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Selection of the Drainage System

December 1997 ISBN 3-934984-01-0

Marketing: Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA) Theodor-Heuß-Allee 17 D-53773 Hennef Postfach 11 65 . 53758 Hennef

are reserved. Bonn Contents December 1997 Page 2 . Germering Dipl. Hoffmann. No part of this Standard may be reproduced in any form by photocopy.  Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e. Stuttgart Guests: Dipl. Bonn (as guest) Dr. Karlsruhe Dipl. Wien.-Ing. Brunner. (GFA). Niedrée. Riedl. Dr. The ad hoc Working group has the following members: Dipl. Krejci. München (Chairman) Prof. in particular those of translation into other languages.-Ing. Dübendorf/Switzerland Dipl. Austria Dipl. in particular data processing machines.-Ing. Düsseldorf Dipl.-Ing. Hennef 1997 Original German edition produced by: JF•CARTHAUS GmbH & Co. Pirmasens Dipl. without the written approval of the publisher.V.-Ing.-Ing. Hennef All rights.-Ing. Belting. Lohaus.2. microfilm or any other process or transferred or translated into a language usable in machines. "Planning of Drainage Systems".ATV-A 105E This ATV Standard has been elaborated by the ad hoc Working Group "Drainage Systems" within the ATV Specialist Committee 1. Stumwöhrer.-Ing. G.-Ing.-Ing. Dippold. Spellier.

1 4.1 2.1 3.1 3 3.4 3.3 3.2.3 4.ATV-A 105E Notes for users Foreword 1 2 2.2 3.1.1 2.2 4. construction and operation Modified drainage systems Separate discharge of precipitation water Decentralised and semi-centralised percolation of precipitation water Central percolation Use of precipitation water Requirements on private property drainage Relevant regulations.4 5 6 Area of application Definitions Combined systems Modified combined system Separate system Modified separate system Criteria for the selection of the drainage system Principles Local conditions Technical aspects Cost aspects Planning.2 2. literature 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 8 8 8 8 9 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 14 14 December 1997 3 .5 4 4.

modified systems are gaining in significance. These aspects were to be taken into account in this current new edition. For this. However. The specification for the elaboration of ATV Standard ATV-A 128 "Standards for the Dimensioning and Design of Stormwater Structures in Combined Sewers" (Edition 4/92) was. The application of this Standard is open to everyone. With its application no one avoids responsibility for his own action or for the correct application in specific cases. rules of procedure of the ATV and ATV Standard ATV-A 400). an obligation for application can arise from legal or administrative regulations. stormwater or combined water can be dealt with by treatment measures. legal specifications which are to have priority. December 1997 4 . The special aspects of rurally structured areas are dealt with in ATV Standard ATV-A 200. mainly in urban areas. this applies in particular for the correct handling of the margins described in the Standard. however. 1 Area of Application This Standard applies for the planning of drainage systems in which wastewater and precipitation water are disposed of [1]. This Standard is an important. in addition to traditional separate and combined systems. so that the previous standard gave the water quality management aspects a wide scope. renovating and renewing the existing sewer systems. in addition. With the application of ATV-A 128 one can therefore assume a water management equivalence of separate ands combined systems. This is primarily due to the fact that most sewer systems in Germany have already been established and. not the sole source of information for correct solutions. the current main task lies in expanding. With the elaboration of ATV Standard ATV-A 105 (January 1983) one could not yet assume this equivalence. technical-scientific/economic collaboration which has been achieved in accordance with the principles applicable for this (statutes. according to precedents. that the COD loading of the lake or river due to stormwater overflow facilities from combined sewer systems corresponds with that of the inflow of stormwater from separate systems.ATV-A 105E Notes for Users This ATV Standard is the result of honorary. Therefore it is not alone the efficiency of the sewage treatment plant but also the conception of the sewerage system with its stormwater overflows and stormwater treatment facilities which is relevant for keeping lakes and rivers clean. Foreword With point sources of loading on lakes and rivers it is primarily the discharges of wastewater of the drainage areas. therefore. The revised ATV Standard indicates which aspects are to be taken into account with the selection of the drainage system. a contract or other legal reason. In some Federal German States there are. In the meantime. It applies for new planning and expansion of drainage systems as well as for the renewal or renovation of existing systems. there exists an actual presumption that it is textually and technically correct and also generally recognised.. Decisive for an effective water pollution control is which portion of the carried pollutant load from discharged wastewater.

