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ME 310 Lab Manual, Spring 2003
University of Kentucky
Table of Contents
LABORATORY SAFETY REPORT WRITING EXPERIMENT 1: UNCERTAINTY & ERRORS EXPERIMENT 2: PERIODIC WAVEFORMS EXPERIMENT 3: SENSORS & SIGNAL CONDITIONING EXPERIMENT 4: SIGNAL CONDITIONING EXPERIMENT 5: DIGITAL DATA ACQUISITION EXPERIMENT 6: STRAIN GAGES EXPERIMENT 7: PRONY BRAKE EXPERIMENT 8: VELOCITY AND FLOW RATE APPENDIX A: BREAD BOARDS APPENDIX B: RESISTORS APPENDIX C: ZONIC DAQ SYSTEM APPENDIX D: SPRING-MASS SYSTEMS Need to add Appendices on DMM, O-SCOPE, F’n Generator, Power Supply, etc. 3 4 6 9 12 16 18 23 26 28 31 32 35 37
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ME 310 Lab Manual, Spring 2003
University of Kentucky
Here are several rules that you should follow while in the ME 310 lab. 1. 2. Follow instructions of the TAs. Use common sense. Most of the experiments you will be dealing with have very little chance for encountering something dangerous, but be careful. Some examples include the following: a. If an experiment involves high voltage and/or current, don’t touch hot-wires. b. If something is rotating rapidly, stand clear and keep any loose clothing away. c. Shield your eyes (that is, wear goggles) from lasers and other coherent light sources. Never work alone. Don’t bring food or drink into the lab. Liquids are conductive and food can gum up the equipment. Read through the lab handout thoroughly before starting on an experiment. This includes any instrumentation specifications and MSDS.
3. 4. 5.
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These are to be answered or discussed in the this section. Long Report Format The following format is to be used for formal Laboratory Reports: Title Page–The title page should show the title and number of the experiment. the date the experiment was performed. experimenter’s name and experimenter's partners' names. An informal report includes the Title Page.) Short Report Format Often the experiment requires not a formal report but a short informal report. A poorly written report might instead lead the reader to think that just as little care went into performing the experiment. and Procedure) Results. Theory –The theory section should contain a complete analytical development of any important equations pertinent to the experiment. Reports are due one week after the experiment was performed. Second. an Introduction (made up of shortened versions of Object. Discussion and Conclusion – This section should give an interpretation of the results explaining how the object of the experiment was accomplished. Another alternative report form consists of a Title Page. Show the function of each part when necessary for clarity. The theory section should be written textbook-style. This will require checking and rechecking the calculations until accuracy can be guaranteed. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky REPORT WRITING Some reports in the ME 310 may require a formal laboratory report. This is one of the most important parts of the laboratory report because everything included in the report must somehow relate to the stated object. (The instructor will usually supply Calibration curves. graphs. (2) Show how data were used by a sample calculation. the report should contain accurate results. Bibliography A detailed listing of all references used. The reader should be able to easily follow each step discussed in the text. the report should be free of spelling and grammatical errors. The object can be as short as one sentence and it is usually written in the past tense. Include manufacturer of the instrument. You should also include the raw data sheets used to record data in the laboratory. Each experiment write-up contains a number of questions. Object –The object is a clear concise statement explaining the purpose of the experiment. Also recommend any changes necessary to better accomplish the object. This form might be used when a detailed theory section would be too long. Suggest extensions of the experiment and improvements. Procedure. Discuss this experiment with respect to its faults as well the as its strong points. 4 of 39 . and Conclusion and Discussion. Finally. (3) Calibration curves of instruments that were used in the performance of the experiment. Any presentation of data that serves the purpose of clearly showing the outcome of the experiment is sufficient. The reports should be simple and clearly written. The report should communicate several ideas to the reader. etc. Object. Outline exactly stepResults – The results section should contain a formal analysis of the data with tables. calculate % error and account for the sources. Results. Theory. If any analytical expression is to be verified. and how these equations are used in the reduction of data. Appendix (1) Original data sheet. Other portions may be added at the discretion of the instructor or the writer. unless specified otherwise. The experimenter is in effect trying to convince the reader that the experiment was performed in a straightforward manner with great care and with full attention to detail. the report should be well organized. if any. model and serial numbers. The report should be written in such a way that anyone could duplicate the performed experiment and find the same results as the originator. Third. Table of Contents –Each page of the report must be numbered for this section. First the report should be neatly done.ME 310 Lab Manual. Procedure – The procedure section should contain a schematic drawing of the experimental setup including all equipment used in a parts list with manufacturer serial numbers. and Conclusions.
x/c Tables 5 of 39 . Graphs must be drawn neatly following a specific format. it is necessary to compose a plot in order to graphically present the results. The figure below shows a graph prepared using a computer. including Excel and MATLAB. Nevertheless an acceptably drawn graph has several features of note and an example is given below. Note that symbols are used to show experimental data while lines are used to denote theoretical calculations. There are many computer programs that have graphing capabilities.ME 310 Lab Manual. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Graphs In many instances.
Select 6 resistors of the SAME resistance. plot the Gaussian distribution (use Matlab to do this!).ME 310 Lab Manual. measure and record the resistance for each of the 6 resistors From the DMM manual or datasheet. classify and record different error types ¸ Fit a set of data to a statistical distribution and make predictions based on this distribution ¸ Estimate uncertainty due to propagation of errors in an experiment ¸ Perform a linear least squares fit to a set of measured data Required Hardware: • Breadboard • A selection of resistors. Also record the resolution and accuracy for the LCR meter. Compute the uncertainty in this mean value. 2. 4. Calculations: 1. (Use t-distribution for small # of samples with a 95% confidence level) 3. clips and plugs Required Documentation: • Table of color codes for resistors • Manual or datasheet for DMM • Manual or datasheet for LCR meter Activity #1 Procedures: 1. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Experiment 1: Uncertainty & Errors Objectives: In this experiment you will: ¸ Become familiar with basic electric circuit components ¸ Measure. Include both precision and bias uncertainty.e. how many resistors (of the 6 measured) are expected to be within 25% of the mean? 6 of 39 .. inductors and capacitors • Handheld Digital Multimeter (DMM) • Handheld LCR meter (1 to be shared among groups) • DC power supply • Miscellaneous connectors. Additionally. in order to avoid large uncertainties in the calculations due to a bias error in the DMM resistors of larger nominal values should be selected. Using the Gaussian distribution. try to select resistor sizes for which there is an accuracy rating available in the DMM manual). determine and record the nominal value and tolerance of the resistors Using the DMM. Note: Circuit elements should be selected based on the available specifications of the DMM and other such equipment (i. Assuming the distribution is normal. Is there a difference? Why or why not? 2. Compare these to the nominal value and tolerance of the resistors taken from the color coded bands. Using the color coded bands. resolution and accuracy for measuring resistance. 3. Compute the sample mean and standard deviation for the 6 resistance measurements. record the meters bias uncertainty (this can be obtained by comparing DMM readings to the more accurate LCR meter).
The power loss due to current flowing through a resistor is P=I2R. estimate the nominal value and the uncertainty for the power loss in each circuit. Record their nominal value and tolerance. 4. Measure the capacitance across the two capacitors using the LCR meter. 7 of 39 . Select any 2 inductors of differing inductance. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Activity #2 Background: You will need to re-familiarize yourself with the concepts of equivalent resistance. if 10 volts dc were applied to them using the DC power supply (see circuits below). Procedures: 1. For circuits 1 and 2 (below). Connect them in series on the breadboard. Measure the inductance across the two inductors using the LCR meter. and the propagation of error due to multiple circuit elements. 2. 3. You can assume that the LCR meter has no bias error since it is the reference for the DMM bias error. Connect them in series on the breadboard. 5. Record their nominal value and tolerance. Record their nominal value and tolerance. however. capacitance and inductance for parallel or series connections of each element. 2. Remove the inductors from the breadboard. Calculations: 1. Using the manual or the datasheet for the DC power supply. Measure the resistance across the two resistors using the DMM. inductor or capacitor). Connect them in parallel on the breadboard. the bias error of the DMM. Take the same 2 resistors and connect them in parallel on the breadboard. where R is the equivalent resistance of the circuit. you should consider its precision error. Select any 2 capacitors of differing capacitance. Measure the resistance across the two resistors using the DMM. record the “load regulation” and use this value as the uncertainty associated with the power supply. This should include the precision error (tolerance) of the passive circuit element (resistor. Select any 2 resistors of different resistance. Remove the resistors from the breadboard. Calculate and place in a table the overall uncertainty for each measurement (1-4) taken above. Remove the capacitors from the breadboard.ME 310 Lab Manual.
