in too closely. After pasting on the label she stored the jar away in the preserve closet. she placed the saucepan and measured one cup of water to . because you might break the fruit. The stems she left on. pears. on the jar smoothly. It was not a good plan to crowd such fruit as peaches. Next she placed a new had been dipped in boihng water. which and break.FOR A LITTLE GIRL 85 Using a silver knife. it in After weighing the fruit. she inserted it between the fruit and the jar. With the little sharp knife Adelaide peeled the pears very thinly and cut them in halves. removing the cores. and Adelaide used a damp cloth to wipe away all stickiness. In the morning the jar was carefully inspected to see that it did not leak. although mother said eight were quite sufficient (if large) to fill a pint jar. to let all air bubbles rise to the top rubber.

they were sweet she weighed only one-third their weight of sugar. The inserting and the jar. sealed of a silver knife between the fruit it quickly. let all the bubbles rise to the top and break. after which she placed a new rubber smoothly on the jar. Adelaide added the warm sugar gradually and stirred carefully and it boiled constantly until up again. each pound of If the pears were tart. overflowed. after twenty ful not to break the fruit. then stood the jar upside down out of the way of any draft. and exam- . off all stick- In the morning Adelaide wiped iness from the jar with a damp cloth. in an earthenware dish at the back of the range to heat through. being careIf. the pears were easily pierced with a silver fork. minutes of gentle boiling.86 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK fruit. if she weighed one-half their weight of sugar. The sugar was put brown. Adelaide let them come slowly to the boiling point. then poured in Into the sterilized pint jar Adelaide lifted each half pear with a the juice until it silver fork. but not Placing the saucepan containing the pears and water over the fire. to was the next thing to be done. With the wooden spoon she stirred them frequently.

and in that case a tablespoon of lemon juice was added with each dozen pears. Mother told Adelaide that some people found pears a little too flat for their taste. the crab apples. Canned Crab Apples Crab Apples. Sugar 1 dozen Water These crab apples made one of the prettiest jars Adelaide put up.FOR A LITTLE GIRL ined it 87 it carefully to be sure that did not leak. and water come slowly to the stirring frequently with the wooden spoon. The saucepan boiling she placed on the fire and let the crab apples point. but not brown. needed to be absolutely They were weighed. of course. perfect. The crab apples. laide placed in an earthenware dish at the back of the range to warm through. . and a cup of water poured over to each pound One-half their weight of sugar Adeof fruit. placed in the saucepan. just She did not have to peel wash and wipe the fruit thoroughly and remove the blossom ends. Next she pasted on the labels and stored the fruit away in the preserve closet.

She had boiled quietly minutes more.88 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK When the crab apples could be pierced eas- ily with a silver fork Adelaide added the sugar let the fruit boil gradually and stirred constantly until they five up again. peeled. was placed quickly of on the jar smoothly. and removed . cloth. which she inserted belet the air tween fruit and jar. ^ dozen Sugar Water Six large orange quinces (these are of the best variety) Adelaide washed and wiped thor- oughly. it upside down out of the way any in- In the morning the jar was carefully spected for any possible leaks. Adelaide bubbles rubber. then she picked the crab apples out with the silver fork and placed in the sterilized pint jar. Next she pasted on the and stored the canned fruit away in the preserve Canned Quinces Quinces. The new it after being dipped in boiling water. then she sealed and stood draft. and Adelaide wiped off all stickiness with a labels damp closet. cut into quarters. top and break. With a rise to the silver knife.

side down out of the way In the morning the jar was carefully examined to be sure that it did not leak. she added one-half their weight in sugar. fire Placing the saucepan over the she let the water just boil. This she stirred with the wooden spoon until it was all dissolved and the syrup boiled. or until you could pierce them easily with a silver fork. and then poured in the quinces. was placed smoothly around the top. They boiled gently for about twenty minutes. Next she inserted a silver knife between the fruit and the jar. and Ade- . To the water in which the quinces had been cooked. Adelaide lifted these out very care- on to a large plate. to after being dipped in boil- let all air bubbles rise to the top and break. ing water. 89 After weighing the quinces she measured into the saucepan one and one-third cups of water to each pound of fruit. The new rubber. then she sealed the jar quickly and stood of it up- any draft. The quinces were gently dropped into the boiling syrup (Adelaide took particular care not to break the quarters) and when they had cooked fully slowly for five minutes she filled the sterilized pint jar with the fruit and poured the syrup over it until it overflowed.FOR A LITTLE GIRL the cores.

90 laide A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK wiped off all stickiness from the it outside. away in the Mother had told Adelaide to save the peelings and cores of the quinces. made from the peelhad canned by just covering them with cold Then she drained them through the jelly bag. and she put one-fourth of their weight of sugar into an earthenware dish. which water and boiling slowly for one hour. Adelaide cut cores. and put in a saucepan with just enough water to cover. These she let boil slowly for about one hour. Canned Apples Apples. then she poured them into the jelly bag to drain off the juice. This juice she used to cook her apples in when she canned some the next day. Pasting on the label she stored preserve closet. 1 dozen Sugar Quince juice After washing and peeling the apples. To each pound of apples Adelaide measured one and one. .third cups of quince juice into the saucepan. them into quarters and removed the The quince juice was ings and cores of the quinces she the day before.

examined it carefully to be sure that didn't leak. In the morn- ing she wiped off stickiness with a damp from the outside of the it jar. being careful not to break the fruit. spoon. Adestirred qmte frequently with the wooden the apples fire. . Five more minutes they needed to pint jar at once. When you could easily pierce the apples with a silver fork.FOR A LITTLE GIRL she stood at the back of the stove to 91 warm but not brown. then the syrup poured in to overflowing. The saucepan containing fruit quince juice was placed over the laide and and the came slowly to the boiling point. then Adelaide filled the sterilized First the fruit (lifted out with a silver fork). down out cloth. of the way of any all draft. then the new rubber Adelaide stood the jar upside placed around the top smoothly. and lastly the quick sealing. they were ready to have the warm sugar added. then the silver knife inserted between fruit and jar. carefuUy and stirred until dissolved. to rise to the let the air bubbles top and break. This Adelaide poured in very boil. then stored the jar away in the preserve closet beside her steadily growing line of preserves. being stirred constantly. pasted on the label.

The new rubber. then Adelaide stood it upside down out of the way of wiped off all In the morning she stickiness with a damp cloth from draft. pasted on the label and stored the apples in the preserve closet. otherwise the water (which she poured over the apples boiling) came nearly to the top of the apples. then Adelaide at once filled to overflowing the sterilized pint jar. the fruit boiled slowly until tender. dipped in boiling water. she let the air bubbles rise and the to the top and break. it any the outside of the jar. and the jar sealed quickly. Canned Apples (without sugar) Apples. In- serting a silver knife between the jar fruit. 1 dozen Water Wiping the apples and removed the clean. If the apples were very juicy she did not need to cook them in very much water. cut them into quarters core.92 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK The addition of the quince juice made the flavor of the apples delicious. was placed on smoothly. Adelaide pared them with the sharp knife. . Placing the saucepan over the fire. inspected carefully for any possible leaks.

FOR A LITTLE GIRL
Canned Pineapples No.
Pineapples (large),
I

93

One
1 cup

Sugar,

Water,

2 cups
to remove

Mother had to show Adelaide how
laide

the skin and eyes from the pineapple.

Ade-

found

it

a rather prickly thing to handle,

was ready, she cut it into slices and removed the little hard core with a sharp knife. Mother told her she could leave the slices whole, or she could cut them
but after
it

fairly thick,

into cubes.

Adelaide said that she preferred
of sugar

cutting them into cubes.

The cup
over the

and two cups of water were
ten minutes, then the

measured into the saucepan, which she placed
fire

and

let boil

pineapple was dropped in and cooked until
tender, or until

you could pierce had cooked

it

easily with

a silver fork.

As soon
fruit,

as it

sufficiently,

Ade-

laide filled the sterilized pint jar, first with the

and then poured in the syrup so that it Next she inserted a silver knife overflowed. between the pineapple and the jar, to let the The new air bubbles rise to the top and break.
rubber, which

had been dipped

in boiling water,

94

A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK

was placed around the top smoothly, then Adelaide sealed it quickly and stood the jar upside down out of the way of any draft. In the morning she wiped all stickiness off the jar with a damp cloth, examined the jar carefully to be sure there were no leaks, pasted on the label and stored the canned fruit away
in the preserve closet.

Another way that mother
pineapples
is

liked to

put up

as follows:

Canned Pineapples No.
Pineapple (large),

2

One

Sugar
Adelaide, after removing the skin and eyes from the pineapple, cut it into quarters lengthwise and removed the cores. Then she weighed it, after which she put the pineapple through
the meat chopper.

Into the saucepan she measured one-half

its

weight of sugar and added the chopped pineapple.

Placing the saucepan over the
let the fruit

fire,

Adelaide

and sugar come slowly to the boiling point, stirring frequently with the wooden spoon to keep from burning. After the boUing

FOR A LITTLE GIRL
twenty minutes, and Adelaide put
sterilized pint
it

95

point was reached, the fruit cooked slowly for
into the

The jar was filled and a silver knife inserted between the fruit and the jar, to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break. Next she placed a new rubber around the top smoothly, sealed it quickly and stood it upside down out of the way of any draft. In the morning she examined the jar carefully to see that it did not leak, wiped off aU
jar at once.
to overflowing
stickiness with a

damp

cloth, pasted

on the label

and stored the
preserve closet.

finished

product away in the

Mother often used pineapple put up in this manner for pineapple ice cream, or pineapple
sherbet.

It

made a

delicious dessert.

Canned Plums
Plums (large), Sugar
1^ dozen

Water
The
large blue plums, the green-gage plums,
all

or the large red plums, were

put up in the

same manner. Adelaide wiped each plum thoroughly with a

damp

cloth, cut it in halves with a silver knife,

96

A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK
stone.

and removed the

Then

she weighed them.

To

each pound of fruit Adelaide measured one

cup of water and one cup of sugar. The plums and the water she placed in the saucepan over the fire and let them come slowly to the boiling point, while the sugar was heating at the back of the range in an earthenware dish. Adelaide boiled the plums gently, stirring
occasionally with a wooden spoon, until they

were tender or until you could pierce them with
a silver fork easily.
minutes.
It usually took twenty

The sugar was then ready
it

to

add to

the fruit, and Adelaide stirred the mixture very
carefully until
all dissolved. As soon as up Adelaide canned at once. each plum carefully with a silver fork

was

the fruit boiled

She

lifted

into the sterilized pint jar, then

poured in the
a
silver

juice

till

it

overflowed.

Inserting

knife between the fruit
let

the air

and the jar, Adelaide bubbles come to the top and break.

The new

rubber, after being dipped in boiling

water, was fitted on smoothly, then she sealed
the jar quickly and stood
it

upside

down out

of

the

way

of

any

draft.