above all. With this an as comprehensive as possible water pollution control is to be achieved at reasonable cost. the combined sewer. While the wastewater is fed to the sewage treatment plant and is treated there. Unpolluted water . springs. The limitation is based on the principle of not discharging any water to a sewage treatment plant whose degree of pollution is less than that required in the effluent of the sewage treatment plant. The precipitation water not requiring treatment is discharged directly into a lake or river or precipitated in situ after removal.1 Combined System In the combined system domestic and commercial wastewater and the precipitation water are discharged together in one sewer. Due to the limited performance capacity of the sewage treatment plant and in order to limit the sewer crosssection for technical and economic requirements.1 Modified Combined System The modified combined system is a variant of the combined system. is based on the usage. Only domestic and trade effluent as well as precipitation water requiring treatment are fed to the combined sewer. It is incumbent on the diligence of the planner to elaborate an appropriate drainage concept for the protection of lakes and rivers. cooling or land drainage water into the stormwater sewer can lead to high costs with a possibly necessary stormwater treatment. With streets. traffic loading and how often the parking lots are frequented. Information on stormwater treatment in a separate system can be found in the ATV Report "Recommendations for treatment when handling stormwater" [12]. Not requiring treatment are. wells etc.2 Separate System In the separate system domestic wastewater and trade effluent are discharged in the normal sewer and precipitation water in the stormwater sewer. 2. the soil and the groundwater which is optimised for the operator. The notes and decision criteria in this Standard can be of a general nature only. this combined wastewater is discharged and treated. land drainage water. may not be discharged into the combined sewer. 2.ATV-A 105E The aim of the Standard is to facilitate achieving an objective decision for the selection of a drainage system by using a series of criteria. as a rule.1. The discharge of nonpolluted water such as spring.such as runoffs from external areas. runoffs from roof and courtyard surfaces as well as runoffs from residential roads and footpaths. 2. December 1997 5 . the precipitation water can be discharged into natural or artificial bodies of water. 2 Definitions Below are terms used for precipitation water both requiring and not requiring treatment. stormwater overflows or stormwater retention facilities are installed at suitable points in the combined system. well. parking lots and commercially used hard standing areas an individual examination is necessary which.

Sewer Combined water treatment and retention Sewage treatment plant Retention. springs and wells etc. Sewer Combined water treatment and retention Sewage treatment plant Lakes~~~~~~Rivers~~~~~~Lakes~~~~~~Rivers~~~~~~Lakes~~~~~~Rivers Fig. December 1997 6 . land drainage water. Comb. percolation. 2: Schematic diagram of modified combined system drainage Discharge from sewered areas Qs Qr Runoff from external areas. Comb.ATV-A 105E Discharge from sewered areas Qs Domestic and commercial wastewater Qr Precipitation water requiring treatment Precipitation water not requiring treatment Runoff from external areas. springs and wells etc. 1: Schematic diagram of combined system drainage Discharge from sewered areas Qs Domestic and commercial wastewater Qr Precipitation water requiring treatment Precipitation water not requiring treatment Runoff from external areas. land drainage water. springs and wells etc. land drainage water. utilisation Lakes~~~~~~Rivers~~~~~~Lakes~~~~~~Rivers~~~~~~Lakes~~~~~~Rivers Fig. discharge.