0. 8 of 39 . Such a circuit is commonly found in signal conditioning systems for sensors. Vin. Using the DMM. The input to the circuit is the DC power supply which supplies a constant voltage. The circuit diagram is shown below. This plot should include: a) each experimental data point. Compute the % difference between the experimental and predicted values of output voltage and place this in a final column next to the others labeled “% difference”.2. Label this column of the table “Experimental Data”. 3. 0.6. 5. Using these two resistors and the DC power supply. output voltage for input voltage values of 0.8. record the output voltage. Is this % difference within the predicted uncertainty? Why or why not? 3. Using this relationship and the nominal value and tolerance of the resistors R1 and R2. Create a table of input voltage vs. 0. construct the voltage divider circuit as shown in the diagram above. Do these match up well? Discuss. Record their nominal values and tolerance.0.0 volts. 8. 1. Calculations: 1. (The output voltage is across the leads of the second resistor. 10. compute the predicted output voltage and its uncertainty (%) for each input voltage in step #3 of the procedures. 0. Create a plot of Vout vs. MAKE SURE IT IS TURNED OFF AND THE VOLTAGE OUTPUT TURNED ALL THE WAY DOWN!) 2. sketch the circuit showing the nominal value of each resistor and its location.ME 310 Lab Manual. Using Ohm’s law and Kirchoff’s law. The output of the circuit is the voltage.4. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Activity #3 Background A voltage divider is a simple circuit used to scale down an input voltage to a smaller output voltage.0 volts.) 3. Select any 2 resistors of different resistance. 2.0. Place these in a column next to the “Experimental Data” and label this column “Predicted”. Turn on the DC power supply. The general construct of the voltage divider consists of two resistors in series. Procedures: 1.5.0. Write the equation of the best fit line. (BEFORE CONNECTING THE DC POWER SUPPLY. Set the voltage to 1. derive an expression for Vout/Vin in terms of R1 and R2 for the voltage divider circuit. 1. (This is the input voltage to the circuit). b) a best fit line (linear least squares) through the experimental data and c) each predicted data point. measured across the second resistor.
The most useful way to measure them is with an Oscilloscope. Set the output of the function generator to a sinusoidal output with a peak amplitude of 1 volt and a frequency of 100 Hz. Using a Fourier Series expansion. connect the output of the function generator (a voltage output) to channel 1 of the O-scope (see figure 1 below). to create and measure periodic waveforms and their properties ¸ Use Fourier series to construct the same periodic waveforms ¸ Measure the response characteristics of zero. squarewave. 9 of 39 . Now use the DMM at the “T” connector to measure and record the RMS value of the voltage waveform. sawtooth. and many others) as long as that shape repeats itself. triangle. 2. Procedures: 1. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Experiment 2: Periodic Waveforms Objectives: In this experiment you will: ¸ Use a function generator. but in practice only a finite number of terms in the series can be computed. an equation can be written for any periodic waveform.ME 310 Lab Manual. The Fourier Series is an infinite series. inductors and capacitors • The spring-mass-damper experimental module • A hotplate. Using a BNC to BNC cable and a “T” connector. Connect the DMM to the T connector using a BNC to BNC cable and a banana plug to BNC connector. Now play with the amplitude and the frequency inputs and observe how the waveform changes on the Oscope. thermocouple and metal piece • Handheld DMM • Function generator • Oscilloscope • DC power supply • Agilent Dynamic Signal Analyzer (or Zonic Box) (for sine sweep test) • Temperature sensor on DMM and stopwatch • Miscellaneous connectors. It is one that you will try to answer in this activity. Capture the waveform using the O-scope and save the data in ASCII format to disk. first and second order electrical and mechanical systems ¸ Measure the frequency response (both amplitude and phase) of a second order system using the sine sweep approach Required Hardware: • Breadboard • A selection of resistors. clips and plugs Required Documentation: • Table of color codes for resistors • Manual or datasheet for DMM Activity #1: Periodic Waveforms Background: Periodic waveforms can take on any shape (sinusoidal. Is it what you expect? 4. How many terms that is required to accurately reproduce a waveform is always a question. Make notes of what happens in your notebook. One way to introduce them into systems is to use a function generator. Periodic waveforms are very useful in the analysis and design of dynamic systems (of which many measurement systems are). 3. an O-scope and a DMM (Digital Multimeter). Turn on the function generator and the O-scope.
Compare these plots to the measured plots and comment on the results. A voltage divider circuit is the subject of this activity. 2. Electrical circuits containing only resistors are zeroth order. the output is independent of time. 10 of 39 . Figure 1: Set-up for Activity #1 Activity 2: Response of Zeroth Order Systems Background: Zeroth order systems are governed by equations that contain no derivatives. (Again. 2. 10 terms and 50 terms in the expansion. Re-set the peak amplitude to 1 volt and frequency to 100 Hz and change the waveform to sawtooth. and connect O-scope channel 2 across the leads of R2 (Vout). From these plots. BNC connectors and a “T” junction. time data for the sinusoidal and the sawtooth waveforms.) 4. measure and record the RMS value of the waveform using the DMM. determine the frequency (in Hz). 3. Also include in this table a comparison of the RMS voltage measured using the DMM and that you computed using eq. Again. 2. (For the sawtooth use Table 4.ME 310 Lab Manual. Using these equations.1). Set the output of the function generator to a squarewave with a 1 volt peak amplitude and 2 Hz frequency. Again.21. construct the voltage divider circuit shown below in fig. (Be sure to record which resistor is R1 and which is R2). 2 terms. that is. Mechanical systems such as a collection of levers are completely analogous to the resistance circuits and are also zeroth order because they simply amplify a force. connect the output from the function generator directly to O-scope channel 1 (Vin). Make a small table that compares the frequency. 4. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky 5. peak amplitude (in volts) and the RMS amplitude in volts (use eq. Select 2 resistors of different resistance. Capture both waveforms from channels 1 and 2 on the O-scope (each in their turn) and save them to disk in ASCII format. capture the waveform using the O-scope and save the data to disk. Record their nominal values and their tolerance.21). Write an equation for the sinusoidal and the sawtooth waveforms. and peak amplitude values that you put into the function generator and measured with the DMM to the values you measured from the waveforms. Another way of looking at it is that. for a constant input. Procedures 1. Using the breadboard and the function generator. Using a collection of alligator clips. 5. 4. plot the waveforms for 1 term. see figure 2 below. Calculations: 1. Plot the voltage vs. their output is equal to a constant times the input.
Record this temperature (it is the initial temperature of your system). 3. Now remove the temperature sensor from the hotplate and let the sensor cool. The most classic of all first order system is the thermal system. plot a straight line indicating the step input temperature. Describe the shape of this plot. Compute the time constant. Electrical systems that contain only resistors and capacitors (no inductors) have first order responses.) Calculations: 1. Now place the washer onto the hotplate and simultaneously start the timer. Also. “It is often assumed that a process is completed during 5 time constants.) Place the temperature sensor against the hotplate and note when the equilibrium temperature is reached. Leave the hotplate on. Describe what features of this plot make it a first order response. Procedures: 1. It is the subject of this activity. time data that you recorded in step 3 above. you may want to increase the time between measurements. 3. 2. Plot the temperature vs. Plot the waveforms of Vin and Vout on the same plot. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Calculations: 1. Turn the hotplate on and place the dial at a setting of 3.2). It will take a few minutes for the plate to reach a steady temperature. Record the temperature every 5 seconds until the equilibrium is reached. Write an equation for this temperature response. Vibratory mechanical systems that contain only springs and dampers (no mass) are completely analogous to the R-C electrical circuits and also have first order responses (see Table 5. (Nothing should be on the hotplate yet. Apply the thermal grease to a spot on one side of the metal washer. 4. According to your text. (After a few minutes. 2. Are the measured results consistent with this relationship? Figure 2: Set up for Activity #2 Activity #3: First Order System Step Response Background: First order systems are governed by differential equations that only contain the first derivative. Record several temperatures over the surface of the hotplate to get a good average value of the surface (this is the step input to your system). derive the relationship Vout/Vin. Using Kirchoffs and Ohms Laws. What are the differences between these two waveforms? Are these waveforms consistent with a zeroth order system? 2. 4. Place the sensor into the grease on the washer and record the equilibrium temperature of the washer.” Do you agree with this statement for your system? Why or why not? 11 of 39 .ME 310 Lab Manual.
Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Experiment 3: Sensors & Signal Conditioning Objectives: In this experiment you will: ¸ Obtain a basic understanding of some of the primary mechanisms used in stage 1 (sensing) devices ¸ Obtain a basic understanding of some simple stage 2 (signal conditioning) devices ¸ Learn how to set-up and use some of the most common sensing schemes ¸ Learn how to construct a calibration curve and estimate system sensitivity Required Hardware: • Breadboard • A selection of resistors • A large manually variable 1 Ohm resistor • A potentiometer with the cover missing • A commercially available position sensing system (inductive probe) • A thermistor.) Position the sliding band at 1”. Turn off the power supply. 4. At each location measure the resistance. 12 of 39 2. Then. 2”.) Turn on the power supply set the excitation to 1 volt. However. (refer to fig. This is the voltage dividing potentiometer circuit. attach a 10 ohm resistor in series with the 1 ohm variable resistor and the DC power supply. (Make sure the DC power supply is off!) Place the DMM such that it measures voltage across the 10 ohm resistor. 4” and 6” from the tab.7. The most common are temperature sensors (thermistors) and position sensors (potentiometers). 1 below) Make sure that 1 lead of the DMM is connected to the tab fixed to the body of the resistor and the other is on the sliding band. Repeat this procedure 3 times. Then turn off the power supply. (Refer to the sketch in Fig. A common circuit used for this purpose is the voltage dividing potentiometer circuit (section 7. Position the band to 1”. . steel wafer • Miscellaneous connectors. Therefore. strain gage • Handheld Digital Multimeter • DC power supply • Hotplate. 5.ME 310 Lab Manual. (The measured resistance is that between the tab and the sliding band. Remove the DMM. signal conditioning (a stage 2 device) is required to convert the change in resistance to a change in voltage. 3. In order to obtain consistent readings be sure to place the indentation on the sliding band directly over one of the coils of wire on the resistor. Connect the 1 ohm manually variable resistor directly to the DMM and set the DMM to read resistance. turn on the DC power supply and measure the output voltage. Procedures: 1. most data acquisition systems are set up to measure and acquire voltage. Record the data each time. 2 below. not resistance. First going up and then coming back down. clips and plugs Required Documentation: • Table of color codes for resistors • Manual or datasheet for DMM Activity #1: Resistance Varying Position Sensors with Voltage Dividing Potentiometer Circuit Background: Many mechanical sensors (stage 1 devices) work on the principal of a change in resistance.1).
Assuming the DMM is a high impedance readout device.8a. Turn off the power supply each time you change the position of the tab.ME 310 Lab Manual. Is there any hysteresis in your data? 4. What is the sensitivity of this sensor (volts/inch)? 6. but with a twist. (Show the points as you go up using one type of symbol and the points as you come back using another type of symbol. Plot the voltage vs. Plot the measured resistance vs. (Similar to what was done to get 7. position for all data points just as you did in #1. 4” and 6”. Plot the best fit line through all of the data. What is the sensitivity of this sensor (ohms/inch)? 3. Show this line on the same plot as the data points and write the equation of this line on the graph (this is a calibration curve). Do not connect the points with a line. Only show the symbols. Repeat step 6 for 2”. Define the term hysteresis.) 2. Record the data each time. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky 6. Calculations: 1. Show this line on the same plot as the data points and write the equation of this line on the graph (this is a calibration curve). 5.) Does this sensitivity match that measured in 5? What would be the source of any errors? Are they bias or precision? Holder Sliding Band with Indentation Variable 1 Ohm Resistor DMM Figure 1: Set-up for Activity #1 13 of 39 . First going up and then coming back down. position for all data points. and the relationship between resistance and position found in 2. Repeat this procedure 3 times. Then turn it back on to take the reading. derive an expression for the sensitivity (volts/inch) of the sensor with voltage divider using Kirchoff’s and Ohm’s laws. Plot the best fit line through all of the data.
Connect the thermistor to the steel thermal wafer using thermal compound. not necessarily linear.ME 310 Lab Manual. use the DMM to measure the output voltage. Procedures: 1. It is a commonly used temperature sensing device in industry and in laboratories. One way to do this is to use a voltage sensitive Wheatstone bridge. Turn off the hotplate and the power supply. Let everything cool down and disconnect all leads. Turn on the DC power supply (this is Vi in the circuit) and set it to 1 volt. Then use the DMM to measure the resistance across the leads of the thermistor.) 14 of 39 . resistance. Fit the data with the best fit curve (not necessarily linear. a breadboard. Record these. connect the voltage sensitive Wheatstone bridge circuit shown in figure 3. so use MATLAB or Excel. Each time record the temperature.) 2. Fit the data with the best fit curve (again. (The hotplate should be off and at room temperature. voltage data points. Vo. Thermistors come with calibration curves that relate resistance to temperature. The simplest way to use a thermistor is to hook up a DMM across its leads and measure resistance directly. resistance and voltage. Finally. 4. Select 3 identical resistors and record their nominal value and tolerance. Turn on the hotplate and increase its temperature by turning the knob to 4 different positions. Place the thermal wafer onto the hotplate. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Holder Sliding Band with Indentation DC Power Supply Variable 1 Ohm Resistor DMM Figure 2: Set up for Activity #1 with voltage dividing circuit Activity 2: Thermistor with Voltage Sensitive Wheatstone Bridge Background: A thermistor is a device that changes resistance as its temperature changes. most data acquisition systems accept voltage inputs. As you should be aware. Using the thermal sensing device measure the temperature of the wafer (should be room temperature). Therefore. Alternatively. you could make your own calibration curve. Plot the temperature vs. not resistance directly. Make a table with 3 columns: temperature. 5. resistance data points. Each time let the temperature reach equilibrium by waiting until the resistance reaches a steady value. so use MATLAB or Excel. and the DC power supply. Calculations: 1. 3. 6. we wish to hook up the thermistor into a signal conditioning circuit that converts temperature to resistance and then resistance to voltage. Using these resistors. and voltage. the thermistor. from the Wheatstone bridge.) 2. Plot the temperature vs.
What is the sensitivity of the sensor (ohms/°C) at a temperature of 50 °C? What is the sensitivity of the sensor with bridge circuit (volts/°C) at a temperature of 50 °C? What is the sensitivity of the bridge circuit alone (volts/Ohm) at a temperature of 50 °C? Using equation 7.18. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky 3.ME 310 Lab Manual. compute the predicted value of bridge sensitivity (volts/Ohm) and compare this to the measured value. Are they the same? Why or why not? R2 Vo R1 R3 Rtherm Vi Figure 3: Set up for Activity #2 15 of 39 .
