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People Power Revolution
EDSA Revolution EDSA I Yellow Revolution President Ferdinand Marcos o Armed Forces of the Philippines loyalists under Fabian Ver Anti-Marcos forces: o Armed Forces of the Philippines rebels under Participants Fidel V. Ramos o Secretary of Defense Juan Ponce Enrile o Protesters led by Jaime Cardinal Sin Other names Location Date Result Quezon City, Philippines February 22–25, 1986 Fall of Marcos regime (1965-86); start of Fifth Republic
The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986) was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines that began in 1983 and culminated in 1986. The methods used amounted to a sustained campaign of civil resistance against regime violence and electoral fraud. This case of nonviolent revolution led to the departure of President Ferdinand Marcos and the restoration of the country's democracy. It is also referred to as the Yellow Revolution due to the presence of yellow ribbons during the demonstrations following the assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr.. It was widely seen as a victory of the people against the 20-year running authoritarian, repressive regime of then president Ferdinand Marcos and made news headlines as "the revolution that surprised the world". The majority of the demonstrations took place on a long stretch of Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, more commonly known by its acronym EDSA, in Metropolitan Manila from February 22–25, 1986 and involved over two million Filipino civilians as well as several political, military, and including religious groups led by Cardinal Jaime Sin, the Archbishop of Manila. The protests, fueled by the resistance and opposition from years of corrupt governance by Marcos, culminated with the departure of the dictator from Malacañan Palace to the United States state of Hawaii. Corazon Aquino was proclaimed as the legitimate President of the Philippines after the revolution.
contributed to the rapid rise of civil discontent and unrest in the Philippines. Marcos was very active in the initiation of public works projects and the intensification of tax collections. Marcos's second term for the presidency. These factors. defeating incumbent Diosdado Macapagal by a very slim margin. 1081). so on September 23. During this time. however. and more schools than any previous administration". Amidst charges of vote buying and a fraudulent election. was marred by allegations of widespread graft and corruption. citing rising civil disobedience as justification. Marcos and his government claimed that they "built more roads than all his predecessors combined. including the formation of the New People's Army. Marcos seized emergency powers giving him
.On 25 February 2012. an armed revolt that called for the redistribution of wealth and land reform in the Philippines. Marcos was barred from running for a third term as president in 1973. 1972. The increasing disparity of wealth between the very wealthy and the very poor which made up the majority of the country's population led to the rise of crime and civil unrest around the country. Through this decree.
Contents Background and history
President Ferdinand Marcos Ferdinand Marcos was elected president in 1965. Marcos was reelected in 1969. this time defeating Sergio Osmeña Jr. by virtue of a presidential proclamation (No. he declared martial law. the Philippines celebrated the 26th anniversary of the People Power Revolution. and a bloody Muslim separatist movement in the southern island of Mindanao led by the Moro National Liberation Front.
schools.. While gaining popularity amongst the Filipino people for his stance against Marcos. Throughout his presidency. The media frequently "eulogized" Marcos through public service announcements and news reports.
. Marcos also ordered the immediate arrest of his political opponents and critics. found an ally and mentor in the Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile. Jr. Col. Marcos's dictatorship ensured the political support of the United States by Marcos' promise to stamp out communism in the Philippines and by assuring the United States of its continued use of military and naval bases in the Philippines. and other public places to place his Presidential picture prominently or otherwise their facilities were shut down. in 1983. universities. RAM. However. and Young Officers Union (YOU). even within the government. Even billboard advertisements across the country were replaced with his propaganda messages on justifying his regime's actions. At a period when the Cold War was still a political reality. who Marcos accused as leaning to a left-wing solution. Among those arrested were Senate President Jovito Salonga. They were led by the popular public figure. Eduardo Kapunan. Soldier of the Filipino People (SFP). Several groups of people. Marcos also dissolved the Philippine Congress and shut down media establishments critical of the Marcos government. Ninoy Aquino announced of his plans to return to the Philippines as a challenge to Marcos's government. Marcos would also abolish the Philippines' 1935 constitution and replace it with a parliamentary-style government (the Batasang Pambansa) along with a new constitution written by him. and the ratification of his new constitution through political coercion. then put these businesses either under the government control. hotels. Lt. Ferdinand Marcos had set up a regime in the Philippines that would give him ultimate power over the military and the national treasury. and Lt. the freedom of the press. Victor Batac. as well as set up a personality cult. incarcerated opposition senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. Marcos also ordered the shutdown and takeovers of businesses in the country.full control of the Philippine military and the authority to suppress the freedom of speech. Lt. and the nation lost its competitive edge in Southeast Asia. or under the control of Marcos cronies. As a result. conspired throughout the term of the Marcos regime to overthrow him. With practically all of his political opponents arrested and in exile. This led to the formation of the Reform the Armed Forces Movement (RAM). Aquino was eventually forced to seek exile in the United States for health and safety reasons. Gringo Honasan.