4: Schematic diagram of modified separate system drainage 2. percolation. percolation.2. utilisation Lakes~~~~~~Rivers~~~~~~Lakes~~~~~~Rivers~~~~~~Lakes~~~~~~Rivers Fig. discharge. 3: Schematic diagram of separate system drainage Discharge from sewered areas Qs Domestic and trade effluent Qr Precipitation water requiring treatment Precipitation water not requiring treatment Runoff from external areas. discharge. springs and wells etc. utilisation StormW drain Lakes~~~~~~Rivers~~~~~~Lakes~~~~~~Rivers~~~~~~Lakes~~~~~~Rivers Fig. Precipitation water not requiring treatment is percolated or discharged into a surface body of water immediately at source or after diversion. land drainage water.ATV-A 105E Domestic and trade effluent Precipitation water requiring treatment Precipitation water not requiring treatment Normal sewer Sewage treatment plant Retention. Normal sewer Sewage treatment plant Stormwater treatment and retention StormW drain Retention. December 1997 7 .1 Modified Separate System With the modified separate system domestic wastewater and trade effluent are fed to the normal sewer.

The drainage and charges bylaws are to be matched to the solution for the drainage system (hard surface area. as far as possible. precipitation water not requiring treatment.ATV-A 105E Insofar as precipitation water requiring treatment cannot be avoided. separate scales of charges). Essential criteria for the selection of the drainage system are: − type. If necessary. 3. material preloading of the ground. retention separate system). − percolation capability. 3 3. the type of buildings to be connected.2 Local Conditions The planning of a sewer system depends on the topography. of the hydraulic efficiency of the existing system. − characteristics of the discharges into the system. structural condition. − type and density of the buildings. as being equal (see ATV Standard ATV-A 128 [2]) The selection of the drainage system is to take place within the scope of initial planning. hydraulic efficiency of the existing system. As a rule in the past the total precipitation runoff from built up areas has been discharged as completely and as rapidly as possible. December 1997 8 . The water management objective today is. this is fed in a stormwater drain to a stormwater treatment facility. if required. In some German Federal States they comply with legally laid down wastewater disposal concepts and/or plans. The results of individual planning tasks. stormwater utilisation. Wastewater and precipitation water requiring treatment are to be removed and treated. − position. − topography. Information on the treatment of stormwater can be found in the ATV Report "Recommendations for treatment when handling stormwater" [12]. should be summarised as negotiation concepts. − water protection zones. Here the drainage system and sewage treatment plant are to matched to each other.1 Criteria for the Selection of Drainage Systems Principles The objective of municipal drainage have changed significantly in recent years. the existing and future discharges from the catchment area as well as the suitability of the lake or river or the sewage treatment plant and. The selection and effects of the respective drainage system are to be integrated early in the project management planning. the discharge of precipitation water is to be delayed and throttled using suitable measures (retention combined system. flooding areas. flooding levels and quality of the lake or river. including costs and time sequence. Both combined systems as well as separate systems have advantages and disadvantages Separate and combined systems are to be assessed. groundwater levels. to percolate or to discharge directly to a surface body of water. acceptance capability. from a water quality management aspect.

Comparative investigations. The modified systems represent variants with which specific constraints must be met. − with small technical sewage treatment plants or wetlands. whereby attention is to be paid to servicing and maintenance of the drainage systems and the effects on the sewage treatment plant and lake or river. Table 1 summarises the criteria which are to be taken into account with the selection of the drainage system. − the employment of pressure and vacuum drainage systems [6]. Table. − with a high proportion of precipitation not requiring treatment. According to ATV Standard ATV-A 200 [10] separate systems are to be employed with: − small sized sewage treatment plants in accordance with DIN 4261 [4]. 1: Criteria for the selection of the drainage system Separate system Combined system December 1997 9 . − for good gradients.3 Technical Aspects Below are listed selection criteria for both the normal drainage systems. − with staged expansion of the sewer network. retention space. taking into account the construction and operating costs should be undertaken. which are described in more detail in Chap. 3. − with tight construction conditions. − with a high proportion of precipitation water requiring treatment. Separate systems are suitable: − with close rivers or lakes − for small gradients. With separate collection of wastewater and precipitation water (separate system) both types of wastewater can be discharged and separately treated according to their different quality and quantity. As a rule the criteria have a decisive influence on the economy of the system. stormwater settling tanks and percolation facilities are to be examined carefully according to local conditions already at an early stage of planning. The necessary areas are to be identified with project management planning. − in combination with wastewater lagoon systems [3]. 4. − small sewage treatment plants with wastewater aeration for connection values between 50 and 500 PE [5]. The arrangement and design of stormwater overflows. high groundwater level. Combined systems are suitable: − with distant lakes and rivers.ATV-A 105E − type and efficiency of existing sewage treatment plants.