Using a BNC "T" connector. 5. which is introduced electrically. inductors. Using the attached frequency response plots and equations. estimate the voltage attenuation (ratio of Vout/Vin) and phase lag at all 3 frequencies (10 Hz. Make a table that compares the measured and the theoretical values. re-scale the O-scope to get nice waveforms for both channels 1 and 2. bring the function generator signal into channel 1 of the O-scope. These are theoretical values. These filters can be constructed using passive circuit elements (resistors. Plot and label the O-scope data taken in steps 1-8 above. Procedures: 1. rewire the circuit as shown in Fig. Place the function generator across the input. These are measured values. This small change converts the circuit to a high pass filter. fc and 10fc). In either case one would like to filter out the noise frequencies and keep the frequencies that contain the desired signal. clips and plugs Activity #1: High Pass and Low Pass Filters with Passive Circuit Elements Background: Many sensors measure oscillatory quantities. Repeat steps 4-6. Are they the same? Why or why not? 4. Now. Again. capacitors) which require no external source of power. This is the subject of this activity. 3. Turn off the function generator and O-scope. Finally. Using the breadboard. compute the cut-off frequency for the filter. fc and 10fc). This noise is typically at a very high frequency. a resistor and a capacitor. high pass or band pass filtering. This is accomplished by either low pass. use the plots and associated equations to estimate the voltage attenuation (ratio of Vout/Vin) and phase lag at all 3 frequencies (10 Hz. 3. attenuation and phase of dynamic signals Required Hardware: • Breadboard • A selection of resistors. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Experiment 4: Signal Conditioning Objectives: In this experiment you will: ¸ Obtain a basic understanding of the different ways to filter a sensor signal (a stage 2 operation) ¸ Understand the difference between active and passive circuits (stage 2 devices) ¸ Measure the frequency. Calculations: 1. 4. A problem occurs though when mechanical or electrical noise is also contained in the measured quantity. Finally. For the low pass filter.ME 310 Lab Manual. Save these waveforms to disk for plotting later. Set the function generator to 1 volt peak and 10 Hz frequency. 1a. 2. 16 of 39 . 2. 6. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for the High pass filter. Using the frequency response plots for the low pass filter (given to you in this handout). Save these waveforms to disk for plotting later. Observe the waveforms for channel 1 and channel 2 of the O-scope. set up channel 2 of the O-scope to measure the output voltage across the capacitor. Set the function generator to this cutoff frequency. Re-scale the O-scope to get nice waveforms for both channels 1 and 2. 1b. connect the passive low pass filter circuit shown in Fig. 8. Save these waveforms to disk for plotting later. inductors and capacitors • A selection of operational amplifiers (Integrated circuits) • A DC power supply • An O-scope • A Handheld DMM • A function generator • Miscellaneous connectors. See Fig 1a. set the function generator to 10 times the cut-off frequency. or at a very low frequency where sensor inaccuracies occur. Vibration is the classic mechanical example. 7.
fc and 10fc). 8. Finally. 3. re-scale the O-scope to get nice waveforms for both channels 1 and 2. Place the function generator across the input. These are theoretical values. Plot and label the O-scope data taken in steps 1-8 above. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for the High pass filter. connect the passive low pass filter circuit shown in Fig. These devices must use an external power supply and also make use of passive circuit elements. 3. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Figure 1: Set up for Activity #1 Activity 2: High Pass and Low Pass Filters with Active Circuit Elements Background: An alternative way to construct filters is using active circuit elements (operational amplifiers). Now. This is the subject of this activity. Set the function generator to 1 volt peak and 10 Hz frequency. This small change converts the circuit to a high pass filter. Again. 5. use the plots and associated equations to estimate the voltage attenuation (ratio of Vout/Vin) and phase lag at all 3 frequencies (10 Hz. compute the cut-off frequency for the filter. fc and 10fc). Are they the same? Why or why not? 4. Using the frequency response plots for the low pass filter (given to you in this handout). Figure 2: Set up for Activity #2 17 of 39 . Turn off the function generator. 2. rewire the circuit as shown in Fig. operational amplifier and DC power supply. DC power supply and O-scope. 4. set the function generator to 10 times the cut-off frequency. Finally. These are measured values. Calculations: 1. 7. For the low pass filter.ME 310 Lab Manual. 2 resistors. estimate the voltage attenuation (ratio of Vout/Vin) and phase lag at all 3 frequencies (10 Hz. Using a BNC "T" connector. See Fig 2a. Procedures: 1. 2b. Re-scale the O-scope to get nice waveforms for both channels 1 and 2. Make a table that compares the measured and the theoretical values. bring the function generator signal into channel 1 of the O-scope. Repeat steps 4-6. capacitor. Set the function generator to this cutoff frequency. Using the attached frequency response plots and equations. Save these waveforms to disk for plotting later. Observe the waveforms for channel 1 and channel 2 of the O-scope. 2. Using the breadboard. Save these waveforms to disk for plotting later. 6. Save these waveforms to disk for plotting later. 2a. set up channel 2 of the O-scope to measure the output voltage across the output from the Op-amp.
Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Experiment 5: Digital Data Acquisition Objectives: In this experiment you will: ¸ Obtain a basic understanding of D/A and A/D conversions ¸ Use the Zonic data acquisition system and computer to acquire signals ¸ Use the computer based software to process and analyze those signals Required Hardware: • Zonic DAQ system • Laptop computer with software • Function generator • Accelerometer • Spring/mass system • Miscellaneous connectors. Once the PC has been booted. Procedures: 1. however. Set the experiment to Free Run with the following Sampling settings as shown in Figure 2: a. Do not confuse this with Nyquist frequency. frequency response must be well within the prescribed range of the DAQ parameters (between resolution and Nyquist frequency) for accurate determination of the signal’s spectral content. The PCMCIA card is connected to the Zonic DAQ box and is installed in the PC slot. start the FAS Medallion (Zonic) program found under the Windows Start menu. c. Number of Averages: 1 b. we can examine the limitations of the DAQ by varying the input. Activity #1: A/D and D/A conversions Background: This experiment will demonstrate simple use of the DAQ system including how to capture and analyze periodic signals. b. Frame Size: 4096 c. (You’ll calculate that later. Bandwidth: 100 Hz1 1 Note that frame size and bandwidth are other terms for number of data points and frequency range. Clicking anywhere in the Analysis pane will bring up the Analysis parameters window. If not. we will observe the response of the DAQ system by using “fake” input generated from a function generator. While amplitude is easily checked.) 18 of 39 . respectively.ME 310 Lab Manual. Check with the TA if problems are encountered. clips and plugs Required Documentation: • Zonic hardware and software manual (FAS Manual) • Accelerometer data-sheet Read the Appendix given in this lab description to get a basic understanding of the DAQ system. 3. By keeping the DAQ parameters fixed. being used in the lab. Hook up the output of the function generator to the input channel #1 of the DAQ box. This is shown in Figure 1. 2. It will also utilize the concept of Nyquist frequency discussed in class. Both the Zonic Medallion unit and PC are plugged in. an engineer must have a vague idea of the magnitude of these values before measuring them to ensure that the proper range of the signals is being measured. Since most periodic signals that one will measure in the field will have a given frequency and amplitude. To explore this behavior. The DAQ system should be ready to go. both hardware and software. ensure the following steps have been completed: a.
a. 7. Export the time and spectrum information to a text file on a floppy disk as described on page 35 of the FAS Manual. Keep this amplitude throughout your experiments. Note if you are able to properly identify the signal. (Do not use the Save function. Are you capturing enough information to accurately describe the signal? c.) Now increase the frequency to 200 Hz and repeat the procedure in step #5. Record the mode(s) of the signal calculated by the program. Examine the Time behavior of the signal. Do not change the settings from step #3. 6. the system should acquire a signal from channel 1. Set the amplitude of the output of the function generator to 1 VPP. Finally. it need not be exact) with a sine wave. Again note if you are able to properly identify the signal. Click on Aquire and wait.ME 310 Lab Manual. b.1 Hz and repeat the procedure in step #5 keeping the software settings the same. d. Examine the spectral content of the signal (Uspec). 5. 8. Decrease the frequency to ~0. In one period. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky 4. return the frequency to 10 Hz and repeat the procedure in step #5 for a square ware and then a sawtooth wave. Make special note of the frequency content of the signal. Use a new file for each run. Set the frequency of the function generator to 10 Hz (approximately. Figure 1: Set up for Activity #1 19 of 39 .
How does the latter compare with the bandwidth? 2. An accelerometer will be used to measure the vertical acceleration of a Spring-Mass system caused by an initial displacement. Yellow: common (common to both power supply and sensor output return circuits) c. Calculations: 1. 3. Use the sampling (i. Activity 2: Dynamic Signal Analysis (Waveform Capture and FFT) Background: The previous experiment explored the capabilities of the system and the limitations of the software settings when examining particular input data. This is simply the power the sensor requires to operate. Like most sensors. Set up the Spring-Mass system as shown in Figure 3. From the software. In this experiment we will acquire data from a sensor connected to a periodic signal. For the Sampling parameters. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Figure 2: DAQ software settings. 10. Orange: output signal 4. That is. not horizontally. list the measured versus the predicted values of the modes for the 5 measurements above: sine wave at 0. the accelerometer requires an excitation voltage. 2. Test the system by displacing the spring and acquiring data as discussed above. square and saw-tooth waves at 10 Hz. the accelerometer is a variable capacitance sensor which operates by using the imposed acceleration to alter the distance between the two conductors of the capacitor. frame) period if needed. This periodic data will then be used to calculate the frequency of the system and the spring constant of the spring. calculate the frequency range of the DAQ system.e.1. Green: +5V supply b. 20 of 39 . Procedures: 1. The spring should be suspended from the hook on the ring stand with the mass holder hanging from one end. Connect the accelerometer to the power supply and then to the input channel of the DAQ system using the following wire color scheme: a. Analyze the 5 exported time signals in MATLAB and compare the frequency information with that predicted by FAS. the lowest frequency accurately measured (resolution) and the highest frequency accurately measured (Nyquist frequency). Attach the accelerometer (using Velcro) to the mass holder. The arrow on the accelerometer should be pointing either directly up or down..ME 310 Lab Manual. In this case. You should record a periodic signal. 3. and 200 Hz.