In the morning, with a
off all stickiness

damp cloth she wiped from the outside of the jar,
it

inspected

it

carefully to be sure that

did not

Canned Rhubarb Rhubarb. After the new rubber was dipped in boiling water and placed over the jar smoothly. Adelaide sealed it quickly. Then she weighed and allowed one-half pound of sugar to each pound of rhubarb. to to the top and break. then stood the jar upside down out of the way of any draft. 2J lbs. Adelaide stirred constantly with a wooden spoon to prevent burning. but just wash and wipe them clean and cut them in small pieces with the the fruit little sharp knife. mother told Adelaide that she did not need to peel the stalks. wiped off aU stickiness with . pasted 97 on the label and stored the jar away in the preserve closet. Sugar If the rhubarb is pretty in color and young and tender. Both sugar and rhubarb were put in the saucepan and placed over the fire to come very slowly to the boiling point. The silver knife she inserted between the jar let all air bubbles rise and the fruit. and as soon as it had boiled fifteen minutes she poured it into the sterilized pint jar. In the morning she inspected the jar carefully to be sure that there were no leaks.FOR A LITTLE GIRL leak.

98
a

A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK
damp
cloth, pasted

on the label and stored

the jar

away

in the preserve closet.

Sometimes mother canned rhubarb without

Mother said the flavor was much better and it was not so juicy, also it was excellent for pies, shortcakes, etc., adding the sugar when you used it.
sugar, so Adelaide tried a jar.

Canned Rhubarb (without sugar)
Rhubarb, Water,

2^

lbs.

1 tablespoon

Adelaide washed and wiped each stalk thoroughly, then cut
it

into small pieces.

These

she put in the saucepan with a tablespoon of

from burning, and stirred with a wooden spoon. She let the fruit heat very gradually and boiled slowly for fifteen minutes. It was then ready to can, and Adelaide poured the rhubarb into the sterilized pint
cold water to keep

jar at once, after which she inserted a
knife between the jar
air bubbles rise

silver
let

and the fruit, to to the top and break.

aU Next
boil-

came the new rubber, which she dipped in
sealed quickly.

ing water, placed over the top smoothly, then

Standing the jar upside down

she stood

it

out of the

way

of

any draft.

In the

FOR A LITTLE GIRL
to be sure that
side
it

9D

morning Adelaide examined the jar carefully
did not leak, wiped off the out-

with a

stored the jar

damp cloth, pasted on the label and away in the preserve closet.
Preserves
1

Damson Plum
Damson Plums,
Sugar

quart

Water The Damson plums Adelaide wiped
twice.

thor-

oughly, and pricked each one with a silver fork

Then

she weighed the fruit.

To

each

pound she measured three-quarters of a pound of sugar. To each pound of sugar Adelaide measured one cup of water. The sugar and water she put in the saucepan and placed over
the
fire.

When
it

the

syrup boiled,

Adelaide

skimmed

and added the plums.

The plums

Adelaide cooked until they were tender, stirring

them carefully with a wooden spoon so as not
to break the fruit, then filled the sterilized pint

jar to overflowing.

A

silver knife

was inserted
bubbles

between the fruit

The new rubber rise was dipped in boiling water, placed over the top This smoothly and the jar sealed quickly.

and jar to to the top and break.

let all air

100

A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK
way
of
draft.

Adelaide stood upside down out of the

any
fully

In the morning the jar was caresee that it did

examined to

not leak,

all

stickiness
label

was wiped oif with a damp cloth, the was pasted on, and then Adelaide stored

the jar

away

in the preserve closet.

Preserved Currants
Currants,
1

quart

Sugar

The currants Adelaide picked over

carefully

and put into the colander. This she placed in a pan of clear cold water and dipped up and

down

several

times

until

quite

clean.

After

they had drained well she weighed them, and
to each

pound of fruit she measured a pound of Half of the currants Adelaide put in the saucepan and placed on the fire to heat through. When they were thoroughly warmed she removed the saucepan from the fire and mashed the currants with the wooden potato
sugar.
jelly bag.

masher, then she strained the juice through the

The

juice

and sugar Adelaide put into the
fifteen minutes,

saucepan and boiled gently for

after which she added the other half of the cur-

FOR A LITTLE GIRL
rants.

101

It took the currants only five minutes

to just cook
in the jelly.

through and they remained whole
sterilized

This

was poured into

tumblers.

When

cold the tumblers were wiped free from

all stickiness,

and Adelaide sealed them by pourit

ing melted paraffin over the top, shaking

gently from side to side to exclude all air.

Pasting on the labels she stored them away in
the preserve closet.

Preserved Currants and Raspberries
Currants,
Raspberries,
1 pint

1 quart

Sugar

The currants and raspberries Adelaide picked
over and kept separate.

She did not forget to
little

look carefully in the center of each raspberry
to be

sure that there were no

worms.

After washing the currants, placing them in

and dipping it up and down several pan of clear cold water she poured them into the saucepan and mashed them with Adelaide washed the wooden potato masher.
the colander

times in a

the raspberries in the same manner, but stood them aside to drain while the currants were cook-

(The currants and berries had been weighed after washing them. to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break. Preserved Strawberries Strawberries. wiped free from all stickiness with a damp cloth and the label juice The minutes. the new rubber was placed on smoothly and Adelaide sealed the jar quickly. 1 quart Sugar . A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK The currants simmered slowly for half an hour (or until the currants looked white). The silver knife was inserted between the jar and the fruit. It was then placed upside down out of the way In the morning the jar was careof any draft. ^ftilly inspected for any leaks.102 ing. Adelaide then stored it away in the preserve closet. and then the juice was strained through the jelly bag. then added the juice to overflowing.) and sugar boiled slowly for twenty poured in the raspberries carefully and cooked three minutes more. and added the sugar. Adelaide returned the juice to the saucepan. then Adelaide pasted on. Into the steriUzed pint jar she skimmed the raspberries. and to each pound of fruit she measured three-fourths of a pound of sugar.

filled it to overflowing with the syrup. After hull- ing the fruit she weighed she weighed a it.FOR A LITTLE GIRL 103 Before hulling the strawberries. sealed the jar quickly and stood it upside down out of the way of any draft. being careful not to break the strawberries. after which the strawberries boiled were dropped in carefully and Into the sterilized pint all two minutes. and for each pound pound of sugar. Then the saucepan was placed on the fire and the fruit and sugar heated through. In the morning she examined the jar care- . Adelaide put them into the colander and dipped it up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water to cleanse the berries thoroughly. inserted a silver between the fruit and the jar to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break. placed on the loiife new rubber smoothly. Adelaide skimmed the berries out into a dish. The syrup then boiled for ten minutes slowly. The strawberries were put into the saucepan and the sugar sprinkled over them and they stood until the juice ran freely. jar Adelaide skimmed the berries. Adelaide stirred with the wooden spoon. When berries the sugar was all dissolved and the thoroughly heated.

When they boiled up she skimmed out the blackberries into a dish for five minutes. and the syrup cooked Returning the blackberriesi to the syrup she put the saucepan at the back of the range and let the fruit slowly heat without stirring. . Adelaide stirred them gently with a wooden spoon.104 fiilly A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK to see that it did not leak. 1 quart Sugar After picking over the blackberries Adelaide placed them in the colander and dipped it up and down times to in a pan of clear cold water several and dirt. These stood for an hour beremove aU dust fore Adelaide put the saucepan over the fire and let the berries and sugar come slowly to the boiling point. Preserved Blackberries Blackberries. After weighing the berries she poured them into a saucepan and sprinkled over them an equal weight of sugar. pasted all stickiness with label a damp on the and stored the preserved berries away in the preserve closet. wiped off cloth. being careful not to break the fruit.

and she wiped off all stickiness with a damp cloth. 1 quart Sugar Adelaide washed the cherries in the colander. With a silver knife. In the morning it was ready to be inspected carefully for any leaks. which she inserted between the jar and the fruit. Preserved Cherries Cherries. filling it to overflowing. she let all air bubbles rise to the top and break. stirring carefully with a wooden spoon so as a stems not to break the fruit. which she dipped up and down several times in pan of clear cold water. She took off the and removed the stones. When they were done Adelaide picked out the . weighed the cherries and added a pound of sugar to each pound of fruit.FOR A LITTLE GIRL After they had stood fifteen 105 minutes she poured the berries at once into the sterilized pint jar. Placing a new rubber over the top smoothly and stood the jar upside down out of the way of any draft. pasted on the label and she sealed quickly stored the fruit away in the preserve closet. Then she let them stand over night. and the next morning put them into the saucepan to cook slowly until clear and tender.

" Just wait until next winter. young lady." it is " Why. I've been thinking eat how up things you cook jellies for us every day. " it is not nearly as discouraging to preserve as to just plain cook. dear. In the morning she inspected the jar carefully to be sure that it did not leak. " Mother. then you'll see how quickly they will disappear. to overflowing with the syrup. sealed quickly and stood the jar upside down out of the way of any draft." said Adelaide one morning.106 A' LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK skimmer and dropped then she filled sil- cherries first with the them into the it sterilized pint jar." laughed mother. ." are in the preserve mused Adelaide. placed on a new rubber smoothly. pasted on the label and stored the jar away in the preserve closet. while still my jams and closet. what do you mean. " Well. wiped off all stickiness with a damp cloth. inserted a ver knife between the fruit and the jar to let air bubbles rise to the top all and break.'' " answered quickly we mother.

but that what they lacked in numbers they made up told her she When Adelaide for in quality.FOR A LITTLE GIRL 107 CHAPTER V CONSERVES came to " conserves. yes. were very similar to jams. Conserves. I couldn't possibly keep house without it. that is our favorite. dear. raisins and nuts. mother explained to Adelaide." mother had only a very few recipes. and I ' don't know how many people have asked me how to make it. serve " Have you the recipe for ' Peach con? " asked Adelaide anxiously. " Oh. Rhubarb Conserve Rhubarb (cut up)." answered mother. . with the addition of lemon or orange juice.

Upon these she poured boiling water which stood a minute or two. sufficient to The meats Adelaide put through rest of the the meat chopper and added to the things. Twelve or fourteen large walnuts were crack. good After standing three hours the saucepan was placed on the fire and the conserve came slowly Adelaide stirred the mix- to the boiling point. prettiest Mother picked out the rhubarb she could find. then Adelaide washed and wiped each stalk and cut it into small pieces. When she had filled the cup with rhubarb twice she put it into the saucepan and poured over it two cups of sugar and a dessert spoon of lemon juice. then she drained them. wooden spoon while it boiled for twenty minutes. It was then ready to pour into the sterilized tumblers. sugar. When the conserve was cold. Adelaide next measured out a fourth of a pound of seedless raisins. Adelaide wiped around the top and the outside of each tumture frequently with a bler with a damp cloth. poured melted paraflln over the top (which she shook gently from side . etc.108 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK pinkest. After looking them over carefully to remove any stems. she added them to the rhubarb.