Roads. Separation of types of wastewater Very possible Barely possible x without SW treatment x with SW treatment x x x x x with SW treatment x x x x x x x x x x - x x x with extensive SW treatment x x x x x x x x - x 10.= application not possible/not suitable x x with extensive SW treatment x with extensive SW treatment December 1997 10 . Pollution of surfaces Residential areas Industrial-commercial areas 2. Sewers to lake or river Short Long 5. Groundwater level High Low 7. Gradient in catchment area Slight Good 6. lanes Wide Narrow 9.ATV-A 105E 1. Wastewater inflow from external areas x None x Large x Large with heavy pollution x = application possible/suitable . Loading capacity of the lake or river High Medium Low 3. Sewage treatment plant with Good buffer effect Poor buffer effect 4. Settlement density High Low 8.

should be employed. On undercutting this minimum separation or with the crossing of a sewage drain. with drinking water pipelines which have to be laid at the same height or depth to parallel running wastewater pipelines. existing drainage networks then the existing system. The selection of the drainage system and the arrangement of discharge points can significantly influence the discharge behaviour into the lake or river. It must be verified in each design. with high financial expense. All sewers.separate or combined . If this cannot be achieved without great expense. With this not only the costs of the public drainage system but also those for the necessary expenses for the private property drainage are to be taken into account. Stormwater overflows in existing sewer systems must be checked against the objectives of ATV Standard ATV-A 128 [2] and.5 Planning. no back-up in the sewer system takes place. should be examined for its efficiency. A conscientious and professional supervision is absolutely necessary with the construction and operation of sewerage systems . If it is necessary to renovate. should be laid deeper than the supply lines. a minimum separation of 1 m is to be maintained and the possible wastewater percolation cone is to be taken into account.ATV-A 105E 3.4 Cost Aspects The economic efficiency of the selected drainage system has great significance. With hydraulic overloading of networks it is also to be investigated whether the decoupling of areas and/or the creation of retention space are cost effective. Construction and Operation Within a defined drainage area as far as possible only one drainage system . The frequency HWn is to be determined dependent on the hazard potential. appropriate protective measures are to be taken. even stormwater sewers in a separate system. December 1997 11 .in particular with separate systems due to possible bad connections as well as with open discharge and percolation facilities. the probable duration of a flooding event and the size of the sewage treatment plant (scale of the loading of lakes and rivers when taken out of service). is more cost effective that the basic renovation of the existing sewers [6]. near natural extension of the lake or river). the laying of the supply pipeline in an appropriately long jacket pipe can be practical from a technical and economic point of view rather than a diversion. renewed. Under certain preconditions the updating of a separate system. 3. be above flooding levels so that. for example. with flooding. Thus. The throttle flow set is to be examined at regular intervals for its agreement with the level of connections and the efficiency of the sewage treatment plant. modified. as far as possible.if required with the respective modified systems. The verification of the economic efficiency must be carried out with the inclusion of construction and operational costs as well as the investment dates [7]. Necessary measures are to be matched to each other (retention measures. if necessary. for example with the employment of pressure or vacuum drainage for the discharge of wastewater with the retention of the existing network for stormwater discharge. The weir crown of overflow structures should.