From theory. For the matrix listed above. Recall that the sinusoidal motion of the system is described by the equation y(t) = yO cos( k t ) where yo is the initial displacement of the spring. Disconnect all wiring and turn off the power supply when finished. Calculations: 1. determine what the equations for the velocity and the acceleration of the system. 21 of 39 . the frequency of the oscillation is predicted to be f = above. Make sure you † include your error in both of your values of k calculated above. From this equation. Determine the mode for each of the runs in your matrix of experiments and determine k based upon these measurements. 1 2p k M where k and M are defined Figure 3: Spring-Mass arrangement for Activity #2. k is the spring constant. export the data for later analysis. why? Notes: Do not forget to include the mass of the hook and the accelerometer in your calculations. Did you need to calibrate the sensor for this calculation? † 2. The setup for the system is shown in Figure 4. Record the data for the experiment matrix listed below. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky 5.0 cm Mass: 51 g Mass: 102 g You do not need to Export the data for this Activity. plot a curve of the acceleration of the system and predict the spring constant by matching the curve to that of your experimental data. Return to Hook’s law. Initial Displacement: 5.0 cm Initial Displacement: 10. In each case. and M is M the mass of the system (assuming the mass of the spring is negligible). Do you encounter multiple frequencies in your measurements? If so.ME 310 Lab Manual.
22 of 39 .ME 310 Lab Manual. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Figure 4: Set up for Activity #2.
Bandwidth: 100 Hz 3. You will need to examine each one in turn. The PCMCIA card is connected to the Zonic DAQ box and is installed in the PC slot. You will first need to provide the bridge circuit consisting of the other 3 resistors. ensure the following steps have been completed: a. clips and plugs • Measurements Group Strain Gage Indicator (P-3500) & Switch/Balance Unit (SB-10) Required Documentation: • Zonic hardware and software manual (FAS Manual) • Strain Gage Indicator manual (or supplement) Read the Appendix given in the previous lab description (lab #5) to get a basic understanding of the DAQ system. The strain gage you will be using is a quarter bridge strain gage. one for longitudinal strain and one for lateral strain. being used in the lab. and aluminum) and sizes. Number of Averages: 1 b. choose 3 appropriate resistors (What value of resistor should you use? Should they all be identical?) and wire up a an appropriate bridge circuit. Each of these gages has two separate strain gages on it. If not. The DAQ system should be ready to go. b. 4. Set the experiment to Free Run with the following Sampling settings as shown in Figure 2: a. resistors. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Experiment 6: Strain Gages Objectives: In this experiment you will: ¸ Use strain gages to examine the behavior of strain (and relation to stress) ¸ Wire your own strain gage bridge circuit ¸ Use a commercial strain gage indicator ¸ Use the Zonic data acquisition system and computer to acquire signals Required Hardware: • Zonic DAQ system • Laptop computer with software • DMM • Power supply • Various cantilever beams instrumented with strain gages • Various weights • Breadboard • Miscellaneous connectors. Choose 1 of the 3 beams instrumented with a single strain gage (it doesn’t matter which one).ME 310 Lab Manual. See Figure 12. Both the Zonic Medallion unit and PC are plugged in. 5. 2. c. The beams are of different materials (weld steel. spring steel. each instrumented with a single strain gage. Using the DMM. meaning it is intended to be 1 of 4 resistors in a circuit.10 of the text. Frame Size: 4096 c. Once the PC has been booted. Activity #1: Single Strain Gage on a Cantilever Beam Background: In this experiment you will use a strain gage to examine bending on a cantilever beam. Check with the TA if problems are encountered. You only need to examine the former in the current activity. For this activity. measure the resistance across the strain gage. Using the breadboard. 23 of 39 . start the FAS Medallion (Zonic) program found under the Windows Start menu. Procedures: 1. both hardware and software. Clicking anywhere in the Analysis pane will bring up the Analysis parameters window. you then need to provide an input voltage and measure the output voltage when the resistance changes due to varying resistance in the strain gage part of the circuit. you will need to test 3 different beams.
most often you will use a bridge circuit in the form of a strain gage conditioner. the frequency of the oscillation is predicted to be f = 2. 8. 9. Turn the beam over (making sure the clamp is in the same location on the beam) and repeat steps 9 through 11. 4. Make sure the strain gage is facing up. 17. why? From the simultaneous measurements. Repeat the above steps (4 through 16) with the other 2 beams. 2. 12.) In this 24 of 39 . excite the end of the beam and acquire the output response of the bridge. test your circuits using the DMM and make sure they are working properly. excite the beam and record the output. Mount the beam to the table using a c-clamp. 15.) Calculations: 1. in the Appendix. calculate the spring constant of the beam. 11.11 in the text for an example. wire up two identical bridge circuits. Measure the voltage using the DMM. Record the signal (amplitude versus time) and the frequency response (amplitude versus frequency). If it does not. Mount the beam using a c-clamp to the table. 3. Make sure the dual inputs are working correctly. 5. your circuit is not working properly.4 of the text). export the output to a disk. you will examine the output of two separate strain gages on a single beam simultaneously. For each of the beams. Using the power supply. (You have multiple measurements for each beam. The benefit of this type of system is that it works with multiple types of strain gages and does not need to be rewired each time a different gage is used. Thus. 16. Determine the output in m–strain. connect a 5V input across the bridge circuit.) 2. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky 6. the output frequency is a function of the mass and spring constant. Placing mass on the end of the beam. Flexing the beam should give you a variation in the output. Increase the weight and repeat. present your results with an appropriate error estimate. find the correlation between the inputs using MATLAB. Increase the mass and repeat. Hook the output of the strain gage up to the Zonic input channel 1. Using the cantilever beam instrumented with 2 gages. 13. Calculations: 1. With no weight on the end. but the latter should be the same. Determine the mode for each of the two inputs in your matrix of experiments and determine k based upon these measurements. Repeat with a single mass attached to the beam.ME 310 Lab Manual. Connect the output of the bridge circuit to the DMM in DC voltage measurement mode. determine and plot the calibration curve. Attach a single weight to the end of the beam and measure the voltage using the DMM. Procedures: 1. Determine the bridge constant for your circuit (see Table 12. Connect the output of the 2 beams to the two input channels of the Zonic DAQ. Using the procedure outlined in Activity #1. 1 2p k M where k and M are defined † Activity 3: Using a Strain Gage Conditioner Background: You will typically not need to create your own bridge circuit.) Activity 2: Multiple Strain Gages on a Cantilever Beam Background: One of the primary benefits of digital DAQ is the ability acquire multiple measurements simultaneously. Are the frequencies identical? If not. (See Section 12. For each of the instrumented beams. 10. (You do not need to rewire your bridge circuit. From theory. In this exercise. 14. The above information provides enough data to calibrate the gage.11 of the text. 7. (See Figure 12. 3.