Assassination of Ninoy Aquino
Main article: Assassination of Benigno Aquino. Senator Jose Diokno. 1972. which was led by graduates of the Philippine Military Academy Class of '71. Col. the Philippine economy began to tumble greatly. Marcos immediately began to embezzle money from the government and order the military to kill any political competition against him. and Senator Benigno Aquino Jr. He also ordered many stores. disillusioned junior officers silently conveyed their grievances. enabled him to effectively legitimize his government and hold on to power for another 14 years beyond his first two terms as president. however. Col. Within the military. Marcos' pre-emptive declaration of martial law in 1972. Following his declaration of martial law on September 21. and many other civil liberties. the staunchest of his critics and the man who was groomed by the opposition to succeed Marcos after the 1973 elections.
Asked what he thought of the death threats. The commission’s final report accused the military of staging a conspiracy to assassinate Aquino. and the government plunged further into debt. Ninoy Aquino responded. the country was bankrupt. the Archbishop of Manila. Aquino was assassinated as he was disembarking from a Taiwanese commercial flight at the Manila International Airport (which was later renamed in Aquino’s honor). It also shook the Marcos government. The assassination of Ninoy Aquino caused the economy of the country to deteriorate even further. declined an offer to join the commission and rejected the government’s views on the assassination.8%. dealing another major blow to the already collapsing government. to Marcos’ worsening health and ultimately fatal illness (lupus erythematosus). Marcos appointed a second commission to investigate. 1983. 1986
.” On August 21. and the economy contracted by 6. The event led to more suspicions about the government. led by Chief Justice Enrique Fernando. triggering non-cooperation among Filipinos that eventually led to outright civil disobedience. “The Filipino is worth dying for.The Manila Bulletin headline of Aquino's assassination on August 21. which was by then deteriorating due. In 1984. By October. Marcos appointed a commission. 1983 Despite warnings from the military and other pro-Marcos groups. in part. Ninoy Aquino was determined to return to the Philippines. Despite the commission’s conclusions. By the end of 1983. to launch an investigation into Aquino’s assassination. most of whom had lost confidence in the Marcos administration.
Calls for election
Main article: Philippine presidential election. His assassination shocked and outraged many Filipinos. after a three-year exile in the United States. Cardinal Jaime Sin.
The walkout also served as an affirmation to allegations of vote-buying.053. to legitimize his control over the country.
Appalled by the bold and apparent election irregularities. The official election canvasser.On November 23. COMELEC claimed that Marcos with 53 percent won over Aquino. On February 15. however. In response to the protests. fraud.068 points.761 votes. asserting that Aquino was the real victor. with Arturo Tolentino as his running mate.835. The snap election was legalized with the passage of Batas Pambansa Blg. the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) issued a statement condemning the elections. The Aquino-Laurel tandem ran under the United Opposition (UNIDO) party. The Filipino people refused to accept the results. 883 (National Law No. the Reform the Armed Forces Movement set into motion a coup attempt against Marcos. The walkout was considered as one of the early "sparks" of the People Power Revolution. The growing opposition movement encouraged Ninoy Aquino's widow. All 50 opposition members of the Parliament walked out in protest. 1986. On the other hand. As a result. Marcos suddenly announced that a presidential snap election would take place the following year. 883) by the Marcos-controlled unicameral congress called the Regular Batasang Pambansa. with Aquino gaining greater mass support. the final tally of the National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL). while the Marcos-Tolentino ticket ran under the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL) party. one year ahead of the regular presidential election schedule. and media were hit hard.