They are a part of green areas and can be considered as balancing measures within the framework of the testing of environmental compatibility. trenches and ponds are also employed to improve the town planning or landscaping formation of residential areas. The following aspects are to be noted: − permeable subsoil with kf values between 10-3 and 5 x 10-6 m/s. pipes. for example. With troughtrench systems retention. − a covered. With combined systems the mixing rate laid down in Chap. − trenches with steep slopes are difficult to look after and are susceptible to erosion.ATV-A 105E 4 Modified Drainage Systems There are several possibilities for modification. With open discharge systems the following is to be observed: − in comparison with conventional drainage they require additional space and increased maintenance resources. open channels and troughs near the surface require lower frequencies for the design rainfall than lower-lying closed pipelines. 4. intensive discussion with the owners. often with intermediate retention elements such as. The separate discharge takes place in channels. open trenches with flat slopes. with semi-decentralised percolation several adjacent property owners operate a common percolation system.2 Decentralised and Semi-centralised Percolation of Precipitation Water With decentralised percolation the percolation systems are close to the source. From experience they are frequently misused for dumping rubbish. The successful implementation of a decentralised/semi-centralised percolation presumes previous. percolation and discharge are combined together. whereby these cover only the non-treated part of precipitation water: − separate discharge of precipitation water. in order to achieve the same impoundment frequency. troughs. Otherwise advanced treatment measures will be necessary with the release of combined water from the sump system [2]. raised by the percolation. − percolation of precipitation water. ponds.2 m thickness with an area/trough percolation system. 9 of ATV Standard ATV-A 128 may not be undercut. − separation between the highest groundwater level. turfed troughs. December 1997 12 . the concentration of the combined water or stormwater in the remaining sump system increases. Within the framework of the modification of the drainage system. active soil zone of at least 0. As a result discharges are loaded with high solid contents. − with regard to hydraulic dimensioning it is to be noted that. and the base of the percolation system of at least 1 m. − use of percolation water.1 Separate Discharge of Precipitation Water Precondition for this is a body of water in the vicinity of the drainage area. 4. Channels.

trenches. primarily if overflow capacity in the form of rainwater barrels and cisterns is connected. herbicides. If a significant element of precipitation requiring treatment is contained in the runoff. − construction. The areas necessary for percolation are to be indicated with construction planning (see also Chap. it must be treated before percolation to protect the groundwater and for the avoidance of colmation. 4. The percolation method frequently favoured by owners via shafts. Through this the danger of a colmation (self-sealing) increases considerably due to pollutants in particulate form in the percolation water. grass fertiliser. 4.3 Central Percolation Central percolating systems percolate precipitation water of a larger catchment area. The risk of a cellar flooding is to be examined. The necessary treatment can be ensured in accordance with the statements of the ATV Report "Treatment recommendations for the handling of stormwater" [12] or through equivalent measures. Attention is drawn to the hygienic considerations emphasised at various points. The utilisation for watering gardens relieves the drainage network to an insignificant degree only. The operational life of the percolation system is shortened.ATV-A 105E − flat troughs with a percolation area of As of at least 7 % of the effective discharge area Ared (Ared : AS > 15:1). A separation of 6 m from buildings and 3 m from property boundaries are not to be undercut. A significant reduction of the stormwater runoff exists only if an allyear-round permanent usage for toilets and washing machines is guaranteed. the loading of the groundwater with pollutants increases. Construction. humus content > 2 %). operation and maintenance are the responsibility of the property owners.1) 4. − no treatment of percolation systems and effective discharge areas with salt. The above mentioned requirements apply analogously also for decentralised percolation of precipitation water from public roads. It is recommended that the course of seepage lines is followed by expert soil appraisals. operation and maintenance as a rule is the responsibility of the commune.4 Use of Precipitation Water A third route to the modification of a drainage network consists of the utilisation of precipitation water. − minimum requirement on the soil properties of the active soil zone (pH value > 6. pipes and porous paving neutralises the purification effect of the active soil layer. clay content > 5 %. December 1997 13 .