Repeat for moment arm locations of 12 and 18 in. You should have a single curve for each of the moment arm locations. This will tell you where the resistor is located in the circuit.) 25 of 39 . (Use the supplement and Chapter 12 of the text.ME 310 Lab Manual.) Procedures: 1. This will need to be connected to the strain gage conditioner in the correct order. Plot the m–strain reading for your experiments on a single plot versus load. 4. you will use a Measurement Systems strain conditioning unit consisting of a SB-10 Switch and Balance Unit and P-3500 Strain Indicator. The units are in m–strain. 30 and 40 lbs. Record which strain you used. 20. The display should return a value of strain for no load conditions. 7. (See the lab supplement describing this experiment. Calculations: 1. 3. Calculate the appropriate stress that was placed on the beam and plot versus load. Select a moment arm location of 6 in for the weights and record the strain for a load of 10. Turn the P-3500 on and ensure that all proper connections and settings are made. 3. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky lab. connect the 3 wires to the appropriate terminals. 5. Are the curves significantly different? What does this tell you about the location of the strain gage on the shaft? From this plot. Select a quarter bridge strain gage on the beam (there are both quarter bridge and half bridge gages on the beam). 6. Each of the quarter bridge gages has 3 wires connected to it. 2. The resistance should either be high or low. determine where the strain gage was placed. 2. Using the diagram on the cover of the SB-10 for the quarter bridge circuit. Measure the resistance across the 3 wires.
me. Input power is monitored to determine overall motor efficiency.edu Figure 1 The basic operation of a Prony brake is as follows: The unit under test can be anything with a rotating shaft – a motor or engine for example. As torque is applied. a cable keeps the mechanism stationary. ¸ Determine the effective (brake) horsepower of a motor.psu. ¸ Measure the shaft torque of a motor. Figure 1 provides a basic schematic of a Prony brake setup. Shaft rotation rate is measured simultaneously. is measured at a known moment arm called the torque arm. F. The tension on the brake is adjusted to control torque due to friction on the band. The force.e. A force scale or other suitable force sensor measures the tension in this cable. i. T = Fr. http://www. However.ME 310 Lab Manual. 26 of 39 . ¸ Measure the rotation rate of a motor using a stroboscope. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Experiment 7: Prony Brake Objectives: In this experiment you will: ¸ Learn how to operate a Prony brake. Required Hardware: ¸ Prony brake ¸ Stroboscope Required Documentation: ¸ This handout ¸ Motor specs (from motor plate) Theory: The prony brake is a devise used for measurement of torque and horsepower in machines by measuring the force applied and the RPM. to calculate the torque. the prony brake mechanism tries to rotate (counterclockwise in the sketch above). r.
4. 1. and the load applied on the load arm. WARNING! Make sure you observe the following precautions.ME 310 Lab Manual. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky The test is conducted over a range of input power (RPMs) and loads to determine motor Shaft power is then calculated as The advantages of a prony brake dynamometer are that it is simple. 9. 8. 4. 2. 7. On the control unit of the motor. small in size. BE CAREFUL NOT TO STOP THE MOTOR by over tightening it. For a single input power setting. and the unit cannot supply power . Note that this is the rating of the motor and not the max power output by the shaft since there are always some losses involved. Calculate the breaking torque of the shaft of the motor by using suitable formula. Turn the power supply switch ON and assure that all the devises are working. applied load. Proceed SLOWLY and carefully observe your power input to the motor. Make sure you keep the protective cover over the shaft at all times and avoid getting too close to the motor shaft. Procedure: 1. Is the output power constant for a single value of input power? Why or why not? 3. Calculate the overall motor efficiency and plot as a function of RPM and input power (same or separate graphs). This should be enough indication to stop the load application. 3. Make sure there is continuous water supply throughout the operation of the experiment. 2. Never allow the motor to stop rotating by increasing the load or cable tension as this will result in overheating the motor and could permanently damage it. shut down the experiment immediately. Open the inlet valve located before the filter and make sure that there is a continuous water supply below the load cell. Make a note of the rating of the motor. the mechanical brake is sometimes not very stable. Repeat these steps for various speeds and note the shaft RPM. Note the load reading in pounds on the meter below the control unit. and that the power input reading increases. This will be available on a plate on top of the motor. The motor is spinning at a high rate with a large torque. The knob on the control unit to the motor can be rotated for varying the speed of the motor. 5. 6. 3. Turn the Stroboscope ON and note the RPM of the shaft. and inexpensive. some noise is heard. and finally the power switch key. and the input power to the motor. varied by turning the knob on the motor control unit. The two input variables are the RPM. either). This could result in motor failure. If you observe any leaks in the system. The point of identification of the stoppage of load is left at the discretion and skill of the engineer.it can only absorb power. You can notice that the motor speed considerably drops. Remove any loose clothing before running the experiment (but don’t run the experiment naked. 27 of 39 . Determine if there is a peak (maximum) efficiency and where this occurs. 2. By turning the lever on the load arm clockwise. Calculations: Perform the following calculations. calculate the output power for different load settings (varied RPM and applied load). Plot this over the range of motor RPM. Start with the knob at the zero position. Turn the motor control knob to zero. we can increase the load and vice-versa. turn the W button ON . turn off the water supply. 1. which gives you the power INPUT to the motor at that particular speed. The disadvantages are that limited power can be dissipated with a prony brake.
Using the stop watch. Zero out the manometer if necessary. record the pressure difference. 2. Measure the inside diameter and length of the duct. Turn on the fan and make sure the Pitot-static tube/manometer system is responding properly. When finished. 3. and whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. didn’t you?) These activities do not need to be completed in the order listed. manometers. median. The Pitot-static tube should line up on the centerline. Required Documentation: • This manual • Appendices • A Fluids Mechanics text (you did keep your fluids text. Find the mean. 7. evaluate the statistics of the data. Beginning at this point. 3. From the velocity data determined in step 2. estimate the response time and time constant of the manometer. 8.) You will use this later to estimate the time constant of the manometer. calculate the Reynolds number. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Experiment 8: Velocity and Flow Rate Objectives: In this experiment you will: ¸ Measure pressure. plot the pressure difference and the velocity profiles in step 7 versus the duct radius. etc. How confident are you of this value? 2. From step 8. move the Pitot-static completely to the bottom of the duct just barely touching the walls. turn off the blower and return the manometer to its initial position. 6. including rotameters. 4. Is this flow laminar or turbulent? 28 of 39 . and if available. At what radial location are the mean and median velocities located? 4. and standard deviation of the velocity. turn on the fan and record/estimate how long it takes the fluid in the manometer to reach steady state. orifice meters. calculate the velocity directly from the pressure using Bernoulli’s equation.ME 310 Lab Manual. Use the knob on the linear traverse to move the tube up and down. Activity #1: Velocity and Flow Rate Measurement Using a Pitot-Static Tube and Inclined Manometer Background: In this experiment you will use a Pitot-static tube to measure the velocity profile in a circular duct and use this information to determine the flow rate. from the manometer in 5 mm steps. Procedure: 1. velocity. etc. Using the linear traverse. and flow rate of a fluid ¸ Calibrate a flowmeter ¸ Examine the difference between various types of fluid measurements Required Hardware: • Various flow loops • Various meters. the velocity. • Stop watch. Based upon the mean velocity. 9. 5. Turn off the fan and place the tube in the center of the duct. It should read a pressure difference of 0 inches at the meniscus. Make sure the tube is placed in the end of the duct before the exit. head loss. but this should be much smaller than the manometer response time. ruler.) Convert the pressure data to Pascals and velocity to m/s before graphing and use these units in all further calculations. (Note: there is a time lag in the fan response and how long it takes the fluid to reach steady velocity. (If a velocity scale was not available on the manometer. bourdon tubes. Using the time data in step 6 of the procedures. Examine the fan and Pitot-static tube/manometer system. Calculations: 1.