Main article: Philippine presidential election. Marcos ran for re-election. US president Ronald Reagan issued a statement calling the fraud reports as "disturbing". Because of reports of alleged fraud. and tampering of election results by the KBL. However. an accredited poll watcher. 1985. This electoral exercise was marred by widespread reports of violence and tampering of election results. The final tally of the COMELEC had Marcos winning with 10. The United States Senate also passed a resolution stating the same condemnation. the crony banks. Marcos was proclaimed by COMELEC and Batasang Pambansa as the winner amidst the controversy. NAMFREL countered that the latter won over Marcos with 52 percent of votes. the Commission on Elections (COMELEC). and their shares in the stock market plummeted to record levels. after pressures from Washington.197 votes against Aquino's 9.291.807. corporations. culminating in the walkout of 29 COMELEC computer technicians to protest the deliberate manipulation of the official election results to favor Ferdinand Marcos. Aquino also called for coordinated strikes and mass boycott of the media and businesses owned by Marcos's cronies.070 votes against Marcos' 7. 1986 The elections were held on February 7. The initial plan was for a team to
. had Aquino winning with 7. Both "winners" took their oath of office in two different places. declared Marcos the winner. to run for the presidency with Salvador Laurel as running mate for vice-president. Corazon Aquino.
 and presented to the international and local press some of the captured plotters. was our umbilical cord to whatever else was going on. military bases. Threatened with their impending imprisonment. still trooped to EDSA. At about 6:30 pm on 22 February. he ordered their leaders' arrest. Gregorio Honasan was to lead the team that was going to assault Malacañan Palace. Col. Cardinal Sin exhorted Filipinos to aid rebel leaders by going to the section of EDSA between Camp Crame and Aguinaldo and giving emotional support."
Rising mass support
.assault Malacañan Palace and arrest Ferdinand Marcos. Enrile and Ramos held a press conference at Camp Aguinaldo. if not impossible. such as the airport. it would have been difficult. Ramos agreed to resign from his position and support the plotters. Enrile and his fellow coup plotters decided to ask for help from then AFP Vice Chief of Staff Lt. However. after Marcos learned about the plot. Radio Veritas played a critical role during the mass uprising. Lt. urging them to "stop this stupidity. where they announced that they had resigned from their positions in Marcos's cabinet and were withdrawing support from his government. For many this seemed an unwise decision since civilians would not stand a chance against a dispersal by government troops. TV and radio stations. Saulito Aromin and Maj. in fact. especially priests and nuns. and major highway junctions to restrict counteroffensive by Marcos-loyal troops." Similarly. Many people. the GHQAFP in Camp Aguinaldo. Former University of the Philippines president Francisco Nemenzo stated that: "Without Radio Veritas. Edgardo Doromal. to mobilize millions of people in a matter of hours. Gen Fidel Ramos. food and other supplies. a certain account in the event said that: "Radio Veritas. Other military units will be taking over key strategic facilities. Marcos himself later conducted his own news conference calling on Enrile and Ramos to surrender. Enrile also contacted the highly influential Cardinal Archbishop of Manila Jaime Sin for his support. Maj. who was also the chief of the Philippine Constabulary (now the Philippine National Police)."