with usage of cellar level seepage lines for the percolation via land drains in catchment areas. Precipitation water from commercially or industrially used courtyards or hard surface traffic areas with heavy pollution is basically to be fed into the sewer system. Part 1 . Construction and Operation of Wastewater Lagoons for Communal Wastewater. To ensure this the planning documents for the private property drainage should be checked before implementation and the correct implementation approved before taking into service. 6 1] Relevant Regulations. Issue 10/89 DIN 4261 Small Sewage Treatment Plants [2] [3] [4] December 1997 14 . With the separate system the precipitation water and the wastewater in the private property drainage system are to be discharged in two separate pipelines. This is to be taken into account with the determination of drainage systems and the wastewater treatment system. Even with the combined system a separate collection in the building. An increase of the infiltration water amount in the sewer system and in the sewage treatment plant has to be reckoned with. With projects in the area of the groundwater cellars are to be built watertight. The pipelines are connected together first outside the building [8]. Bibliography DIN EN 752 Drain and Sewer Systems outside Buildings. with separate control shafts or control pipes with inspection and cleaning ports.Generalities and definitions Part 3 . but are to be closed off or the water is to be discharged separately. Possible existing land drainage pipelines may not be connected to the public wastewater or combined wastewater network (infiltration water). Issue 04/92 ATV-A 201E Principles for the Dimensioning.Planning ATV-A 128E Standards for the Dimensioning and Design of Stormwater Structures in Combined Sewers. in accordance with DIN 1986 is to be carried out. Due to the high cost relevance it is precisely the precipitation water discharge which must be considered already with the identification of construction sites and also with the planning of private property drainage systems so that the areas so to be connected are kept small or are covered.ATV-A 105E 5 Requirements on Private Property Drainage Private property drainage must be matched to the drainage system and the drainage bylaws and correspond with DIN 1986 [8].

derzeitiger Stand der Regenwasserbehandlung im Trennsystem“ [The handling of stormwater . Berlin [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] December 1997 15 .Vacuum Drainage Service .3 „Umgang mit Regenwasser . Verlag Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn.Pressure Drainage Service.4. 1994 (Not available in English). Issue 05/97 ATV Report of ATV Working Group 1. KA 02/94 ATV Report of ATV Working Group 1. KA 08/96 ATV Report of ATV Working Group 1. Construction and Operation of Small Sewage Treatment Plants with Aerobic Biological Purification Stage for Connection Values between 50 and 5000 Total Number of Inhabitants and Population Equivalents Issue 06/91 ATV-A 116E Special Sewer Systems . Verlag Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn.1 „Hinweise zur Versickerung von Niederschlagsabflüssen“ [Notes on the percolation of precipitation runoff] (Not available in English).ATV-A 105E [5] ATV-A 122E Principles for the Dimensioning. 1995 (Not available in English).3 „Handlungsempfehlungen zum Umgang mit Regenwasser“ [Treatment recommendations for the handling of stormwater] (Not available in English).the current status of stormwater treatment in the separate system] (Not available in English).4. Issue 09/92 "Leitlinie zur Durchführung von Kostenvergleichsrechnungen" LAWA 1993 (Guidelines for the execution of cost comparison calculations)(Not available in English) DIN 1986 Site Drainage Systems for Buildings and Private Properties ATV-A 138E Construction and Dimensioning Facilities for Decentralised Percolation of Nonharmful Polluted Percolation Water. KA 05/95 ATV Handbook „Planung der Kanalisation [Planning of sewer systems] 4th completely revised edition.4. Issue 01/90 ATV-A 200E Principles for the Disposal of Wastewater in Rurally Structured Areas. Berlin ATV Handbook „Bau und Betrieb der Kanalisation“ [Construction and operation of the sewer system] 4th completely revised edition.

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