the valve on the air supply. Plot the ideal (theoretical) velocity profiles for laminar and turbulent pipe flow (Hagen-Poiseuille flow) along with the observed data. Use one or a combination of these valves to control the flow rate. The flow rate is measured using a mass scale and stopwatch. Close the control valve located on the bottom of the safety valve. Turn on the frequency counter as follows: 29 of 39 . for each of your measurements. dA. meters per second for each datum. the relation between pressure drop and flow rate is given by Dp ª 0. What is the spatial resolution of the Pitot-static tube? Is this larger or smaller than your step size? Activity #2: Calibration of a Flow Rate Meter in Air Background: In this experiment you will calibrate a variable area flow meter in air with an unknown scale using the pressure drop in a pipe. you will measure the flow rate in an open water loop using 4 different meters. If nª1. 7. How well does the data compare? (The equations for laminar and turbulent pipe flow velocity profiles are in any undergraduate fluid mechanics text. Procedure: 1. then the flow is laminar. 3. 8. 2. 6. note where the float is located in the flow meter and what reading it is giving. a turbine flow meter. 6. Zero out the mass scale (use units of kg). 2. Measure the length of the pipe L between the two pressure gages and record this and the diameter of the pipe D=2R (it is labeled on the pipe in meters).75 which is determined using Blasius boundary layer theory. † These equations were determine assuming the flow is incompressible. Is this true for the flow you examined? Why? What units is scale on the flow meter given in? 4 4. 7. 4. Examine the system. In turbulent flow. Record the pressure reading on the two gages.) Determine the flow rate Q by integrating the measured velocity profile over the duct area. Dp=p1-p2. The turbine flow meter is read using a frequency counter (to measure the rotation rate of the turbine) while the two obstruction meters are read using U-tube manometers. 5.25Q1. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky 5. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for at least 5 readings total (not including the zero reading). orifice meter. Record the reading on the flow meter. There are at least 3 valves that can be used to control the amount of air in the experiment. and nozzle (venturi) meter as well as a variable area flow-meter (float-type rotameter). Plot flow rate Q versus pressure drop for your measurements and determine the power of the exponent in the relation: Dp=Qn. Procedure: 1.75. Plot your flow meter observed Q versus your Q determine the from the pressure drop. Determine which equation is more appropriate for your data (or both if your curve has more than one trend) and recast this equation in terms of Q as a function of† Using your experimental parameters. Turn on the air supply. Calculations: 1. the inlet shut-off valve. upstream and downstream. calculate Q in cubic Dp. 5. and the metering valve.75 D-4. Calculate the head loss of the duct in meters. In the former case. then the flow is turbulent.75m 0. This zero value is your first calibration point. the pressure drop flow rate relation is given by Dp = 8mLQ (pR ) which can be determined exactly from the NavierStokes equations. Determine the pressure drop. a little at first. 6.241Lr 0.ME 310 Lab Manual. If nª1. 3. 2. Activity #3: Calibration of Flow Meters in Water Background: In this experiment. With no flow of air. 3.
c. Begin timing. d. a. Set COM/SEP switch to SEP. rotameter. 6. 7. e. i.ME 310 Lab Manual. 5. From the mass flow rate measurements (kg/s). and also the time it takes for the tank to collect up to the given mark. Set AC/DC switch to AC. Set CHANNEL A ATTEN to X100 or X1. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky 4. Open the safety knob slowly at the bottom end of the rotameter such that fluid from the manometers doesn’t flow out. Set your desired flow rate. List on a separate graph. Press FREQ A button. As flow rate is varied. Set CHANNEL A LEVEL to PRESET. 4. 8. Set TIME BASE/MULTIPLIER to 1 second. Note the readings of the two manometers. 3. f. decrease attenuation with CHANNEL A ATTEN until a stable count is displayed. and turbine flow meter. Turn all the valves fully open and ensure continuous flow of water in the loop. Set FAST/NORM/HOLD switch to NORM. Repeat for at least 3 different flow rates. Determine the calibration curve for each of the 4 flow meters. What units is the flow rate on the rotameter given in? 30 of 39 . 2. h. g. Close the valve of the reservoir (holding tank) and allow water to collect. determine the volumetric flow rates (m3/s). Using the flow rate determined from the mass scale as your x-axis in each case. Calculate the discharge coefficients of the two obstruction meters using the specifications provided in the handout. b. Turn counter on with SAMPLE RATE control. Calculations: 1.
This circuit uses two small breadboards. This makes it easy to connect components together to build circuits. A completed circuit might look like the one shown at right. On the bread board. It can be used to quickly connect various types of circuit elements without permanent connections (i. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Appendix A: Bread Boards A bread board is a device used for testing and prototyping circuit designs. These strips connect the holes on the top of the board. The long top and bottom row of holes are usually used for power supply connections. place them in the middle of the board so that half of the legs are on one side of the middle line and half are on the other side. A typical bread board is shown below.. soldered). To use the bread board. the legs of components are placed in the holes (the sockets). Each hole is connected to one of the metal strips running underneath the board. we can turn on the power and current flows through the path and the circuit becomes hot. Each wire forms a node. a node is the row of holes that are connected by the strip of metal underneath. A node is a point in a circuit where two components are connected. The bread board has many strips of metal (copper usually) which run underneath the board. The metal strips are laid out as shown below. 31 of 39 . Placing components and connecting them together with jumper wires build the rest of the circuit.e. The holes are made so that they will hold the component in place. Connections between different components are formed by putting their legs in a common node. For chips with many legs (ICs). Then when wires and components from the positive supply node to the negative supply node form a path.ME 310 Lab Manual.
and temperature coefficient bands on newer ones. it is probably one containing two digits. The reliability and temperature coefficient bands are not included on many resistors. If an older resistor contains five bands. and temperature coefficient bands. a multiplier. The next band is our multiplier. tolerance. or else it is considered no good. tolerance. is the tolerance band. Lets say you have a resistor with a yellow. The bands usually represent 10^8 and 10^9. If you look at a few different books and websites and compare their charts. The first two bands on a resistor are always the first two digits of the resistance. but in some oddballs they may actually mean 10^-2 and 10^-1. The chart I have provided is somewhat more confusing than most. multiplier. so to get the value of the resistor we must multiply 47 by 10^2. This gives us 32 of 39 . This number represents the power of 10 that is then multiplied with the first digits to give the resistance. You will see reliability bands more often on older resistors. tolerance. If a resistor has five bands and is a newer one. so the first digit in the value of the resistor is 4. but once you understand it you will see that it contains every possible meaning to a code on a resistor. and reliability band. and most often the last. More often you will see a silver or gold stripe used to represent 10^-2 and 10^-1. The third band contains the third digit. The temperature coefficient band specifies the maximum change in resistance with change in temperature. chances are that they will be different.ME 310 Lab Manual. and and sometimes the reliability or temperature coefficient. You will probably only ever see newer resistors with six bands. and gold band. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Appendix B: Resistors Resistors are coded with a series of colored stripes used to represent the value of the resistor. whereas another chart may give the wrong reading to some resistors. The above chart is probably the largest you will see. The actual resistance of the resistor must be within this percentage of the rated value. and they will include three digits. The first band represents the first digit. but may not be included in some resistors. it will contain two digits. The next band is violet. red. it most likely has three digits. The next band. a multiplier. A red band in the multiplier means 10^2. violet. If a resistor has four bands total (or three bands if the tolerance is ±20%). and may even contradict one another in areas. measured in parts per million per degree Centigrade (ppm/°C). Note that a gray or white band used as the multiplier has two possible meanings. After the first two or three digits comes the multiplier. This band indicates what the actual value of the resistor may be. meaning 7 is our next digit. and they will never both be on the same resistor. a multiplier. A reliability band indicates the failure rate per 100 hours. and a yellow band means 4. and will tell us to what power of 10 we must multiply the first two digits by. and a tolerance band. and a tolerance band. because I tried to include every possible resistor type there is.