In a message aired over Radio Veritas at around 9 pm.
government troops arrived to knock down the main transmitter of Radio Veritas. By evening. and vehicles in several places along EDSA and intersecting streets such as Santolan and Ortigas Avenue.During the height of the revolution. The mood in the street was actually very festive. nuns and priests led prayer vigils. Tadiar asked the crowds to make a clearing for them. was the radio broadcaster who continued Radio Veritas' program throughout the night and in the remaining days. Several groups sang Bayan Ko (My Homeland). Enrile and Ramos decided to consolidate their positions. Still.. June Keithley. Everywhere. medicine. Shortly after midnight. Enrile crossed EDSA from Camp Aguinaldo to Camp Crame amidst cheers from the crowd. and people set up barricades and makeshift sandbags. people listened to Radio Veritas on their radios. Radio Veritas relayed reports of Marines massing near the camps in the east and LVT-5 tanks approaching from the north and south. The photo above shows the area at the intersection of EDSA and Boni Serrano Avenue. an estimated one to three million people filled EDSA from Ortigas Avenue all the way to Cubao. In the end. People frequently flashed the LABAN (fight) sign. trees. about two kilometers from the camps.
. since 1980. In the mid-afternoon. cutting off broadcasts to people in the provinces. but they did not budge. the standby transmitter of Radio Veritas failed. which is an "L" formed with their thumb and index finger. by tens of thousands of people. Sunday. was stopped along Ortigas Avenue. The station switched to a standby transmitter with a limited range of broadcast. Performers entertained the crowds. people came to EDSA until it swelled to hundreds of thousands of unarmed civilians. the troops retreated with no shots fired. which. keeping them informed of government troop movements and relaying requests for food. A contingent of Marines with tanks and armored vans. and supplies. just between Camp Crame and Camp Aguinaldo. Jr. had become a patriotic anthem of the opposition. with Angelo Castro. After lunch on February 23. led by Brigadier General Artemio Tadiar. the staff were able to go to another station to begin broadcasting from a secret location under the moniker "Radyo Bandido" (Bandit Radio). Nuns holding rosaries knelt in front of the tanks and men and women linked arms together to block the troops. At dawn. The station was targeted because it had proven to be a valuable communications tool for the people supporting the rebels. with many bringing whole families.
Jose Mari Velez. In the afternoon.
The capture of Channel 4
At around that time. (using the foreclosed ABSCBN facilities. Aquino arrived at the base where Enrile. Later. The jubilation was however short-lived as Marcos later appeared on television on the government-controlled Channel 4. Ramos. Fr. February 24. Fr.More defections
At dawn on Monday. Orly Punzalan and were directed by Johnny Manahan with former ABS employees. transmitter and compound) declaring that he would not step down. the crowds at EDSA had swollen to over a million. who quickly dispersed. with the crowds cheering and hugging the pilots and crew members.) This broadcast was considered the "return" of ABS-CBN on air because this was the time when former employees of ABS-CBN were inside the complex after 14 years of closure since Marcos took it over during the Martial law of 1972. the squadron had already defected and instead of attacking Camp Crame. were ordered from Sangley Point in Cavite (South of Manila) to head to Camp Crame. The crowd celebrated and even Ramos and Enrile came out from Crame to appear to the crowds. with Orly Punzalan announcing. Marines marching from Libis. A contingent of rebels.'s cousin Augusto "Jake" Lopez stepped into ABS-CBN after it had been closed. Some 3. The presence of the helicopters boosted the morale of Enrile and Ramos who had been continually encouraging their fellow soldiers to join the opposition movement.000 Marines then entered and held the east side of Camp Aguinaldo. helicopters manned by the 15th Strike Wing of the Philippine Air Force.
AFP holds fire
. rebel helicopters attacked Villamor Airbase. most of the officers who had graduated from the Philippine Military Academy (PMA) defected. led by Colonel Antonio Sotelo. RAM officers and a throng were waiting. Channel 4 was put back on line shortly after noon. in the east. The majority of the Armed Forces had already changed sides. fired a rocket and caused minor damage. In the late afternoon. Fr. It was thereafter speculated that the false report was a calculated move against Marcos to encourage more defections. During this broadcast. The people who were manning this broadcast were the likes of June Keithley. A Bell 214 helicopter piloted by Major Deo Cruz of the 205th Helicopter Wing and Sikorsky S-76 gunships piloted by Colonel Charles Hotchkiss of the 20th Air Commando Squadron joined the rebel squadron earlier in the air. the first serious encounter with government troops occurred. Efren Datu. Also this was the first time when the late Eugenio "Geny" Lopez Jr. Bong Bongayan. landed in it. had captured the station. June Keithley received reports that Marcos had left Malacañan Palace and broadcast this to the people at EDSA. under Colonel Mariano Santiago. Secretly. Another helicopter went to Malacañang. destroying presidential air assets. Later. (Some estimates placed them at two million. "Channel 4 is on the air again to serve the people. lobbed tear gas at the demonstrators." By this time. Aris Sison. Channel 4 suddenly went off the air.