Apricot Conserve Apricots. pasted on the labels and stored the glasses away in the preserve closet.FOR A LITTLE GIRL 109 to side to exclude all air). .

shaking the tumblers from side to side to exclude all air. away Peach . As soon outsides with a was cool she wiped the tops and damp cloth. poured as it it at once into the sterilized tumblers. Placing the saucepan over the it fire she heated through slowly and let the fruit boil for forty minutes.110 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK the meat chopper. poured melted pasted on in the pre- paraffin over the conserve. and when it was done. Adelaide stirred the contents of the saucepan constantly with a wooden spoon. then added these to the fruit in the saucepan. the labels and stored the jars serve closet.

rind of the orange she grated over the sugar and peaches. cold. and then. 111 After weighing out one-fourth of a pound of seedless raisins^ them with boiling water for about a minute. Adelaide raisins ciently she poured as it it into the sterilized tumblers. was wiped around the top and outside of each tumbler with a damp poured melted paraffin over the conserve it (shaking all gently from side to side to exclude air). and when the conserve had cooked suffiseeds. When everything was in the saucepan together. she covered The walnuts The (twelve or fourteen large ones) she cracked and put with the raisins. drained. Plum Conserve . and then cook gently for an hour. after removing the put the pulp of the orange. Adelaide placed it over the fire and let it come slowly to the boiling point. pasted on the labels and stored the glasses away in the preserve closet. and picked off any stems. she As soon cloth. Adelaide stirred frequently with a wooden spoon to prevent burning. the and the nuts through the meat chopper.FOR A LITTLE GIRL she added two cups of sugar.

and sil- removed the stones. Placing them in the saucepan she poured two cups of sugar and the grated rind of half an orange over them. Placing the saucepan over the fire she let the contents come slowly to the boiling point. Twelve or fourteen large walnuts were cracked and the meats taken out. the quarter of a Over These pound of raisins (which she weighed) Adelaide poured boiling water. off the stood thus for about a minute. the walnut meats. It cooked gently for one hour. in the saucepan. After washing and wiping the plums thoroughly. then she drained water and picked out the stems. etc. melted was poured over the top and shaken gently from side to side to exclude all air. and the pulp of the half orange Adelaide put through the The meat chopper and added to the plums. the . When wiped paraffin it was cold the tops and outsides were with a off carefully damp cloth. stirring it occasionally with the wooden spoon. Adelaide cut them in halves with a ver knife. and then Adelaide poured the conserve at once into the sterilized tumblers. Seedless raisins. raisins. Walnut meats.112 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK One-half Oranges. ^ J lb. lb.

as she Adewas eager to try . and she thought it would be nice to substitute figs sometimes in place of raisins. The green-gage plums and the large red plums would make an equally delicious conserve. it mother told Adelaide that was just as well to leave further experimenting until another year. laide was very " Spiced Fruits. mother said." willing.FOR A LITTLE GIRL labels 113 were pasted on and then the conserve was stored away in the preserve closet. As the foregoing recipes were all she had.

She had lived in the country." interrupted Adelaide. or whatever you called it ? " " I think there is no reason why you shouldn't. mother.114 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK CHAPTER " VI SPICED FRUITS you were a tiny little baby. . who taught me how to put up Spiced Currants." she continued. " All spiced fruits. and find out many new combinations that especially suit your taste and appeal to others. Every year you will become more expert. " are particularly tasty When when served with cold meats. 1 quart I lb. " do you think I could ever become renowned. Sugar. if you continue to do as good work in the future as you have thus far." said " I had a young girl living with me mother." Spiced Currants Currants." answered mother. and her favorite aunt was renowned for her tempting preserves." " Oh.

FOR A LITTLE GIRL Vinegar. let them just They were then ready Next she to put into the sterilized pint jar. lifted out the currants thickened. Putting the currants into it the colander. she dipped up and down several it pan of clear cold water. Placing the saucepan over the fire. added one pound of sugar. placed a new rubber upside down out of the on the jar smoothly. then set aside to drain. 115 ^ cup 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon Cinnamon (ground). Adelaide boiled the juice until it then added the currants again and boil up. and a teaspoon each of cloves and cinnamon. all stickiness . so Adelaide filled it to over- flowing. inserted a silver knife belet all air tween the jar and the fruit. to rise to the bubbles top and break. and when thoroughly scalded she with a skimmer. a half a cup of vinegar. she let the currants heat through gradually. In the morning the jar was examined carewas fully to be sure it did not leak. sealed quickly and stood way of any draft. Into the saucepan she poured the currants. moved the times in a Adelaide picked over the currants and restems. stirring occasionally with a wooden spoon. Cloves (ground).

116 wiped A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK off with a damp cloth from the outside. Sugar. Adelaide stemmed the cherries and washed in the colander several times in a by dipping it up and down pan of clear cold water. after Into a saucepan she which she stoned them. Lifting out the cherries with a skimmer. 1 lb. she added a third of measured one-half a cup of vinegar. then she added one pound of sugar and boiled the mixture ten minutes longer. then the label was pasted on and Adelaide stored the jar away in the preserve closet. At the end of the ten minutes Adelaide dropped in the cherries and cooked the fruit gently for one-half hour. Spiced Cherries Cherries. and inserted a silver knife . Vinegar. The vinegar and spices Adelaide let boil gently for fifteen minutes. stirring constantly with the wooden spoon and skimming well. To this an ounce each of whole cloves and cinnamon tied up in a muslin bag. 2 lbs. ^ cup ^ ounce -^ ounce Whole them cloves. Stick cinnamon. she put them into the sterilized pint jar. added the juice to overflowing.

The next morning. standing the jar upside down out of the way of any draft. Adelaide wiped stickiness from the outside with a damp pasted on the label and stored the jar away in the preserve closet. Spiced Gooseberries . the jar for off all after carefully inspecting cloth. Then she placed on a new rubber and sealed quickly.FOR A LITTLE GIRL between the jar and the fruit to bles rise to the let all air 117 bub- top and break. any possible leaks.

filled it them into the overflowing with the syrup. and she sealed the jar quickly. it was placed aside over night. Covering the saucepan. . the three whole allspice. Next Adelaide pasted on the label and stored the spiced gooseberries away in the preserve closet. Between the jar rise and the to fruit Adelaide inserted a silver knife. and the piece of of cinnamon were tied in a small piece of muslin and added to the contents stick the saucepan. the blade of mace. the bay leaf. added the gooseberries. In the morning the jar was carefully wiped with a damp cloth to remove all stickiness and examined for any possible leaks. to the boiling point. she carethen to skimmed out the gooseberries and placed sterilized pint jar. The new rubber was placed on smoothly. then removed the saucepan from the The small piece of green ginger root she cut into small pieces. all allow air bubbles to to the top and break. the six whole cloves.118 on the A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK fire she brought the sugar and vinegar fire. The next day Adelaide brought the fruit quickly to the boiling point and cooked the gooseberries gently until they were tender but not broken. fully When they were done. standing it upside down out of the way of any draft.

FOR A LITTLE GIRL Spiced Pears 119 .

she rise to the bubbles top and break. let all air With a silver knife. it upside down out it of the way of any In the morning. pasted on the label and stored the jar the preserve closet. then fitted on a new rubber smoothly. Adelaide stickiness carefully to see that wiped off all with a damp cloth. after examining the jar did not leak. and poured in the syrup to overflowing. sealed the jar quickly and stood draft.120 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK done Adelaide lifted the pears out carefully with a silver fork into the sterilized pint jar. which she inserted be- tween the fruit and jar. away in Spiced Peaches .

Adelaide lifted the peaches out care- fully with the silver fork sterilized jars.FOR A LITTLE GIRL saucepan she placed over the fire 121 and let the contents boil gently for ten minutes. Adelaide break. let all air bubbles rise to the top and Next. and boiling. away in the pre- . With a which she inserted between the fruit and the jar. after which she stood them upside down out of the way iness of any draft. The twelve peaches were enough to fill two pint jars. Adelaide While the syrup was boiling water over the peaches. Adelaide left the peaches whole. new rubbers were fitted on smoothly and the jars sealed quickly. had cooked sufficiently she dropped the peaches in it and cooked them as the syrup until they could be pierced easily with a silver As soon fork. then Adelaide pasted on the labels and stored the jars serve closet. In the morning the stickwas wiped from each jar with a damp were carefully inspected to be sure cloth. poured and after they had stood a minute she peeled them with a silver knife. they there were no leaks. and placed them in the filled Then she the jars to oversilver knife. flowing with the syrup. stuck four or five cloves in each peach.

the cup of vinegar. and the one-third teaspoon of cloves. the whole mace and the bay leaves. Sugar (brown). "Vinegar. In the morning Adelaide pared the rind neatly and cut fire. 2J 1 lbs. the piece of ginger root. Cloves (ground). Whole mace.122 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Spiced Watermelon Rind Watermelon rind. were tied in a small piece of muslin and added to the syrup. it into many attractive shapes. Two in their One day when watermelons were dessert. 1 lb. cup Cinnamon (ground). The saucepan had been previously placed over the containing the pound of sugar. prime Adelaide's mother bought a part of one for She told Adelaide to save all the rind and the next day she would show her how to make another tasty relish to be eaten with cold meats. The ground spices. Allspice (ground). ^ teaspoon ^ teaspoon J teaspoon small piece 1 Ginger root. one- half teaspoon each of cinnamon and allspice. teaspoon Bay leaves. When the syrup reached the boiling .

then side fitted the new rubber on draft. and when it came to the fire removed from the boiling point a second time she lifted the rind carefully with a silver fork into the sterilized jar.FOR A LITTLE GIRL and it 123 point Adelaide dropped in the watermelon rind. it away in the preserve . sealed quickly and stood the jar up- down out of the way of any In the morning Adelaide wiped iness from the outside of the jar. Next morning. Inserting a silver knife between the jar and the rind Adelaide let all air bubbles rise to the top and break. away over night. and added the rind. and The saucepan was and placed aside to cool. pasted on the label and stored closet. covered. The syrup she poured in until it overflowed. was cooked slowly until perfectly tender. off all stickit smoothly. examined it carefully to be sure did not leak. Then Adelaide stood it lifted out the rind very care- fully with a silver fork into a dish. She watched carefuUy. Adelaide let the syrup again come to the boiling point.

fitted on a new rubber smoothly. inserted a silver knife be- tween the grapes and the jar to let the air bubbles rise to the top and break. After draining thoroughly she removed the skins and placed them in a dish which she stood aside. wiped cloth.124 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK 1 Cinnamon (ground). The pulps were put into the saucepan seeds could be removed and cooked slowly until the by pressing the grapes through a strainer. Cloves (ground). away in the pre- . sealed the jar quickly and stood it upside down out of the way of any draft. the fourth of a cup of vinegar. The strained pulp. In the morning she inspected the jar carefully to be sure that off it did not leak. aU stickiness with a damp pasted on the label and stored the jar serve closet. the skins. the pound of sugar. teaspoon 1 teaspoon Adelaide picked over and washed the grapes by placing them in the colander and dipping it up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water. Adelaide then the sterilized jar with the fruit. and the teaspoon each of ground cinnamon and cloves (the spices were tied in a piece of muslin) were aU put in the saucepan together and cooked filled until thick.

the half cup of vinegar. 1 lb. 125 2J lbs.FOR A LITTLE GIRL Spiced Blackberries Blackberries. Next she fiUed the jar to overflowing boiling point Adelaide picked over with the syrup. While the syrup was coming slowly to the and washed the blackberries by placing them in the colander. Cloves (ground). Adelaide put the pound of sugar. Sugar. Vinegar. when she skimmed out the blackberries and dropped them carefully into the sterilized pint jar. minutes. and the teaspoon each of ground cinnamon and cloves (the spices she tied in a piece of muslin) into the saucepan over the fire. J cup 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon Cinnamon (ground). and stood upside down out of the it way of any draft. After the blackberries had drained well and the syrup had come to the boiling point Adelaide added the blackThese she let boil gently for fifteen berries. inserted a silver knife between the fruit and the jar to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break. sealed the jar quickly. . fitted on a new rubber smoothly. which she dipped up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water.