500 ohms. For example. 1. Example 1: You are given a resistor whose stripes are colored from left to right as brown. say you want the approximate value of the 3rd resistor in the E12 series. black. Therefore the first two digits of the resistance value are 33.5. Resistors are manufactured in standard values. On others.500 ohms and 10. The value will be v=10^((3-1)/12)=1. Step Four: The value of the resistance is found as 10 x 1000 = 10.465 ohms to 4. 3. Other series include the E6. The gold stripe means the actual value of the resistor mar vary by 5% meaning the actual value will be somewhere between 9. The values in the series are spaced similar to how notes in an instrument are. and E96 series.2. green. But sometimes you might have a resistor such as brown.000 ohms (10 kilohms = 10 kohms). the end that stripe is furthest from is your starting point. where there are 12 resistors in a decade (1. So the actual value of the resistor may be anywhere from 4. To get the approximate value of a resistor in one of the series. If you are stuck in a situation where you cannot figure out what end is what.6. 1. E24. 33 of 39 . Therefore the first two digits of the resistance value are 10. The second stripe is orange which has a value of 3. 2. Step One: The silver stripe is on the right so go to Step Two. Step Three: The third stripe is brown which means x 10. 6.8.935 ohms it would be defective.7 kiloohms. n is the number of the resistor. indicating the starting point. Step One: The gold stripe is on the right so go to Step Two.467799268. Some resistors will have the bands close to one end. 5.5 when you round up the value. silver. the next best thing is to just get a DMM and measure it. If we were to then measure the resistance of the resistor with a DMM and found that it was <4. brown. the equation v=10^((n-1)/E) can be used. The last band is the tolerance. The most common series is the E12. or 1. red.3. black. If you have a gold or silver stripe. where v is the value of the resistor.7. The second stripe is black which has a value of 0. Step Two: The first stripe is orange which has a value of 3.9.2.000 = 500) . E48.935 ohms.465 ohms or >4. known as the E series. and 8.7.2).8.05 x 10. Step Three: The third stripe is orange which means x 1. or 4. Step Two: The first stripe is brown which has a value of 1. 1. Several examples follow. and E is the series. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky 4. orange. because we know gold and silver cannot be used for any of the digit values. 3. 2.0. Example 2: You are given a resistor whose stripes are colored from left to right as orange.700 ohms. the last band will be larger than any of the others. gold. But in many resistors it is common for all stripes to be evenly distributed and equal in width. brown. 4. Find the resistance value. a gold band meaning the actual value must be ±5% of the value on the resistor. It could be either be read as a 15k ohm ±1% or 12M ohm ±1% resistor.000. Sometimes figuring out what end is what can be difficult.ME 310 Lab Manual.000 = 0. Find the resistance value. (Since 5% of 10. orange.
(Since 10% of 330 = 0. black. The gold stripe means the actual value of the resistor mar vary by 5% meaning the actual value will be somewhere between 6.ME 310 Lab Manual. Step Two: The first stripe is green which has a value of 5. (Since 5% of 6. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Step Four: The value of the resistance is found as 33 x 10 = 330 ohms. (Since 5% of 51 = 0.55).8 kohms). The gold stripe means the actual value of the resistor mar vary by 5% meaning the actual value will be somewhere between 48. Step One: The gold stripe is on the right so go to Step Two.8 kilohms = 6. Step Three: The third stripe is black which means x 1. 34 of 39 . The silver stripe means the actual value of the resistor mar vary by 10% meaning the actual value will be between 297 ohms and 363 ohms.05 x 6. The second stripe is brown which has a value of 1. gold.800 = 340). Therefore the first two digits of the resistance value are 68.800 = 0. Find the resistance value. red. Step Three: The third stripe is red which means x 100. Step One: The gold stripe is on the right so go to Step Two. The second stripe is gray which has a value of 8. Therefore the first two digits of the resistance value are 51.460 ohms and 7. Example 4: You are given a resistor whose stripes are colored from left to right as green. Find the resistance value.140 ohms. Step Four: The value of the resistance is found as 51 x 1 = 51 ohms.55 ohms. gray. Step Two: The first stripe is blue which has a value of 6. brown. Example 3: You are given a resistor whose stripes are colored from left to right as blue.45 ohms and 53. Step Four: The value of the resistance is found as 68 x 100 = 6800 ohms (6.05 x 51 = 2.10 x 330 = 33) . gold.
We are interested primarily in two plots. It will take a little time to get used to the format and operation of the software. To change the limits of the plot. click on the value of the limit you wish to change and type in the desired value. FAS automatically calculates the frequency spectrum of the signal. but once it is setup.ME 310 Lab Manual. You can change the type of plot using the menus in the lower left corner. To record data. USPEC: A display function of the magnitude of the instantaneous unaveraged spectrum. click in the respective window and a new window will appear. it is fairly straightforward to use. The system is relatively sophisticated but finicky during use. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Appendix C: Zonic DAQ System The Zonic Medallion and FAS (Fundamental Acquisition Software) system is a data acquisition system (DAQ) that is specifically designed to measure and analyze periodic signals. Once the data has been recorded. To change the analyzer setup or channel setup. The unit used in the ME 310 lab is capable of measuring two analog input channels simultaneously and provides 1 output channel (not needed here). 35 of 39 . click in the selection bar located immediately above the plot. sampled data scaled in Volts. click on the Acquire button. Here the data is a sine wave presented in the time domain. To examine the frequency content or other information. Time and Uspec. Additional information is available in the FAS manual. A sample screen is shown below. The status bar in the upper right corner of the window will indicate if a signal has triggered the system and is being recorded. which are defined as follows: TIME: Displays a time domain waveform of filtered.
Spring 2003 University of Kentucky The plots below represent samples of the time and spectral domain plots from typical experiment. 36 of 39 .ME 310 Lab Manual.
M y Figure 1: Simple Mass-Spring System. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Appendix D: Spring-Mass Systems A simple mass-spring system (Figure 1) will be the basis of this laboratory investigation. we can write the following equation. A free-body-diagram shows an isolated body with all of the applied and body forces note as vectors.ME 310 Lab Manual. To develop a mathematical model for this system we will redraw the mass-spring system as shown in Figure 2. M y Figure 2: Simplified Schematic Diagram. Fs M y Figure 3: FBD of Mass-Spring System. If we remove the weight from the system and replaced the spring with a force vector we now have a free-bodydiagram (FBD). and the mass is fixed to the free end. Mg 37 of 39 . Figure 3 shows the FBD. In this case the cantilever spring is replaced by a helical coil spring. From the FBD and using Newton’s Second Law. The spring is a cantilever beam.
Fs where Fs is the force exerted by the spring (N). Please note that downward forces are positive. and learn how to solve these types of equations.ME 310 Lab Manual. To solve this equation we must turn to Calculus – the language of engineers. we can write an equation that describes the spring force. and then see if it works! Let’s assume that one possible solution to the above equation is y (t ) = A cos(2pft ) + B sin(2pft ) The solution y(t) implies the that y is a function of time – that is y varies with time. Fs = ky where k is the spring constant (N/mm). dy (t ) = -2pfA sin(2pft ) + 2pfB cos(2pft ) dt Please recall that. To solve for A and B we must look at the initial conditions. Utilizing Hooke’s Law. the spring undergoes a deformation where the spring force is equivalent to the gravitational force. M d 2 y (t ) = -ky (t ) dt 2 Please note that we have replaced a differential notation for y. we will propose a solution. Since this initial displacement of the spring balances the gravitational force. Moving all of the terms with y to the left side of the equation resulting equation is termed a differential equation. 38 of 39 . Prior to looking at the initial conditions we must first differentiate the solution. We can now rewrite the previous equation as. The first derivative is. Fs = k ( y + y static ) where ystatic is the displacement of the spring that balances the gravitational force associated with the mass. This equation is. An alternative notation to that used above is shown next. Mg is a body force as a result of the gravitational field (N). M d 2 y (t ) + ky (t ) = 0 dy 2 The resulting equation is termed a second order differential equation. Realizing that shortly after we attach the mass to the spring. We have also replaced y with y(t) to denote a timevarying function. Unfortunately we do not know the values of A and B. we can rewrite the equation derived using Newton’s Second Law and the FBD as. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky Ma = Mg . While it may be some time before you get to Calculus IV. and a is the resulting acceleration of the body.
ME 310 Lab Manual.B sin( t) 2 M M M M dt It should be clear at this point that our assumed solution is valid. Ê k ˆ ˜ y (t ) = yi cosÁ Á M t˜ Ë ¯ At last – a valid solution! Also we must remember that the frequency of the excited system will follow the substitution that we made above. Spring 2003 University of Kentucky d cos(ax) = -a sin(ax) dx d sin(ax) = a cos(ax) dx Differentiating the previous function a second time we have the following. 39 of 39 . the only thing left to do is prove this analysis is appropriate by collecting some system response data.A cos( t ) . To do this we will look at the initial conditions. the second derivative of y(t) becomes d 2 y (t ) k k k k = . f = 1 2p k M Now. f = 1 2p k M With this substitution. d2y = -4p 2 f 2 A cos(2pft ) . At t=0 new know that the position is yi (the position of our initial displacement) and therefore A must be equal to yi. we must evaluate the constants A and B. While it may not be obvious at first.4p 2 f 2 B sin(2pft ) 2 dt Another handy trick is to make a substitution for frequency. Our final solution becomes. However. If we look at the first derivative of y(t) – the velocity – at t=0 we find that B=0. the following substitution simplifies our efforts.
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