a minor clash occurred between loyal government troops and the reformists. at around 7 a. Ferdinand Marcos: Just wait.. president. very quickly. all the way to EDSA. near Channel 4.
. sir. Many people wore yellow. No.. you must immediately leave to conquer them.My order is to disperse without shooting them. My order is not to attack Ver: They are massing civilians near our troops and we cannot keep on withdrawing. and Laurel as VicePresident by Justice Vicente Abad Santos. mr.
Problems listening to this file? See media help.. no. no! Hold on.
On the morning of Tuesday. hundreds of people cheered and celebrated. She was sworn in as President by Senior Associate Justice Claudio Teehankee.. so we can immediately strike them. about a kilometer from Camp Crame. who was then promoted to General. Ver: Please your honor.
The actual dialogue on TV between Marcos and then AFP Chief of Staff General Fabian Ver went as follows: Fabian Ver: The Ambush there is aiming to mount there in the top. February 25. Attending the ceremonies were Ramos.. a popular folk song and the unofficial National Anthem of protest) was sung after Aquino's oath-taking. and many politicians. Marcos: My order is not to attack. Later in the morning.. Corazon Aquino was inaugurated as President of the Philippines in a simple ceremony at Club Filipino in Greenhills. but ah. Bayan Ko (My Country. The Bible on which Aquino swore her oath was held by Aurora Aquino. Outside Club Filipino. Snipers stationed atop the government-owned Channel 9 tower. Ver: We cannot withdraw all the time.come here. We have two fighter planes flying now to strike at any time.. You asked me to withdraw yesterday."Marcos' finest hour"
Menu 0:00 President Ferdinand Marcos and General Fabian Ver during a press conference in Malacañan Palace.. the color of Aquino's campaign for presidency. began shooting at the reformists. the mother of Ninoy Aquino. Marcos (interrupting): Uh yes. Enrile. Many rebel soldiers surged to the station.m. immediately. We have to immobilize the helicopters that they've got.
 After the inauguration. Over at Mendiola. Marcos talked to Enrile. shouting "Marcos. The angry demonstrators were pacified by priests who warned them not to be violent. In the afternoon. Looting by overly angry protesters occurred. an anchorman at CBS said. rather tearfully. and finally to Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii where Marcos arrived on February 26. Finally. Marcos pa rin! (Marcos. They were prevented from storming the Palace by loyal government troops securing the area. hundreds of people had amassed at the barricades along Mendiola. On the Palace balcony. to which Marcos expressed his disappointment after a short pause. many rejoiced and danced in the streets. asking for safe passage for him and his family including his close allies like General Ver. the Marcos family and their close associates hurriedly rushed to leave the Palace. Marcos. the demonstrators were finally able to enter Malacañan Palace."
. about 83 kilometers north of Manila. Airforce HH-3E Rescue helicopters to Clark Air Base in Angeles City. at Midnight. still Marcos!)". broadcast by IBC-13 and GMA-7. By this time. Marcos conducted the inauguration at Malacañang. Laxalt advised him to "cut and cut cleanly". Marcos. (EST) Marcos talked to United States Senator Paul Laxalt. When the news of Marcos' departure reached the people. "We Americans like to think we taught the Filipinos democracy. looking at the place where all the decisions that changed the course of Philippine history had been made. The couple finally stepped out in the balcony of the palace in front of the 3000 KBL loyalists who were shouting to Marcos: "Capture the snakes!" First Lady Imelda Marcos sang one more rendition of "Dahil Sa Iyo" (Because of You). but mostly people wandered inside. long denied to Filipinos in the past decade. asking for advice from the White House. tonight they are teaching the world. the Marcos family was transported by a U.