" said mother." replied Adelaide. away in the preserve closet. " Perhaps." " Yes. . wiped off from the outside with a damp pasted on the label and stored the jar In the morning Adelaide inspected the jar carefully to see that all stickiness cloth. but I think for the present the ones I have given you will do.126 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK it did not leak. preserved in vinegar and sugar with spices. I think so too. " you fruits may like to try other another year.

" said mother. because mother did not approve of them for growing children. The thought of preparing the pickles seemed to Adelaide the next best thing to eating them." to eat anything she liked. member grandma peeling a great big pan of onions and the tears rolling down her cheeks.FOR A LITTLE GIRL 127 CHAPTER VII PICKLES Adelaide had never been allowed to eat many pickles. as they were not only a general favorite. but an occasional sample had made Adelaide look forward to the time when she could have the same privilege as " grown ups. ." " Well." Mother said she would start Adelaide with the small pickled beets. " if you will peel your onions under running water you won't need to waste any of your tears over them." laughed Adelaide. " I hope when I put up ' pickled onions ' I " I can just redon't cry. Adelaide. but exceedingly attractive to look at.

as The vinegar used was the very best it did not pay to use any other Pickled Beets .128 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK cider kind. vinegar.

Pickled Onions No.FOR A LITTLE GIRL side 129 down out of the way of aiiy draft. pasted on the label and stored the jar in the preserve closet. was the work of but a moment. . The next morning Adelaide wiped the outside of the jar with a damp cloth. examined it carefully to see that it did not leak.

sealed quickly and stood the j ars upside down over night. These stood for twenty-four hours. after which she poured off the brine (mother explained to Adelaide that that was what they called the salt and water) and rinsed them by pouring clear cold water on them. inspected them carefully to be sure that they did not leak. then added the onions. In the morning she wiped the jars thoroughly with a damp cloth. and fourth of a package of whole mixed spices (the package was the size that sold for ten cents before the war) were put in a saucepan and simmered slowly on the fire for one hour. fitted on a new rubber smoothly. Into a large saucepan she measured two quarts of cold water and one-half a cup of salt. she filled two sterilized pint jars with the onions. after which Adelaide divided the vinegar and spices equally between the two jars and filled them to overflowing with cold of vinegar The cup vinegar.130 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK thought she would never come to the end. covered. there seemed so many. She inserted a silver knife between the onions and the jars to let the air bubbles rise and break. After draining the onions well in the colander. pasted on th? .

The onions she placed in a stone jar and poured over a brine made of two quarts of boiling water and one-half of a cup of salt. dozen Bay leaf. 2 Onions (small white). pan and peeled the onions (with the little sharp knife) under running water to prevent the tears from falling. 1 quart Water Whole (boiling). These she covered and let stand over night. so that she could peel she let the cold water run in the . ^ cup 2 quarts 1 Vinegar. Salt. 131 in the preserve and stored the jars away Mother said these would need to stand a month before they would be ready to be eaten. what are called the " silver skins " or little white button After Adelaide poured boiling water on the them more easily. The next morning Adelaide emptied the onions. Pickled Onions No. Mace.FOR A LITTLE GIRL labels closet. One One blade in this recipe were The onions used onions. cloves.

At two the end of that time Adelaide filled the sterilized pint jars with the onions. poured over the hot vinegar and spices to overflowing. draining off the brine and rinsing them to Into a saucepan she poured enough vinegar cover the onions. added the dozen whole cloves. onions into the colander. the blade of let mace and the bay leaf and them come slowly to the boiling point. fitted all air bubbles rise and to the top and smoothly. on the new rubbers sealed the jars quickly. inserted a silver knife between the onions the jar to let break. then stood them upside down over night. Then she added the onions and moved the saucepan towards the back of the range to let it stand for fifteen minutes. wiped off thoroughly with a cloth damp and after the labels were pasted on. stored away in the preserve closet. Chili Sauce .132 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK in clear cold water. In the morning they were inspected carefully for any leaks.

FOR A LITTLE GIRL
Salt,

133
1 tablespoon

Mixed

spices (ground),

Ginger (ground),

IJ teaspoons ^ teaspoon
1
lb.

Sugar (brown),
Vinegar,

IJ cups

Over the tomatoes and onions Adelaide poured boiling water, then peeled them.

The red pepper
in halves,

she washed and wiped, cut

and removed the seeds. Through the meat chopper she put the tomatoes, onions, and pepper, then emptied them into a saucepan. To these Adelaide added the tablespoon of salt, the one and one-half teaspoons of ground mixed spices, the half teaspoon of ground ginger, the pound of brown sugar and the one and
one-half cups of vinegar.

Placing the saucepan over the

fire

she let

the contents come slowly to the boiling point,
stirring occasionally with the wooden spoon, and stewed the mixture gently for one-half

hour.
It

was then ready to pour Into the
These she
filled

sterilized

pint jars.

to overflowing, Inall

serted a silver knife around the sides to let

air bubbles rise to the top and break, fitted on the new rubbers, sealed quickly and stood upside down out of the way of any draft.

134

A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK

In the morning Adelaide looked the jars over carefuUy to be sure they did not leak, wiped the
outside thoroughly with a

damp

cloth,

pasted
in the

on the

labels,

then stored the jars

away

preserve closet.

joyed

Adelaide found that nearly everybody enthis " Chili Sauce " on Saturday night

with their beans.

was another general favorite, and the recipe came from a friend who had experimented with it a number of years so that now
Piccalilli

she considered the flavor exactly right.

IFOH
the

A LITTLE GIRL
onions
in layers.

l3*(

tomatoes,

arranged them

and half pepper, and Over each layer she
it

sprinkled salt (she was careful not to sprinkle

too much), then covered the bowl and let

stand over night.

In the morning she drained
pan.

off the

water and

emptied the contents of the bowl into the sauceAdelaide partly covered the tomatoes,
\*rith

onions and half pepper
sufficient cold

vinegar and added

water to just come to the top.

Then

she added the fourth of a

pound

of

brown

sugar and the fourth of a teaspoon of mixed

ground

spices.

The
the

sajicepan was placed over the

fire

and

ingredients

Adelaide

let

boil

for fifteen

minutes.

At

the end of that time she

filled

the ster-

ilized pint

jars to overflowing, inserted a silver

and on the new rubbers smoothly, sealed the jars quickly and stood them upside down out of the way of any draft. The next morning, after examining the jars to be sure they did not leak, Adelaide wiped off the outsides with a damp cloth, pasted on the labels and stored the jars away in the preserve
knife to let all air bubbles rise to the top
fitted

break,

closet.

136

A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK
Pepper Relish

sealed the jars quickly and stood them upside down out way any draft. pasted on the labels and stored the final results of her labor away in the preserve closet. of the on new rubbers smoothly. wiped off the outsides with a damp' cloth. Mustard Pickles No.FOR A LITTLE GlEL They boiled for three minutes laide drained 13^ and then Ade- them in the wire strainer until they were very dry. she added the tablespoon of salt. In the morning she looked the jars over careof fully to be sure that they did not leak. 1 . Returning to the saucepan. the cup of sugar and the pint of vinegar. After boiling all the ingredients together for filled twenty minutes Adelaide the sterilized pint jars to overflowing. inserted a silver knife to let all air bubbles rise to the top fitted and break.

pan of had added a handful of salt (this mother explained was to draw out any worms if there were any).138 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK 1^ tablespoons English mustard (ground). Then she sepThe cauliflower Adelaide stood in a cold water. These she added to the cucumbers. covered and stood for twenty-four hours. ^ tablespoon ^ cup Vinegar Sugar. This she poured over the mixture of vegetables. let the cold she peeled them — water run into the pan while if you peel onions under run- ning water you will not cry. At the end of that time she placed the sauce- . and wiped and placed then Adelaide covered the onions with boiling water for a few minutes. to which she arated the cauliflower into small flowers. It was then put through the meat chopper and added to the in halves other vegetables. Adelaide made a brine of one quart of water and one-half of a cup of salt. cutting off the thick stalk. cut and the seeds removed. Turmeric. Each tiny cucumber was washed in the saucepan. and added to the cucumbers and onions. The green pepper was washed and wiped.

the outsides were wiped oif with a damp cloth. stirring constantly with the wooden spoon. then turned them into the colander to Mixing together the one-fourth cup of English mustard. then added the vegetables and cooked until they were well heated throughout. the one and one-half tablespoons of ground table- spoon of turmeric powder with enough cold vine- gar to make a smooth paste. then Adelaide pasted on the labels and stored the pickles away in the preserve closet. fitted on the new rubbers smoothly. Adelaide added one-fourth of a cup of sugar and sufficient vinegar to make one and one-fourth pints in all. sealed the jars quickly and stood them upside down out of the way of any draft. fire 139 the contents heat and let through. and the one-fourth flour. Filling the sterilized pint jars to overflowing. In the morning the jars were carefully inspected to be sure that they did not leak. Adelaide inserted the silver knife to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break. . This mixture she boiled until it thickened and was smooth.FOR A LITTLE GIRL pan over the drain.

140 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Mustard Pickles No. . 2 Cucumbers (tiny).

the leaves and tough outside stalks removed. it was poured over the vegetables and stood over night. of one pepper. it was pulled apart into small flowers. After a brine of two and one-half quarts of cold water and a cup and a quarter of salt was made. and mixed with the_ other Over the little button onions or Adelaide poured boiling water. The celery was thoroughly washed. then removed the skins under running water (to prevent her from crying) and poured them into the bowl. then added to the cucumbers. cutting off the thick stalk. These were placed in the bowl vegetables. then Adelaide put them through the meat chopper and used the seeds of one-eighth cumbers and cauliflower. In the morning the vegetables were well drained in the colander and one and three- . silver skins. cauliflower was placed in a pan of cold salt water to which had been added a handful of was to draw out any insects or little worms that might be there).FOR A LITTLE GIRL The The (this 141 tiny cucumbers were washed and wiped carefully and placed in a large earthenware bowl. the sticks cut into small pieces about an inch long and added to the cuThe red and green peppers were washed and wiped and the seeds removed.

pasted on the labels and stored away in the preserve closet. 1 tablespoon . Ripe Cucumber Pickles Ripe cucumbers. Sealing new them quickly. Salt. The sterilized jars were filled at once to over- flowing. The next morning. them cook added one and one-fourth cups of sugar and two tea* pickles. next she Adding the spoons of celery seed. the silver knife inserted to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break. she wiped with a damp cloth. Mixing together one-fourth of a pound of English mustard. and the rubbers fitted on of smoothly.142 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK fourths quarts of vinegar was brought to the boiling point. Adelaide stood the jars upside down out of the way any it draft. one-fourth of an ounce of turmeric powder and three-eighths of a cup of flour with one cup of vinegar (added gradually so that it made a smooth paste) Adelaide poured this over the pickles and stirred with the wooden spoon until it just thickened. each jar to see that off the outsides after carefully inspecting did not leak. Adelaide let until they were perfectly tender. 2^ lbs.