At 3:00 p. Many people around the world rejoiced and congratulated Filipinos they knew. Bob Simon.m. Pampanga. Monday. only a hundred meters away from Malacañang.S.. Loyalist civilians attended the ceremony. before boarding US Air Force DC-9 Medivac and C-141B planes bound for Andersen Air Force Base in Guam. the couple's theme song. Well. The broadcast of the event was also cut off as rebel troops successfully captured the other stations. Marcos took his oath as the President of the Philippines. chanting her trademark Tagalog entreaties: Because of you I attained happiness I offer you my love If it is true that you shall enslave me All of this is because of you.An hour later. None of the invited foreign dignitaries attended the ceremony for security reasons.
and the subordination of the military to civilian rule. his wife Imelda later won a seat in the House of Representatives and his son Ferdinand Jr. The revolution may have had brought changes to the leadership in the country. the democratic political system of the Philippines is still fragile and flawed. The revolution had an effect on democratization movements in countries such as Taiwan and South Korea. Patronage politics still hinders the development of democracy and natural resources are now mostly exploited by Western nations. with some people "focusing on his investments. infrastructure and public works. The 1987 Constitution's third article titled the "bill of rights" is guaranteed by the state. was elected senator in 2010. and the former president died in exile in Hawaii. President Aquino observed that "ours must have been the cheapest revolution ever". which deposed President Joseph Estrada. and is viewed by foreign sources as "coded to ensure tyranny of the majority". The revolution also provided the restoration of democratic institutions after thirteen years of authoritarian rule. however. These institutions have been used by political and social actors to challenge the entrenched political clans and develop Philippine democracy. the power "remained concentrated among a small rich elite. seven months after assuming the presidency. 1986. adoption of a new constitution. rampant corruption plagued the government that led to the 2001 EDSA Revolution. other effects include the restoration of the freedom of the press. Despite the People Power Revolution. rather than the human rights abuses and claims of lavish personal spending. While democracy as Filipinos knew it was restored. despite several coup attempts during the Aquino administration.Main article: Presidency of Corazon Aquino
10-peso coin commemorating the People Power Revolution In her speech before the United States Congress which she delivered on September 18. While the Marcoses fled."
. but in most instances is largely ignored by the government. however." The perception of the public about the Marcos regime is changing.
May 14 .Elections for the Batasang Pambansa (parliament) are held.Opposition MPs file a motion for impeachment against Marcos in the Batasan.The Agrava Board. (February 2011)
August 21 . They have excluded the provincianos from their movement with their insufferable arrogance and snobbery . who associate the People Power Revolution with what they term as "Imperial Manila" because it was believed that Marcos was toppled from his position without the participation of Filipinos living in areas outside of the capital region. throws her support behind the opposition candidates." The majority party squelches the motion... and remove excessive detail that may be against Wikipedia inclusion policy. concludes that there was a military conspiracy behind the killing and implicates AFP Chief of Staff Fabian Ver. November 3 . They surprise Marcos by winning 56 seats out of the 183 amid familiar allegations of fraud. Amando Doronila wrote that: People power movements have been an Imperial Manila phenomenon. Their playing field is EDSA. tasked with investigating the Aquino assassination.There are political writers. In an article published in Philippine Daily Inquirer.
. Ver takes a leave of absence as Armed Forces Chief of Staff.
This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may only interest a specific audience. August . Ninoy's widow. especially those living outside of Metro Manila. citing culpable violation of the Constitution and "hidden wealth.
February 22 . Cory Aquino. thousands of Ninoy supporters hold a "National Day of Sorrow" and call for unity in the ranks to topple the Marcos regime. 24 soldiers. October 24 .As the government celebrates Barangay Day/National Thanksgiving Day to commemorate the declaration of martial law.Ninoy Aquino is assassinated September 21 . Please help relocate any relevant information. ignoring the existence of the toiling masses and peasants in agrarian Philippines.Marcos suddenly announces the holding of snap elections after alleged prodding from the United States. The United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO) and the Pilipino Democratic Party-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-LABAN) coalition decide to take part. and one civilian stand trial before the Sandiganbayan for the Aquino murder.General Ver.
Corazon Aquino declares her candidacy for President. Incidents of fraud. and violence are reported and election returns are tampered with.
A heavy voter turnout and the judging of the voters' list create confusion during the presidential elections. intimidation.The Opposition makes a formal announcement of the Aquino-Laurel tandem for the snap elections. Primary suspects are the bodyguards of the local KBL leader.General Ver and all his co-accused are acquitted by the Sandiganbayan. December 3 . who earlier has wanted to run for the same position.
Thirty computer workers at the COMELEC tabulation center walk out.
Oppositionist ex-Governor Evelio Javier of Antique is murdered in front of the provincial capitol where canvassing is being held. agrees to be her running mate. vote-buying. resulting in the disenfranchisement of three million voters.
The Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) issues a statement condemning the elections as fraudulent. The Commission on Elections (COMELEC) tally board shows Marcos leading while the National Citizen's Movement for the Free Elections (NAMFREL) consistently shows Cory Aquino ahead by a comfortable margin.
December 2 . protesting the tampering of election results.
February 22 Attempts at regime change in the Philippines (1970–2007)
Civil unrest (1970) People Power (1986) 1986-90 plots Honasan's Second (1989)
. December 5 . Salvador Laurel. Marcos reinstates him as Chief of Staff amid widespread protest.
and took the initiative to withdraw some firearms from the PSG armory. Rex Robles was assigned to act as a liaison with the diplomatic community in case the RAM officers will be arrested. Gen. Ricardo Morales. visit the Palace for a meeting with the President. Col. 12:45 PM o While Marcos was having his meeting with the U. o U. The U. Rolando Abadilla to Col. Capt. Amb. envoys. Avelino Razon briefs AFP Vice Chief of Staff Gen. reconnoiters the defenses of the Palace grounds. barely has Amb. 12:00 NN o Navy Capt. 3:00 AM o The final meeting at the Defense Minister's home is concluded. one of Imelda Marcos' close-in security and who is a mole of RAM in the PSG. Stephen Bosworth along with Philip Habib. Fidel V. but to simply "freeze" the operation for the next 24 hours. that "Cory won the election and deserves our support."
.S. 6:30 AM o Maj. Lt. Ver storms into the Presidential study to convey the recent arrest of four officers in the PSG who are found to be members of RAM. and tell the world of their story. and we ought to offer him asylum in the United States. Honasan to inform the latter that their plans have been made known already and that RAM should not make any rash decisions. 10:00 AM o Lt. o Honasan reviews the situation and assesses the prepositioning of the troops from his office in GHQAFP Camp Aguinaldo o Cory Aquino leaves for Cebu to continue the Civil Disobedience Campaign. they discover battle-hardened Marines stationed at their main point of attack. To their dismay. He is arrested and is brought to the office of the Aide-de-camp for interrogation. 9:00 AM o Fabian Ver sends Col. 1:45 PM o As the meeting came to a close. Marcos is finished. Ramos on the developments of RAM's plans.
2:00 AM Fall of Estrada (2001) o Final meeting of the RAM at Minister May 1 riots (2001) of Defense Juan Ponce Enrile's house Oakwood mutiny (2003) in Dasmariñas Village before the State of emergency (2006) assault on Malacañan Palace Manila Peninsula rebellion (2007) o AFP Chief of Staff Fabian Ver calls in additional units to defend Malacañang. Col. Honasan phones Kapunan and informs him that they are not going to abort the mission. envoys call Marcos to retire Ver. Honasan and Kapunan begin their recoinnaisance of Malacañang. o Philip Habib confides as he leaves Malacañang. Pres.S. They discuss the recent elections and the political situation. Bosworth left the room.S. Ronald Reagan's personal envoy to Marcos.