cut them in quarters lengthwise and each quar- These she weighed. then poured at once into the jars so that it overflowed. adding the cucumbers she let them simmer for twenty minutes. she covered it and stood it away until the next day. Stick cinnamon. she rinsed the cucumbers thoroughly in several waters. when she lifted out the cucumbers with a silver fork and placed them in the sterilized pint jars. tablespoon of salt. the teaspoon of whole cloves and the stick of cinnamon (broken in small pieces) into a saucepan.FOR A LITTLE GIRL Water. 143 1 quart 2 cups f cup 1 teaspoon 1 stick Whole cloves. Adelaide washed and wiped the cucumbers. Adelaide boiled them for five minutes. The syrup she boiled for five minutes. Putting the two-thirds of a cup of vinegar. then steamed them for twenty minutes. the two cups of sugar. Sugar. Removing the saucepan. Vinegar. After allowing them to stand for twelve hours. Next she inserted the silver knife to let all air bubbles rise . then placed in an earthenware bowl and covered with a weak brine made of one quart of cold water and one ter in halves.

sealed quickly and stood upside down out of the way of any draft. Cinnamon (ground). and peeling the onion. the labels were pasted on and then Adelaide stored the away in the preserve closet. teaspoon teaspoon J teaspoon -J Cloves (ground). fitted to the top on the new rubbers smoothly. ^ teaspoon ^ teaspoon (scant) -J Mustard (ground). The green pepper was also washed and wiped and put through the meat chopper when she had removed the seeds. Placing these in an earthenware bowl. Small onion (chopped). Allspice (ground). Adelaide put them through the meat chopper. 1 pint One One 1 tablespoon Pepper. Chopped Pickles Green tomatoes (chopped). 1^ teaspoons 1 cup After washing and wiping the tomatoes. seed. Salt.144 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK and break. In the morning the jars were inspected carefully to see that they did not leak. the outsides were wiped clean with a jars damp cloth. Ade- . White mustard Vinegar. Small green pepper (chopped).

inserted a silver knife to let aU air bubbles rise to the top and break. the one-half teaspoon each of ground cinnamon. them slowly for She next filled the sterilized pint jar to over- flowing. and the one and one-half teaspoons of white mustard seed were placed in a saucepan and heated to the boiling point. after which Adelaide added the tomatoes. and stored the jar away Chow Chow Green tomatoes (small). and pepper. onion. 1 . the scant half teaspoon of ground mustard. allspice. fitted a new rubber on smoothly. Onions (small button). covered them. wiped the outside with a damp cloth. 1 dozen 1 dozen dozen Cucumbers (tiny). it upside down out of the way of any carefully to be sure that In the morning Adelaide examined the jar it did not leak. stood them aside for twenty-four hours and then drained them. the one-fourth teaspoon of pepper. and cloves. pasted on the label in the preserve closet. sealed the jar quickly and stood draft. The cup of vinegar.FOR A LITTLE GIRL 145 laide sprinkled a tablespoon of salt over them. cooking fifteen minutes.

teaspoon 1 tablespoon Vinegar. The cauliflower was placed in a pan of cold water.146 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK 1 dozen Cauliflower (small pieces). 1 dozen Mustard Turmeric powder. then cut in halves. the strings removed and each bean cut into small pieces. Clove (ground). All these Adelaide placed in a large earthen- ware bowl and sprinkled a tablespoon of salt over the vegetables. . 2 cups Adelaide had washed and wiped the When The tomatoes she cut them into quarters. Celery. Salt. The two white stalks of celery she washed and cut into The string beans were washed. inch pieces. letting them stand over night. Allspice (ground). The tiny cucumbers were washed and wiped. She added one tablespoon of salt (this drew out any insects or small worms that might be there). small button onions she peeled under running water. 2 seed. ^ ounce ^ ounce 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon 1 Pepper. sticks String beans. then draining them. wiped. then she broke off twelve small pieces.

the one- fourth ounce of turmeric powder. point. Salt. the new rubbers were fitted on sealed quickly. in preserve Pickled Red Cabbage One-half Red cabbage. and the jars down out of Then Adelaide stood them upthe way of any draft. Pepper. and clove and the two cups of vinegar Adelaide put in the saucepan and brought to the boiling she tender. pasted on the the labels and stored her work away closet. After which. side smoothly.FOR A LITTLE GIRL The 147 one-half ounce of mustard seed. pepper. the teaspoon each of allspice. seed. until added the vegetables sterilized pint jars and cooked were filled The to over- flowing. i teaspoon i teaspoon One-half Red pepper. the silver knife inserted to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break. i tablespoon 1 tablespoon 1 cup . Celery seed. In the morning Adelaide examined the jars to be sure that they did not leak. Mustard Vinegar. wiped off the outsides with a damp cloth.

Next morning. This with the one- half tablespoon of celery seed. removed the seed. the one-half teaspoon of salt. mustard and celery seeds as soon as they were cold. The air bubbles were forced to the top and broken by inserting a silver knife in the jar. then Adelaide sealed the jar quickly and stood it upside down over night. she wiped the jar on the outside with a label damp cloth. the tablespoon of mustard seed. After draining the cabbage she cut it into fine strips. pieces. The red pepper and cut into small she wiped. Packing the cabbage into a sterilized jar.148 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK salt. Adelaide stood the cabbage in a pan of cold water containing one tablespoon of This was to draw out any insects or worms that are sometimes found among the leaves. pasted on the and stored the pickled cabbage away in the preserve closet. the one-fourth teaspoon of pepper. Adelaide poured over the vinegar. a new rubber was fitted on. after examining see that it did it carefully to not leak. and the cup of vinegar Adelaide put into a saucepan and brought to the boiling point. .

Vinegar Onion. 149 Pickles J cup 1 quart Water. Measuring enough it vinegar to the jar. placed them in an earthenware bowl. one-half ounce of mus- tard seed. Next she in- . Mace. At the the end of this time Adelaide took out the cucumbers. These she covered with one quart of water and one-fourth of a cup of salt and let them stand then twenty-four hours. a tea- spoon of whole cloves. three blades of mace and one-half cup of grated horseradish. wiped each one. then added one of onion. and placed them in sterilized fill pint jar. Mustard seed. As soon it as the vinegar boiled Adelaide poured over the cucumbers at once. Adelaide poured slice into a saucepan. washed and wiped them. 1 teaspoon ^ ounce 3 blades J cup Adelaide measured enough of the tiny cucumbers to fill a pint jar.FOR A LITTLE GIRL Cucumber Tiny cucumbers Salt. Horseradish (grated). One slice Whole cloves.

Dropping them carefully into the syrup. then Adelaide pasted on the label and stored the outcome of her work away in the preserve closet. In the morning the jar was carefully spected to be sure it did not leak. then stood the jar upside down in- over night.150 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK serted a silver knife in the jar to force all air bubbles to the top. fitted on a new rubber. Cloves (ground). the pound of sugar and the teaspoon each of cloves and cinnamon into a saucepan. she lifted the tomatoes into the sterilized jar and poured . pound 1 cup First Adelaide measured out the cup of vine- gar. the outside was wiped off with a damp cloth. While these were boiling for five minutes. Plum Tomato Plum tomatoes (small Cinnamon (ground). sealed quickly. Vinegar. Adelaide washed and wiped the tomatoes. 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon 1 Sugar. Pickles 1 dozen yellow). Taking care not to break the fruit. Adelaide let the tomatoes simmer gently until they could be pierced easily with a silver fork.

Removing the saucepan from the fire. pasted on the label and stored the jar away in the preserve closet. to remove the skins. sealed the jar quickly and stood it upside down out of the way of any draft. After cutting them into quarters. After inserting a silver knife between the jar and the fruit to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break. ^ cup teaspoons 1^ Black pepper. Adelaide placed several large tomatoes in a pan and covered them with boiling water. Adelaide poured the tomatoes . Cayenne pepper. The next morning she inspected the jar carefully to be sure it did not leak. Tomato Catsup Ripe tomatoes Vinegar.FOR A LITTLE GIRL 151 on the syrup to overflowing. Mustard. It was then easy. Salt. she put the tomatoes into a saucepan and let them just come to the boiling point. Adelaide fitted on a new rubber smoothly. wiped off the outside with a damp cloth. she found. J teaspoon ^ teaspoon f teaspoon | cup Sugar (brown).

and one-fourth of a cup of brown sugar. . one-eighth of a tea- spoon of cayenne pepper. then poured them into filled She the bottles clear to the top allowing just enough room for the cork. ingredients together thickened.152 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK them through. " Mother. After putting on the label. and into the colander. Adelaide stored the jar away in the preserve closet. and as soon as those big beauties on Daddy's tomato plants are ripe enough you shall have them for your own. three-fourths of a teaspoon of dry mustard." answered mother. three-fourths of a teaspoon of black pepper. my dear. Adelaide boiled these until they bottles. " how do you put up tomatoes? I mean ones like those you use for tomato bisque and scalloped tomatoes? " " There is nothing simpler. which she pressed in tightly. then dipped the top of the bottle into melted paraffin. pressed then pressed them again through a sieve." said Adelaide one morning. one and one-half teaspoons of salt. To one pint of pressed tomatoes Adelaide added one-fourth of a cup of vinegar.

sufficiently ripe she Placing the tomatoes in a pan. then she ilized pint filled the ster- jars at once. Adelaide let these come just to the boiling point. pasted damp on the then stored the jar away in the preserve . she covered them with boiling water for about a minutcj drained off the water. closet. it did not leak. 153 1 dozen Adelaide watched those tomatoes every day. wiped off cloth. and let it stand upside down out of the way of any draft. peeled them and cut them into quarters. The next morning Adelaide examined the jar sealed the jar quickly thoroughly to be sure the outside with a label. Adelaide inserted the silver knife in the jar to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break.FOR A LITTLE GIRL Tomatoes Ripe tomatoes. In let filling the jars Adelittle laide was careful not to any of the seeds of the tomatoes remain on the rubber as they might prevent the jar from being perfectly tight. fitted on new rubbers smoothly. air- As usual. and as soon as they were picked them.

The jars are then sealed. This is what the government says " By the Single Period Cold-Pack method — ' ' it is as easy to can vegetables as to can fruits. Adelaide was much pleased and she and mother pored over it eagerly. then quickly cold- dipped and packed at once into hot jars and sterilized in boiling water or by steam pressure. Mother picked out the " Single Period Cold-Pack " method as being the simplest and best for a little girl." . vegetables or fruits are blahehed The prepared in boiling water or live steam. tested for leaks and stored.154 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK CHAPTER VIII CANNING THE GOVERNMENT WAY Eaely in the summer a friend who was doing government extension work in one of our New England states sent Adelaide a book on " Home Canning " that the government had published.

and having a closely fitting cover. method commends it. The simplicitj of the Fruits are put up in syrups. texture and flavor to the vegetable or fruit canned.FOR A LITTLE GIRL The 155 Single Period Cold-Pack method is a and sure way of canning. off the inch of water above jars.screw-top jars. may be bought for a small sum. Vegetables require only salt for flavorfill ing and water to the container. —A serviceable Single Period Cold-Pack canning outfit of equipment found in almost Any utensil large and deep enough to allow an be used for sterilizing. The Homemade Outfit. In using this method sterili- zation is completed in a single period. For lifting glass top jars use two buttonhooks or a similar device. fuel and labor. suitable lifters For lifting . may Into this utensil should be placed a wire or wooden rack to hold the jars bottom and to per- mit circulation of water underneath the jars. Another advantage is that' it is practicable to put up food in small as well as large quantities. saving time. It insures simple a good color. Single Period Cold-Pack Equipment may be made any household. .