Gen. . and he was fooling the entire world because he flip-flopped so many times already. Leyte.
2:00 PM o With their plans discovered." o Ramos states "There has become an elite Armed Forces of the Philippines that no longer represents the rank and officers' corps of the Armed Forces... We do not consider President Marcos as now being a duly constituted authority. it is clear that he no longer is the able and capable commander-in-chief that we count upon. which included troops in Mrs. 4:30 PM o The first military region to go to the rebel side was Regional Unified Command No... ." o Ramos closes "I am not even acting Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces. Marcos first response to the mutiny was to call his family to Malacañang.. . I think that when he made that announcement to you and to the whole world last Sunday. Aquino even if she is installed as a president. I know that we cheated in the elections to the extent of 350. I would like to appeal to the fair and to the dedicated and people-oriented members of the AFP and the INP to join us in this crusade for better government. Salvador Mison who was in Camp Aguinaldo. Enrile and the RAM officers.." 7:00 PM Approximately 7:00 PM
. Marcos's own province. had to change their direction. . 6:30 PM o Malacañang receives a "report" that Ramos and Enrile were "officially withdrawing their support" of the Marcos administration. We have no food. led by commander. Because in my own region. You are welcome to join us.The President of 1986 is not the President to whom we dedicated our service.000 votes.." o Enrile adds "I cannot in my conscience recognize the President as the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and I am appealing to the other members of the Cabinet to heed the will of the people expressed during the last elections. 5:30 PM o Pres.. . 8.. 3:45 PM o Enrile gets through to Cardinal Sin and seeks his moral and active support. They decided that they need to draw the public support if they are going to storm this crisis out. Our loyalty is to the Constitution and the country.. .. 6:45 PM o Enrile and Ramos.. and make the official announcement of their withdrawal of support of the Marcos administration. 2:15 PM o Cory in the rally in Cebu calls for the boycott of Marcos crony-owned business. he was just fooling us.. He has put his personal family interest above the interest of the people. I will not serve under Mrs.  o Enrile states in his opening that "We are going to die here fighting. No.. as the former felt that he will not survive the day. surrounded by the their staff and guards hold a press conference at the Social Hall of the GHQAFP. Brig.
Sotelo confirms that he supports RAM. asking the Commander whether he is with them. who was also a member of RAM." 8:45 PM o The rebel group was taken aback by the Cardinal's announcement and calls him to clarify their request.I ask you to support Mr. 8:30 PM o Cardinal Jaime Sin goes on air and calls the people to "Please. The Executive Committee wants to wait on Cory Aquino for instructions. Gen.
Cory receives the news of the withdrawal of support by Enrile and Ramos. give them food if you like. Chief of the Intelligence Service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (ISAFP) to "Destroy Radio Veritas!" o Unbeknown to Ver. Ramos. 8:15 PM o Gen. They asked him to send the people to the camps. and orders his Squadron Commanders to arm their attack helicopters. Antonio Sotelo. Fidel Singson. do not be alarmed. but only to reconnoiter the area.. Col. 9:00 PM o Cardinal Sin goes on air once more and says "Leave your homes now . stay home. MP Palma immediately made a call to Radio Veritas and was one of the first opposition leaders to express support for the revolution. Enrile and Gen. o Cory Aquino meanwhile is also deciding on what actions to take after receiving the call from ATOM. they are our friends. Butz Aquino finally decided to head to Camp Aguinaldo to support the rebels. Commander of the 15th Strike Wing. She requests to speak with Enrile first. She calls Manila to verify the report. Singson was already in the process of defecting to the rebel group. received a call at his Villamor Air Base office from Col..
. Hector Tarrazona. Singson sends his men to Radio Veritas. o Col. Ver orders Brig. not to destroy. 9:30 PM o Butz Aquino with the August Twenty-One Movement ATOM Executive Committee deliberate on whether to support Enrile and Ramos." o Inquirer co-chairman Betty Go-Belmonte telephoned Member of Parliament Cecilia Munoz Palma.