— Fit it top to jar. If top should not be used on that The top bail should not be too tight nor too loose. may be used.156 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Containers For home use glass jars are more satisfac- tory for canning. All sharp edges on top and jar should be filed or scraped off. Jars having glass tops held in place by bails are especially easy to handle while they are hot. can be used for jams. Some of the important tests are here given: Glass-top Jars. marmalades and Tests for Jars and Rubbers Jars should be tested before they are used. seal readily Glass jars properly cared All types of jars which for will last for years. If either too tight or too loose the bail should be taken off and bent until it goes in- to place with a light snap. Tops for Economy jars must be purchased new each year. Small necked bottles can be used for holding fruit juices. Large mouthed bottles jellies. rocks when tapped jar. .

Rubbers. This is It insures the best pack and uniformity of flavor and texture to the canned product. — Be very about the rubbers used. lac- quered or vulcanized tops. 157 — Use only enameled. thick. Grading Vegetables and fruits should be sorted ac- cording to color. and then pull it is If the rubber returns to place fit properly and should not be particular used on that jar. called grading. . It is always well to test rubbers when buying. A It should fairly wide fit the neck of the jar snugly. Screw the top on If thumb nail can is be inserted between top and jar. size and ripeness. which is always desirable. good rubber will return to its original size when stretched. can be bent so that the rubber out. deit If the edge is only slightly uneven usable. tightly without the rubber. the top fective. Buy new rubbers every year as they deteriorate from one season to another. When pinched it does not crease. and be and It is cheaper to discard a doubtful rubber than to lose a jar of canned goods.FOR A LITTLE GIRL Screw-top Jars. the top does not Put on the rubber and screw on the top tightly.

in a container. should not be in a colan- They must be blanched them To do this place der and set this into a vessel which has a tightly fitting cover. which storage Blanching consists of plunging the vegetables or fruits into boiling water for a short time.158 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Blanching and Cold-Dipping The most important steps in canning are the preliminary steps of blanching. clean containers. fifteen minutes. as shown in the Spinach and other greens blanched in hot water. In this vessel there should . For doing this place them in a wire basket or piece of cheesecloth. thorough cleansing and removes objectionable odors and flavors and excess acids. The blanching time varies from one to time-table. the bulk of greens and causes fruits. increasing the It reduces shrinkage of quantity which saves may be packed space. Blanching is with all vegetables and many fruits. in steam. cold-dipping. adding hot water at once. of products is Spoilage necessary It insures nearly always due to carelessness in one of these steps. then immediately half sealing jars and putting into the sterilizer. packing in hot.

cetnning until Do not undertake you have familiarized yourself with the various steps. Fruits should be as fresh as pos- . Vegetables should be canned as soon as possible after being picked. It hiirdferis the pulp in the product. the best. and sets the coloring matter Steps in the Single Period Cold-Pack Method In canning by the Single Period Cold-Pack method it is important that careful attention be given to each detail. water.: FOR A LITTLE GIRL riot 159 be an inch or two of water. low the water to boil in the closed vessel from fifteen to twenty minutes. is Another This method vessel to Suspend the greens in the closed above an inch or two of water. which are as follows 1. the blanching is When complete remove the vegetables or fruits from the boiling water or steam and plunge them once or twice into cold water. Do not allow them to stand in the cold is This latter process the Cold Dip. but the water must be allowed to touch the greens. same day is Early morning is the best time for gath- ering them. may Al- be done in a wire basket or in cheesecloth. sible.

the syrup to be used in canning the jars. The pits should be removed from cherries. rubbers and tops should be clean and hot. including instructions. but do not allow product to stand in cold water at this or any other stage. soaked 1 hour in salted water. to prevent bruising. Billing all Arrange on 3. Prepare vegetable or fruit. Cold-dip. Remove all but an inch of the tops from beets. this working table necessary equipment. A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Before starting work have on the stove the boiler or other holder in which the sterilizing is to be done. fruits. colander and wash. or. a pan of boiling water for use in blanching and a kettle of boiling water for if use in filling jars of vegetables. peaches and apricots. by allowing cold water to flow over them. 4. Pare squash. Blanch in boiling water or steam as directed. All jars. . to remove inPut berries into a sects if any are present.) 6. 6. Large vegetables should be cut into pieces to make close pack possible. remove seeds and cut in small pieces. 7. parsnips and carrots and the strings from green beans. Wash and grade product according to (Cauliflower should be size and ripeness.160 2. Test jars and tops.

to insure a close pack. If the tops. be- gin to count sterilizing time when the water be- . (In canning berries. free. Add salt to cover them. and boiling water to vegetables To fruits add hot syrup or water. leaving lower bail or snap.FOR A LITTLE GIRL 8. to within i to J inch of tops.) 9. and top on jar. Place wet rubber 11.) 12. In using the hot-water bath outfit. 10. Continue in this manner with other layers until jar is filled. (This partial sealing possible for steam generated within the jar to escape. Place the jars on rack in boiler or other home-made hot-water bath outfit is used enough water should be in the boiler to come at least one inch above the tops of the jars. in boiling out. and prevents breakage. With a bail-top jar adjust top bail only. and the water. put a 2 or 3 inch layer of berries on the bottom of the jar and press down gently with a wooden spoon. 161 Pack in hot jars which rest on hot cloths Fill the jars or stand in a pan of hot water. Fruits cut in half should be ar- ranged with pit surface down. using only the thumb and makes it little finger. With screw top jar screw the top on lightly. should never be allowed to drop to the level of these sterilizer.

done by pushing the snap down. Let them cool rapidly but be sure that no draft reaches them as a draft will cause breakage. this is With bail- top jars with tightly. or as soon as they . Turn the jars upside down as a test for till leakage and leave them in this position cold. The water must be kept boiling all during the when it is period of sterilization.) With screw-top jars try the tops while the jars are cooling. Place them on a wooden rack or on several thicknesses of cloth to prevent break- agew Complete the sealing of jars.162 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Water is gins to boil. Water is not boiling when bubbles merely form on the bottom or when they begin to rise to the top. If the top comes off put on a new wet rubber and sterilize 15 minutes longer for fruits. any doubt that a bail-top jar is permay be made by loosening the top bail and lifting the jar by taking (If there is fectly sealed a simple test hold of the top with the fingers. jars screw-top by screwing cover on 14. The internal suction should hold the top tightly in place when thus lifted. 13. Consult time table and at the end of the required sterilizing period remove the jars from the sterilizer. at the boiling point jumping or rolling all over.

wrap each jar in paper. If the place of storage not a frost-proof the jars should be moved to warmer place when the weather becomes severe.FOR A LITTLE GIRL have cooled. The boxes in which jars were bought affords a good storage place. label and store. If storage place is exposed to light. 15. screwing on more closely. preferably brown. and. Wash and dry each jar. . Caution Against Freezing Care should be taken to store canned vegetables and fruits where they will be protected is from freezing. as light wUl fade the color of products canned in glass. if 163 tighten them by loose.

. 10 to 15 5 5 to 10 5 to 10 . sour Cur-<ints . Squash Tomatoes Fbcits 6 to 10 See directions To loosen skins 120 90 120 120 60 90 180 120 180 120 90 120 180 120 90 120 120 120 22 Apples . . Stebilizinq 1 Veqetables Blanching Hot Water Minvies Minutes Asparagus Beets . . . Dewberries . . . . . . Okra Parsnips Peppers Peas Pumpkin Salsify Sauerkraut String Beans . 1 14 1 to Apricots Blackberries Blueberries . . . sweet Cherries. 2 none none none none none none 20 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 . . . . . . . and also steriUzing time. . . Brussels Sprouts Cabbage . . .164 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK for Time Table Blanching and Sterilizing The following time table shows blanching time for various vegetables and fruits. . . . . . .. . Cherries. . Cauliflower Carrots 3 5 5 to 10 15 5 to 10 5 to 10 5 5 to 10 5 to 10 See directions 5 Com Greens Lima Beans . .. . .

.... .. ... . . . . .. Strawberries . . .. .. Fruits without sugar .FOR A LITTLE GIRL VEGETA£LBS 165 Blawchinq Gooseberries Oranges Pears Peaches . . . Plums Pineapples Quinces Raspberries Rhubarb ... .

then turn so that the entire bundle minutes lohger. Cold-dip. is blanched 5 string. with tip ends up. Remove 1 Pack. salt Add teaspoonful of and cover with boiling water. teaspoonfuls.166 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR CANNING VEGETABLES The addition of 1 level teaspoonful of salt is to. Blanch tough ends from 5 to 10 minutes. Put on rub- ber top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and cool. scrape off scales and tough skin. complete seal and Beets Use only small ones. For 2 quart jar use 2 Asparagus Wash. For pint jar use ^ teaspoonful. Blanch . a jar of vegetables for quart jars. little finger. in hot-water bath. Sterilize 120 minutes Remove. With a string bind together enough for one jar. Wash and cut off all but an inch or two of root and leaves.

Cabbage and Brussels Sprouts The method »jept is the same as for cauliflower. tender carrots. wash. Sterilize 90 minutes in hot-water bath. Sterilize 90 minutes in hot-water bath. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and little finger. Leave an inch or two of stems. Carrots Select small. ex- that the vegetables are not soaked in salted water. Cauliflower Wash and divide head into small pieces.FOR A LITTLE GIRL stems. Then remove skin and stems. Remove. complete seal and cool. Sterilize 120 minutes in hot-water bath. complete seal and cool. in salted Soak water 1 hour. Blanch 5 to 10 minutes. blanch 5 minutes and colddip. or in slices. cold-dip and scrape off skin and They may be packed in jar sliced or and cover Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and little finger. Pack whole add 1 teaspoonful of salt and cover with boiling water. whole. 1 teaspoonful of salt Add with boiling water. which will remove insects . Remove. 107 6 minutes.

(Mineral matter lost if blanched in water. put on rubber and top. as corn swells during Add teaspoonful of salt and cover with boiling water. Blanch in is steam 15 minutes. 180 minutes in hot-water Remove. older ears 10 minutes. Sterilize Greens Wash of until no dirt can be felt in the bottom the pan. and cut from cob.168 if A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK any are present. except for tion purposes. For home use remove the husks and blanch tender ears 5 minutes. adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and little finger. silk. cold-dip and pack in jar. sterilization. Remove.) Cold-dip. cold-dip. cut in small pieces and pack or pack . Pack 1 lightly to within ^ inch of the top of the jar. complete seal and cool. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and little finger. Sterilize 60 minutes in hot-water bath. Com Canning corn on the cob. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt and cover with boiling water. complete seal and cool. Blanch 3 minutes. is exhibi- a waste of space. bath.

Cold-dip. adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and little finger. Sterilize 120 minutes in hot-water bath. complete seal and cool. Sterilize 120 minutes in hotwater bath. Add 1 tea- spoonful of salt to each jar and cover with Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and little finger. Put on rubber and top. Add 1 tea- spoonful of salt and cover with boiling water. Okra Wash and remove minutes. and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and little finger. Parsnips The method is the same as for carrots. . complete seal and cool. plete seal Remove. boiling water. bath. add 1 teaspoonful of salt and cover with boiling water. Blanch 5 to 10 minutes. Blanch 5 to 10 and pack in jar. Sterilize 180 minutes in hot-water Remove. com- and cool. cold-dip stems. Put on rubber and top. 169 Do not pack too tightly. Remove. pack in jar. Lima Beans Shell.FOR A LITTLE GIRL whole.

put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and Sterilize little finger. 120 minutes in hot-water bath. salt grown are best for Shell. cold-dip and pack in jar.sh into strips. move. small pieces into Pack in jar and sterilize and boil until thick. . cold-dip. 120 minutes in hot- water bath. stem and remove seeds. Re- Pumpkin. add 1 teaspoonful of fully and cover with boiling water. complete seal and cool. Sterilize 180 minutes in hot-water bath. on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and little finger. Winter Squash Remove Slice seed. blanch 5 to 10 minutes and Pack in jar. Peppers Wash. Cut the pumpkin or squa. complete seal and cool. If the jar is packed too full some of the peas will break and Put give a cloudy appearance to the liquid. Bls^pch B tp 10 minutes. Remove. Cover with boiling water. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt. Peel and remove stringy center.170 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Peas Those which are not canning.

put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and Uttle finger. cover with boiling water. Put on top and rubber and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and finger. depending on age. Put on rubber and top atld adjust top bail or screw top on Sterilize 120 minwith thumb and little finger. cut in slices ^ or small pieces and blanch 10 minutes. Sterilize String Beans remove ends and strings and cut Blanch from 5 into small pieces if desired.FOR A_ LITTLE GIRL Salsify 171 Wash. It may be packed whole or in salt. cold-dip and scrape slices. to 10 minutes. Add 1 teaspoonful of and cover with boillittle ing water. SteriUze . 90 minutes in hot-water bath. Wash and pack immediately in jar. pack in jars. Cold-dip. Summer Squash Pare. add 1 tea- spoonful of salt. off skin. add 1 teaspoonful salt and cover with boiling water. Cold-dip. Removej complete seal utes in hot'water bath^ and cool. blanch 5 minutes. complete seal and cool. Remove.

THE CANNING OF FRUITS For fruits. as shown in the table. plete seal and cool. where un- . packed closely into jars and sterilized 25 minutes in hot-water bath. fruits should be blanched before canning. cold-dip and remove Pack whole in jar. blanch until skins are loose. as well as for vegetables. Period Cold-Pack method With some fruits are exceptions. sized tomatoes. Wash them. When intended for table use. complete seal and cool. If this is done do not add any liquid. 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and little finger. syrup should be poured over them to fill the jars. the Single is best. Tomatoes Take medium the skins. Remove. Sterilize 22 minutes in hot-water bath. Tomatoes may be cut in pieces. In canning fruits to be used for pie-filling or in cooking.172 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Remove. filling the spaces with tomato pulp made by cooking large and broken tomatoes until done and then straining and adding of the pulp. com- 120 minutes in hot-water bath.

as follows These syrups are made to — part sugar 4 parts water. Use thin syrup with sweet fruits.: FOR A LITTLE GIRL used instead of syrup. 173 is sweetened fruits are desirable. Medium — part sugar 2 parts Thick — part sugar part Thin 1 1 to water. Use medium syrup with sour fruits. and water until all the sugar dissolved. Boil the sugar is . Thick syrup is used in candying and preserving. 1 to 1 water. Syrups In the directions given various grades of syrup are mentioned. boiling vater When boiling water is thus used the sterilization period in hot-water bath is thirty minutes. .

pack into jar and cover with water or thin syrup. Blanch 1 to 2 minutes. In canning sauce fill jars with the hot sauce and sterilize 12 minutes in hot-water bath.174 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR CANNING FRUITS Apples Wash. Wash. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and little finger. Apricots Use only ripe fruit. quarter or slice and drop into weak salt water. Blanch IJ minutes. pare. cut in half and remove pit. is Apples shrink during sterilization and for this reason economy of space obtained by the canning them in the form of sauce instead of in quarters or slices. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on . Pack in jar and cover with medium syrup. cold-dip. Sterilize for 20 minutes in hot-water bath.

Sterilize 16 ihinute^ in hot-water batht Remove. Sterilise 16 minutes in hbt-wd. Cherries Chefries should be pitted before being caniled.FOE A LITTLE GIRL with thumb and little finger. Remove. 16 minutes in hot-water bath. cooi and store.tef seal batli. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw on top with thumb dnd little finger. Blueberries Cuirants The method Sterilize is Loganberries Raspberries the same as for blackberries. 115 utes in hot-water bath. complete seal. Sterilize 16 minRemove. cbfnplete seal and cooL . finger. pack closely and cover with medium Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw on top with thumb and little syrup. Pack in jar and cover with medium syrup. Blackberries Wash. complete and cool.

If soft ripe. screw on top with thumb and ilize little finger. 25 minutes.176 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Pears Peel and drop into salt water to prevent dis- Blanch 1^ minutes. Remove. Ster- 20 minutes in hot-water bath. Peaches skins. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or coloration. Wash. A slice of lemon may be added to the contents of each jar for flavor. flesh is very firm. sterilize if 16 minutes in hot- water bath. whole or in quarters. Some peaches do not dipped in boiling water. ' Plums syrup. and cover with thin syrup. top bail finger. complete seal and cool. Blanch in boiling water long enough to loosen Cold-dip and remove skins. Remove. Cut in half and remove thin syrup. pack in jar and cover with medium Put on rubber and top and adjust top . peel readily even if In such cases omit dipping in boiling water and pare them. Pack in jar. complete seal and cool. Pack in jar and cover with Put on rubber and top and adjust or screw on top with thumb and little stones.

in jar. Rhubarb Wash and ber cut into short lengths. remove eyes. Re- move. complete seal and cool. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw on top with thumb and little finger. seal and cool. Pineapples Pare. shred or cut into or small pieces. Sterilize pack 30 minutes in hot-water bath. complete minutes in hot-water bath. slices and Cover with medium syrup. . blanch 3 to 5 minutes. plete seal Remove. Put on rub- and top and adjust top bail or screw on Sterilize 20 top with thumb and little finger. Quinces The method is the same as for apples. com- apd cool. 20 min- utes in hot-water bath. Cover with boiling water or thin syrup. or screw on top with thumb and Sterilize 16 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove. Sterilize They may be canned with apples.FOR A LITTLE GIRL bail 177 little finger.

put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw on top with thumb and little finger. complete and cool.178 A LITTLE PRESERVING ^BOOK Strawberries Wash and pack closely in jar. . Sterilize l6 minutes in hot-water seal baths Rembve. Cover with medium syrup.

Cook slowly of until the fruits are Strain through a bag made of flannel or thicknesses two cheesecloth or similar material. remove stems and cut large fruits into pieces. jelly must be made from Pectin fruit juice containing pectin and acid. gives. and gathered but a short time. the right consistency to jelly. Wash them. Fruits to be used should be sound. gently ro- . To this add 1 table- spoonful of grain alcohol and mix. Test for Pectin To 1 determine if the juice contains pectin. just ripe or slightly under-ripe. when cooked with sugar and acid. In using fruits which are not juicy cover them with water. is a substance in the fruit which soluble in hot water and which. boil tablespoonful and cool.FOR A LITTLE GIRL 1T9 PRINCIPLES OF JELLY MAKING To is be satisfactory. after cooling. soft. With juicy fruits add just enough water to prevent burning while cooking.

currants. green gooseberries or wild cherries. -J If it collects in several small particles use as much sugar is as If the presence of pectin not shown as described it should be supplied by the addi- tion of the juice of slightly under-ripe fruits. Measure the juice and sugar. The jelly point is reached when the juice drops as one mass from when two drops run together and fall as one from the side of the spoon. use much sugar as juice. green grapes. this indicates that in making jelly one part of If sugar should be used to one part of juice. pour into sterilized glasses and cool as quickly as possible. Skim the juice. The sugar may be spread on a platter and heated. If a mass — which Allow the mixture to is pectin — cool. A toothpick run around the edge while the paraffin is still hot the jelly is When cold .180 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK solid tating the glass. Currant and green the side of a spoon or grape require 8 to 10 minutes' boiling to reach the jelly point while all other juices require from 20 to 30 minutes. it Do not let scorch. f to f as juice. pour over the surface a layer of hot paraffin. crab-apples. Boil rapidly. When the juice begins to boil add the sugar. collects. such as apples. the pectin collects in two or three masses.

Three or more extractions of juice may be made from fruit. The juice resulting from the second and third extractions If the third extraction may be combined.FOR A LITTLE GIRL will 181 give a better seal. Jelly Making without Test but it is The test for pectin is desirable. When the first extraction is well drained cover the pulp with water and let it simmer 30 minutes. boil it until it is as thick as the first. Drain. the For the third extraction proceed in same manner. In some states it is inconvenient be- cause of the difficulty of obtaining grain alcohol. The first pec- should be saved for comparison with the others. Protect the paraffin with a cover of metal or paper. If the second. shows much pectin a fourth extraction tin test may be made. not essential. and test juice for pectin. For . A large percentage of housewives test. make jelly without this and satisfactory it if results may be obtained without care is taken to follow directions and to use the right fruits. then add the sugar called for. third or fourth extraction of juice is found thinner than the first extraction.

quinces. with the juice of currants and under-ripe grapes use 1 cup of sugar to 1 cup of juice. sour apples. The pectin may be supplied by the addition of the juice of crab-apples or under-ripe grapes. pear. quince. wild cherries and green gooseberries use f cup of sugar to 1 cup of juice. fruits which are ideal for the purpose. This applies to the first extraction of juice and to the later extractions when they first have been boiled to the consistency of the extraction. sour apples. blueberries. . berries. blackberries. In making jelly without the alcohol test. and green gooseberries. blueberries. With raspcherries. crab-apples. These include currants.182 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK is the itiexperienced jelly maker the Safe rule confine jelly to making to the crab-apples. Fruits which contain pectin but lack suffi- cient acid are peach. under-ripe grapes. blackberries. quinces. These contain pectin and acid in sufiicient quantities. Ivild raspberries. With these acid may be added by the use of juice of crab-apples or under-ripe Strawberries and cherries have acidity but lack pectin. grapes. sweet apple and guava.

and pour into ster- Winter Jelly Making Fruit juices jelly may be canned and made into as wanted during the winter. and with the larger fruits cut into quarters. tender. Allow 1 sterilized cup of sugar to 6 cups of juice." juice begins to boil. When the boiling juice reaches the jelly point. Put absorbent cotten into the necks of bottles and when the bottles are taken from the bath . Put into a test juice for pectin as described.FOR A WTTLE GIRL Directions for Jelly 183 Making Wash. remove stems. sugar bottles Boil juice and into for 5 minutes. is AUow to simmer until the fruit bag to drain. AUow 20 to 30 minutes. If jars are used half seal them during the simmering. Measure juice test and sugar in proportions indicated hy the for pectin or as (Liv^cted under " Jelly Mak- ing without Test. If desired. Put into a saucepan and cover with water. with the water reaching to the neck of the containers. to simmer Put into hot-water bath. Add the sugar when the The sugar may he heated before being added.. Pour or jars. skim ilized glasses.

If the pulp is coarse it should be put through a wire sieve or colander. pare and Cover with there are any. Pour the butter into sterilized jar. be boiled and dried to prevent also be boiled in paraflSn They may to make them bottles After corking the air-tight. a brush. taste Add sugar to when the boiling is two-thirds done. wormy or have been remove seeds if Wash. put on rubber and cover and adjust top bail. stirring often." adding enough sugar to give the amount called for. Spices may be added to suit the taste when the boiling is completed. first Corks should shrinking. water and cook 3 or 4 hours at a low temperature. the FRUIT BUTTERS iFruit butters may be made from good sound fruits or the sound portions of fruits which are bruised.184 put A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK in corks. apply melted paraffin to the tops with seal. until the mixture is of the consistency of thick apple sauce. Put into a con- . forcing the cotton into the neck. In making jeUy from these juices during the winter follow the " Directions for Jelly Making. to make an air-tight Each bottle should be labeled and the label should specify amount of sugar used.

To is cider should this add 4 quarts of apples peeled and cut in small pieces. Dip in cold water. in 185 Pour an inch or so of water and sterilize quart jar or smaller jar 5 minutes after the steam begins to escape. peel and Mash and cook them without add- . lowing the directions for apple butter with cider Peach Butter Dip peaches stone them. push snap in place and Apple Butter with Cider be boiled Four quarts of sweet or sterilized down to 2 quarts. When spice two-thirds done add one pound of sugar. cool. all- One-half teaspoonful each of cinnamon.FOR A LITTLE GIRL tainer having a cover and false bottom. until the cider does BoU this mixture not separate from the pulp. Pour into sterilized jars and sterilize 5 minutes in steam. and cloves may be added. Remove. fol- Apple and pear butter may be made by but omitting the cider. If the texture of the apples coarse they should be boiled and put through a strainer before being added to the cider. in boiling water long enough to loosen the skins.

stirring often. Apple Butter with Grape Juice To every 4 quarts of strained apple sauce add 1 pint of grape juice. . much sugar as Pour into sterilized following the di- jars and sterihze 5 minutes in steam. 1 cup of brown sugar and ^ teaspoonful of salt. pack in sterilize hot jars and 5 minutes in steam. Soak dried peaches over until Cook slowly tender. until thick. Pack in hot jars and sterilize 5 minutes in steam. strain pulp through a colander. If a fine texture is desired. Plum butter may be made rections for peach butter. When done stir in 1 teaspoonful of cinnamon. stirring often. peaches add 1 2 pounds of dried quart of canned peaches and If each To pounds of sugar. Cook slowly.186 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Add half as ing any water. ' Dried Peach Butter night. Cook slowly. until of the desired thickness. pulp and cook until thick.

" Oh." said laughingly to the little girl. thus giving the friend a chance to recover from her surprise.' just as the government told us. although we could have preserved them by the Lime Method ' if we had wished. while Adelaide's mother shook with silent laughter. A dear. no. . instead of the desire for which the friend had at first in- gentle teasing tended. " Suppose you read what the government says about eggs. you have not forgotten eggs. thirty dozen ' ulting at her little daughter's instant reply." The friend's face was a study." said mother." replied Adelaide. exdone those.FOR A LITTLE GIEL 187 CHAPTER IX THE GOVERNMENT WAY OF PRESERVING EGGS FEiEND hearing of Adelaide's " Preserving efforts." " we've already Mother ordered a whole crate of and we preserved them in * water glass. " I hope!. All unconsciously she of had commanded a feeling profound respect.

if possible." and this card: is what she read from its proper During the spring and early summer. May. Fresh eggs properly preserved may be kept for 8 to 12 months in excellent condition and used with good results. and washing removes a protective coating which prevents spoiling. infertile. when placed in the and therefore cannot be preserved. Under no circumstances float Eggs that solution are not fresh should badly soiled eggs be used for preserving if put into the jar while dirty they will spoil. attention should be given to preserving them for winter use. and early June have been found to keep better than those laid later in the season.. When an egg is only slightly soiled. Eggs laid during April. the eggs should be fresh and clean and. a cloth dampened with vinegar can be used to remove such stains. or water glass. 188 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK little Adelaide at once went for her "wooden box. If . Water-Glass Method A good method for the preservation of eggs is the use of sodium silicate. when eggs are abundant and reasonable in price. If satisfactory results are to be obtained.

in the solu- The eggs should be placed is first If stifficient eggs are not obtainable when made. after which it should be scalded and allowed to dry. dry place. silicate. Use 1 quart of sodium silicate to 9 quarts of Place water that has been boiled and cooled. will This be sufficient to preserve 15 dozen eggs and as a guide for the quantity needed to will serve preserve larger numbers of eggs. the mixture in a 6-gallon crock or jar. (5) Place the crock containing the preserved eggs in a cool. stirring the mixture thoroughly. eggs may be preserved at a cost of ap- proximately 2 cents a dozen. additional eggs may Be very careful to be added from time to time.FOR A LITTLE GIRL the price of 189 about 30 cents a It is not desir- sodium silicate is quart. (2) Heat a quantity it of water to the boiling point and allow to cool. able to use the water-glass solution a second time. place in the crock. and add 1 quart of sodium (4) tion. the solution allow at least two inches of the solution to cover the eggs at all times. (1) Select a 5-gallon crock and clean it thoroughly. measure out 9 quarts of water. (3) When it cool. well covered to prevent .

Sometimes a pound of salt is used with the lime. cool. the fol- may be used in its stead. fresh eggs in a clean earthenware crock or jar and pour the clear limewater into the vessel until the eggs are covered. Place clean. tied around the top of the crock answer this purpose. Dissolve 2 or 3 pounds of unslaked lime in S gallons of water that has previously been boiled and allowed to and allow the mixture to stand until the lime settles and the liquid is clear. properly preserved. Many method entirely satisfactory. clean eggs. can be used satisfactorily for all purposes in cook- . is more Using Preserved Eggs Fresh. Lime Method When water lowing method consider this glass cannot be obtained. but experience has shown that in general the lime without the salt satisfactory. At least 2 inches of the solution should cover the top layer of eggs.190 A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK Waxed paper covered over and will evaporation. though instances are known where eggs so preserved have tasted slightly of lime.

FOR A LITTLE GIRL ing and for the table. And she (the friend) did. " I most certainly shall. 191 eggs preserved in When water glass are to be boiled. well. THE END ." suggested Adelaide innocently." and you will be interested know that found it efforts at she was just as successful in her " preserving " as was Adelaide. " I shall certainly hints know where to come when I need any new on preserving. " Well." said the friend." answered the friend. to allow the air in the This is done egg to escape when heated so as to prevent cracking. a small hole should be made in the shell with a pin at the large end before placing them in the water. Jessie May little could hardly wait for her copy of the " to book. and also very interesting work." these recipes (touching the cards in " the When little 'wooden box' lovingly) are made an idea that has been suginto a little book perhaps you could buy gested to mother — — one.

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INDEX CONSERVES PACE Apricot Conserve 109 Peach Conserve 110 Ill Plum Conserve Rhubarb Conserve 107 JAMS Jam Blackberry Jam Black Currant Jam Damson Plum Jam Gooseberry Jam Green-Gage Plum Jam Large Blue Plum Jam Raspberry Jam Raspberry and Red Currant Jam Red Currant Jam Rhubarb and Fig Jam Strawberry Jam Barberry 38 32 31 36 33 35 34 27 29 30 39 25 JELLIES Apple Jelly Barberry Jelly Blackberry Jelly Black Ciurant Jelly Crab Apple Jelly Cranberry Jelly 193 I 59 62 47 50 60 66 .

Peach Marmalade No. 2 .194 Cranberry and Apple Jelly INDEX PAOB Jelly Jelly .13 15 17 18 21 Plum Marmalade Prune Marmalade Quince Marmalade 8S 20 MISCELLANKOUS Blanching and Cold-Dipping Canning of Fruits Caution against Freezing Containers Directions for Jelly 158 172 163 156 183 Making Grading Jelly 167 181 Principles of Jelly Making without Test Making 179 . Quince and Apple Jelly • 68 58 52 63 65 Red Currant Jelly Bed Currant and Raspberry Jelly Red Currant and White Currant Jelly Spiced Blackberry Jelly 42 . 23 10 8 . 46 44 49 53 55 Wild Cherry Jelly Wild Grape Jelly Wild Plum Jelly 66 MARMALADES Apple Marmalade .. Apricot Marmalade Orange Marmalade Orange and Grapefruit Marmalade Orange and Rhubarb Marmalade Peach Marmalade . . ... Damson Plum Green Gooseberry Quince Jelly . .

. «. 85... . . ... FAGB 165 159 173 179 Steps in the Single Period Cold-Pack Syrups Test tor Pectin Tests for Jars and Rubbers Time Table for Blanching and Sterilizing 158 164-165 183 Winter Jelly Making PRESERVING AND CANNING Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Apples Apples (without sugar) Apricots 90.nned Okra Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Canned Peaches No.INDEX Single Period Cold-Pack 195 Equipment .. . . 175 Com Cr^b Apples Currants 168 87 175 Greens 168 169 175 169 169 1 . . 174 Asparagus Beets Blackberries Blueberries Blueberries (without sugar) 166 166 76. . . Peaches (without sugar) 82 176 . .80 81 176 Peaches No. 174 92 84... . Method . 77.... 175 79 167 167 167 75. 175 Cabbage and Brussels Sprouts Carrots Cauliflower Cherries ' .. ' Lima Beans Loganberries Parsnips Ca. 2 Peaches Pears — Government Recipe .

. 177 98 171 71. 1 Canned Pineapples No.. Use of Special Instructions for 187 190 190 . 170 88. . 178 171 171 172 99 104 106 Preserved Blackberries Preserved Cherries Preserved Currants Preserved Currants and Raspberries Preserved Eggs . 177 95 176 — . 188 102 174 Preserved Strawberries Canning Fruits . 177 li. .. 175 74 97.. 2 Canned Pineapples Government Recipe Canned Plums Canned Plums Government Recipe Canned Pumpkin.. 100 101 — Lime Method Preserved Eggs — Water-Glass Method Preserved Eggs Preserved Eggs. PICKLES Chili Sauce 132 144 Chopped Pickles Chow Chow Cucumber Pickles 145 149 . ...196 Canned Feas Canned Peppers Canned Pineapples No.... Winter Squash Canned Quinces Canned Raspberries Canned Raspberries and Currants Canned Rhubarb Canned Rhubarb (without sugar) Canned Salsify Canned Strawberries Canned String Beans Canned Summer Squash Canned Tomatoes Damson Plum Preserves INDEX 170 170 — 93 94 .

2 Pepper Relish Piccalilli 197 pxas 137 140 136 134 Pickled Beets 128 .129 131 Red Cabbage Plum Tomato Pickles Ripe Cucumber Pickles Tomato Catsup fickled 147 105 142 151 Tomatoes 153 SPICED FRUITS Spiced Blackberries Spiced Cherries Spiced Currants Spiced Gooseberries Spiced Grapes Spiced Peaches Spiced Pears Spiced Watermelon Rind Fruit Butters 125 116 114 117 123 120 119 122 184 185 186 186 185 Apple Butter with Cider Apple Butter with Grape Juice Dried Peach Butter Peach Butter . .INDEX Mustard Kekles No. 1 Pickled Onions No. . Pickled Onions No. . . . 1 Mustard Pickles No. 2 .

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